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Biology – Form 5

Page 40

Ms. R. Buttigieg

See GCSE Biology Chapters: 16 – Human reproduction; pg. 140 - 151 34 – Reproduction; pg. 301 - 305

Sexual Reproduction
Fertilization is the fusion of an egg and sperm cell to form a zygote. Can be internal or external. EXTER


The most primitive form of sexual reproduction is external fertilization. It is used by simpler animals such as frogs and fish. In external fertilization, the eggs are fertilized outside the bodies of the parents. These animals must return to the water to reproduce. Usually the eggs or ova are released into the water by the female animal. Then the male releases sperm into the same area. Sometimes a crude nest is constructed, but more often than not the eggs are just released onto the gravel. Common in fish and amphibians. I


In internal fertilization, the eggs are fertilized within the reproductive tract of the female, and then are covered with eggshells and/or remain within the body of the female during their development. Birds and reptiles lay their eggs in protective shells (oviparous), while mammals bear live young (viviparous). Advantages of internal fertilization over external fertilization 1. Independent of external water medium e.g. ponds, streams etc. 2. Prevent desiccation (drying) of gametes and embryo 3. Less wastage of gametes and embryo 4. Greater chance of successful fertilization so smaller number of eggs can be produced. 5. Embryo is protected and nourished by female (mammals only) Disadvantages of internal fertilization 1. External reproductive male organs must be developed 2. Complicated behaviour must be evolved to bring the male and female into intimate contact

Give 4 important differences between Sexual and Asexual Reproduction

Fertilization results in the formation of a diploid zygote from which a new individual develops.1 Sexual reproduction in Humans Reproduction is the formation of new individuals of the same species. Sexual reproduction is the only method of reproduction in our species.Figures 16. implantation and development of the baby • • To give birth to the baby Feed the baby by lactation Structure and function of the male and female reproductive organs. Reproductive Role of the Male • • Production of sperm (male gametes) Transfer of sperm into the female (insemination) Reproductive Role of the Female • • • Production of egg cells (female gametes) Reception of sperm Provide favourable conditions for fertilisation.Biology – Form 5 Page 41 Ms.4. Buttigieg 3.5 are important . R. Sexual reproduction involves the fusion of specialized haploid sex cells. See GCSE Biology Chapter 16 . 16. 16. The fusion of sperm and egg cell is called fertilization.3.

Urethra • Conveys urine and semen to the outside.Biology – Form 5 Page 42 Ms. • The sphincter muscle at the base of the bladder is contracted during sexual arousal. Testes • • Production of sperm (male haploid sex cells) by meiosis. from the epididymis to the urethra. • This prevents the release of urine from the bladder — acidic urine would immobilise the sperm. by peristalsis. It also has a large digestive enzyme sac. Seminal Vesicle • Secretes a sugar-rich fluid that is also alkaline protecting the sperm in the acidic vagina. The sperm mature in the epididymis. The head contains the nucleus with the genetic material. Penis • Its function is to transfer sperm into the vagina of the female. Buttigieg The male reproductive system Men’s genitalia consist of a penis and a pair of testis contained in a bag-like scrotum. Prostate Gland • Secretes a protective alkaline fluid that also stimulates sperm motility. Sperm Duct (Vas Deferens) • It is a muscular tube that transfers the sperm. The digestive enzymes help the sperm to make their way to the surface of the egg cell. This temperature is ideal for sperm production. . testosterone. Epididymis • A long coiled tube that receives and stores the sperm. Sperm • • • • The middle piece or neck contains mitochondria producing the ATP to supply energy for propulsion. Semen • A liquid mixture of sperm and fluids of seminal vesicles. This protects the testes from injury and keeps them about 3oC lower than the body temperature. R. Secretion of the male hormone. called the acrosome.

