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# TOPICS

FIRST QUARTER Lesson 1 Concept of Numbers

OBJECTIVES
 Differentiate numbers and numerals  Tell the place value and value of 2-4 digits numbers.

INTRODUCTION

STRATEGIES INTERACTION

INTEGRATION
Have them answer On Your Own on pages 810 individually on their seats. Group the class and have a contest in answering Take the Challenge on page 10.

VALUES

EVALUATION/FACTS OF UNDERTANDING

 Provide the class with 1. Let them open their 1. pieces of bond paper worktexts to page 2. and tell them to draw Discuss briefly the short objects or things being story. prepared by the 2. Introduce the cardinal 2. teacher. As you number and numeral compare them, relate based on the activity in these to numbers and the introduction and in numerals. the short story. ` 3. Make use of the place value chart to review. 4. Discuss some examples from their worktexts. 5. Work with them in answering Let’s Work Together on pages 6-8. 6. Allow them to work in pairs or in 3s to have some sort of discussion among themselves. - Have volunteers explain the difference between numbers and numerals. Ask them to give on how to get the place value and value of each digit. 1. Ask the pupils to open 1. their worktexts to page 11, discuss the examples. 2. Have them observe the ways of writing 2. numbers, such as standard form, words and expanded form. 3. Discuss the other examples on pages 13- 3. 16 to further explain the concept.

Lesson 2 Numbers to 999 999

 Read and write  Review how to read and numbers to hundred write whole numbers up thousands to thousands by using  Give the values of any flashcards. digit in a 6-digit  Review the value and number. place value up to the thousands place by using the place value chart.

Ask the pupils to use the place value chart to answer Exercise A (On Your Own) on page 16. Have them answer Exercise B (On Your Own) on page 17 without the table chart for mastery. Give exercise C (On Your Own) on page 17 to further enhance

4. Proceed to let’s Work Together on pages 1316 and Work with them 4. to check their understanding. Ask some pupils to explain the proper way of reading and writing numbers up to hundred thousands and how to get the value of each digit in a 6-digit number. 1. Tell the class that in Grade 2, they learned the compare numbers using less than, greater than, or equal to. 2. Ask them to open their worktexts to page 19 and discuss with them the story problem. 3. Make use of the place value chart to compare and to determine the correct symbol to use. Discuss the other examples. 4. Have them work on Let’s Work Together on pages 21-23 in pairs to discuss and share idea. Call on pupils to explain when to use >,<, or = in comparing numbers and how to arrange numbers from the greatest to the least or vise versa.

their skills in this lesson. Challenge them to work on Take the Challenge on page 18 and have them answer as fast as they can.

Lesson 3 Comparing and Ordering of Whole Numbers

 Express the  Group the class into relationship of numbers five or six and conduct using less than, greater a game. Ask them to than, and equal to arrange themselves  Arrange numbers in according to their order from least to height, length of their greatest and from hair, size of their shoes, greatest to least. etc. after the game, talk about how they are able to arrange themselves according to the given attribute.

1. Give On Your Own on pages 23-24 as seatwork. Set a time limit for a speed and accuracy. 2. Challenge the pupils to work on Take the Challenge on page 25 to provide opportunity for everyone to develop their critical thinking skills.

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Lesson 4 Rounding Off Numbers

 Round off numbers to  Conduct a game on the nearest tens, guesting how many hundreds, thousands, objects there are in a ten thousands, and given set. Make use of hundred thousands. pictures or real objects.

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Tell the class that their answer are only rounded off numbers and are not exact numbers. Have them open their worktexts to page 26 and read the story problem. Make use of a number line to discuss how to round off numbers. Tackle the other way of rounding off numbers where certain rules are applied. Give more examples. Ask the pupils to work on let’s Work Together on page 2830 in pairs. Tell them to answer as fast as they can.

