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2009 Third International Conference on Power Systems, Kharagpur, INDIA December 27-29 Paper no.

:229

Modeling of Facts and Custom Power Devices in Distribution Network to Improve Power Quality
Ashwin Kumar Sahoo
Department of Electrical Engineering SSN College of Engineering Chennai, India Email: ashwinsahoo@yahoo.com

T. Thyagarajan
Department of Instrumentation Engineering MIT, Anna University Chennai, India Email: thyagu_vel@yahoo.co.in

Abstract— Electromagnetic transient studies have always played an essential role in the analysis of electrical power systems. They provide priceless information relating to the behaviour of the system in the event of different forms of transient phenomena, which can hardly be achieved by other means. In this paper, an electromagnetic transient model of Fixed Capacitor/ Thyristor Controlled Reactor (FC-TCR) is developed and applied to the study of transients due to load variations. The work is then extended to custom power equipment, namely Distribution Static Compensator (D-STATCOM) and Dynamic Voltage Restorer (DVR) aimed at enhancing the reliability and quality of power flows in low voltage distribution networks. A new PWM based control scheme that requires only voltage measurements and no reactive power measurements has been proposed for both the custom controllers. PSCAD/ EMTDC simulation tool is used for model implementation and to carry out extensive simulation studies. Comprehensive results are presented to assess the performance of each device as a potential custom power solution. Keyword-Custom power, D-STATCOM, DVR, PSCAD/EMTDC, VSC

The transient analysis and modeling is performed with the state-of-the-art digital simulator PSCAD/EMTDC V4.2 (Manitoba, 2005). PSCAD/ EMTDC is an industry standard simulation tool for studying the transient behavior of electrical networks. It provides a flexible user interface to make use of EMTDC, enabling an integrated visual environment that supports all aspects associated with the simulation, including circuit assembly, run-time control, analysis and reporting [2]. It’s great many modeling capabilities and highly complex algorithms are transparent to the user, leaving him free to concentrate his efforts on the analysis of results rather than on mathematical modeling. The paper is organized as follows: in Section II, the FCTCR arrangement of SVC is discussed. Section III presents the theory behind Voltage Source Converter (VSC) - Based Controllers namely, D-STATCOM and DVR. In Section IV, the PWM scheme adopted in this paper for D-STATCOM and DVR is described. Then in Section V, the test cases are presented and the simulation results are discussed and, finally, in Section VI, some conclusive remarks are drawn.

I.

INTRODUCTION

The transient response of any natural system is the way in which the response of the system behaves as a function of time. Electromagnetic transient studies have always played an essential role in the analysis of electrical power systems. A considerable percentage of power system studies rely on electromagnetic transient simulations. They provide substantial information relating to the behavior of the system in the event of different forms of transient phenomena, which can hardly be achieved by other means. This paper addresses the transient studies of electrical networks with embedded, power electronics-based, FACTS and Custom Power (CP) controllers. The FACTS controller considered here is the basic Static Var Compensator (SVC) with FC-TCR arrangement. The CP controllers include Distribution Static Compensator (DSTATCOM) and Dynamic Voltage Restorer (DVR) .The modeling approach adopted in this paper is graphical in nature, as opposed to mathematical models embedded in code using a high- level computer language [3].
Indian Institute of Technology Kharagpur, INDIA

II.

STATIC VAR COMPENSATOR

The Static Var Compensators are the most widely installed FACTS equipment at this point in time. They mimic the working principles of a variable shunt susceptance and use fast thyristor controllers with settling times of only a few fundamental frequency periods. From the operational point of view, the SVC adjusts its value automatically in response to changes in the operating conditions of the network. By suitable control of its equivalent reactance, it is possible to regulate the voltage magnitude at the SVC point of connection, thus enhancing significantly the performance of the power system [6],[7],[8]. In its simplest form, SVC consists of a TCR in parallel with a bank of capacitors. Fig. 1(a) shows the schematic diagram of the most basic FC/TCR arrangement of the SVC. Its equivalent variable susceptance representation is shown in Fig. 1(b). An ideal variable shunt compensator is assumed to contain no resistive components, i.e. GSVC =0. 1