implantation. Buttigieg The female reproductive system The human female usually produces one mature egg each month from the onset of puberty (11-14 years). Once released. known as ovulation. • The bulk of the uterine wall is composed of muscle.Biology – Form 5 Page 43 Ms. When an ovum is fully mature. • The sperm. Uterus (Womb) • The uterus is the site of menstruation. • Sperm have been known to survive in the Fallopian tube for at least six days. the ovum is capable of being fertilized for approximately 36 hours Fallopian Tube (Uterine Tube) • The open funnel end close to the ovary captures the egg cell at ovulation. in the semen are deposited here (insemination). Egg production becomes more and more irregular during menopause and stops altogether usually about the age of 50. This is called the menstrual cycle. development of the embryo and labour. • It is the passageway for menstrual flow and childbirth. • This mucus softens at the time of ovulation to allow the entry of sperm. • Fertilisation of the egg cell usually occurs in the Fallopian tube. • The ‘fertilised egg’ is carried to the uterus. • At ovulation the egg cell is released from the ovary. The ovaries of a sexually mature female contain ova at various stages of development. • A solid mucus plug protects the uterus from pathogens. • On average one egg cell matures every 28 days. • A new uterine lining (endometrium) develops each cycle to receive and nourish the early embryo. This process. always occurs 14 days prior to the next predicted menstrual flow. R. the ovarian follicle ruptures and the ovum is released. • The ‘fertilised egg’ reaches the uterus in about six days. • The strong contractions of the uterine muscles expel the baby at birth. Cervix • The cervix is a narrow opening between the uterus and vagina. . Vagina • It receives the penis during sexual intercourse. Ovaries • Produces the female gametes. the egg cells.

Buttigieg Menstrual cycle Menstruation is a very complicated process involving many different hormones. R. the pituitary gland releases follicle stimulating hormone (FSH). each ovum alternately producing an egg. oestrogen and LH levels are at their peak. during which. Menstruation lasts for several days and is caused by the loss of the endometrial lining of the uterus. releasing the egg. the woman's sex organs and the brain. . the follicle and the ovary's wall burst. signaling the immature follicles to grow in the ovaries. After ovulation. Normally only one egg will be produced per period. The onset of menstrual bleeding (menstruation) marks the beginning of the cycle. Here. Oestrogen levels rise as the hormone is secreted by the developing follicle. The main hormones involved in control of the menstrual cycle are oestrogen and progesterone. The average human menstrual cycle is 28 days long. but it can range from 21 to 35 days. At the beginning of the menstrual cycle. Ovulation takes place around day 14.Biology – Form 5 Page 44 Ms. About 50 millilitres of blood are lost during menstruation. both oestrogen and progesterone are secreted by the corpus luteum which develops from the burst follicle and remains in the ovary.

R.stimulated by high levels of oestrogen release of egg (ovulation) on or about day 14 . the corpus luteum dies and hormone levels fall. underarm. if conception does not occur.stimulated by the hormone FSH build-up of womb lining . It brings about changes in a boy’s body as he starts to develop into an adult. to prepare the body for a possible pregnancy. . Male Secondary Sexual Characteristics • • • • • hair growth on the face.stimulated by high levels of progesterone breakdown of uterus lining . chest and pubic region enlarged larynx producing a deeper voice wider shoulders greater skeletal musculature taller Female Secondary Sexual Characteristics • • • • • hair growth in the pubic region and underarm enlarged breasts wide hips greater fat deposits under the skin taller The formation of male and female sex cells which starts to take place is known as gametogenesis.The key events in the cycle are: • • • • • • ripening of an egg in the ovaries . In the female its also known as oogenesis and in the male as spermatogenesis. This causes the endometrium to degenerate and menstruation occurs. In Summary . in which case its action is to trigger or suppress production of another hormone.triggered by low levels of oestrogen and progesterone loss of blood and tissue (menstruation) Note that a hormone's target organ may be another endocrine gland.Biology – Form 5 Page 45 Ms. They appear at puberty as a result of new higher levels of oestrogen in females and testosterone in males. Secondary Sexual Characteristics These are the features that distinguish the sexually mature individual from the immature. However. Buttigieg Progesterone maintains the endometrial lining in the uterus. Thus: • • • FSH acts on the ovaries to start producing oestrogen (at beginning of cycle) Both oestrogen and progesterone act on the pituitary to stop producing FSH (suppressing egg ripening until start of new cycle) Oestrogen acts on the pituitary to start producing LH (triggering egg release) Testosterone is the male hormone produced in the testes from 11 to 16 years.stimulated by the hormone LH maintainance of uterus lining .

