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International Journal of Non-Linear Mechanics 39 (2004) 1319 – 1331

Stability chart of parametric vibrating systems using


energy-rate method
G. Nakhaie Jazar∗
Department of Mechanical Engineering and Applied Mechanics, North Dakota State University, Fargo, ND 58105-5285, USA
Received 5 March 2003; accepted 6 August 2003

Abstract
Based on the integral of energy and numerical integration, we introduce, develop, and apply a general algorithm to predict
parameters of a parametric equation to produce a periodic response. Using the new method, called energy-rate, we are able
to 3nd not only stability chart of a parametric equation which indicates the boundaries of stable and unstable regions, but
also periodic responses that are embedded in stable or unstable regions.
There are three main important advantages in energy-rate method. It can be applied not only to linear but also to non-linear
parametric equations; most of the perturbation methods cannot. It can be applied to large values of parameters; most of
the perturbation methods cannot. Depending on the accuracy of numerical integration method, it can also 3nd the value of
parameters for a periodic response more accurate than classical methods, no matter if the periodic response is on the boundary
of stability and instability or it is a periodic response within the stable or unstable region.
In order to introduce the energy-rate method and indicate its advantages we apply the method to the standard Mathieu’s
equation,
x7 + ax − 2bx cos(2t) = 0
and show how to 3nd its stability chart for the large values of b in a–b plane. The results are compared with McLachlan’s
report (Theory and Application of Mathieu Function, Clarendon, Oxford, 1947).
? 2003 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Keywords: Mathieu stability chart; Energy-rate method; Parametric vibrations

1. Introduction The algorithm is based on a method called


energy-rate method that can be applied to the follow-
In this paper, an applied algorithm based on integral ing general 3rst-order diEerential equation:
energy and numerical integration will be introduced,
x7 + f(x) + g(x; ẋ; t) = 0: (1)
developed, and presented to determine the parame-
ters of parametric equations corresponding to periodic There are some important advantages in energy-rate
solutions. method comparing to the perturbation methods and
Floquet theory. First, it can be applied to non-linear
parametric equations as well as linear equations.
∗ Tel.: +1-701-231-8303; fax: +1-701-231-8913. Floquet theory, similar to the most of perturbation
E-mail address: reza.n.jazar@ndsu.nodak.edu (G.N. Jazar). methods cannot be applied on non-linear equations.

0020-7462/$ - see front matter ? 2003 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
doi:10.1016/j.ijnonlinmec.2003.08.009
1320 G.N. Jazar / International Journal of Non-Linear Mechanics 39 (2004) 1319 – 1331

Second, it can be applied not even to the small val-


ues of parameters, but also to large values. Most
of the approximation and perturbation methods are
stick to the very small values of parameters. Third,
depending on the accuracy of numerical integration
method, it can 3nd the value of parameters for a pe-
riodic response faster and more accurate than other
classical methods. The accuracy of most classical
methods depend on smallness of the value of param-
eters, and the number of terms in perturbed solution.
Their accuracy cannot sometimes be increased by
increasing the degree of polynomial or the number of
terms in perturbed solution. Fourth, the algorithm of
detection periodic solution using energy-rate method Fig. 1. Mathieu stability chart based on the numerical values,
can be adjusted to detect periodic response within generated by McLachlan [1].
a stable or unstable region, as well as periodic so-
lutions on the boundary of stability and instability
regions. non-linear system. A linearization in neighbourhood
I study the well-known Mathieu’s equation as an of a periodic motion results in a linear diEerential
example to show the applicability of the energy-rate equation with periodic coeIcients, i.e. Floquet theory.
method in identifying the stability chart, and some The paradigm example is given by Mathieu’s equa-
of the advantages of method. The results are interest- tion [5]. The Mathieu’s equation is commonly known
ing because they uncover some hidden facts about the as the equation of the elliptic cylinder functions. The
Mathieu’s equation. contribution to the theory of diEerential equations, re-
The Mathieu’s equation lated to the third group, which has been stimulated
by problems in celestial mechanics, has come chieLy
dx
x7 + ax − 2bx cos(2t) = 0; ẋ = (2) from Hill and Poincare [6].
dt Examples of vibrating elastic bodies are: the lateral
is the simplest and the most widely known paramet- vibration of stretched strings and thin rods, which are
ric diEerential equation, in which a and b are constant perhaps the most amenable to theoretical and exper-
parameters. One of the most interesting characteristics imental treatment [7]. The linear and various modes
of this linear equation is that depending on the coeI- of vibration of bars and beams, which was originated
cients, it may have bounded or unbounded solutions. back by Daniel Bernoulli, was investigated completely
Fig. 1 depicts the stability chart of Mathieu’s equation by Rayleigh [8] and Love [9]. It is well known that
(2) based on McLachlan’s [1] results. classical linearized analysis of the vibrating strings and
Parametric equations govern problems of the great- rods could lead to some results related to the Math-
est diversity in astronomy and theoretical physics and ieu’s equation, which are reasonably accurate if only
stability of the oscillatory processes in non-linear sys- the tension and displacements are assumed to be small
tems. They have accordingly been the subject of a vast [10].
number of investigations since the beginning of the
last century [2,3].
Parametric equation arises in applied mathematics 2. Historical background and literature review
in three main groups of problems. The 3rst group
is the transverse vibrations of a taut elastic member. The 3rst recorded demonstration of parametric be-
The second group of problems arises typically in the haviour belongs to Faraday [11] in 1831, in which he
modulation of radio carrier wave [4]. The third group produced wave motion in Luids by vibrating a plate in
of problems come from the standard procedure of contact with the Luid [12]. Shortly afterwards, many
investigating the stability of a periodic motion in a scientists discovered parametric phenomena. Among
G.N. Jazar / International Journal of Non-Linear Mechanics 39 (2004) 1319 – 1331 1321

