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10CIV13

ELEMENTS OF CIVIL ENGINEERING & ENGINEERING MECHANICS Subject Code: 10CIV 13/10CIV 23 Hours/Week: 04 Total Hours: 52 IA Marks: 25 Exam Hours: 03 Exam Marks: 100

6. Composition of coplanar-non-concurrent force system, Varignon's principle of moments; Numerical problems on composition of coplanar non-concurrent force systems. (05 Hours)

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Unit -IV 7. Centroid of plane figures ; Locating the centroid of triangle, semicircle, quadrant of a circle and sector of a circle using method of integration, Centroid of simple built up sections; Numerical problems. (06 Hours)

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Unit -III 5. Composition of forces - Definition of Resultant; Composition of coplanar – concurrent force system. Principle of resolved parts; Numerical problems on composition of coplanar concurrent force systems. (03 Hours)

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Unit - II 4. Introduction to Engineering mechanics: Basic idealizations - Particle, Continuum, Rigid body and Point force; Newton's laws of motion, Definition of force, Introduction to SI units. Elements of a force, Classification of force and force systems; Principle of physical independence of forces, Principle of superposition of forces, Principle of transmissibility of forces; Moment of a force, couple, moment of a couple, characteristics of couple. Equivalent force - couple system; Resolution of forces, composition of forces; Numerical problems on moment of forces and couples, on equivalent force – couple system. (07 Hours)

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PART - A Unit-I 1. Introduction to Civil Engineering, Scope of different fields of Civil Engineering Surveying, Building Materials, Construction Technology, Geotechnical Engineering, Structural Engineering, Hydraulics, Water Resources and Irrigation Engineering, Transportation Engineering, Environmental Engineering. . Infrastructure: Types of infrastructure. Role of Civil Engineer in the Infrastructural Development,Effect of infrastructural facilities on socio- economic development of a country. (04 Hours) 2. Roads: Type of roads, Components and their functions. (02 Hours) 3. Bridges and Dams; Different types with simple sketches. (01 Hour)

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Elements of civil engineering and engineering mechanics PART B

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Unit -V 8. Equilibrium of forces - Definition of Equilibriant; Conditions of static equilibrium for different force systems, Lami's theorem; Numerical problems on equilibrium of coplanar concurrent force system. (06 Hours) Unit -VI 9. Beams: Types of supports, statically determinate beams, Numerical problems on equilibrium of coplanar non-concurrent force system and support reactions for statically determinate beams. Analysis of plane trusses by method of joints and method of sections. (06 Hours) Unit -VII 10-Friction - Types of friction, Laws of static friction, Limiting friction. Angle of friction, angle of repose; Impending motion on horizontal and inclined planes; Wedge friction; Ladder friction; Numerical problems. (06 Hours)

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Reference Books: 1. Mechanics for Engineers: Statics by Ferdinand P. Beer and E. Russet Johnston Jr., McGraw-Hill Book Company, New York. 2. Engineering Mechanics by K.L. Kumar, Tata McGraw-Hill Publishing Company, New Delhi. 3. Engineering Mechanics by Timoshenko and Young, McGraw-Hill Book Company, New Delhi.

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Text Books: 1. Elements of Civil Engineering by Jagadeesh T.R. and Jayaram, Sapna Book House, Bangalore. 2. Elements of Civil Engineering (IV Edition) by S.S. Bhavikatti, Vikas Publishing House Pvt. Ltd., New Delhi.

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Unit -VIII 11. Moment of inertia of an area, polar moment of inertia, Radius of gyration, Perpendicular axis theorem and Parallel axis theorem; Moment of Inertia of rectangular, circular and triangular areas from method of integration; Moment of inertia of composite areas; Numerical problems. (06 Hours)

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**CONTENTS Unit I: Introduction to Civil Engineering..........................................................1
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1.1 Introduction ...................................................................................................................... 1 1.1.1 Effects of Infrastructure development on the Socio-economic development of a country: .................................................................................................................................. 3 1.2 ROADS ........................................................................................................................... 3 1.3 BRIDGES......................................................................................................................... 8 1.4 DAMS ........................................................................................................................... 12

Unit II: Engineering Mechanics .......................................................................16

**Unit III: Composition of forces by method of Resolution..............................24
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3.1 Introduction .................................................................................................................... 24 3.2 Sign Conventions: .......................................................................................................... 25 3.3 COMPOSITION OF COPLANAR NONCONCURRENT FORCE SYSTEM ............ 31 3.3.1 Moment of Force:........................................................................................................ 31 3.3.2 Couple ......................................................................................................................... 32 3.3.3 Varignon‟s principle of moments: .............................................................................. 32

**UNIT - IV: CENTROID OF PLANE FIGURES............................................42
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4.1 Centre of Gravity: .......................................................................................................... 42 4.2 Centroid:......................................................................................................................... 42 4.3 Location of centroid of plane areas ................................................................................ 43 4.4 METHOD OF MOMENTS TO LOCATE THE CENTROID OF PLANE AREAS .... 45 4.5 Centroid of Composite Sections..................................................................................... 53

**UNIT – V: EQUILIBRIUM OF FORCES .....................................................57
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5.1 Concepts ......................................................................................................................... 57

UNIT – VI: BEAMS ..........................................................................................61

**UNIT VII: FRICTION ......................................................................................71
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7.1 Introduction .................................................................................................................... 71 7.2 CO-EFFICIENT OF FRICTION: .................................................................................. 72 7.3 LAWS OF DRY FRICTION: (COLUMB‟S LAWS).................................................... 73 7.4 ANGLE OF FRICTION................................................................................................. 73 7.5 ANGLE OF REPOSE: ................................................................................................... 74 7.6 CONE OF FRICTION ................................................................................................... 75 8.1 Introduction .................................................................................................................... 88 8.2 Determination of the moment of inertia of an area by integration................................. 90

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UNIT – VIII: MOMENT OF INERTIA ..........................................................88

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6.1 Introduction .................................................................................................................... 61 6.2 Types of Supports for beams: ........................................................................................ 61 6.3 Types of beams .............................................................................................................. 62 6.4 Types of loads: ............................................................................................................... 65

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2.1 Engineering Mechanics ............................................................................................. 16 2.2 Characteristics of a force ........................................................................................... 17 2.3 Fundamental Laws in Mechanics ................................................................................... 20

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Laying ordinary village roads to express highways. The study dealing with the properties & behaviour of soil under loads & changes in environmental conditions is called geo-technical engineering.1 Civil Engineering: It is the oldest branch of professional engineering. dam. Constructing hydro-electric & thermal-power plants for generating electricity. The different fields of civil engineering and the scope of each can be briefly discussed as follows. deciding the location for a dam or airport or harbour) The cost of the project can also be estimated before implementing the project. 1.Elements of civil engineering and engineering mechanics 10CIV13 Unit I: Introduction to Civil Engineering 1. using data from remote sensing satellites is helping to prepare maps & plans & thus cut down the cost of surveying. rivers and also across seas. 3. 7. civil engineering is a very broad discipline that incorporates many activates in various fields. harbour & airports. Supplying safe and potable water for public & industrial uses. bridge. 4. 9.1. 5. 8. Surveying: It is a science and art of determining the relative position of points on the earth‟s surface by measuring distances. The role of civil engineers is seen in every walk of life or infrastructure development activity such as follows:1. multipurpose dams & canals for supplying water to agricultural fields. CITSTUDENTS. Providing shelter to people in the form of low cost houses to high rise apartments. As seen above. Tunneling across mountains & also under water to connect places easily & reduce distance. where the materials & forces in nature are effectively used for the benefit of mankind. Providing other means of transportation such as railways. civil engineers specialize themselves in one field of civil engineering.IN Page 1 CI TS TU D EN TS . An Engineer is a person who plays a key role in such activities. 1. directions and vertical heights directly or indirectly. Protecting our environment by adopting sewage treatment & solid waste disposal techniques. Constructing irrigation tanks. where the civil engineers are concerned with projects for the public or civilians.1 Introduction Engineering: It is a profession of converting scientific knowledge into useful practical applications. Constructing bridges across streams. However. Surveying helps in preparing maps and plans. Now-a-days. The knowledge of the geology of an area is also very much necessary. retaining wall etc. consist of components like foundations. which help in project implementation. The foundation is laid from a certain depth below the ground surface till a hard layer is reached. 2.IN . 6. The soil should be thoroughly checked for its suitability for construction purposes. (setting out the alignment for a road or railway track or canal. 2. Geo-Technical Engineering (Soil Mechanics): Any building.

6. filter beds. The solid waster that is generated in a town or locality should be systematically collected and disposed off suitably. Since rainfall in an area is insufficient or unpredictable in an area. Apart from dams & canals other associated structures like canals regulators. Any construction project involves many activities and also required many materials.IN TS TU D EN TS . Irrigation & Water resources engineering (Hydraulics Engineering): Irrigation is the process of supplying water by artificial means to agricultural fields for raising crops. CI 7. the manpower. slabs etc. 4. 5. the runway & other facilities such as taxiways. This sewage should be systematically collected and then disposed into the natural environment after providing suitable treatment. Page 2 CITSTUDENTS. aqua ducts. suitable pipelines for conveying water & distributing it should also be designed. Here the role of civil engineers is to construct facilities related to each one.Elements of civil engineering and engineering mechanics 10CIV13 3. air & waterways. etc. terminal buildings. In such cases. sedimentation tanks. In a town or city. Depending upon the materials available or that can be used for construction. the water should be purified and then supplied to the public. so that the construction is completed in time and in an economical manner. The different activities should be planned properly. The use of computers in designing the members. Roads to remote places should be developed. manpower. railways. Hydro electric power generation facilities are also included under this aspect. beams. town & city need potable water. control towers etc. are also necessary. If the treatment plants are for away from the town or city. In case of large construction projects management techniques of preparing bar charts & network diagrams. barrages etc. For an airport. should be designed. a part of the water supplied returns as sewage. For water purification.IN . It becomes important for any construction engineer to be well versed with the properties & applications of the different materials. Sometimes crucial sections of railways & roads should be improved. A structured engineer is involved in such designing activity. segregation of materials should be done so that any material can be recycled & we can conserve our natural resources. the components or the parts of the building should be safely & economically designed. These components are always subjected to forces. is reducing the time and also to maintain accuracy. all sizes of vehicles. columns. weirs. Transportation Engineering: The transport system includes roadways. The choice of the materials is wide & open. Structural Engineering: A building or a bridge or a dam consists of various elements like foundations. Water Supply and Sanitary Engineering (Environmental Engineering): People in every village. water flowing in a river can be stored by constructing dams and diverting the water into the canals & conveyed to the agricultural fields. should be properly designed. machinery & money. The water available (surface water & ground water) may not be fit for direct consumption. Building Materials & Construction Technology: Any engineering structure requires a wide range of materials known as building materials. It becomes important to determine the magnitude & direction the nature of the forces and acting all the time. Before disposal. help in completing the project orderly in time. Ports & harbours should be designed to accommodate. materials & machinery should be optimally utilized.

direction and speed. 3. railways.Elements of civil engineering and engineering mechanics 10CIV13 1. TU D EN 1. The infrastructure facilities to be provided for the public include: 1.2 ROADS Transportation of goods & people can be done by roadways. Roads play a crucial role in any country‟s development. It provided direct employment to many number of skilled. TS . It becomes a huge financial burden on the government and tax prayers. 2. It helps in increasing food production & protection from famine. They are directly accessible to the users at all destination points. waterways & airways. 6. It forms a part of business. Transport facilities Drinking water and sanitation facilities Irrigation facilities Power generation & transmission facilities Education facilities Health care facilities Housing facilities Recreation facilities The well being of a nation is dependent on the quality & the quantity of the above services that are provided to the public. steel. semiskilled & unskilled laborers. 4. It provided housing & means of communication to people.IN TS Some ill effects of infrastructure development can also be listed as follows: 1. 2. electrical goods etc. 3.1. They have maximum flexibility with respect to route. They have the following advantages when compared with other modes of transportation.IN Page 3 . It leads to the growth of associated industries like cement. 5. 7. paints. 5. It improved health care & Cultural activities. 6. CI 1. Development of infrastructure has number of good effects which can be listed as follows. Each mode of transportation has advantages and disadvantages of its own in comparison to the others.1 Effects of Infrastructure development on the Socio-economic development of a country: The term infrastructure is widely used to denote the facilities available for the socio-economic development of a region. Exploitation of natural resources can lead to environmental disasters. They give maximum service to one and all. 1. plastics. Migration of people from villages to towns & cities in search of job takes place. research & education. It is a basic necessity for any country or state. 4. 2. 8. 4. 7. Exporting agricultural goods can fetch foreign currency. glass. 2. 3. 3. 8. Slums are created in cities. timber. CITSTUDENTS.