• • • • • Implantation occurs about six days after fertilisation. This stimulates sense organs in the penis and eventually causes an ejaculation in which about 5cm3 of liquid called semen is passed from the epididymis and sperm ducts into the female reproductive system Out of the millions of sperms. the erect penis is inserted into the vagina of the female and moved back and forth. The developing embryo releases a hormone into the mother’s blood. Buttigieg Copulation and fertilisation. R. The surviving corpus luteum continues to secrete progesterone and oestrogen. fertilization may occur.Biology – Form 5 Page 46 Ms. utrition and protection of the embryo The usual first sign that pregnancy has occurred is that menstruation does not happen. only one enters it. a process called implantation. Implantation is the embedding of the blastocyst (early developing embryo) into the uterine lining (endometrium). The tail of the successful sperm is left outside as the head travels through the cytoplasm of the egg to the nucleus. As a result the endometrium (uterine lining) does not break down and the pregnancy continues. . Although thousands may reach the egg. During copulation. a few thousand may manage to swim up to the oviducts. The embryo sinks into the thick uterine lining. This hormone maintains the corpus luteum. Fertilization occurs when the sperm nucleus fuses with the egg nucleus to form a zygote. and if a ripe ovum is present at the same time. The zygote travels down the oviduct. dividing by mitosis to form a ball of cells and reaches the uterus as an embryo.

The placenta is responsible for: Respiration as well as absorbing oxygen and food from the mother excretion in the growing fetus.Biology – Form 5 Page 47 Ms. Buttigieg The foetus is joined to the placenta by the umbilical chord. These help to keep the temperature of the fetus constant (water has a high specific heat capacity) and prevent it from any bumps and knocks. Alcohol reduces weight. and some can be harmful to the development of the fetus especially during the first trimester. HIV and Rubella can also pass from the mother to the fetus. It floats in a watery fluid called the amnion and this in turn is surrounded by an amniotic sac. R. Harmful substances that still manage to pass Viruses e. Reasons for separation of maternal and fetal blood: Higher blood pressure of the mother could burst the delicate fetal capillaries Maternal and fetal blood groups may be different and incompatible More micro-organisms and harmful substances could pass . Acts as a barrier against the passage of harmful substances from the mother. Poisons in cigarette smoke limit oxygen supply to the fetus reducing growth.g.

Apart from feeding the baby. The regular presence of prolactin maintains milk production. • • • • Emergence Stage • • • the the the the baby passes from the uterus through cervix and along the vagina to the outside umbilical cord is clamped closed near to the baby cord is cut on the far side of the clamp Placental Stage • • the placenta is detached from the uterine wall expulsion of the placenta and foetal membranes from the mother Parental Care Lactation • • • • • • • • • Lactation is breastfeeding the baby with milk. Prolactin stimulates the glands in the breasts to produce milk. This decline allows the pituitary to secrete prolactin hormone. Birth Dilation Stage • • Gradual widening of the cervix.Biology – Form 5 Page 48 Ms. The placenta produced very high levels of oestrogen and progesterone. Suckling also stimulates the pituitary to secrete oxytocin. The pituitary gland secretes oxytocin hormone. R. It also contains a wide variety of beneficial chemicals that include mother’s antibodies. sheltering. . These antibodies protect the child against common pathogens. parental care also involves protecting. loving and later on educating this child so that it can grow into a healthy and happy child. Advantages of Lactation • • • • • • Human milk has a lot of advantages for the baby’s growth and development. The amniotic sac ruptures and the amniotic fluid escapes by way of the vagina. Human milk is nutritionally balanced for a developing human baby. Oxytocin stimulates the contraction of the uterine muscles. Oxytocin causes the milk ducts to contract ejecting the milk from the breast. The contraction of these muscles brings about the dilation of the cervix. After the birth of the baby these hormone levels fall rapidly. The suckling of a baby at the breast stimulates the mother’s pituitary to release prolactin. Buttigieg Birth and parental care. Human milk also encourages the growth of mutualistic bacteria in the large intestine. Human milk also contains chemicals favourable for brain growth and development. The cervix must be wide enough to allow safe passage of the head into the vagina.

Contraception is the deliberate prevention of fertilization or implantation. Temporary abstinence: no sexual intercourse during the most fertile period of the menstrual cycle: 24% failure rate.Biology – Form 5 Page 49 Ms. Buttigieg 3. R. 0% failure rate. . o This should be combined with the thermal and mucus (Billing’s method) If a couple wants to conceive and have children. atural Family Planning • • Abstinence: no sexual intercourse. they should have intercourse during the period of ovulation.2 Methods of family planning See GCSE Biology page 150 – 151 Chapter 16 Family planning is a conscious action to control the number of and interval between children.