them are, Melde (1860), Mathieu (1860), Matthiessen solution generates a graph which is called a stability
(1870), Floquet (1883), Hill (1886), Rayleigh (1887), chart [4]. The relation could be developed analytically
Stephenson (1906), Meissner (1918), Strutt (1927), by Fourier coeIcients or perturbation methods, but
van der Pol (1928), and Barrow (1923), in the late all of these methods fail to predict the stability chart
19th and the beginning of the 20th century [13]. when b is large.
It is known that the 3rst detailed theory relevant Many authors investigated the stability chart of the
to the study of periodically time varying systems was time-varying systems including Mathieu’s equation
given by Mathieu [14], Hill [15], and Lord Rayleigh using a variety of concepts such as Lyapunov expo-
[16] in 1860 –1890. One of the most important earlier nents [25], Poincare Mapping [26], Lyapunov–Floquet
works on the behaviour of periodically time-varying transformation, and perturbative Hamiltonian normal
systems was that by Hill in 1886, in which he laid forms [27]. None of these analysis could give accurate
down the very mathematical foundations of the stabil- prediction of the stability boundaries when b is large
ity theory of parametric systems [15]. The 3rst anal- and/or some non-linearity is presented. Due to the na-
ysis of parametric resonance of a structural con3g- ture of the solutions given by the classical approaches,
uration (a pinned perfect column) was presented by extensive calculation is generally required to ensure
Beliaev [17]. Many studies started appearing in the suIcient convergence to give accurate answers. De-
literature in the late 1940s and 1950s. Reviews on the termination of stability, classically, rests upon the use
subject, including historical sketches, may be found in of the Hill determinant procedure [28]. For values of
the works of Beilin and Dzhanelidze [18]. For more a and b signi3cantly larger than unity, quite large de-
recent contributions on the subject, the reader is re- terminant need to be calculated which is also a time
ferred to the work done by Yao [19], Hsu [42], Es- consuming task. Further, these may diverge initially
mailzadeh and Nakhaie Jazar [20,21], Luo [22], and prior to acceptable convergence [13].
Zounes and Rand [23]. Taylor and Narendra [29] and later on Gunderson et
Solution of the Mathieu’s equation depends on two al. [30] found the stability boundaries of the damped
independent parameters, a and b. It is known from Mathieu’s equation using Laplace transformation and
Floquet theory that its solution is, in general, of the Lyapunov function. Their stability theory was only
following structure: correct for small multiplier of both damping and pe-
riodic terms.
x(t) = C1 e
t ’(t) + C2 e−
t ’(−t) (3)
Within the limits of numerical accuracy, most of
in which the function ’(t) is periodic. The character- these procedures have the appeal that they give exact
istic exponent,
, is a time invariant constant that de- results since they do not rely upon algebraic ap-
pends in an intricate way upon the parameters a and proximations to the solutions of the equation. Their
b. If it is real, the solution becomes exponentially in- shortcomings, however, lie with their numerical error,
3nite, i.e., a so called unstable solution. If the expo- especially when solutions near stability boundaries
nent is purely imaginary the solutions remain bounded are required. Accuracy is also governed by the num-
along the real axis. The intermediate case in which ber of iteration points chosen for iterative techniques

= 0 is of especial importance because it includes a per period of the periodic coeIcient. Numerical so-
solution known as a Mathieu function which is peri- lution of the Mathieu’s equation has been extensively
odic [24]. Broadly speaking, the determination of the used in the past to model systems which contain a
Mathieu functions is the matter of prime importance sinusoidal time-varying parameter [31]. Rand and
in the applications of the equation. Hastings [32] used numerical integration to determine
The most comprehensive treatment of classical regions of stability for a quasi-periodic Mathieu’s
methods for analyzing the Mathieu’s equation has equation. They assumed that the equation is stable
been given by McLachlan [1]. It is known that the for a given initial condition r(0), if r(t) ¡ 106 r(0)
Mathieu’s equation (2), could have periodic solution for 1000 time units and for all t between 0 and 1000,
depending on parameters a and b, and independent of where r(t) = x2 (t) + ẋ2 (t). Using a numerical inte-
the initial conditions, due to the linearity of the equa- gration, they could develop and present some useful
tion. The relationship between a and b for periodic stability charts.
1322 G.N. Jazar / International Journal of Non-Linear Mechanics 39 (2004) 1319 – 1331