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3) Elimination of current harmonics. a dc energy storage device. In its simplest form. The D-STATCOM controller continuously monitors the load voltages and currents and determines the amount of compensation required by the ac system for a variety of disturbances. The control scheme implemented for DVR is explained in Section IV of this paper. Variable Susceptance representation 2) Correction of power factor. 2 shows the schematic representation of the DSTATCOM. 2 Accordingly. III. the D-STATCOM is used to regulate voltage at the point of connection. 3 shows the schematic representation of DVR. Figure 1(a). VSC-BASED CONTROLLERS In this section. its reactive power is a function of nodal voltage magnitude at the connection point. On the other hand. Pj = 0 Qj = -│Vj │2 BSVC The graphical modeling and implementation of FC-TCR arrangement are explained in Section V of this paper.:229 STATCOM). BSVC . A. and the SVC equivalent susceptance. The control scheme is explained in Section IV of this paper. an overview of the VSC-based Custom Power controllers is presented. B. The active power flow is controlled by the angle between the ac system and VSC voltages and the reactive power flow is controlled by the difference between the magnitudes of these voltages [4]. The VSC generates a three-phase ac output voltage which is controllable in phase and magnitude. It is commonly used for voltage sag mitigation at the point of connection. These voltages are injected into the ac distribution system in order to maintain the load voltage at the desired voltage reference. Fig. it consists of a two-level VSC. but here the coupling transformer is connected in series with the ac system. DVR The DVR consists of a VSC. Schematic representation of an FC-TCR arrangement of SVC Figure 2. D-STATCOM The STATCOM. it draws no active power from the network. a switching control scheme. when used in low-voltage distribution systems is normally identified as Distribution STATCOM (D- 978-1-4244-4331-4/09/$25. In this paper. Figure 1(b). INDIA December 27-29 Paper no. Kharagpur.00 ©2009 IEEE . a DC energy storage device and a coupling transformer similar to D-STATCOM. say node j . and associated control circuits. Basic Configuration of D-STATCOM The VSC connected in shunt with the ac system serves three distinct purposes: 1) Voltage regulation and compensation of reactive power.2009 Third International Conference on Power Systems. a coupling transformer connected in shunt with the ac system. Fig.

the SVC controller operation changes to closed-loop mode in order to adjust the SVC effective impedance Xsvc so that it injects capacitive current into the system to restore the voltage to the original value. Besides. The PI controller processes the error signal and generates the required delay angle to drive the error to zero. In the PWM generators. Figure 3.e. i.00 ©2009 IEEE . IV. Initially.4 shows the test system implemented in PSCAD/EMTDC to carry out simulations for the FC-TCR topology.e. Simulations relating to FC-TCR are presented first followed by the simulations carried out for D-STATCOM and DVR. the load rms voltage is brought back to the reference voltage. When the load is increased. Figure 4. The control system only measures the rms voltage at the load point i.. high switching frequencies can be used to improve on the efficiency of the converter. Because distribution network is a relatively lowpower application. no reactive power measurements are required [1]. The aim of the control scheme is to maintain constant voltage magnitude at the point where a sensitive load is connected. The VSC switching strategy is based on a sinusoidal PWM technique which offers simplicity and good response. V. the power exchange between the SVC and the ac system is zero. The SVC parameters have been determined according to the compensation requirements for the case when the second load is connected. Control Scheme and test system implemented in PSCAD/EMTDC to carry out FC-TCR simulation 3 978-1-4244-4331-4/09/$25. Basic Configuration of DVR TEST CASES AND SIMULATION RESULT This section is divided into three parts. PWM methods offer a more flexible option than the fundamental frequency switching methods favored in FACTS applications. FC-TCR Simulation and Results Fig. the sinusoidal vcontrol signal is phasemodulated by means of the delay angle. The aim of the SVC in this application is to provide voltage regulation following load variations. without incurring significant switching losses. PWM CONTROL SCHEME This section describes the PWM-based control scheme with reference to the D-STATCOM and DVR. Kharagpur. When the breaker BRK1 is closed.. the SVC is operated in open-loop mode and for this condition.2009 Third International Conference on Power Systems. INDIA December 27-29 Paper no. The modulated signal vcontrol is compared against a triangular signal (carrier) in order to generate the switching signals for the VSC valves. A. under system disturbances.:229 The D-STATCOM control system exerts voltage angle control as follows: an error signal is obtained by comparing the reference voltage with the rms voltage measured at the load point. the load is increased and the voltage at the load point experiences voltage sag of nearly 16%.