Pavement or Carriage way 2. Frequency of accidents among road users is more. the total width of the pavement can be fixed. CI CITSTUDENTS. Roads can provide door to door service.5 mts. 8. road travel is easier. the maximum width of a vehicle should not be more than 2. the width of each lane should be at least 3. underpasses which make road traveling easier. The width of the road is designed according to the traffic volume on the road. It also includes the path way and other related structures like bridges.Elements of civil engineering and engineering mechanics 10CIV13 4.IN Page 4 . Other modes of transportation are dependent on roads to serve. For short distance traveling. the people from their terminals.IN TS TU D EN TS . that can be provided. Roads get easily damaged in heavy rainfall areas and require frequent maintenance. A side clearance of 0.8 mts. 7. Hence. 1. Shoulders Pavement or Carriage way: It refers to the path over which the vehicles and other traffic can move lawfully. flyovers. In case of multi lane traffic.68 mts for safety should also be provided. Roads can be used by various types of vehicles but other modes of transportation can cater to a particular locomotive only.1: Components or Cross section elements of a road: All roads should essentially consist of the following components:1.2. the width of the pavement for a single lane road becomes 3. According to Indian Road Congress (IRC) specification. the disadvantages of roads can be listed as follows:1. 5. Depending upon the number of lanes. 6. 4. The severity of accidents is related to speed. At the same time. Construction of roads is easier when compared to other modes. The different cross section elements of a road can be represented as follows.44 mts. 2. 3. It does not provide much comfort for long distance travel.

Hence the Sub Soil should be prepared by compacting it properly by rollers. At the top level. a raised stone (kerb) is provided at the edge of the pavement. The following components are also essential for roads depending upon.IN TS 1. Bigger stones are used at the bottom. Surface course/wearing course: It is the topmost layer of the carriage way. Kerbs: 1.IN 3. This layer should be moderately rough to provide good grip for the vehicles. Sub Soil: It refers to the natural soil or prepared soil on which the loads coming on the road are ultimately transferred. Much attention should be given in preparing the sub grade. smaller stones mixed with cohesive soil or cement are provided and thoroughly compacted. . Base Course: This layer is constructed in one or two layers consisting of stones mixed with gravel. This layer consists of disintegrated rocks mixed with gravel.2. The thickness of this layer depends upon. a lean mixture of concrete with large amounts of sand and stones is used in preparing this layer. These can be provided as a yellow colour strip or steel barricade or a permanent median all along the centre lines of the road. Traffic separators: These are provided to separate the traffic moving in opposite directions. The top surface of the varying course is provided a lateral slope (camber). TS . Footpath Kerb Pavement CITSTUDENTS. the type of vehicles and traffic volume on the road. to separate the pavements from the footpath. This layer is either made of flexible materials (bitumen or coal tar mixed with stones) or a rigid material (concrete). This should remain dry and stable throughout the year. This space acts as a space for moving away any broken down vehicles or parking vehicles in an emergency. EN 4.Elements of civil engineering and engineering mechanics 10CIV13 1. Now a day. This layer provides a proper support for the upper layers. The surface of the shoulder should be rough to avoid the drivers from using the shoulders frequently. CI 2. Sub grade: This layer gives support to the road structure. Page 5 TU D 5. thus avoiding head on collision. to drain off the rain water from the road surface quickly and effectively. Shoulders: The width of a road is always extended beyond the road on both sides by a width of at least 2 to 5 mts. the places where the roads are provided.2: Other components of roads: Within the city limits. 2. It takes the loads directly. The shoulders should satisfy the following requirements:They should have a sufficient bearing capacity even in wet condition. The height of the kerb is normally 15 to 20 cms. The shoulders should have distinctive colour from the pavement to guide the vehicles users on the pavement only.

The parking lanes are distinctively separated by white colour strips so that moving vehicles do not enter parking lanes.Elements of civil engineering and engineering mechanics 10CIV13 3. Based on the importance of connectivity. All weather roads: These are roads which are usable in all seasons including rainy season in a year.IN TS 2. the road formation level is higher than the natural ground level. Parking Lanes: These are usually provided or reserved on the road edges within a city limit for allowing the vehicles to be parked conveniently. c. Based on seasonal usage: a. Fencing: Whenever a highway or an expressway passes through urban areas. Based on the nature of pavement surface provided: a. Guard stones and guard rails: Whenever. CI CITSTUDENTS. Expressways: These are roads which are developed to inter connect two important cities only. EN 1. which interconnect district headquarters and also interlink national highways running through a state or neighbouring states. industrial areas and tourist destinations. 3. TU D 1. b. Throughout the length of the road medians are provided & vehicles can move at high speeds. 6. 4. These roads inter connect state capitals. Fencing is also provided all along the road. where the traffic volume is very high. The footpath may be in level with the road surface or slightly raised higher than the road surface. Footpath: Apart from vehicles.surfaced roads: These are roads in which the topmost layer is not covered by a bituminous material or concrete but covered with a layer of stones mixed with gravel & thoroughly compacted. guard stones or guard rails should be provided to avoid accidental fall of vehicles from the earth slope. the pedestrians should also be provided some space for moving at the edge of the roads. b. function & traffic volume: a. National highways: These are the main network of roads. major ports. union territories. State highways: These are roads at a state level. separate cycle tracks of 2 mts. at the edges of the shoulders. Un. Page 6 . 7. fencing is provided all along the road to prevent the cattle and people from entering the traffic zone. Footpaths should be provided essentially everywhere.IN 5. b. width are provided all along the length of the road. On these roads cross traffic & traffic in opposite direction is not allowed. Cycle tracks: In some countries in urban areas. running through the length & breadth of a country. roads can be classified as follows: TS . Fair weather roads: These are roads which are usable during the dry seasons in a year.2. Surfaced roads: These are roads in which the topmost layer is covered with a bituminous material or a rigid material like concrete.3 Classification or types of roads: Depending upon various criteria.

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d. Major district roads: These are important roads within a district, which help in moving goods from agricultural production areas to market places. These roads may also inter connect state highways and national highways. The permissible speed and traveling comforts on such roads is lesser. e. Other district roads: These are roads which interlink taluk headquarters and other main roads. They also serve as a link between agricultural areas and market places. f. Village roads: These are roads connecting villages & remote habitat groups with major district roads & other district roads. The surface of such roads may not be covered with a bituminous layer, but fairly leveled and covered with stones and gravel. Typical Cross Sections of a Highway: 1. Highway running over an embankment:

2. Highway running in cutting:

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3. Highway running in urban areas:

Components of a bridge: A bridge basically consists of following two components. a. Super Structure b. Sub Structure

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A bridge is a structure which provides a safe passage for a road or railway track over obstacles, without closing the obstacle below. The obstacle to be crossed may be a river or stream, a canal, road or a railway track. A bridge may also be built for the safe passage of a canal (aqua duct).

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Classification of bridges: Depending upon the position of the road surface or road formation level with respect to the bearing level in a bridge, bridges are classified as follows.

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a. Deck bridges: These are bridges in which road formation level or pavement is above the bearing level in a bridge.

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b. Sub Structure: It refers to the part of the bridge below the bearing level. The components included in the substructure are bearings, piers, abutments, wing walls, foundation, etc.

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a. Super Structure: It refers to the part of the bridge above the bearing level. The components included in the super structure are RCC beam, Deck slab, guard rails, pavement etc.

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Semi -through bridges: These are bridges in which the road formation level is at some intermediate level of the super structure. b.Elements of civil engineering and engineering mechanics 10CIV13 In such bridges sufficient head room for all vehicles is available. if the road formation level is increased subsequently.IN TS TU D Cable stayed bridges & truss bridges are example for through bridges. c.IN Page 10 . Through bridges: These are bridges in which the road formation level is lower than the bearing level in the bridge. EN TS . CI CITSTUDENTS. RCC beam bridges. Steel girder bridges are example for Deck bridges. Such bridges may not provide sufficient head room for all vehicles.

CI TS Square Bridge Skew bridge CITSTUDENTS. If the centre line of the bridge is at right angles to the direction of flowing water in the river. Steel girder bridges are examples of semi -through bridges. the centre line of the bridge should be aligned at right angles to the direction of flowing water in the river.IN TU D Page 11 EN TS . the flowing water does not exert excessive forces on the piers and abutments.Elements of civil engineering and engineering mechanics 10CIV13 Such bridges do not provide sufficient head room for all vehicles when the road formation level increases subsequently.IN . In such cases. the bridge is known as skew bridge. the bridge is known as square bridge. Square bridges & skew bridges: Whenever a bridge is to be constructed over a stream or river. If the centre line of the bridge is not at right angles to the direction of flowing water in the river.

dams can be classified as follows. b. Based on the purpose served: a. Coffer dams: These are temporary dams which are constructed during the construction of actual main dam to keep the dam site free from water. By CITSTUDENTS. Supplying water for domestic & industrial uses 3. The stored water is released to the down stream side through canals and can be utilized for various uses. For inland navigation TU D EN Page 12 TS . CI Classification of Dams: Depending upon various criteria.4 DAMS A Dam is an obstruction or barrier or a hydraulic structure which is constructed across a river or stream to store water on the upstream side as an artificial lake or reservoir.Elements of civil engineering and engineering mechanics 10CIV13 1. Supplying water for hydroelectric power generation 4. Aquaculture 5. without making an attempt to store water.IN . 1.IN TS Dams serve the following purposes: 1. For controlling floods in a river 6. Diversion dams: These are irrigation structures which are constructed across a river to slightly raise the water level. Storing water for irrigation 2. Storage dams: These are dams built across non perennial rivers to store water in a reservoir during excess flow. c.

Based on the hydraulic design: . When the water level exceeds the maximum level. the excess water entering the reservoir is not allowed to overtop the entire length of the dam. the excess water is allowed to overtop the body of the dam.Elements of civil engineering and engineering mechanics 10CIV13 increasing the water level. By constructing these dams across streams or tributaries on the upstream side of the main dam. entry of silt & debris can be controlled & the useful life of the reservoir can be increased. The excess water is released to the down stream side through a separate spill way & such dams are called non over flow dams. CI CITSTUDENTS. the excess water should be discharged to the down stream side safely. water is directly diverted into the canals. the streams or tributaries which join the main river. In overflow dams. Non-over flow dams: In majority of the dams. The spill may be included in the main portion of dam or through a separate spill way section. e.IN TS b.IN 2. d. a. Debris dams: These are small dams which are built across. Overflow dams: Any dam is designed or constructed to store water up to a certain maximum height only. Barrages are examples of diversion dams. Detention dams: These are dams which are constructed to store water temporarily only during floods. TU D EN Page 13 TS . The water is then released to the down stream side when the floods recede.