3. The investigation method [1,37,38],



r=0   aC0 + bC2 = 0;
Stability analysis for even a single, second order, 
linear diEerential equation with periodic coeIcients, r=1 (a − 4)C2 + b(2C0 + C4 ) = 0; (8)


such as Mathieu’s equation, is rather cumbersome, but 
r ¿ 2 (a − 4r 2 )C2r + b(2C2r−2 + C2r+2 ) = 0;
diEerent methods are available. Among them are the
method of in3nite determinants [33], the perturbation 
methods [34], the Galerkin method [35], and the clas-  (a − 1 + b)C1 + bC3 = 0;

r=0 
sic Floquet method [36]. (a − (2r + 1)2 )C2r+1 (9)
The method of continued fractions is the most r¿1 


strong method that McLachlan used to 3nd the sta- +b(C2r−1 + C2r+3 ) = 0;
bility chart of Mathieu’s equation. This method starts

by knowing that the periodic solution of (2) which
 (a − 1 − b)S1 + bS3 = 0;

admit the period 2 falls into four classes. Each class r=0 
depends on its Fourier series which involve, respec- (a − (2r + 1)2 )S2r+1 (10)
r¿1 


tively, cosines or sines of even or odd multiples of t. +b(S2r−1 + S2r+3 ) = 0;
They are de3ned by Ince [37] as
∞ 

ce2n = (2n)
C2r cos(2rx) have period ; (4)  (a − 4)S2 + bS4 = 0;

r=0 
r=0 (a − (2r + 2)2 )S2r+2 (11)
∞ r¿1 


se2n+1 = (2n+1)
S2r+1 sin((2r + 1)x) +b(S2r + S2r+4 ) = 0:
r=0 Using the recurrence relations (8)–(11) we can 3nd a
have period 2; (5) continued fraction equation between a and b such as
2 2 2
b b
∞ − b4 1 1
 a=2 16 36
ce2n+1 = (2n+1)
C2r+1 cos((2r + 1)x) 1 − 4a 4 1 − 16a 16 1 − 36a
r=0 2
b b2
1 64 1 4r 2
have period 2; (6) × ···
36 1 − 64a 4(r − 1)2 1 − a
4r 2 − 1
4r 2 Zr+1

 (12)
(2n+1)
se2n+2 = S2r+1 sin((2r + 2)x)
2
r=0 − 4rb 2
Zr = ; lim Zr = 0
have period ; (7) 1 − 4ra2 − 4r12 Zr+1 r→∞

which are corresponding to characteristic numbers for cos(2rt), to draw the stability chart of Fig. 1.
denoted by a2n ; b2n+1 ; a2n+1 , and b2n+2 . In every A similar method was used by McLachlan to report
case, satisfaction of the diEerential equation necessi- Table 1 for stability chart of the Mathieu’s equa-
tates recurrence formulae connecting three successive tion (2). In Table 1, the numerical values related to
coeIcients. The continued fraction forms the basis aci and asi are the stability boundaries for ith co-
of the technique developed by Ince [37] and Gold- sine elliptic (cei ) and ith sine elliptic (sei ) functions,
stein [38] for the computation of the characteristics respectively. Fig. 1 is a graphical representation of
numbers. Table 1.
If each series of (4)–(7) is substituted in turn in It can be seen in Table 1 and Fig. 1 that continued
the Mathieu’s equation (2), and the coeIcients of fractions method is strong enough to detect the sta-
cos(2rt); cos((2r +1)t); sin((2r +1)t); sin((2r +2)t) bility boundaries for large values of parameters. The
equated to zero for r = 0; 1; 2; : : :, the follow- method of continued fractions was used by later in-
ing recurrence relations are obtained, respectively vestigators, and it is shown that the continued fraction
Table 1
McLachlan’s report for Mathieu stability chart
b ac0 as1 ac1 as2 ac2 as2 ac3 as4 ac4 as5 ac5 as6
0, 0, 1, 1, 4, 4, 9, 9, 16, 16, 25, 25, 36,
1, −0.4551386, −0.1102488, 1.8591081, 3.9170248, 4.3713010, 9.0477393, 9.0783688, 16.0329701, 16.0338323, 25.0208408, 25.0208543, 36.0142899,
2, −1.5139569, −1.3906765, 2.3791999, 3.6722327, 5.1726651, 9.14062277, 9.3703225, 16.1276880, 16.1412038, 25.0833490, 25.0837778, 36.0572070,
3, −2.8343919, −2.7853797, 2.5190391, 3.2769220, 6.0451969, 9.2231328, 9.91155063, 16.2727012, 16.3387207, 25.1870798, 25.1902855, 36.1288712
4, −4.2805188, −4.2591829, 2.3180082, 2.7468810, 6.8290748, 9.2614461, 10.6710271, 16.4520353, 16.6468189, 25.3305449, 25.3437576, 36.22944114