4% failure rate.4% failure. The % failure rate is the number of sexually active females out of a hundred who will become pregnant within a year. 6. • • • • Intrauterine Devices (IUD): these are plastic or metal loops or coils.Biology – Form 5 Page 50 Ms. Spermicides: these chemicals are placed in the vagina to kill sperm: 20% failure rate. Vasectomy: cutting. Sterilization/Tubal ligation: the Fallopian tubes are cut and sealed preventing sperm and egg cells meeting: 0. Draw large. sperm will not be in the semen: 0. 4. Describe in detail the process which takes place in the ovary during the menstrual cycle. male reproductive system b. semen cannot be deposited in the vagina: 10% failure rate. 5. Answer the following 1. . Buttigieg Artificial Family Planning Male Contraceptive Methods • • Condom: a thin impermeable sheath covering the penis. Female Contraceptive Methods • Cervix Barriers: diaphragm or cap – prevents sperm entering the uterus: 15% failure rate. R. What is the placenta? Give 3 functions of the placenta and describe how it is adapted to carry out its function. female reproductive system 2. 3. labelled diagrams to show: a. Name two secondary sexual characteristics that can be found in a female and another two that can be found in a male. Describe the three stages in birth Give 2 birth control methods. prevents implantation: 5% failure rate. Oral contraceptive pill: prevents ovulation as the follicles do not mature 6% failure rate. sealing or tying off the sperm ducts.

does this mean that they are identical twins? Explain. 146 Chapter 16). i. If a mother gives birth to twin boys. Explain the difference between fraternal and identical twins (See GCSE Biology pg. . R.Biology – Form 5 Page 51 Ms. Buttigieg (JL 2001) d. ii.

Biology – Form 5 2 Page 52 3 Ms. Look at the diagram showing the baby in the uterus a. c. Name the parts labelled A to D. Buttigieg 4 5. d. How does the baby get the oxygen and food that it needs? How does the baby get rid of the waste products? What is the function of fluid A? Why should the mother not smoke while she is pregnant? Questions 2 to 5 are taken from Biology for You by Gareth Williams . R. b. e.

In the resulting new organism the inserted genes will code for one or more new characteristics . Genetic engineering brings about such change by scientifically altering an organism's genetic code. The organism has been genetically re-engineered. In genetic engineering enzymes are used to cut up and join together parts of the DNA of one organism. and insert them into the DNA of another organism. Genetic engineering (also known as genetic manipulation or GM is not the same as cloning. 213-221 Principles. Genetic engineering works because there is only one code for life. The diagram shows how a bacterium's genetic make-up can modified by splicing a gene into its DNA. Buttigieg See GCSE biology pg.for example producing a new substance. The set of instructions for which a gene is responsible work whichever organism the gene is in. Cloning Produces exact copies Genetic engineering Produces a totally unique set of genes Genes replicated within the same species Genes can be swapped across species In the past. R. Though cloning techniques are used in genetic engineering. or performing a new function. and whatever instructions that gene . the two things should not be confused. uses and possible hazards of genetic engineering.Biology – Form 5 Page 53 Ms. This technique is also known as gene splicing or recombinant D A technology (because the DNA is recombined in the vector molecule). humans have brought about change in the genetic make-up of organisms by means of selective breeding.