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3. Based on the resisting action to external forces: When water is stored in a dam or reservoir, the stored water exerts forces on the upstream face of the dam. Some amount of water also seeps through the bottom of the dam. This seeping water exerts (applies) uplift pressure on the dam. The down stream face of the dam is exposed to wind pressure. The waves that are generated at the top of the reservoir also exert forces on the dam. The body of the dam should be able to resist all such forces and different dams resist these forces in different ways. a. Gravity dams: These are dams which are built of rigid materials like concrete & stone masonry. The cross sections of such dams are very large & also have enormous self weight. The destabilizing forces like hydrostatic pressure, wind pressure, uplift pressure, and wave pressure are resisted by the self weight of the dam only.

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b. Arch dams: These are dams which are also constructed of rigid material like concrete or stone masonry. These dams are curved in plan. The cross section of such dams is slender when compared to gravity dams. These dams transfer the water pressure, wind pressure etc. to the banks of the river by arch action.

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c. Buttress dams: These are dams in which the water pressure from the stored water acts on a thin deck slab, which is supported over a series of buttresses (piers or columns). The loads are transferred from the deck slab to the buttresses and then to the bed of the river.

4. Based on materials used: a. Rigid dams: These are dams which are constructed of rigid materials like concrete, stone masonry, steel sheets. Gravity dams, Arch dams and Buttress dams are examples of rigid dams. b. Non rigid dams: These are dams which are constructed art of non rigid materials like earth fill & rock fill. Such dams cannot exceed 30 mtrs. in height.

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**Unit II: Engineering Mechanics
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2.1 Engineering Mechanics

It is a branch of applied sciences that describes and predicts the state of rest or of uniform motion of bodies under the action of forces. Engineering Mechanics deals with the application of principles of mechanics and different laws in a systematic manner.

Mechanics of Solids

Mechanics of Rigid bodies

Mechanics of Deformable bodies

Concepts of: Physical quantity, Scalar quantity, and Vector quantity

Rigid body: It is one, which does not alter its shape, or size or the distance between any two points on the body does not change on the application of external forces. Deformable body: It is one, which alters its shape, or size or the distance between any two points on the body changes on the application of external forces.

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Particle: A particle is a body of infinitely small volume and the entire mass of the body is assumed to be concentrated at a point.

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In the above example, the body considered is rigid as long as the distance between the points A and B remains the same before and after application of forces, or else it is considered as a deformable body. Force: According to Newton‟s I law, force is defined as an action or agent, which changes or tends to change the state of rest or of uniform motion of a body in a straight line. Units of force: The gravitational (MKS) unit of force is the kilogram force and is denoted as „kgf‟. The absolute (SI) unit of force is the Newton and is denoted as „N‟. Note: 1 kgf = „g‟ N (But g = 9.81m/s2) Therefore 1 kgf = 9.81 N or 10 N.

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Mechanics of Fluids F

Engineering Mechanics

Line of action A 10 N Ex. 3) Line of action: The arrowhead placed on the line representing the direction represents it.2: Consider a ladder AB resting on a floor and leaning against a wall. 4) Direction is horizontally to right. 3) Line of action is A to B or AB.Elements of civil engineering and engineering mechanics 10CIV13 2. on which a person weighing 750 N stands on the ladder at a point C on the ladder. 1) Magnitude: It can be denoted as 10 kgf or 100 N.IN Body B . 2) Point of application is A.2 Characteristics of a force These are ones. which help in understanding a force completely. CI CITSTUDENTS.1: Consider a body being pushed by a force of 10 N as shown in figure below. It has four important characteristics. EN Page 17 TS .IN TS TU D The characteristics of the force acting on the body are 1) Magnitude is 10 N. 4) Direction: It is represented by a co-ordinate or cardinal system. Ex. representing a force and also distinguishing one force from one another. A force is a vector quantity. 2) Point of application: It indicates the point on the body on which the force acts. which can be listed as follows.

They are as follows. 3) Line of action is C to D or CD.: Forces in a rope in a tug of war.IN TU D X 2) Coplanar parallel forces: It is a force system. in which all the forces are lying in the same plane and have parallel lines of action..: The forces or loads and the support reactions in case of beams. 2) The body considered is perfectly rigid. 3) Coplanar Concurrent forces: It is a force system. points of applications and lines of actions. Idealization or assumptions in Mechanics: In applying the principles of mechanics to practical problems. 1) A body consists of continuous distribution of matter. 2) Point of application is C. 4) A force acts through a very small point. . Y EN F1 Ex. in which all the forces are lying in the same plane and lines of action meet a single point. Classification of force systems: Depending upon their relative positions. X Ex. 1) Collinear forces: It is a force system. the different force systems can be classified as follows. 3) A particle has mass but not size. F2 TS . 4) Direction is vertically downward.Elements of civil engineering and engineering mechanics 10CIV13 The characteristics of the force acting on the ladder are 1) Magnitude is 750 N. a number of ideal conditions are assumed. . Y CI TS CITSTUDENTS.IN Line of action Page 18 . in which all the forces have the same line of action.

in which all the forces are lying in the same plane but lines of action do not meet a single point.: The forces in the rope and pulley arrangement. CITSTUDENTS. Y Z Ex: The forces acting and the reactions at the points of contact of bench with floor in a classroom. 5) Non.coplanar concurrent forces It is a force system.: The forces acting on a tripod when a camera is mounted on a tripod. in which all the forces are lying in the different planes and still have parallel lines of action. 6) Non. when a ladder rests on a floor and leans against a wall.coplanar parallel forces: It is a force system. 10CIV13 4) Coplanar non-concurrent forces: It is a force system.IN EN X TS . in which all the forces are lying in the different planes and still have common point of action.Elements of civil engineering and engineering mechanics Ex. Y CI TS TU D Z Ex.IN X Page 19 . Y X Ex.: Forces on a ladder and reactions from floor and wall.

Y X Z Ex. “Every body continues in its state of rest or of uniform motion in a straight line. unless it is compelled to do so by force acting on it. 2) New ton’s II l aw : It states. The body exerts a force W on the plane and in turn the plane exerts an equal and opposite reaction on the body. CI CITSTUDENTS.: Forces acting on a building frame.Elements of civil engineering and engineering mechanics 10CIV13 7) Non.IN TS TU D EN Following are considered as the fundamental laws in Mechanics. in which all the forces are lying in the different planes and also do not meet a single point.3 Fundamental Laws in Mechanics 1) New ton’s I law : It states. 1) Newton‟s I law 2) Newton‟s II law 3) Newton‟s III law 4) Principle or Law of transmissibility of forces 5) Parallelogram law of forces. “The rate of change of momentum is directly proportional to the applied force and takes place in the direction of the impressed force.” This law helps in defining a force. a 3) New ton’s III l aw : It states.coplanar non-concurrent forces: It is a force system. thus deriving the relationship F = m . Consider a body weighing W resting on a plane.” The significance of this law can be understood from the following figure. TS . “For every action there is an equal and opposite reaction. 2.IN Page 20 .” This law helps in defining a unit force as one which produces a unit acceleration in a body of unit mass.

This law has a limitation that it is applicable to rigid bodies only. F1 F2 In the above figure R can be called as the resultant of the given forces F1.IN B F1 A F1 CI O Resultant Force: Whenever a number of forces are acting on a body. Thus principle of transmissibility is not applicable to deformable bodies or it is applicable to rigid bodies only. it is possible to find a single force. In the first case the body tends to compress and in the second case it tends to elongate. F2 and F3.” Body A F B A B F Line of action From the above two figures we see that the effect of the force F on the body remains the same when the force is transmitted through any other point on the line of action of the force. Such a single force is called as resultant force or resultant. we see that the effect of the two forces on the body are not the same when they are shifted by principle of transmissibility. “The state of rest or of Uniform motion of a rigid body is unaltered if the point of application of the force is Transmitted to any other point along the line of action of the force.Elements of civil engineering and engineering mechanics 10CIV13 4) Principle or Law of transmissibility of forces: It states. CITSTUDENTS. Explanation of limitation: Body F2 EN B F2 A Fig 1 Fig 2 R F3 TS .IN Page 21 TS Line of action In the example if the body considered is deformable. which can produce the same effect as that produced by the given forces acting together. TU D .

In analytical methods two different principles namely: Parallelogram law of forces and Method of Resolution of forces are adopted.cos TU D = ( F1 + F2 CI cos )2 + (F2 sin )2 --------. The diagonal OC of the parallelogram represents the resultant R both magnitude and direction.1 F12 + F2 2 + 2. The resultant R of F1 and F2 can be obtained by completing a parallelogram with OA and OB as the adjacent sides of the parallelogram.2 = tan-l Equation 1 gives the magnitude of the resultant and Equation 2 gives the direction of the resultant. then ------. Let OA and OB represent forces F1 and F2 respectively both in magnitude and direction.IN C F2sin D . From the figure OC = OD2 + CD2 = (OA + AD)2 + CD2 TS i. then the resultant of the two forces is represented both in magnitude and direction by the diagonal of the parallelogram passing through the same point. This law states “If two forces acting at a point are represented both in magnitude and direction by the two adjacent sides of a parallelogram. Parallelogram law of forces: This law is applicable to determine the resultant of two coplanar concurrent forces only.e R = F2 sin F1 + F2. The resultant force of a given force system can be determining by Graphical and Analytical methods.cos Let be the inclination of the resultant with the direction of the F1.Elements of civil engineering and engineering mechanics 10CIV13 The process of determining the resultant force of a given force system is known as Composition of forces. F2. CITSTUDENTS.” B F2 R F2 EN A F2cos O F1 Let F1 and F2 be two forces acting at a point O and be the angle between them.IN Page 22 TS . F1.

O CI CITSTUDENTS.F2 ] = 00 Case 3: When R = [ F1 + F2 ] = 00 = 00: = 1800: F2 2 2 10CIV13 R F2 F1 F2 . we can have different cases such as follows: Case 1: When = 900: R O F1 R = F1 + F2 = tan-l F2 F1 Case 2: When R = [ F1 .IN TS TU D Page 23 EN F1 F2 TS . O F1 .Elements of civil engineering and engineering mechanics Different cases of parallelogram law: For different values of .IN .

CITSTUDENTS. fx4 be the components of Fx1. Let ∑ Fx be the algebraic sum of component forces in an x-direction ∑ Fx = fx1+ fx2+ fx3+ fx4 Similarly. fx2. Fx2. Fx4 be the forces in the X- direction.IN F1 F4 F2 R . It is required to determine the resultant of this force system. F4 represent a coplanar concurrent force system.Elements of civil engineering and engineering mechanics 10CIV13 Unit III: Composition of forces by method of Resolution 3.IN Page 24 TS TU D TS . In the ∑fig. let fx1. fx3. such a force system is known as a θ2 θ3 θ1 α EN θ4 F3 coplanar concurrent force system Let F1. CI These two sums are then combines using parallelogram law to get the resultant of the force systems. Fx3. F2. It can be done by first resolving or splitting each force into its component forces in each direction are then algebraically added to get the sum of component forces. F3 .1 Introduction If two or more forces are acting in a single plane and passing through a single point .

therefore as direction (ie. α = tan-1( follows. 1.IN Page 25 . ∑ Fx) and also in the y.IN TU D ) Calculate the algebraic sum of all the forces acting in the x- Determine the direction of the resultant using the formula EN TS .direction ( ie. ) The direction of resultant can be obtained if the angle α made by the resultant with x The steps to solve the problems in the coplanar concurrent force system are. 10CIV13 ∑ Fy R α ∑ Fx The magnitude os the resultant is given as R= √(∑ Fx)2 +(∑ Fy)2 direction is determined here. TS α = tan-1( CI 3. ∑ Fy) 2.2 Sign Conventions: CITSTUDENTS.Elements of civil engineering and engineering mechanics ∑ Fy = fy1+ fy2+ fy3+ fy4 By parallelogram law. Determine the direction of the resultant using the formula R= √(∑ Fx)2 +(∑ Fy)2 3.