G.N. Jazar / International Journal of Non-Linear Mechanics 39 (2004) 1319 – 1331


5, −5.8000460, −5.7900806, 1.8581875, 2.0994604, 7.4491097, 9.2363277, 11.5488320, 16.6482199, 17.0965817, 25.5108160, 25.5499717, 36.3588668
6, −7.3688308, −7.3639110, 1.2142782, 1.3513812, 7.8700645, 9.1379058, 12.4656007, 16.8446016, 17.6887830, 25.7234107, 25.8172720, 36.5170667
7, −8.9737425, −8.9712024, 0.4383491, 0.5175454, 8.0866231, 8.9623855, 13.3584213, 17.0266608, 18.4166087, 25.9624472, 26.1561202, 36.7035027
8, −10.6067292, −10.6053681, −0.4359436, −0.3893618, 8.1152388, 8.7099144, 14.1818804, 17.1825278, 19.2527051, 26.2209995, 26.5777533, 36.9172131
9, −12.2624142, −12.2616617, −1.3867016, −1.3588101, 7.9828432, 8.3831192, 14.9036797, 17.3030110, 20.1609264, 26.4915472, 27.0918661, 37.1566950
10, −13.93698, −13.9365525, −2.3991424, −2.3821582, 7.7173698, 7.9860691, 15.5027844, 17.3813807, 21.1046337, 26.7664264, 27.7037687, 37.4198588
12, −17.3320660, −17.3319184, −4.5701329, −4.5635399, 6.8787369, 7.0005668, 16.3015349, 17.3952497, 22.9721275, 27.3000124, 29.2080550, 38.0060087
14, −20.7760553, −20.7760004, −6.8934005, −6.8907007, 5.7363123, 5.7926295, 16.5985405, 17.2071153, 24.6505951, 27.7697667, 31.0000508, 38.6484719
16, −24.2586795, −24.2586578, −9.33523671, −9.3341097, 4.3712326, 0.3978962, 16.4868843, 16.8186837, 26.0086783, 28.136359, 32.9308951, 39.3150108
18, −27.7728422, −27.7728332, −11.8732425, −11.8727265, 2.8330567, 2.8459917, 16.0619754, 16.2420804, 26.9877664, 28.3738582, 34.8530587, 39.9723511
20, −31.3133901, −31.3133862, −14.4913014, −14.4910633, 1.15422829, 1.1607057, 15.3958109, 15.4939776, 27.5945782, 28.4682213, 36.6449897, 40.5896641
24, −38.4589732, −38.4589724, −19.9225956, −19.9225403, −2.5397657, −2.5380779, 13.5228427, 13.5527965, 27.8854408, 28.2153594, 39.5125519, 41.6057099
28, −45.6733696, −45.6733694, −25.5617471, −25.5617329, −6.5880630, −6.5875850, 11.1110798, 11.1206227, 27.2833082, 27.4057488, 41.2349503, 42.2248415
32, −52.9422230, −52.9422229, −31.3651544, −31.3651505, −10.9143534, −10.9142090, 8.2914962, 8.2946721, 26.0624482, 26.1083526, 41.9535112, 42.3939428
36, −60.2555679, −60.2555679, −37.3026391, −37.3026380, −15.4667703, −15.4667243, 5.1456363, 5.1467375, 24.3785094, 24.3960665, 41.9266646, 42.1183561
Ė =

of energy as follows:
E =T (ẋ)+V (x), respectively, we can write an integral
for the system by V (x) = f(x) d x; T (ẋ) = 21 ẋ2 , and
a kinetic, potential, and mechanical
should expect a tendency to oscillate [40]. De3ning
and g(x; ẋ; t) is a periodic function of time, then we
the particle, and also time. If f(x) is a restoring force
on the value of parameters, position and velocity of
applied force generates or absorbs energy depending
the system is governed by x7 +f(x)=0. In general, the
non-conservative force −g(x; ẋ; t). The free motion of
attached to a conservative spring, acted upon by a
shows that the system is a model of a unit mass particle

x7 + f(x) = −g(x; ẋ; t)

Eq. (13) in the following form:


f and g are depending on a set of parameters. Writing
a non-linear time-dependent function. The functions
and f(x) is a single variable function, and g(x; ẋ; t) is

g(0; 0; t) = 0

where

x7 + f(x) + g(x; ẋ; t) = 0;

bility for the system

algorithm
4. Energy-rate method and stability chart

curves.
velop an applied method to determine the transition
integral combined with numerical integration to de-
the next section, we use the principle of the energy
large coeIcients, but also to non-linear equations. In
plicable not only for linear parametric equation with
need a more reliable and accurate method to be ap-
parametric equations [39]. Due to this problem, we
ential equations, but it is not applicable to non-linear
method can be applied to all linear parametric diEer-
= −ẋg(x; ẋ; t):

Consider that we are looking for a boundary of sta-


dt
d
(E) =
dt
d

2
1 2
ẋ +



(f(x)ẋ) dt

energy function

(16)

(15)

(14)

(13)

1323
1324 G.N. Jazar / International Journal of Non-Linear Mechanics 39 (2004) 1319 – 1331