Two simulations are carried out as follows: 1) In the first case. INDIA December 27-29 Paper no.2009 Third International Conference on Power Systems. as shown in Fig. The value provided by the PI controller is used as the input to the TCR firing control unit. The simulations relate to three main operating conditions: Figure 5. represented by a thevenin equivalent feeding into the primary side of a 3. Then it is compared against the voltage reference Vref. Figure 6. A basic two-level. Under this condition.u.:229 The control scheme implemented for FC-TCR topology works as follows: The amplitude of the bus voltage Vbus is measured and filtered. At time t=0.. At t=0. Kharagpur. The capacitor on the dc side provides the D-STATCOM energy storage capabilities. The test system comprises a 230 kV.5. SVC is operated in open-loop mode with α=115°. The voltage difference between the two signals is processed by a PI controller which causes a corresponding change in the firing angle α. Voltage Vrms and Vload with SVC in Open loop mode Figure 7. the closed-loop mode of SVC is enabled. The voltage Vrms at the load point is close to 0. D-STATCOM Simulations and Results Fig. giving a Vrms value equal to 0. 100MVA transmission system. A varying load is connected to the secondary side of the transformer. the voltage at the load point drops by as much as 16%. Load 2 is switched on by closing BRK1. the SVC begins to control the firing angle of the thyristors to α=162° so that the voltage is regulated and driven back to the original value as shown in the Fig.winding transformer. Voltage Vrms and Vload with SVC in Closed loop mode It is clear from these results that the SVC is an effective system controller which may be used to provide voltage regulation at the point of connection and to improve substantially the voltage quality in power systems.6s.u.8p.7 shows the test system implemented in PSCAD/EMTDC to carry out simulations for the DSTATCOM. A set of simulations was carried out for the test system shown in Fig.00 ©2009 IEEE .6. 2) In the second case. six-pulse D-STATCOM is connected to the tertiary winding to provide instantaneous voltage support at the load point. B. The zero crossing of the Vbus voltage is taken as the reference for the firing angle. Control Scheme and test system implemented in PSCAD/EMTDC to carry out D-STATCOM simulation 4 978-1-4244-4331-4/09/$25.96p.6s. 7.

60 0. the load is increased by closing Switch D.00 25.80 0.50 rms.00 0. and when Switch D opens and Switch B closes.60 0. Vab (kV) Figure 8(a). where the very effective voltage regulation provided by the D-STATCOM can be clearly appreciated. Control Scheme and test system implemented in PSCAD/EMTDC to carry out DVR simulation 5 978-1-4244-4331-4/09/$25.80 1. The rms voltage increases 20% with respect to the reference voltage.0 -5. Switch B is closed.00 1.2s.00 rms voltage Figure 8(b).3-0. 1.0 10. connecting a capacitor bank to the high voltage side of the network. a new set of simulations was carried out but now with the DSTATCOM connected to the system.2009 Third International Conference on Power Systems.80 0.20 0.00 15.:229 1) In the simulation period 0.9–1. Fig.20 0. In spite of sudden load variations.40 0. the regulated rms voltage shows a reasonably smooth profile. 2) At 0. the DSTATCOM supplies reactive power to the system.00 0. where the transient overshoots are almost nonexistent. line voltage Vrms(pu) line voltage -25. 8(b) .60 The results are shown in Fig. Similarly. 8(a) shows the rms voltage at the load point for the case when the system operates without D-STATCOM. the DSTATCOM absorbs reactive power in order to get the voltage back to reference. The magnitude of these transients is kept very small with respect to the reference voltage. When the load Switch D closes. RMS and Line Voltage with D-STATCOM Vrms(pu) line voltage t (sec) 0. The load voltage is very close to the reference value 3) In the simulation period 0. RMS and Line Voltage without D-STATCOM Figure 9.0 0.00 0.20 1.0 t (sec) 0.0 5.40 0.00 ©2009 IEEE .6s. Kharagpur.50 1.0 0. line voltage 1.20 1.20 1. the switch D is opened and remains so throughout the rest of the simulation.6s. INDIA December 27-29 Paper no.0 -10. In this case. the voltage drops by almost 20% with respect to the reference value.0 Vab (kV) rm s voltage rm s.40 0.0 -15.