75N 200N 700 45 100 TS ∑ Fy CI Let R be the given resultant force system Let α be the angle made by the resultant with x.IN TU D R α ∑ Fx Page 26 EN TS .IN 300 350 150 N .direction. The magnitude of the resultant is given as R= √(∑ Fx)2 +(∑ Fy)2 and α = tan-1( ) CITSTUDENTS.Elements of civil engineering and engineering mechanics Problems 10CIV13 Determine the magnitude & direction of the resultant of the coplanar concurrent force system shown in figure below.

Determine the resultant of the concurrent force system shown in figure.7N ∑ Fy = 200sin 300+ 75sin700-100sin450 .Elements of civil engineering and engineering mechanics 10CIV13 ∑ Fx = 200cos 300.IN Let α be the angle made by the resultant with x.72 N R= √(∑ Fx)2 +(∑ Fy)2 R= 200.21N α = tan-1( ) α = tan-1(13.150sin 350 ∑ Fy = 13.930 2. 500kN EN 70 400 2 1 45 300 TS TU D CI 100kN Let R be the given resultant force system The magnitude of the resultant is given as CITSTUDENTS.72) = 3.IN 700k 150k Page 27 .72/ 199.direction. TS .75cos700-100cos450 + 150cos 350 ∑ Fx = 199.

21N α = tan-1( ) α = tan-1(137.11) = 43.500cos700-800cos600 + 200cos 26.66 3. Determine the resultant of a coplanar concurrent force system shown in figure below TU D TS CI 1 3 500 CITSTUDENTS.11 kN ∑ Fy = 700sin 400+ 500sin700-800sin600 .55/ 144.560 ∑ Fy = 137.55kN R= √(∑ Fx)2 +(∑ Fy)2 R= 199.IN 800N 350 Page 28 .200sin 26.IN EN 200 TS .Elements of civil engineering and engineering mechanics 10CIV13 R= √(∑ Fx)2 +(∑ Fy)2 and α = tan-1( ) ∑ Fx = 700cos 400.560 ∑ Fx = 144.

90/ 1095.direction.48) = 5.IN TS .90 N R= √(∑ Fx)2 +(∑ Fy)2 R= 1101.600 α = tan-1(110.780 4. TU D 52kN 300 350 600 EN TS CI CITSTUDENTS. The Magnitude and direction of the resultant of the resultant of the coplanar concurrent force system shown in figure.08 N α = tan-1( ) ∑ Fy = 800sin 350+ 100sin700+ 500sin600 .IN 20k 10k 60kN Page 29 .100cos700+ 500cos600 + 0 ∑ Fx = 1095.48 N ∑ Fy = 110. The magnitude of the resultant is given as R= √(∑ Fx)2 +(∑ Fy)2 and α = tan-1( ) 10CIV13 ∑ Fx = 800cos 350.Elements of civil engineering and engineering mechanics Let R be the given resultant force system Let α be the angle made by the resultant with x.

The magnitude of the resultant is given as R= √(∑ Fx)2 +(∑ Fy)2 and α = tan-1( ) 10CIV13 ∑ Fx = 20cos 600.52cos300+ 60cos600 + 10 ∑ Fx = 7.641 /7.Elements of civil engineering and engineering mechanics Let R be the given resultant force system Let α be the angle made by the resultant with x.60sin600 + 0 α = tan-1(-8.641 kN R= √(∑ Fx)2 +(∑ Fy)2 R= 11.40 CI CITSTUDENTS.direction.404) = -49.IN .IN TS TU D Page 30 EN TS .379 N α = tan-1( ) ∑ Fy = 20 sin 600+ 52sin300.404 kN ∑ Fy = -8.

3.IN Page 31 . Let” O” be a point or particle in the same plane. Mo= F x d Moment or rotational effect of a force is a physical quantity dependent on the units for force and distance.IN TS TU D Let “ F” be a force acting in a plane.3 COMPOSITION OF COPLANAR NONCONCURRENT FORCE SYSTEM If two or more forces are acting in a single plane.Elements of civil engineering and engineering mechanics 10CIV13 3. The moment produced by a force about differences points in a plane is different. Mathematically Moment is defined as the product of the magnitude of the force and perpendicular distance of the point from the line of action of the force from the point. such a force system is known as coplanar non concurrent force system. but not passing through the single point. Let “d ” be the perpendicular distance of the line of action of the force from the point “O” . CI CITSTUDENTS.3. This can be understood from the following figures.1 Moment of Force: It is defined as the rotational effect caused by a force on a body. Hence the units for moment can be “Nm” or “KNm” or “ N mm” etc. Thus the moment of the force about the point “O” is given as EN TS .

3. about which the moments are taken. consider only two forces F1 and F2 represented in magnitude and direction by AB and AC as shown in figure below. Hence the units for magnitude of a couple can be N m.3. the algebraic sum of the moments of all the forces about any point is equal to the moment of their resultant force about the same point. TS . Let O be the point.Elements of civil engineering and engineering mechanics 10CIV13 Let “ F” be a force in a plane and O1.e The magnitude of a moment due to a couple is the product of force constituting the couple & the distance separating the couple .3 Varignon‟s principle of moments: If a number of coplanar forces are acting simultaneously on a particle. A clockwise moment ( ) is treated as positive and an anticlockwise moment ( ) is treated as negative. As such the moment due to a couple is also denoted as M.2 Couple Mo = F x d i. A couple has a tendency to rotate a body or can produce a moment about the body. Mo= 0x F The given force produces a clockwise moment about point O1 and anticlockwise moment about O2 . Let us consider a point O about which a couple acts.IN . N mm etc. Mo2= F x d2 Let moment of the force “ F” about point O3 is Mo. and O3 be different points in the same plane Let moment of the force “ F” about point O1 is Mo.IN Page 32 CI TS TU D Thus the magnitude of the moment due to the couple is given a s Mo = (Fx d1 ) + (F x d2 ) EN Two forces of same magnitude separated by a definite distance. Note. Mo1= F x d1 Let moment of the force “ F” about point O2 is Mo. Let S be the distance separating the couple. Let d1 & d2 be the perpendicular distance of the lines of action of the forces from the point o. (acting parallely) in aopposite direction are said to form a couple. PROOF: For example. O2. 3. By the parallelogram law of forces. the diagonal AD represents. The points O1. Construct the parallelogram ABCD and complete the construction as shown in fig. 3. O2. kN m . in magnitude and CITSTUDENTS. O3 about which the moments are calculated can also be called as moment centre.

By using the principles of resolution composition & moment it is possible to determine Analytically the resultant for coplanar non-concurrent system of forces. let R be the resultant force. Hence find ∑M0 CI CITSTUDENTS. By geometrical representation of moments the moment of force about O=2 Area of triangle AOB the moment of force about O=2 Area of triangle AOC the moment of force about O=2 Area of triangle AOD But.e. the resultant of two forces F1 and F2. 2. Select a Suitable Cartesian System for the given problem.IN TS TU D EN Page 33 TS . The procedure is as follows: 1.Elements of civil engineering and engineering mechanics Direction. we obtain 2 Area of triangle AOD =2 Area of triangle AOC+2 Area of triangle AOB i.IN .. Moment of force R about O=Moment of force F1 about O + Moment of force F2 about O Similarly. Area of triangle AOD=Area of triangle AOC + Area of triangle ACD Also. Compute the moments of resolved components about any point taken as the moment Centre O. Compute ∑fxi and ∑fyi 4. Resolve the forces in the Cartesian System 3. Area of triangle ACD=Area of triangle ADB=Area of triangle AOB Area of triangle AOD=Area of triangle AOC + Area of triangle AOB 10CIV13 Multiplying throughout by 2. this principle can be extended for any number of forces.

Compute mon1ent ann d R= I L: ol 6.Elements of civil engineering and engineering mechanics JOCJV13 5. AI o compute x.IN TS TU D Page 34 EN TS .intercept as CI CITSTUDENTS.IN .

.1 1 KN aR =49.6KN .34 2. = 8.= 1.Elements of civil engineering and engineering mechanics Problems JOCJV13 Exa mple 1: Compute the resu ltant for the system of forces shown in Fig 2 and hence compute the Equiil briant.4(3) + 32cos60°(4)-32sin 60°(3) =-62.4-32sin60o =.o) \ CITSTUDENTS.8 KN COS 60° 'Lf y.8 TU D I EN e (t .396 m R 44.32 = 28.IN Page 35 R = 44. L fx.827 n1 34.4) ( CI TS " (o.34 X R = -.IN TS . = 44.164m Y R =--= 28.64 62.= 1.1 4.8.34 d = -.83° + LM o = -1 4.34.34KNM 62.1 I 62.

IN + LM A = -430(1)+172(2)-344(4) =-1462 KNM . 2•8. (f6kN A i 1 1m 1 1m c 43Dlc.N 44kN D 2m J 8 ·3 f l£2 5161<N 516tl\l A J ..IN TS TU D L fr r = 0 L: f..l =-5l6KN Page 36 EN F4 TS .N 112k.a M I .Itt 13 A 1 0 8 es t Gv t fi!lfAm/>k 2 34t) • Resultant and Equ jlibriant CI CITSTUDENTS.Elements of civil engineering and engineering mechanics JOCJV13 Exa mple 2: Find the Equilibriant for the rigid bar shown in Fig 3 when it is subjected to forces.

Elements of civil engineering and engineering mechanics 10CIV13 2.IN .14cos450 = 19. Determine the resultant of the force system acting on the plate.33N CITSTUDENTS. CI ∑Fx = 5cos300 + 10cos600 + 14.IN Page 37 TS TU D EN TS . As shown in figure given below with respect to AB and AD.

IN Page 38 TS TU D EN TS .16X = 20x4 + 5cos300x3 -5sin300 x4 + 10 + 10cos600x3 x = 107.14sin450 = -16. Determine the magnitude .2N θ= Tan-1(∑Fy/ ∑Fx) θ= Tan-1(16. The system of forces acting on a crank is shown in figure below.99/16.33) = 39. CI ∑Fx = 500cos600 – 700 CITSTUDENTS.16/19.890 10CIV13 Tracing moments of forces about A and applying varignon‟s principle of moments we get +16.16N R = √(∑Fx2 + ∑Fy2) = 25.16 = 6.83 y = 5.683m Also tan39.89 = y/6. 3.10sin600 + 14.IN .Elements of civil engineering and engineering mechanics ∑Fy = 5sin300 . direction and the point of application of the resultant force.586m.

IN . R = ∑Fy =250N ( ) Since ∑Fx = 0 CITSTUDENTS. 4.Elements of civil engineering and engineering mechanics = 450N ∑Fy = 500sin600 = -26.IN Page 39 TS TU D EN TS .300 (Direction) Tracing moments of forces about O and applying varignon‟s principle of moments we get -2633x x= -500x sin600x300-1000x150+1200x150cos600 -700x300sin600 x = -371769.For the system of parallel forces shown below.33N R = √(∑Fx2 + ∑Fy2) =(-450)2 + (-2633)2 R = 267.20mm from O towards left (position).19N (Magnitude) 10CIV13 θ = Tan-1(∑Fy/ ∑Fx) θ = Tan-1(2633/450) θ = 80. determine the magnitude of the resultant and also its position from A . CI ∑Fy = +100 -200 -50 +400 = +250N ie.15/-2633 x= 141.

Elements of civil engineering and engineering mechanics 10CIV13 Taking moments of forces about A and applying varignon‟s principle of moments -250 x = -400 x 3.3m 5.5 -300 x 7. The three like parallel forces 100 N.find the magnitude of force F and position of F with respect to A CI Given tan θ= 15/8 sin θ = 15/ 17 cos θ = 8/17 tanα= 3/4 sin α = 3/5 cos α = 4/5 ∑ Fx = 4 +5 cos α – 17 cos θ = 4 + 5 x 4/5 – 17 x 8/17 ∑ Fx = 0 ∑ Fy = 5 sin α -10 + 20 – 10 + 17 sin θ CITSTUDENTS. X = 600/200 = 3m from A EN Let x be the distance from A to the point of application of force F Here R = ∑ Fy 600=100+F+300 F = 200 N TS . Find the magnitude. direction and the position of the resultant force.IN . We get 600 x 4. If the resultant R=600 N and is acting at a distance of 4.5 m from A . TU D Taking moments of forces about A and applying varignon‟s principle of moments.IN Page 40 TS 6.5 + 50 x 2. A beam is subjected to forces as shown in the figure given below.5 = 300 x 7 + F x 200 x = 600 x 4.5 + 200 x 1 – 100 x 0 X = -1075/ -250 = 4.F and 300 N are acting as shown in figure below.