This expression represents the rate of energy generated boundary that has a stable region on its left-hand side
or absorbed by the term −g(x; ẋ; t). and unstable region on its right-hand side. This group
Suppose that for some set of parameters and a of points constitutes a branch of -periodic boundary
non-zero response x(t); Ė = −ẋg(x; ẋ; t) is negative corresponding to ce2n or se2n+2 .
then, E continuously decreases along the path of By changing the strategy and looking for a to be
x(t). The eEect of g(x; ẋ; t) resembles damping or on a boundary that its right-hand side is stable and
resistance; energy is continuously withdrawn from its left-hand side is unstable then, we can generate
the system, and this produces a general decrease in the 2-periodic branches corresponding to ce2n+1 or
amplitude until the rate of initial amplitude depended se2n+1 . Now we may change b by some increment
energy runs out and a new solution make Ė = 0. and repeat the procedure. This procedure could be ar-
On the other hand, if for a set of parameters and a ranged in an algorithm called “stability chart algo-
non-zero response x(t); Ė = −ẋg(x; ẋ; t) is positive rithm”.
then, the amplitude increases so long as the path of
x(t) runs away. Evaluating a suitable numerical inte-
gration can show if a set of parameters belongs to a 4.1. Stability chart algorithm
stable or unstable region by evaluating Ė.
It is known that time derivative of mechanical en- 1. set a, equal to one of its special values;
ergy E must be zero over one period for conservative 2. set b, equal to some arbitrary small value;
and autonomous systems in a steady state periodic cy- 3. solve the diEerential equation numerically;
cle [41]. We may integrate the Mathieu’s equation (2), 4. evaluate Eav ;
to get the following equation: 5. decrease (increase) a, if Eav ¿ 0 (Eav ¡ 0) by
1 d 2 some small increment;
(ẋ + ax2 ) = 2bxẋ cos(2t) = Ė; (17)
2 dt 6. the increment of a must be decreased if Eav (ai ) ·
where E is the mechanical energy of the system. In Eav (ai−1 ) ¡ 0;
order to 3nd a set of a and b to indicate a steady-state 7. save a and b when Eav 1;
periodic response, we may choose a pair of parameters 8. while b ¡ b3nal , increase b and go to step 3;
a and b and integrate Eq. (17) numerically. 9. set a, equal to another special value and go to
We may evaluate the averaged energy over a period step 2;
10. reverse the decision in step 5 and go to step 1.
1 T 1 T
Eav = Ė dt = (2bxẋ cos(2t)) dt;
T 0 T 0 It is known that the boundary between stable and un-
stable regions in the stability chart starts from some
T = 2 (18)
special values of a. So, it is better to start the algo-
to compare with zero. If Eav is greater than zero, (a; b) rithm from one of these characteristic values.
belongs to a region that energy being inserted to the
system and then Eq. (2) is unstable. However, if it
is less than zero, then (a; b) belongs to a region that
energy being extracted from the system and Eq. (2) is 5. Applying the stability chart algorithm
stable. On the common boundary of these two regions,
Eav =0. In order to 3nd more accurate values than those
Assume b is 3xed and we are looking for a to be presented in Table 1, we have used the elements
on a boundary that its left-hand side is stable and its of McLachlan’s table as an initial value. Then,
right-hand side is unstable then, if the chosen param- the Mathieu’s equation was solved numerically for
eters show that Eav is less than zero, increasing a in- 0 ¡ t ¡ T; T =2, in order to include both -periodic
creases Eav . On the other hand, if Eav is greater than and 2-periodic solutions. Two solutions of identical
zero, decreasing a decreases Eav . Using this strategy period, even  or 2, bound the region of instability,
we may 3nd the appropriate value of a such that Eav while two solutions of diEerent periods bound the
equates zero. In this way, we will 3nd a point on the region of stability.
Table 2
Stability chart for Mathieu’s equation generated by the algorithm
b ac0 as1 ac1 as2 ac2 as2 ac3 as4 ac4 as5 ac5 as6
0, 0, 1, 1, 4, 4, 9, 9, 16, 16, 25, 25, 36
1, −0.455138604, −0.110249001, 1.8591084, 3.9170245, 4.3713010, 9.04773900, 9.0783688, 16.0329698, 16.0338323, 25.0208405, 25.0208543, 36.0142899,
2, −1.5139568851, −1.3906767, 2.3791999, 3.6722324, 5.1726648, 9.14062247, 9.3703225, 16.1276877, 16.1412038, 25.0833487, 25.0837778, 36.0572070,
3, −2.834391889959, −2.7853799, 2.519039087, 3.2769217, 6.0451972, 9.2231325, 9.91155033, 16.2727009, 16.3387207, 25.1870795, 25.1902855, 36.1288709
4, −4.280518818368, −4.2591831, 2.31800817, 2.7468807, 6.8290745, 9.2614458, 10.6710271, 16.452035, 16.64681817, 25.3305446, 25.3437576, 36.22944084
5, −5.8000460207, −5.7900808, 1.8581875414, 2.0994601, 7.4491094, 9.2363274, 11.5488317, 16.6482196, 17.0965817, 25.5108157, 25.5499717, 36.3588665