which is why the topic of genetic engineering triggers heated moral and ethical debates. what happens if they escape? • What if the GM organisms have side-effects we don’t know about? • Can we play with nature like this? . This is a cheap way of producing sufficient quantities of exactly the right hormone. In genetic engineering pieces of chromosome from a different organism can be inserted into a plasmid. Buttigieg gives are carried out within the cells of the recipient. and the microbes then clone themselves rapidly. R. all with the new gene and all capable of making human insulin. a human protein which stops viruses multiplying inside the body Producing human growth hormone to treat growth abnormalities Blood clotting factor to treat haemophiliacs Used in industry to produce enzymes for use in biological washing powder Producing pest resistant crop varieties Producing tomatoes that stay fresh much longer Hazards: Genetic engineering could potentially change not just what we do but who we are. This allows the bacteria to make a new substance. Scientists have isolated the gene responsible for making human proteins. Plasmids are then removed from bacterial cells The plasmids are cut open with an enzyme A human insulin gene is inserted into each plasmid The genetic engineers encourage the bacteria to accept the genetically modified plasmids Bacteria with the insulin gene are then multiplied Each bacterium will produce a tiny volume of insulin By culturing the genetically engineered bacteria limitless supplies of insulin may be produced. making identical copies of themselves. It might be the gene for insulin production. Theoretically the possibilities are limitless. including the insulin hormone. Other applications of genetic engineering: • • • • • • Producing interferon. • • • • • • • • • The gene the genetic engineers want may be in a human chromosome. • Who could decide what are ‘defective’ and ‘normal’ genes? • What happens if GM organisms replace other ones and make them extinct? • Given harmful organisms like viruses and bacteria are used. for everyone who needs it.Biology – Form 5 Page 54 Ms. Uses/applications of genetic engineering One field in which genetic engineering has had a huge impact is the mass production of insulin to help diabetics. This gene is inserted into the bacterial DNA. The control of all the normal activities of a bacterium depends upon its single chromosome and small rings of genes called plasmids. although this sort of manipulation gives rise to strong feelings for and against. They use an enzyme to cut the insulin gene out of the chromosome.

A small amount of parent tissue or a number of cells are taken and transferred to plates containing sterile nutrient agar jelly. Tissue cultures of animal and plant cells can be used to test out the effect of new drugs and vaccines rather than using laboratory animals. Plant cloning using tissue culture This technique involves the following steps: 1. enabling scientists to develop: • • fast growing crops that give more than one harvest in a year. or crops with better disease-resistant qualities. R. . But tissue culture has disadvantages as well as advantages. 5. Artificial plant cloning – also known as Micropropagation Cloning can also happen as a result of human intervention.Biology – Form 5 Page 55 Ms. 4. 3. It is also useful in plant production. Potato plants reproduce vegetatively by growing tubers from which the new plant will grow. Clones frequently occur naturally. 2. Successful varieties of plants can be produced commercially on a massive scale in a relatively short space of time. 6. Auxins are added to stimulate the cells to divide by mitosis Cells grow rapidly into small masses of tissue More growth hormones are added to stimulate the growth of roots and stems The tiny plantlets are transferred into potting trays where they develop into plants Cloning of plants has many important commercial implications. Buttigieg Cloning of plants of economic importance and Principles of tissue culturing. Tissue culture or micro-propagation is a way of propagating plants very quickly by taking a small number of cells from a 'parent' plant and growing them in a medium rich in nutrients and plant growth hormones. Potatoes are clones. Put the steps involved in the correct order: a. Describe in detail the process of genetic engineering. Leave the bacterial cell to produce clones with the human gene e. 2. Transfer plantlets to potting compost f. Which of the following statements is true of clones? Clones show variation Clones have DNA identical to that of the parent Clones are formed as a result of meiotic division 4. 3. cut and remove the gene for making insulin from human cells c. and conditions can No chance of new beneficial characteristics arising by be precisely controlled chance All new plants inherit the same desirable characteristics Controlled in lab so can be made disease free Answer these questions: 1. Add growth hormones to get plantlets d. Place cells in plates containing sterile nutrient agar jelly No variation means there is a danger of reducing the gene pool Costly to maintain sterile condition ( http://www. R. will all be vulnerable to same diseases or pests Little space is needed.Biology – Form 5 Page 56 Ms. Buttigieg Advantages of tissue culture A lot of new plants can be grown in a relatively short time Disadvantages of tissue culture All plants have same genetic make-up . Take a few cells from the parent plant c. Describe in detail the process of plant cloning. Tissue culture is a technique used to produce a large number of identical plants quickly. Put the following steps for producing genetically engineered insulin into the right ) 6. Transfer the small masses of cells to new nutrient jelly e. Which of the following have been genetically engineered? Plant produced from a cutting Plants produced from part of a plant being grafted into another Disease-resistant crops . Add growth hormones to stimulate cell division b. Reinsert the hybrid plasmid into the bacterial cell b. Insert the human gene into the bacterial DNA 7. Remove a plasmid from a bacterial cell and again cut the DNA