Elements of civil engineering and engineering mechanics = 5 x 3/5 -10+ 20 – 10 + 17 x 15/17 ∑ Fy = 18 kN ( ) Resultant force R = (∑Fx) 2 + (∑Fy)2 = 0+182 R = 18 kN( ) 10CIV13 Let x = distance from A to the point of application R Taking moments of forces about A and applying Varignon‟s theorem of moments -18 x = -5 x sin α x 8 +10 x 7 -20 x 5 + 10 x 2 = -3 x 8 +10 x7 – 20 x 5 + 10 x 2 X = -34/-18 = 1.IN .89m from A (towards left) CI CITSTUDENTS.IN TS TU D Page 41 EN TS .

whereas the centroid is a point in a plane area such that the moment of areas about an axis through the centroid is zero TU D g2 plane areas. circle etc. 1. the equivalent to the centroid referring to the above figure G is said to be the centroid of the plane area A as long as a1d1 – a2 d2 = 0. Everybody consists of innumerable particles. however the entire weight of a body is assumed to act through a single point and such a single point is called centre of gravity. the total area is assumed to be concentrated at a single point and such The term centre of gravity and centroid has the same meaning but the following differences.2 Centroid: In case of plane areas (bodies with negligible thickness) such as a triangle quadrilateral. a1 area of any plane figure is assumed as a force TS . centre of gravity is a point is a point in a body through which the weight acts vertically downwards irrespective of the position.IV: CENTROID OF PLANE FIGURES 4. TS CI a2 G d2 d1 Note: In the discussion on centroid. The force of attraction is proportional to mass of the body.. centroid refers to 2. Every body has one and only centre of gravity.1 Centre of Gravity: Everybody is attracted towards the centre of the earth due gravity. Centre of gravity refer to bodies with mass and weight whereas.IN Page 42 EN g1 a single point is called centroid of the plane area.IN Plane area ‘A’ . CITSTUDENTS.Elements of civil engineering and engineering mechanics 10CIV13 UNIT . 4.

IN X G Page 43 .IN TS TU D While locating the centroid of plane areas.3 Location of centroid of plane areas Y Plane area Y The position of centroid of a plane area should be specified or calculated with respect to or Y axis is denoted as X and the distance of centroid G from a horizontal reference axis or X axis is denoted as Y.Elements of civil engineering and engineering mechanics 10CIV13 4. a bottommost horizontal line or a horizontal EN some reference axis i.axis. line through the bottommost point can be made as the X – axis and a leftmost vertical line or a vertical line passing through the leftmost point can be made as Y. CI CITSTUDENTS. X and Y axis.e. The distance of centroid G from vertical reference axis TS .

where the three medians intersect. The centroid of a square is a point where the two diagonals bisect each other.Elements of civil engineering and engineering mechanics 10CIV13 In some cases the given figure is symmetrical about a horizontal or vertical line such that the centroid of the plane arY ea lies on the line of symmetry. Y=? The centroid of plane geometric area can be located by one of the following methods a) Graphical methods b) Geometric consideration c) Method of moments The centroid of simple elementary areas can be located by geometric consideration. The centroid of a circle is centre of the circle itself.IN TS TU D EN TS . X G Y b b/2 The above figure is symmetrical about a vertical line such that G lies on the line of symmetry. CI CITSTUDENTS.IN X Page 44 . The centroid of a triangle is a point. Thus X= b/2.

axis i. x1 a1 . etc.dA A Page 45 TS X= (ax) A or X = Let x1.e. a2.g2.4 METHOD OF MOMENTS TO LOCATE THE CENTROID OF PLANE AREAS It is required to locate the position of centroid G with respect to the reference axis like Y.. X = a1 . Let G be the centroid of the plane area. x3 + ………. Let g1 .Elements of civil engineering and engineering mechanics 10CIV13 4.axis is =A X ----- CITSTUDENTS. x2. a2 . EN TS . a3 ……. a2.IN TU D . x3 + ………………. x2 + a3 . as shown in figure. a3 ……. g3…… be the centroids of elemental areas a1.axis and Xi. x3 A x.IN .. x2 a3 .(2) Equating (1) and (2) A . from Y. to calculate X and Y. x2 + a3 . Let us divide the given area A into smaller elemental areas a1. (1) The sum of the moments of the elemental areas about Y axis is CI X= a1 . x3 etc be the distance of the centroids g1 g2 g3 etc. x1 + a2 . x1 + a2 ... Let us consider a plane area A lying in the XY plane.

Similarly Y= a1.IN X A Page 46 . let g be the centroid of the TS . Let us consider the X and Y axis as shown in the figure. y1 a2 .IN TS Let us consider a rectangle of breadth b and depth d. y3 A (a. x is the distance of elemental area from Y axis..Elements of civil engineering and engineering mechanics 10CIV13 Where a or dA represents an elemental area in the area A . Let us consider an elemental area dA of breadth b and depth dy lying at a distance of y from the X axis. y ) A or Y = y.dA . CITSTUDENTS. y2 a3 . Y= TO LOCATE THE CENTROID OF A RECTANGLE FROM THE FIRST PRINCIPLE (METHOD OF MOMENTS) Y b TU D X y EN dy G d Y CI rectangle.

---. d dA =b. dy d y d 1 l I - y y fy.d - y d 2 Similarly • I I I EN b / / y I TU D b x=_o_ A x G / / / A=b .(b.Elements of civil engineering and engineering mechanics JOCJV13 W.d ) X= .IN TS .T y d fy.dA - = _o y - 1 d d fy.---- r---.::.---- TS CI CITSTUDENTS.dy 0 2 A - A= b.dy) = 0 b...dx 0 x= -[b:] 2 Page 47 .. d y Jx. ld22 ] lx.K..IN 1 x=. --.(dx.

Let us consider the X.h 2 A= CI dA = b1 . dy) b.dA A b.Elements of civil engineering and engineering mechanics Centroid of a triangle 10CIV13 Let us consider a right angled triangle with a base b and height h as shown in figure. W. Let G be the centroid of the triangle. dy h y.K.(b1 .axis as shown in figure.IN TS [as x varies b1 also varies] Y= 0 TU D Page 48 EN TS .T h y.h 2 Y= 0 CITSTUDENTS.IN .axis and Y. lying at a distance y from X-axis. Let us consider an elemental area dA of width b1 and thickness dy.

IN 2 h2 Y= h 2 .Elements of civil engineering and engineering mechanics 10CIV13 Y= 2 .IN TS TU D 3 Page 49 h similarly X 3 =b EN TS . y h 0 y2 2 h y2 dy h y3 3.h h3 3.h h2 3 h 2 Y= h 0 Y= 2 h2 h 2 1 2 Y = 2h Y= Y= 2.h 6 1 3 CI CITSTUDENTS.

dA Y= CI A= .r 2 2 y. with a radius „r‟. Let „O‟ be the centre of the semi-circle .dθ and height „r‟.IN X =0 dA = dA = 1 .Elements of civil engineering and engineering mechanics Centroid of a semi circle 10CIV13 Let us consider a semi-circle.let „G‟ be centroid of the semi-circle.dA Y= Y= 2r . the elemental area becomes an isosceles triangle with base r.d 2 r sin . Here y = 2r .d 3 0 2r 3 cos 0 = 2r [1+1] 3 4r 3 Y= Page 50 .dA 3 CITSTUDENTS. Let us consider Let us consider an elemental area „dA‟ with centroid „g‟ as shown in fig.r.r 2 r2 .d = = = 2 3 2r sin . sin . Let y be the distance of centroid „g‟ from x axis.sin 3 EN TU D A A A WKT TS y. the x and y axes as shown in figure.IN TS . Neglecting the curvature.d .

Let us consider the x and y axes as shown in figure. the elemental area becomes an isosceles triangle with base r.dA A WKT EN 1 .d 3 2 .Elements of civil engineering and engineering mechanics 10CIV13 Centroid of a quarter circle y Let us consider a quarter circle with radius r.d 0 4r 3 2r .sin 3 TU D dA = Let us consider an elemental area „dA‟ with centroid „g‟ as shown in fig.dA TS . Neglecting the curvature.r 2 2 y.d 2 dA = Y= Y= 2r r2 . Let „O‟ be the centre and „G‟ be the centroid of the quarter circle. . TS y. Here y = 2r .dθ and height „r‟. sin .IN cos /2 0 Page 51 .IN = 4r [0+1] 3 Y= 4r 3 Similarly X Y= A = = 4r 3 2r 3 /2 = sin .sin . Let „y‟ be the distance of centroid „g‟ from x axis.r.r 2 4 CI A= .dA 3 Y= CITSTUDENTS.r 2 r2 .d .

o X .. 2 -.. --= R -... 2[9La .= .IN TU D = Rla.Elements of civil engineering and engineering mechanics Cenlroid of Sedor of . a about y.IN . ('. To find its distance from the centre 0. EN Page 52 -aO TS . A r 'i\ or t he cl mcnt • rrl9 dr 1ts moment about y axis • rf19 X dI X f COS 9 =?cos e drde :. T11 e distance of eentrold from centre 0 TS CI CITSTUDENTS. Total moment of ar.lr. cemrotd lies on x axis.sin a . r _.( 3a. consider the elemental area shown. 1xls aR = J J ..2 cos 9 drd9 [in 9) • 3 21n a Total area of the sector «R R3 J f rdrd9 de 0 j = .2 R2 l'liR Moment of area about y axis Area of the figu re 2R3 --sin ex 3 2R.1 JOCJV13 Circle Consider the sector of a circle or angle 2a shown tn Ftg Due to symmetry..

IN . CITSTUDENTS. After determining moment of each area about reference axis. its moment about an axis can be found by multiplying the area with distance of its centroid from the reference axis. use of sections which are built up of many simple sections is very common.Elements of civil engineering and engineering mechanics 10CIV13 CI 4. Assuming the area of the simple figure as concentrated at its centroid.5 Centroid of Composite Sections In engineering practice. Such sections may be called as built-up sections or composite sections.IN Page 53 TS TU D EN TS . The given composite section can be split into suitable simple figures and then the centroid of each simple figure can be found by inspection or using the standard formulae listed in the table above. one need not go for the first principle (method of integration). To locate the centroid of composite sections.

Q) Find the centroid of the unequal angle 200 ×150 × 12 mm.IN . PROBLEMS: Q) Locate the centroid of the T-section shown in fig. CI CITSTUDENTS.IN TS TU D Page 54 EN TS . shown in Fig.Elements of civil engineering and engineering mechanics 10CIV13 the distance of centroid from the axis is obtained by dividing total moment of area by total area of the composite section.

Elements of civil engineering and engineering mechanics 10CIV13 Q) Locate the centroid of the I-section shown in Fig. CI CITSTUDENTS.IN TS TU D EN Page 55 TS .IN .

.Elements of civil engineering and engineering mechanics Solution.e. Selecting the co-ordinate system as shown in Fig. x =0 ow.= 140 mm Similarly A2 = 20 2 100 x 20 = 2000 mm2 2 y = Fig.= 80 mm 2 A3 = 150 x 30 = 4500 nun2.= 15mm . the composite section may be split into three rectangles A 1 = 100 x 20 Centroid of A1 from the origin is: = 2000 mm2 y 1 = 30 + 100 + .71 mm from the bottom as shown in Ans.IN 100 Y2 = 30 + .IN TS TU D Page 56 EN A1Y t + A2Y2 + A3y3 A 2000 + 140 + 2000 x 80+ 4500 x 15 = ------------2000+ 2000 + 4500 = 59. and 30 y 3 = . the centroid is on tire symmetric axis at a distance 59. Thus. Lie on y axis.'71 mm TS . CI CITSTUDENTS. JOCJV13 due to symmetry centroid must i.