G.N. Jazar / International Journal of Non-Linear Mechanics 39 (2004) 1319 – 1331


6, −7.36883083214, −7.3639112, 1.2142781642, 1.3513809, 7.8700648, 9.1379055, 12.465601, 16.8446013, 17.688783, 25.7234104, 25.8172720, 36.5170664
7, −8.97374250574, −8.9712026, 0.43834908996, 0.5175451, 8.086623145, 8.9623852, 13.358421, 17.0266605, 18.416609, 25.9624469, 26.1561202, 36.7035024
8, −10.60672923566, −10.6053683, −0.43594360159, −0.3893621, 8.11523883, 8.7099141, 14.1818807, 17.1825275, 19.2527054, 26.2209992, 26.5777533, 36.9172128
9, −12.2624142182, −12.2616619, −1.386701566696, −1.3588104, 7.982843163, 8.3831189, 14.90368, 17.3030107, 20.1609267, 26.4915469, 27.0918661, 37.1566947
10, −13.93697995675, −13.9365527, −2.399142400351, −2.3821585, 7.7173698494, 7.9860688, 15.5027847, 17.3813804, 21.1046334, 26.7664261, 27.7037687, 37.4198585
12, −17.33206603507, −17.3319186, −4.570132851088, −4.5635402, 6.87873685481, 7.0005665, 16.301534946, 17.3952494, 22.9721278, 27.3000121, 29.2080550, 38.0060084
14, −20.77605531238, −20.7760006, −6.8934005,3343 −6.890701, 5.736312349375, 5.7926292, 16.598540469, 17.207115, 24.6505954, 27.7697664, 31.0000505, 38.6484716
16, −24.25867947476, −24.258658, −9.33523701, −9.33411, 4.371232605296, 0.3978959, 16.4868842565, 16.8186834, 26.008678, 28.1363587, 32.9308948, 39.3150105
18, −27.77284216366, −27.7728334, −11.87324251702, −11.8727268, 2.833056732297, 2.8459914, 16.06197536045, 16.2420801, 26.98776644, 28.3738579, 34.8530584, 39.9723508
20, −31.31339007051, −31.3133864, −14.49130142564, −14.4910636, 1.1542285900001, 1.1607054, 15.39581091191, 15.4939773, 27.594578154, 28.468221, 36.6449894, 40.5896638
24, −38.4589731694, −38.4589726, −19.92259564555, −19.9225406, −2.539765704347, −2.5380782, 13.52284271453, 13.5527962, 27.8854407976, 28.2153591, 39.5125519, 41.6057096
28, −45.673369663942, −45.673369545, −25.561747709501, −25.5617332, −6.588062973934, −6.5875853, 11.1110798375, 11.1206224, 27.28330817057, 27.4057485, 41.234950267, 42.2248412
32, −52.94222296412, −52.9422229395, −31.36515444857, −31.3651508, −10.91435338774, −10.9142093, 8.291496150361, 8.2946718, 26.062448443, 26.1083523, 41.9535111621, 42.3939425
36, −60.25556789136, −60.2555681, −37.30263912327, −37.3026383, −15.46677033703, −15.4667246, 5.145636255447, 5.1467372, 24.37850942577, 24.3960662, 41.92666456905, 42.1183558
method, we have plotted TEav versus a in Fig. 2, for

a = 0; 22 ; 42 ; : : :.
1; 32 ; 52 ; : : :, and -periodic transition curves start from
Indeed, 2-periodic transition curves start from a =
cate characteristic values, a = k 2 ; k = 0; 1; 2; 3; : : : .
Both cases can be combined in one formula to indi-
the characteristic values a = (2k)2 ; k = 0; 1; 2; 3; : : : .
and the solutions with a -period lie in pairs near
the characteristic values a=(2k +1)2 ; k =0; 1; 2; 3; : : :,
3nd that the solutions with a 2-period lie in pairs near
clear if we let b → 0 then, using relations (8)–(11), we

compared with Table 1.


found the results tabulated in Table 2, which could be
cyclic repetition. We have applied the algorithm and
a) would be decreased at step i + 1 in order to prevent
crement which must be added to a (or subtracted from
at step i − 1 was less than zero, then the value of in-
Eav ¡ 0). If Eav at step i was greater than zero and Eav
of a must be decreased (or increased) if Eav ¿ 0 (or
algorithm presented in the previous section, the value
using 1000 segments over the period T . Following the

trapezoidal integration method


T
0
In order to investigate the applicability of the

Distribution of regions of instability will be more

The averaged energy Eav is evaluated by the simple


Ė dt =

Fig. 2. Plot of TEav as a function of a for b = 1.


=
h = ; n = 1000;

h

T
n−1
k=0

0
(2bxẋ cos(2t)) dt
2
T
n

[Ė(kh) + Ė((k + 1)h)];


(19)

1325
1326 G.N. Jazar / International Journal of Non-Linear Mechanics 39 (2004) 1319 – 1331

the line b = 1 shown in Fig. 1. It can be seen that


the curve TEav cuts the a axis exactly at the same
points where line b = 1 cuts the transition curves.
Therefore, Fig. 1 could be assumed as intersection of
a three-dimensional surface
T
q(a; b) = TEav = (2bxẋ cos(2t)) dt
0

and the plane TEav = 0.