New York: Wiley. restoring the rms voltage very effectively. INDIA December 27-29 Paper no. “ Power Electronic Control in Electrical Systems”. N.00 ©2009 IEEE . Kharagpur. where the voltage sag is due to a fault quite close to the sensitive load.IEE5th Int.” in Proc. O. 2) The second simulation is carried out using the same condition as above but now with the DVR in operation. The capacity of the dc storage device is 5 kV. 32. 11. 1. March 2000. Conf. The simulations carried out showed that the FC-TCR arrangement of SVC. vol. DVR Simulations and Results Fig. Sidhu. T. Anaya-Lara. vol. M.. The sag mitigation is performed with a smooth. pp. pp. 345. Two simulations are carried out as follows: 1) The first simulation contains no DVR and a three phase fault is applied near the source point. no transient overshoots are observed when the DVR comes in and out of operation . and it was observed to be very robust in every case. the Controller must be designed to satisfy the most sever case. Power Syst.K. S. Hingorani. the DVR is simulated to be in operation only for the duration of the fault. CONCLUSION This paper has discussed the electromagnetic transient models of FC-TCR arrangement of Static Var Compensator (SVC). O Anaya-Lara. pp. IEEE Trans. “A graphical electromagnetic simulation laboratory for power systems engineering programs. Conf.. 599–606.e. 41–48. point is maintained close to the original value. R. Hingorani and L. E. V G Agelidis. London.. U. B. The PWM control scheme controls the magnitude and the phase of the injected voltages. Understanding FACTS: Concepts and Technology of Flexible AC Transmission Systems. The voltage sag at the load point and the variation of load rms voltages for a three phase short circuit fault is presented in Fig. the DVR and the D-STATCOM provide excellent voltage regulation capabilities. “FACTS — Flexible ac transmission systems.266-272.10. These models were then applied to the study of power quality and their voltage regulation capabilities were studied. S. Mohan and Varma. the dc voltage is supplied by a dc source as opposed to the dc capacitor used in the DSTATCOM. Variation of load RMS voltage and line voltage during three phase fault without DVR [4] [5] [6] [7] [8] Figure 11.2009 Third International Conference on Power Systems. When the DVR is in operation the voltage sag is mitigated almost completely. pp. T J E Miller. REFERENCES [1] [2] [3] O. and M. 9 shows the test system used to carry out the various DVR simulations. Several simulations were carried out to assess the performance of the DVR. Nayak. Figure 10. on Power Delivery. as it is expected to be the case in a practical situation. Newnes Power Engineering series. June 1995. “ Thyristor-Based Facts Controllers for Electrical Transmission Systems”. during the period 0. with a leakage reactance of 10%. January 2002. the DVR required a higher rating of dc storage device to provide appropriate levels of sag mitigation when the fault was applied near the source point. 17. Sachdev. Vol. “Introducing custom power. G.2002. “Modeling and analysis of custom power systems by PSCAD/EMTDC”. VI. Introduction to PSCAD / EMTDC. This is due to the short electrical distance between the point in fault and the DVR coupling transformer. This PWM control scheme only requires voltage measurements as against fundamental frequency switching schemes already available in the PSCAD/EMTDC. 1–7. As expected. stable.” IEEE Trans.66 Ω. Rajiv K. The control scheme was tested under a wide range of operating conditions. May 1996 E Acha. and the rms voltage at the sensitive load 6 978-1-4244-4331-4/09/$25. and rapid DVR response. 1991. A.It should be noted that in the DVR. Distribution STATCOM (D-STATCOM) and Dynamic Voltage restorer (DVR). AC DC Transmission. This characteristic makes it ideally suitable for low-voltage custom power applications. No. I Mathur. A new PWM-based control scheme has been implemented to control the power switches in the VSC used in the D-STATCOM and DVR. via a fault resistance of 0. Variation of load RMS voltage and line voltage during three phase fault with DVR Using the facilities available in PSCAD/EMTDC. A unity transformer turns ratio was used i. Manitoba HVDC Research Centre. Acha. Pub. as shown in Fig. Gole .6s.:229 C. Gyugyi. John Wiley & Sons.3–0. vol. 11. N. no booster capabilities exist.” IEEE Spectrum. 2000. The DVR coupling transformer is connected in delta in the DVR side. Clearly.

Kharagpur.:229 7 978-1-4244-4331-4/09/$25. INDIA December 27-29 Paper no.00 ©2009 IEEE .2009 Third International Conference on Power Systems.