1 Concepts CI CITSTUDENTS.IN TS TU D Page 57 EN TS .Elements of civil engineering and engineering mechanics 10CIV13 UNIT – V: EQUILIBRIUM OF FORCES 5.IN .

CITSTUDENTS. Q and R three forces acting at a point keeping it in equilibrium. if 3 forces acting on a particle are in equilibrium. Since the for ces a re in equilibrium.2 TS p sin a sin x = sin (180 .Elements of civil engineering and engineering mechanics JOCJV13 Lami's Theorem If three forces acting on a particle keep it in equilibrium. they can be represen ted by the sides of the triangle ABC taken in order.IN z c i CA sin :: Page 58 . Q. Q TS .a) = sin a sin z = sin (180 . andy p Q R sin a sinj3 sin y p R TU D AB sin x sin y = sin (180 . From the Fig. --= --= -- If a. and R. A general proper ty of any triangle is tha t each side is propor tional to the sine of the angle opposite to it. Fig. Thus in the triangle ABC drawn with the sides parallel to the forces P. yand z are the angles of the triangle ABC Bu t by the triangle law of forces. each force is proportional to the sine of the angle between the o ther hvo.IN EN BC sin !J This law is a direc t consequence of the triangle law.= . 1. each force is proportional to the sine of the angle between the other two.pposite to each of them respective!}'.-=constant sin sin y Q Thus.)=sin Here x.y) = sin y CI Hence -.= -. P. the sides of the triangle are proportional to the respective force. are the ru"'gles a.

Elements of civil engineering and engineering mechanics 10CIV13 CI CITSTUDENTS.IN .IN TS TU D Page 59 EN TS .

IN .IN TS TU D Page 60 EN TS .Elements of civil engineering and engineering mechanics 10CIV13 CI CITSTUDENTS.

CITSTUDENTS. In a beam. The beam is free to move only horizontally and also can rotate about the support. The force system is developed due to the loads or forces acting on the beam and also due to the support reactions developed at the supports for the beam. Here one reaction which is perpendicular to the plane of rollers is developed. the beam is free to move horizontally and as well rotate about the support. The support reactions developed at each support are represented as follows. 6.IN TS TU D EN Supports are structures which prevent the beam or the body from moving and help to maintain equilibrium. TS . which is perpendicular to the plane of support. In such a support one reaction.1 Introduction A beam is a structural member or element. CI 2) Roller support: This is a support in which a beam rests on rollers. one dimension (length) is considerably larger than the other two dimensions (breath & depth). 1) Simple support: This is a support where a beam rests freely on a support. Page 61 . The smaller dimensions are usually neglected and as such a beam is represented as a line for theoretical purposes or for analysis.Elements of civil engineering and engineering mechanics 10CIV13 UNIT – VI: BEAMS 6. which is in equilibrium under the action of a non-concurrent force system.IN For the beam to be in equilibrium. which are frictionless.2 Types of Supports for beams: A beam can have different types of supports as follows. is developed. the reactions developed at the supports the should be equal and opposite to the loads. At such a support.

The beam is not free to move in any direction but can rotate about the support. TU D RH M RV This is a support which prevents the beam from moving in any direction and also prevents rotation of the beam. beams can be classified as follows.IN Depending upon the supports over which a beam can rest (at its two ends).3 Types of beams 1) Simply supported beam. EN TS . vertical reaction and a Fixed End Moment are developed to keep the beam in equilibrium. . In such a support a horizontal reaction and a 4) Fixed support: TS CI 6. CITSTUDENTS.IN Page 62 vertical reaction will develop. In such a support a horizontal reaction.Elements of civil engineering and engineering mechanics 10CIV13 3) Hinged support: This is a support in which the beam is attached to a support by means of a hinge or pin.

IN B RBV RBH Page 63 . RB It is a beam where one end of the beam is hinged to a support and the other end rests on a roller support. Such a beam can carry or resist vertical loads only. Such a beam can carry loads is any direction. A B RA 2) Beam with one end hinged & other on rollers. CITSTUDENTS.IN TS . TS TU D RAH A RAV CI 4) Over hanging beam : It is a beam which projects beyond the supports. A RAH RAV EN B RBV 3) Hinged Beam: It is a beam which is hinged to supports at both ends.Elements of civil engineering and engineering mechanics 10CIV13 A beam is said to be simply supported when both ends of the beam rest on simple supports. A beam can have over hanging portions on one side or on both sides. Such a beam can carry any type of loads.

Such a beam can carry loads in any directions.Elements of civil engineering and engineering mechanics 10CIV13 A RA B RB A RA RB B A RA 5) Cantilever Beams: It is a beam. TU D RH RV RAH A A M RAV CITSTUDENTS. TS 6) Propped cantilever: CI It is a beam which has a fixed support at one end and a simple support at the other end. with one end fixed and other and free.IN B RB B B RB Page 64 .IN M EN M TS .

IN TS 6. and cantilever beams.IN RC Page 65 . Propped Cantilever and Continuous Beams the support reactions cannot be determined using conditions of equilibrium only. TU D The support reactions in case of simply supported beams.Elements of civil engineering and engineering mechanics 7) Continuous beam: It is a beam which rests over a series of supports at more than two points. can be determined by conditions of equilibrium only (Σ Fx = 0. They need additional special conditions for analysis and as such. over hanging beams. CITSTUDENTS. As such. ΣM = 0). EN TS . it is assumed to act at the mid point of the loaded length and such a loading is termed as Point load or Concentrated load.4 Types of loads: The various types of loads that can act over a beam can e listed as follows. beam with one end hinged and other on rollers. 10CIV13 MB A RA B RB C Note: In beams such as Hinged Beams. such beams are known as Statically Determinate Beams. such beams are known as Statically Indeterminate Beams CI 1) Point load or Concentrated load: If a load acts over a very small length of the beam. ΣFy = 0.

L TS CI L/2 L 3) Uniformly varying load (UVL): If a beam is loaded in such a manner.Elements of civil engineering and engineering mechanics 10CIV13 P A B RB RA 2) Uniformly distributed load (UDL): A UDL cannot be considered in the same manner for applying conditions of equilibrium on the beam. unit length x/2 w/ unit length a L X b Page 66 . that the intensity of loading varies linearly or uniformly over each unit distance of the beam. CITSTUDENTS. The UDL should be replaced by an equivalent point load or total load acting through the mid point of the loaded length. X b+x/2 If a beam is loaded in such a manner that each unit length of the beam carries the same intensity of loading. L W=w .IN w/ W=w . The magnitude of the point load or total load is equal to the product of the intensity of loading and the loaded length (distance). then such a load is termed as UVL.IN TS . TU D L w/ unit length L/2 L/2 EN G L/2 a+x/2 W=w . then such a loading is called UDL.

The magnitude of the equivalent point load or total load is equal to the area of the loading diagram.Elements of civil engineering and engineering mechanics 10CIV13 In applying conditions of equilibrium.IN L/3 w/ unit length b w/ unit length B RB Page 67 . W=w.IN TS . These moments should be considered while calculating the algebraic sum of moments of forces about a point on the beam TS A RA CITSTUDENTS. x/2 2 x/3 x/3 EN x L M TU D a CI 4) External moment: A beam can also be subjected to external moments at certain points as shown in figure. a given UVL should be replaced by an equivalent point load or total load acting through the centroid of the loading diagram (right angle triangle).L/2 G 2L/3 L W=w .

10CIV13 L W2= {(w2-w1)/2}.IN TS TU D Page 68 EN In such a case. the UVL can be split into a UDL with a uniform intensity of w1/unit length another UVL with a maximum intensity of (w2-w1) /unit length. TS .Elements of civil engineering and engineering mechanics Note : A beam can also be subject to a load as shown in figure below. W1= w1. L (w2-w1)/unit length w1/ unit length 2L/3 L/2 L L/3 CI CITSTUDENTS.IN L/2 w2/ unit length .

20(6) + V8 (8)-15(9) -10(J 1) =0 VB = 45 KN:VA = 10 KN CITSTUDENTS. +V8 =55 CI . = 0. .40.32=0 H A =l7. ' L_.yl =0 V A -1 0-20-15-IO+ VIJ = 0 V.IN VB = 45KN VA = 35 KN .M A = 0-40(2) -40(7) +VB(&) = 0 Example 6: Determine t he su pport reactions for the bea m shown in Fig 9 at A and B.V A . =0: H A -17..0· H ' =A 0 L:!y.J= z .IN TS TU D EN Page 69 TS . f.+YM J\=0 '--' -lOx 2+ 25.32 KN L..40+ VB = 0 VA +VB =80 c.Elements of civil engineering and engineering mechanics JOCJV13 Example 5: Determine the support reactions for the beam shown i n Fig 8 at A and B. 'Lf.

5RB Lf. = 0: H A -R8 sin3d' = O H A =0.+0. CI CITSTUDENTS. JOCJV13 Lfx..62KN.IN · 1D · + LM s =O. 3(j =0 V.. = 0:V" -20+ R8 co..866f?B .Elements of civil engineering and engineering mechanics Exa mple 7: Determi ne t he su pport react i ons for t he bea m shown i n Fig 10 at A and B.IN TS TU D Page 70 EN TS . -V/\(10) +2 6) = 0 12 1e: 7 .24KN H A = 4. 20 -V" = 1 2KN: RB =9....

such on opposing force developed is called friction or frictional resistance. The frictional resistance is developed due to the interlocking of the surface irregularities at the contact surface b/w two bodies Consider a body weighing W resting on a rough plane & subjected to a force „P‟ to displace the body. CITSTUDENTS. a force which opposes the motion of the body is developed tangentially at the surface of contact.IN TS P = Applied force N = Normal reaction from rough surface F = Frictional resistance W = Weight of the body TU D Page 71 EN TS . Where CI The body can start moving or slide over the plane if the force „P‟ overcomes the frictional „F‟ The frictional resistance developed is proportional to the magnitude of the applied force which is responsible for causing motion upto a certain limit.1 Introduction Whenever a body moves or tends to move over another surface or body.Elements of civil engineering and engineering mechanics 10CIV13 UNIT VII: FRICTION 7.IN .

The friction experienced by a body when it is moving is called dynamic friction.IN TS . the frictional resistance developed at such surface can be called dry friction & wet friction (fluid friction) respectively. CITSTUDENTS. dry surface & wet surface. The dynamic friction experienced by a body as it roles over surface as shown in figure is called rolling friction. the magnitude of limiting friction bears a constant ratio to normal reaction between the two this ratio is called as co-efficient of friction. It can range between a zero to limiting fraction value.2 CO-EFFICIENT OF FRICTION: It ha been experimentally proved that between TS two contacting surfaces.e. If the magnitude of the applied force is greater than the limiting friction value the body starts moving over the surface.IN F N Page 72 . In our discussion on friction all the surface we consider will be dry sough surfaces.Elements of civil engineering and engineering mechanics 10CIV13 From the above graph we see that as P increases. Note: Depending upon the nature of the surface of contact i. The dynamic friction experienced by a body as it slides over a plane as it is shown in figure is called sliding friction. Beyond this limit (Limiting friction value) the frictional resistance becomes constant for any value of applied force. W W TU D F EN P N 7. The friction experienced by a body when it is at rest or in equilibrium is known as static friction. It is defined by the relationship F N CI Where μ – Represents co-efficient of friction F – Represents frictional resistance N – Represents normal reaction. If the magnitude of the applied force is less than the limiting friction value. However F cannot increase beyond a certain limit. the body remains at rest or in equilibrium. F also increases.