Due to physical consideration, the 3rst instability
region, started at a = 1, is the most dangerous and
has therefore the greatest practical importance. Bolotin
[33] calls this region the “principal region of dynamic
instability”. In the next section, we compare Tables 1 Fig. 3. Time response of the diEerence of amplitude.
and 2, and show the advantages of the stability chart
algorithm. 104.6426231398 to −0:07985525604 signifying that
point (−13:93697995675; 10) is much more closer to
the transient curve than point (−13:93698; 10).
6. Comparison, application, and modi%ed We compare Tables 1 and 2 by study the Math-
algorithm ieu’s equation (2) for two pairs of a and b equal to
(−0:4551386; 1) and (−0:455138604; 1); denoting
How important the determined transient curve of a by x1 and x2 , respectively. The pairs of a and b belong
parametric equation is, depends on the physical sys- to two identical elements of Tables 1 and 2, and
tem, real period of free oscillation, closeness of design Table 3 says that TEav ¡ 0 for both of them. Although
parameters to the transient curves, mechanism and rate we cannot recognize any diEerence between the plots
of dissipation system. If mistakenly design parame- of time responses of the Mathieu’s equation for x1 and
ters belong to an unstable region instead of periodic or x2 , the function y =|x1 −x2 | for 0 ¡ t ¡ 10 shown in
stable region, then parametric resonance might occur. Fig. 3 indicates that the response of Mathieu’s equa-
Table 3 shows the value of TEav for the 3rst ten dig- tion for x1 and x2 are not identical. It can be seen that
its of -periodic branch ac0 of Tables 1 and 2. The last the diEerence of the solutions is growing up, which
three rows indicate that how important is the accuracy shows that the solution of Mathieu’s equation for point
of 3nding the transition lines. On the 10th row, de- x1 deviates from periodic response faster than its
creasing 0.00000004325 unit could reduce TEav from solution for x2 .

Table 3
The values of TEav for 3rst 10 digits of ac0 for a and b from Tables 1 and 2

b a, Table 1 a, Table 2 TEav for Table 1 TEav for Table 2

1 −0.4551386 −0.455138604 −0.41036782785e − 6 −0.1213741795e − 10


2 −1.5139569 −1.5139568851 0.000033303989524 0.147415342e − 7
3 −2.8343919 −2.83439189959 0.000269337200715 0.58511601e − 7
4 −4.2805188 −4.280518818368 −0.004127213067066 −0.382606859e − 6
5 −5.800046 −5.8000460207 −0.03087386648124 −0.000483913357634
6 −7.3688308 −7.36883083214 −0.2604694332158 0.000306168820171
7 −8.9737425 −8.97374250574 −0.2235618874348 0.000289910400872
8 −10.6067292 −10.60672923566 −5.978866028905 0.002771638776375
9 −12.2624142 −12.2624142182 −12.03902889408 −0.0061065122282
10 −13.93698 −13.93697995675 104.6426231398 −0.07985525604
G.N. Jazar / International Journal of Non-Linear Mechanics 39 (2004) 1319 – 1331 1327

Fig. 4. Time response for a point on the boundary of stability. Fig. 6. Plot of TEav as a function of a for b = 5 integrated for
diEerent period of time.

perturbations and approximation methods. We ana-


lyze super and sub-harmonic oscillation, and open new
doors of research to discover periodic responses of the
parametric equations.
Although mathematical theories can provide some
analytic basis, we may use a cross section of the
three-dimensional energy plots, similar to Fig. 2, to
3nd the possibility of super and sub-harmonic oscil-
lations. Integration of the Mathieu’s equation for a
constant b, and plotting Eav versus a indicates where
Eav is negative (stability) and positive (instability).
If the plot of Eav versus a, integrated for T = n or
Fig. 5. TEav as a function of time for a point on the boundary of =n; n = 1; 2; 3; : : :, crosses the axis Eav = 0, then there
stability. is a transition or periodicity curve separating stable
and unstable regions.
The time response shown in Fig. 4 depicts that the Fig. 6 depicts a plot of TEav for the Mathieu’s equa-
period of oscillation is . It is also indicated in the tion as a function of a. The value of b is set to 5. The
plots of time history of TEav shown in Fig. 5. line b = 5 is plotted in Fig. 1 to give a view of the
The plot of TEav in Fig. 5 has an interesting domain of stability and instability. The period of in-
behaviour. The time integral of TEav is zero for tegration of TEav in Fig. 6 is diEerent for each curve.
0 ¡ t ¡ , but the value of time integral of TEav for It is seen that the curve for T = =3 and =2 has just
0 ¡ t ¡ =2 is minus of the time integral of TEav for one zero for positive a, close to a = 9:1 and 7.4, re-
=2 ¡ t ¡ . If time integral of Eav for 0 ¡ t ¡ T is spectively. Time response of the Mathieu’s equation at
minus of the time integral of Eav for T ¡ t ¡ 2T we those points would be periodic, although both of them
call that Eav has skew-symmetric property. When- belong to instability regions of the Mathieu’s stabil-
ever Eav has skew-symmetric property then, the ity chart. Fig. 7 shows time response of the Mathieu’s
system is 2T -periodic instead of T -periodic. Hence, equation for (a = 7:45; b = 5).
searching for responses having period T = n, and The curve for T = in Fig. 6 intersects the horizontal
=n; n = 1; 2; 3; : : :, also includes responses having axis exactly at points where the line b = 5 intersects
period T = 2n and 2=n; n = 1; 2; 3; : : : . the transition curves in Fig. 2, but the curve for T =2
Now another advantage of energy-rate method will not only intersects at the -periodic and 2-periodic
be revealed that are not easily available by traditional transition curves of the Mathieu’s equation, but also
1328 G.N. Jazar / International Journal of Non-Linear Mechanics 39 (2004) 1319 – 1331

Fig. 7. Time history of -periodic response of Mathieu’s equation Fig. 9. Time history of 3- and 6-periodic response of Mathieu’s
for (a = 7:45; b = 5), a periodic response in instability region. equation for (a = 12:57; b = 5) and (a = 14:54; b = 5).

tion? Figs. 6, 8 and 9 indicate that it is possible. Now


we may have for instance, a 2-periodic curve, where
both left- and right-hand sides of that curve are stable.
It is a periodic line “splitting” a stable region. We may
also have a 2-periodic curve, where both left- and
right-hand sides are unstable; a periodic line “split-
ting” an unstable region. The same situation could be
seen for other sub and super harmonics.
We may now modify the stability chart algorithm
to be able to detect splitting lines. The following algo-
rithm is prepared to detect splitting lines of the Math-
ieu’s equation.

Fig. 8. Time history of 4-periodic response of Mathieu’s equation


6.1. Splitting chart algorithm
for (a = 8:13; b = 5) and (a = 13:47; b = 5).

0. set period of integration T equal to a multiple


touches the horizontal axis at some other points. For of ;
instance, the 3rst touching point is around a = 8:13 1. set a, equal to a1 , and a2 , two arbitrary values
which is a point in stable region of Mathieu’s stability in a stability region;
chart. Fig. 8 depicts two 4-periodic time responses 2. set b, equal to some arbitrary small value;
using the 3rst two touching points (a = 8:13; b = 5) 3. solve the diEerential equation numerically for
and (a = 13:47; b = 5) of the curve T = 2 in Fig. 6. both pairs of a, and b;
These two periodic solutions were found when we 4. evaluate (Eav )1 and (Eav )2 ;
were looking for 2-periodic responses due to skew 5. set a1 = a2 ;
symmetric characteristic of Eav . A 3-periodic and a 6. increase a2 , by some small increment if
6-periodic responses are shown in Fig. 9 for two |(Eav )1 | ¿ |(Eav )2 | and (a2 − a1 ) ¿ 0
touching points (a = 12:57; b = 5) and (a = 14:54; b = or
5) of the curve T = 3 in Fig. 6. These two super |(Eav )1 | ¡ |(Eav )2 | and (a2 − a1 ) ¡ 0
harmonic responses belong to the stability region of else decrease a2 , if
the Mathieu’s equation. |(Eav )1 | ¿ |(Eav )2 | and (a2 − a1 ) ¡ 0
Is it possible to have other periodicity lines in the or
stability or instability is regions of Mathieu’s equa- |(Eav )1 | ¡ |(Eav )2 | and (a2 − a1 ) ¿ 0;
G.N. Jazar / International Journal of Non-Linear Mechanics 39 (2004) 1319 – 1331 1329

12 12

10 10

8 8
b b
6 6

4 4

2 2

0 2 4 6 8 10 12 0 2 4 6 8 10 12
(a) a (b) a

12 12

10 10

8 8
b b
6 6

4 4

2 2

0 2 4 6 8 10 12 0 2 4 6 8 10 12
(c) a (d) a
12 12

10 10

8 8
b b
6 6

4 4

2 2

0 2 4 6 8 10 12 0 2 4 6 8 10 12
(e) a (f) a

Fig. 10. (a) Mathieu’s -periodicity chart and splitting curves, based on the “splitting chart algorithm”; (b) Mathieu’s 2-periodicity
chart and splitting curves, based on the “splitting chart algorithm”; (c) Mathieu’s 3-periodicity chart and splitting curves, based on the
“splitting chart algorithm”; (d) Mathieu’s 4-periodicity chart and splitting curves, based on the “splitting chart algorithm”; (e) Mathieu’s
5-periodicity chart and splitting curves, based on the “splitting chart algorithm”; and (f) Mathieu’s periodicity chart and splitting curves,
for ; 2; 3; 4, and 5-periodic solutions.
1330 G.N. Jazar / International Journal of Non-Linear Mechanics 39 (2004) 1319 – 1331

7. the increment of a must be decreased if a2 References


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