IN Limiting friction value 45 Page 73 . They are as follows.3 LAWS OF DRY FRICTION: (COLUMB’S LAWS) The frictional resistance developed between bodies having dry surfaces of contact obey certain laws called laws of dry friction. 1) 2) 3) 4) 7. The frictional resistance depends upon the roughness or smoothness of the surface. Let „R‟ be resultant of F & N. μ ) 5) The magnitude of the frictional resistance developed is exactly equal to the applied force till limiting friction value is reached or where the bodies is about to move. Let „θ‟ be the angle made by the resultant with the direction of N. However. F also increases and correspondingly „θ‟ increases. such an angle „θ‟ is called the Angle of friction TS . Let θmax = α Where α represents angle of limiting friction tan θmax = tanα = CITSTUDENTS. F cannot increase beyond the limiting friction value and as such „θ‟ can attain a maximum value only. Let „P‟ be an applied force required to just move the body such that.Elements of civil engineering and engineering mechanics 10CIV13 7.IN TS P Consider a body weighing „W‟ placed on a horizontal plane. The frictional resistance is independent of the area of contact between the two bodies. frictional resistance reaches limiting friction value. Frictional resistance acts in a direction opposite to the motion of the body. The ratio of the limiting friction value (F) to the normal reaction (N) is a constant (coefficient of friction.4 ANGLE OF FRICTION W EN Body F F R P TU D N θ θ F N CI As P increases.

Where Ф = angle of repose When = angle of repose.e. When „θ‟ value is small.5 ANGLE OF REPOSE: Body of weight ‘W’ Rough plane θ The maximum inclination of the plane with the horizontal. ∑Fx = 0 CITSTUDENTS. which makes an angle „θ‟ with the horizontal.θ) – F cosθ = 0 N sinθ = F cosθ Page 74 EN Consider a body weighing „w‟ placed on a rough inclined plane. on which a body free from external forces can rest without sliding is called angle of repose.IN N TU D W F θ 90 .IN .Elements of civil engineering and engineering mechanics But F =μ N 10CIV13 Therefore μ = tanα i.θ Let θmax = Ф N cos(90. TS CI Applying conditions of equilibrium. co-efficient of friction is equal to the tangent of the angle of limiting friction 7. a stage reaches when the body tends to slide down the plane TS . If „θ‟ is gradually increased. Let us draw the free body diagram of the body before it slide. the body is in equilibrium or rest without sliding.

when CI the body tends to move frictional resistance opposing the motion comes into picture tangentially at the surface of contact in all the examples. CITSTUDENTS.Elements of civil engineering and engineering mechanics F tan8 =N JOCJV13 tan8max =tan <D but-= F N J. We can consider the body to be at rest or in equilibrium & we can still apply conditions of equilibrium on the body to calculate unknown force. such that. EN TS . Note: In this discussion. Let 'P' be a force required to just move the body such that frictional resistance reaches limiting value. Let 'R' be the resultant of 'F' & 'N' making an angel with the direction ofN.IN TS TU D Consider a body weighting 'W' resting on a rough horizontal surface. the body considered is at the verge of moving such that frictional resistance reaches limiting value. all the surface that bee consider are rough surfaces.l J. angle of repose is equal to angle of limiting friction 7. R also rotates through 360° and generates an imaginary cone called cone of friction.e. If 'P' is rotated through 360°.6 CONE OF FRICTION w p---+1 If the direction of 'P' is changed the direction of 'F' changes and accordingly 'R' also changes its direction.IN Body of weight W' Rough plane Page 75 .l = tana tan <D = tana <D=a i.

F1 I =4 I T =F1 · = 2SON Considering block B. CI CITSTUDENTS.IN TS TU D "f. Block A weighing 1000 N rests over block B whkh weighs 2000 N as shown in Fig. Considering block A.If the coefficient of friction between A and B is 1/4 and between B and the floor 'is 113. V=O :.5(a) (a) Wlun Pis hontonlal: The free body diagrams of tbe two blocks are shown in Fig. Note the frictionaJ forces Fl and F2 are to be marked i n the opposite direction of impending relative motion. N. F1=2SON N2 -2000 -N1 =0 N1= 3000 N since N1 = 1000 N EN Page 76 = IOOON TS .IN . what should be the value of P to move tbe bJock B if (a) P is horizontal? (b) Pacts 300 upwards to horizontal? T A F1 Flg. IV = O N1 since F1 is limiting friction.s.H = O l:.Elements of civil engineering and engineering mechanics JOCJV13 Ex. Block A is tied to wan with a horimntal string.

CI . Consider the equil brium of block B. here also N 1 = 1000 Nand F1 = 250 N. =O TS N1+0.5 p 3 EN since N1 = I000 N Page 77 TS .. CITSTUDENTS.IN = 1250N .IN TU D 1 = 3(3000-0.5 P) = JOOO -0. IV .Elements of civil engineering and engineering mechanics JOCJV13 Since F2 is the limiting friction F 1 = N 1 !Ji=O P -F1 -F2 =0 P=F1+F1= 250+ 1000 fb) When Pis enclined Free body diagram for this case is shown in F.5P = 3000N From law of friction. As in the previous case.

(1000. Hence frictional forces F1 :1nd F1 act up the plane on 900 N block.. .H = 0 P cos 30° .N..(3) Substituting the value of N. from (I) we get From law of frjction .3P) = 0 0.••( 1} .43N Am. Ex.300 C.()S or N1 =300 cos 9 From law of riction F'_1 = TU D 9=0 EN cos 9 3 N1 =)00 J TS For 900 N block: 'I.900 cos 9 =0 CI or N1= N1 + 900 cos 6 N1= J200cos 9 .. Free body diagram of the blocks is as shown in Fig.F. forces normal to the plane= 0 I N....(2) Page 78 . For 300 N block: I. .IN TS . = 0 Pcos 30°-250.. surfaces is 3 · P=Ul0.(4) CITSTUDENTS.F1 ....IN I'I -- .5 . which will make the motion of 900 N block down the plane to impend? The coefficient of friction for all ·contact 900 N block is on the verge of moving downward.Elements of civil engineering and engineering mechanics JOCJV13 I. What should be the value of e in Fig. .forces nonnal to plane = 0 N.

. and when JUSt starts moving up is shown in the Fig. Find the inclination of . . A weight 500 N just starts moving down a rough incljned plane supported by a for·ce of 200 N acring parallel to the plane and it is at rbe point of moving up the :• plane when pulled by a force of 300 N parallel to the plane..(2) F. Now. 1) . TS .( .IN TS . Free body diagram of the block when it just.forces parallel to the plane = 0 500 sin9-F1 -200=0 500 sin 9 -500 f1 cos e = 200 . is shown in Fi_g. forces perpendicular to the plane = 0 TU D N=500 cosO EN ..e.Elements of civil engineering and engineering mechanics JOCJV13 Iforces parallel. F1 = pN i. From law of friction... ..e. =0 F1 +F2 -900sin e = 0 100 cos e + 4t)() cos e = 900 sine 5 tane =9 • Ans .frictional forces oppose the direction of tbe movement of the block and since jt is Umiting case .IN Page 79 . starts moving down .F Wllen the block just starts moving down I.to the plane J. Ex.e CITSTUDENTS.(3) i. . = soo JlCOS e CI I.=p. the plane and the coefficient of friction between the inclined plane and the weight. ...

lO cause the motion to impend? Assume lhe pulleyis smooth and coefficient of friction between theother contact surfaces is 0. EN (b) J1=0.•(6) Adding (3) and (6) we get· lOOOsin e = 500 J sm · =- . e 2· Substituting it inEqn.11547 CITSTUDENTS.(4) . p CI TS TU D (II) . What is tbc value of Pin the systemshown inFig.... (6) we get SOO J1cps 30°::. the law of friction. Ans• Page 80 ..(S) 500 s n9+F2 -300=0 ' i ..20.: 300 -S00 sin 300 Ez. F 2 = 500 ll cos 9 Iforces parallei to the plane = 0 . starts moving up the plane l:forces perpendicular to the plane= 0 N=500cose From..COS 9= 300 •.IN Ans.IN TS .Elements of civil engineering and engineering mechanics JOCJV13 When the block just.e 00 sine +SOO IJ.

2x 315 ::7SN foroes parallel to the plane =0 T .SOO+P sin 30°=0 F2 s = 0.T -F2 •0 p cos 3()0 -724.2 N2 0.52 N Considering sao N body: v= o N2 .5 P • SOO From law of friction. CI CITSTUDENTS.5l N TU D An.52.r.Elements of civil engineering and engineering mechanics JOCJV13 Free body diagrams of the blocb are as shown in Fi1. ftwmt law of frlctio F 1 = fJN1 =0.IN .lP r.100 + 0.F -1SO sin 60° =-0 T • 75 +750 sin 60° = 724.S P) =100-0.H=O TS P cos30°.O.750 cos 6QO • 0 Nt 315 N Since the motion is impending. Page 81 N1 + 0.0 P=IS3.IN EN TS .2 (500. block: E forces normal to the plane •0 Considering 750 N N 1 .1 p.

133 tan 20° c 2. Consider' block B. + F1 cos 6()0 -N.SN 1.196 kN Now consider the equilibrium of block A. What is the smallest weight W of 1be block A for which equilibrium of the system can exist if weight of block B is 5 kN7 Free body diagrams for block A and B ue u shown in Fig. •N1 tan 2()0 EVatO [Since u •tan 2()0] N1 sin 30° +F. (Q) F... N1 = 6 .232 = 4.4.2.IN TU D COS 6() 0 EN Page 82 TS . cos 30° = 0 C • 6. From law of frictio Es.ownin Pig.Elements of civil engineering and engineering mechanics JOCJV13 Two blocksby a horizontal link All arc supponcd on two rough plancsassh. sin 60°-5·= 0 O . IH•O F.133 COl 3()0 .•.The limiting angle of friction for block Bon the inclined plane is 20°.196 kN From law of friction F1 = CITSTUDENTS.196 kN N1 = C = 4. + N t tan 2()0 sin 60° • S . Thecoelficientoffriction fiorthe blocton the horizontal plane is 0. . = C=4.133 kN F 1 = 6.IN .232 kN EH•O C TS CI F.

A load of UlOO N rests on the inclined plane BC and is tied by a roJ2!t_ passing over a pulley to a block.IN Now consider the equilibrium of block of weight W: · I: Forces normal to the plane 0 TU D =242.28 and that between the block and the plane AC is 0.e N2 = 4 0 i = 10.F1 + 1000 sin 30°. I.! W EN TS .5 W F2 =0.find the least and the greatest value of W for the equilibrium of the system. forces normal to plane = 0 N1 = 1000 cos 30° = 866.as shown in Fig.Elements of civil engineering and engineering mechanics JOCJV13 i.49N T = . 'Considering the 1000 N block: from the Jaw of friction F1 = 0.IN Ex.49 kN For the least value of W for equilibrium.20.49 kN Ani.2N1= 0. If the coefficient of friction between the load and the plane BC is 0. the motion of 1000 N block is impending downward. Page 83 .03 N =257.28 N 1 I forces parallel to the plane = 0 TS CI CITSTUDENTS. I:V=O W • N1•10. weighing W Newtons and resting on the plane AC .51 N = N 1= W cos 60°=0. Two identical planes AC and BC inclined at 60° and 30° to the hori ontal meet at C.For suea case the free body diagram of blocks are shown in Fig.

A weight of 160 kN is to be raised by means of the widges A and B as shown in Fig. ' Fer the gicatest value of W.1) = 742. wedve.F2 = T W(sin 60° .IN TS Ex.51 Ans.2 N2 =0.1i mav be neglected.IN .49 N T = 1000 sin 30° + F = 742. W = 266. Weights of the block C and th.1 W and W sin 60° . Page 84 CI (ol CITSTUDENTS.if coefficien( of friction is 0. TS . body diagrams of the blocks are as shown in Fig.49_N 1 Consjdering block of weight w.Elements of civil engineering and engineering mechanics JOCJV13 :t forces parallel to the plane = 0 F1 + W sin 60° = T 0.25 for all surfaces. " = 242.49 W=969..0. :.5 W F'l = 0. the 1000 N block is on the verge of moving up the plane. N2 = W cos 6QO = 0.03N F.28N TU D EN Ans. N1 I 866.the free.57 N Considering block of 1000 N. For such a case. Find the value of force P for impending motion of block C upwards.J W + W sin 60° = 257.

.3.The ladder in addition to its own weight has to support a man weighing 600 Nat a distance of 3 m from A..96 R 1 . vent slipping.t .l56kN Ans.25) = 14. The ystem of forces on block C and on wedge A are shown in the form convenient for applying Lami's theorem · Consider the equiUbrium of block C. 160 sin 60. 92. Calculate the minimum horizontal force to be applied at A to p. .- R.036° ---= sin (180-16 -9) I.2 and that between the floor and the ladder is 0. A ladder of length 4 rn weighing 200 N is placed against a vertical wall as shown in Fig.ll--l ..072° TS .e. The coefficient of friction between the wall and the ladder is 0. .IN Page 85 · The free body diagrams of A. Then. sin 149.Elements of civil engineering and engineering mechanics Let JOCJV13 a be angle of limiting fricrion. The problem being symmetric. .l' .IN EN \ . the forces R 1: and R2 on wedges A and B are the same. Band Care as shown in Fig. 9 = tan-1(0.:. 160 sin 2 (9+ 16) R . TS TU D CITSTUDENTS.:. . Ex.4 I kN Consider the equilibrium 9f wedge A: p sin (180-e-e -16) = sin (90+6) CI P=66.

92 p 61. +o.2) = 275 . F..934 = 0 N..r. Tl.866 +0.76 N = EN An.200-600 + 56.68 N ..4... = 0.. Detennine the reaction at that stage.F....866 . F.le ladder shown in Fig. is 6m long and is supported by a horizontal floor and vertical waJL.. - . .(0.IN N.5 F6 =21S From the law of friction.. M =O N. = 743. N 1 0.... TS .N6 =0 p = N 6 ..2 N.The coefficient of friction between the floor and the ladder is 0. 284..066 N :. Page 86 .92 N CI CITSTUDENTS. = 222..s X 0. 4 sin ·6QO + F. = S6. Determine the least value of a at wbicb lhe ladder may be placed without sl ipping.68 .25 and between wall and ladder is 0. The Jadder also supports a venicalload of906 Nat C which is at a da. F.222. = N.._ l: = TU D = 0 H p + F.Elements of civil engineering and engineering mechanics JOCJV13 Thfree body diagram of the ladder is as shown in Fig. The weight ofladder is 200 Nand may be considered as concentrated at G. F• 0.4 cos 60° -600 x 3 cos 60° -200 x 2 cos 60° = 0 Dividing throughout by 4 and rearranging...934N IV = 0 NA.IN TS Ex. = 284.stance of l m from B.3N.

Aru.=0 i.200 -900+F.200 x 3 cos a ...4 X 0.4 N1.M. Page 87 .•(3) \ NA = lOOON FA=lSON FB = 0. Aru.ll.IN TS TS .= 1100 IH=O F11 -N.(2) F•=0..4 X 250 = 100 N l:.2SN.x 6 sin a+ F.x 6 cos a. N + 0.(1) .Elements of civil engineering and engineering mechanics JOCJV13 From the law of friction. . FA =0.25) = t 100 .\' .565° 2SO x 6 sin a= (-100 x 6 + 600 TU D N..IN ATI.900 x 5 cos a= 0 CI CITSTUDENTS...4N1 :E V=O NA.l'.=N• From (3) and (4) we get: NA (l + 0.e.25NA and .=O 0. A. = 0 N8 :2SON EN + 4500) cos a tancx= =3 1500 a= 71.(4) Ans.•.

It is the distance at which the entire area must be assumed to be concentrated in order that the product of the area and the square of this distance will equal the moment of inertia of the actual area about the given axis. it will have greater resistance to buckling.1 Introduction The Moment of Inertia (I) is a term used to describe the capacity of a cross-section to resist bending. The reference axis is usually a centroidal axis.IN y The moment of inertia is also known as the Second Moment of the Area and is expressed mathematically as: Area A Page 88 .Elements of civil engineering and engineering mechanics JOCJV13 UNIT. The most efficient column section to resist buckling is a circular pipe. If more area is distributed further from the axis. It is a mathematical property of a section concerned with a surface area and how that area is distributed about the reference axis ( axis of interest ). Rearranging we have: lx = k/A l y k/A CI TS RADIUS OF GYRATION k CITSTUDENTS. because it has its area distributed as far away as possible from the centroid. In other words. the radius of gyration describes the way in which the total cross-sectional area is distributed around its centroidal axis.IN TU D = EN l x = fAy 2 dA l y = fAx2 dA TS .VIII: MOMENT OF INERTIA 8. It is always considered with respect to a reference axis such as X-X or Y-Y. X Where y = distance from the x axis to area dA x = distance from the y axis to area dA The radius of gyration of an area with respect to a particular axis is the square root of the quotient of the moment of inertia divided by the area.

perpendicular to the plane and passing through the intersection of X-X and Y-Y is given by: TS IZZ = IXX + IYY CITSTUDENTS.Elements of civil engineering and engineering mechanics 10CIV13 CI Perpendicular Axis Theorem Theorem of the perpendicular axis states that if IXX and IYY be the moment of inertia of a plane section about two mutually perpendicular axis X-X and Y-Y in the plane of the section. then the moment of inertia of the section IZZ about the axis Z-Z.IN .IN Page 89 TU D EN TS .

2 Determination of the moment of inertia of an area by integration y The rectangular moments of inenia I .IN 1 Page 90 .IN EN x · = 4(!!_ )i_lh/2 2 3 0 bh3 12 TS ... The result is 1 di. 8. and. of an area are defined as y dx X These computations are reduced to single integrations by choosing dA to be a thin strip parallel to one of the coordinate axes. y' dx dl.x'y dx ·Moment of Inertia of a Rectangular Area.Elements of civil engineering and engineering mechanics JOCJV13 The moment of inertia lzz is also known as polar moment of inertia. TU D h 2 b = 4 f y (-dy ) 0 2 IX = f / dA - TS = f y2 ( bdy) 0 h = Cb )lh 3 CI 0 CITSTUDENTS.

IN TS TU D Page 91 EN TS .IN .Elements of civil engineering and engineering mechanics 10CIV13 CI CITSTUDENTS.

we obtain I" = y dA h = 0 J h b _ dy f ( h/ . dA = l dy Using similar triangles.IN TS TU D Page 92 EN b TS . Integra ting dJX from y = 0 to y = h.y h l = bh.IN I" = l" +Ad lx = f x = -Ad 2 3 bh 12 .( bh )(!!_)2 2 3 = bh 3 36 . we have ---- l h.Elements of civil engineering and engineering mechanics JOCJV13 ·Moment of Inertia of a Triangular Area./)dy f lb----=1! h h 2 h =- 0 b h bh =-[h--] =h 3 4 12 l l 2 3 ° b/2 b/ 2.y h CI CITSTUDENTS.

Elements of civil engineering and engineering mechanics 10CIV13 Properties of plane areas CI CITSTUDENTS.IN .IN TS TU D Page 93 EN TS .

=0 1!:1'4 nd4 1 =-..=-4 64 5n:r4 5-nd 4 1x 1 1 ..) i=- X " 3 - 1' -- h 3 8 JJ . .) h(2a + b) Circle (Origin of axes at center.12 bh3 9 )' TU D d = 2r 1 I· t h :t.r.IN (Origin of axes at vertex.-- 12 IIIB = .Elements of civil engineering and engineering mechanics JOCJV13 6 Righr triangle bh 11 = 2 1 (Origin of ae:::.r J t = -8 lfd 3 t Page 94 .n. = 36 bh.) Approximate formulas for case when tis small.[! 2 32 Circular rine (Origin of axes at center.2 EN _ 8 Trapezoid (Origin of axes at centroid.> l p hh 2 36 (h +h 2 ) r lllJ = hlr 3 12 7 81 Ol--n--1 B Right triale 1 .) 10 TS I:JI. b h( a + b) A= . al cent roid.) fnn blr' 4 = y!!!!! 3( a + b) h ( 3a + b) lBa =. A = 2rrrt = CI rrdt CITSTUDENTS.IN TS .

Elements of civil engineering and engineering mechanics 10CIV13 CI CITSTUDENTS.IN .IN TS TU D Page 95 EN TS .

IN .IN TS TU D Page 96 EN TS .Elements of civil engineering and engineering mechanics 10CIV13 CI CITSTUDENTS.

b) y TU D (a.IN TS .b) Yt = TS EN IX = A b • Moment of Inertia l x.IN I / dA Jy 0 b = 2 (X2 .x l)dy = J y2(/'2 -y)dy 0 = J (y512)dy . CI CITSTUDENTS.f (/)dy 0 0 b b b 2 712 =y 7 y 4 b 0 40 Page 97 .Elements of civil engineering and engineering mechanics J OCJV13 Example Determine the moment of inertia of the shaded area shown with respect to each of the coordinate axes. y _( a.

IN .IN TS TU D Page 98 EN TS .Elements of civil engineering and engineering mechanics 10CIV13 Moment of inertia of composite areas CI CITSTUDENTS.

Elements of civil engineering and engineering mechanics 10CIV13 CI CITSTUDENTS.IN TS TU D Page 99 EN TS .IN .

.!. -+r-..._ (100)(300)3 + (100 x 300)(200)2 ]+ [-(600)(100)3 + 0] + [_.9x109 nun4 I x = ( I x + Ad /) A + ( I x + At h + ( Ix + Ad /)c TU D 100 SOLUTION T 400 l_ tooI.IN EN y ..!.. _ ._ (100)(300)3 + (100 x 300)(200iJ 12 P Page 100 CITSTUDENTS.. + _r-+.x TS ._ _ J... .. 1 100 II y _l_ tooi c 600 Dimension in nun TS CI 12 = 2... Dimension in mm 0 2 = [_..Elements of civil engineering and engineering mechanics J OCJV13 Example Determi ne the moments of inertia of the beam's cross-sectional area shown about the x andy centroida1 axes. ..IN T I X 400 _l_ 1 12 .. .

Elements of civil engineering and engineering mechanics 10CIV13 CI CITSTUDENTS.IN TS TU D Page 101 EN TS .IN .

IN TS TU D Page 102 EN TS .Elements of civil engineering and engineering mechanics 10CIV13 CI CITSTUDENTS.IN .

IN .IN TS TU D Page 103 EN TS .Elements of civil engineering and engineering mechanics 10CIV13 CI CITSTUDENTS.

IN .IN TS TU D Page 104 EN TS .Elements of civil engineering and engineering mechanics 10CIV13 CI CITSTUDENTS.

IN TS TU D Page 105 EN TS .IN .Elements of civil engineering and engineering mechanics 10CIV13 CI CITSTUDENTS.

Moment of Inertia with Respect to a Diameter. y SOLUTION y a.Elements of civil engineering and engineering mechanics JOCJV13 Example (a) Determine the centroidal polar moment of inertia of a circular area by direct integratiion. determine the moment of inertia of a circular area with respect to a diameter.IN EN J 0 = dJ 0 = J b. Polar Moment of Inertia.IN dA = 27lU du r Ju ( 2nu du ) = 217' J u du 2 3 0 4 il' r 0 J =.r 0 2 ¢::::J = 21 X -r 2 n 4 = 21" Page 106 . TU D TS CI CITSTUDENTS. (b) Using the result of part a. J 0 = I +1y X TS .

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