1. Have the class answer On Your Own on pages 31-32. 2. Check their answers as a follow-up on their understanding of the concept. 3. Allow some pupils to make use of the number line in answering Take the Challenge on page 33. Pay close attention to the pupils having difficulties.

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Lesson 5 Reading and Writing Roman Numerals

 Express Roman  Tell the class that in numerals up to hundred Grade 2, they learned thousands into HinduRoman numerals which Arabic symbols, and are still being used vice versa today. Present the clock and discuss the time given.

Call on volunteers to demonstrate on the board how to round off numbers. 1. Tell the class the 1. number of years their school has existed in Roman numerals and ask them to find out in Hindu-Arabic how to express this number. 2. Tell the class that there are certain rules 2. to follow in using this system. First review their equivalent in Hindu-Arabic. Discuss with them the

Have them do On Your Own on pages 37-38 and remind them of the rules to follow in expressing Roman numerals into HinduArabic symbols and vice versa. Group the class in twos or threes and conduct a quiz bowl in answering Take the Challenge on page 39. Be sure to group the

rules and have them give more examples for each rule. 3. Discuss with them the rules and have them give more examples for each rule. 4. Let them work on Let’s Work Together on pages 36-37 and discuss or check with them their answers. - Ask volunteers to state the rules and give examples in expressing Roman Numerals into Hindu-Arabic and vice versa. Chapter 2 Addition and Subtraction of Whole Numbers Lesson 1 Concept of Addition

class fairly.

 Identify addends and  Ask the pupils to bring sum out the cards assigned  Identify the different to them. properties of addition  Have them arrange two  Use the properties of seats of cards with addition to get the sum different numbers of easily pieces.  Let them go to the board and write a number sentence of their sets of cards.  Discuss with them the words “addends” and “sum”

1. Have them open their worktexts to page 44. Show them the ways of writing addition sentences. 2. Discuss the three properties of addition using the charts. Have them explain each property and elicit more examples. 3. Let the pupils answer Let’s Work Together on pages 47-78 orally and check if they really understand the three properties of addition. - Elicit from pupils answer on how to define addition, addend, and sum, and how they can use the

1. Have the answer at their seats Exercises A and B )On Your Own) on pages 48-49 to fully check their understanding of the basic properties of addition. 2. To make the pupils more skillful in addition, ask them to do Exercise C and D (On Your Own) on pages 49 – 50. 3. Challenge the class to answer Tale the Challenges on page 50.

Lesson 2 Addition of 4-to-6-digit Numbers up to 999 999 without Regrouping

 Add 4-to-6-digit numbers up to 999 999 without regrouping

Lesson 3 Addition of 4-to6-digit Numbers up to 999 999 with Regrouping

 Add 4-to6-digit numbers up to 999 999 with regrouping  State the rules in adding large numbers with regrouping

L:esson 4 Subtraction of Whole Numbers without regrouping

Lesson 5 Subtracting Numbers with Regrouping

regrouping.  Subtract numbers  Bring to class a 1. Have them open their 1. without regrouping container with 500 worktexts to page 60. straws. Call on a pupils Before discussing, have one at a time to get them state the steps in some straws. Ask them adding large numbers. the number of straws Tell the class that before left after they have subtracting, they have to 2. gotten. Let them write a arrange the numbers number sentence about vertically, similar with it. what they do first in addition. 2. Let them answer the odd-numbered items in Let’s Work Together on 3. pages 61-62 on the board for further discussion and the evennumbered at their seats. Ask them to use addition to check their answers. - Given a number sentence written horizontally, call volunteers to demonstrate the proper way of subtracting numbers.  Subtract whole  Provide exercises on 1. Give a brief 1. numbers with the board showing background of regrouping subtracting 2-digitnapoleon Bonaparte numbers with and discuss the number regrouping. problem about him on  Recall basic subtraction page 64 of the terms: “minded”, worktext. subtrahend”, and 2. Make use of the place “difference”. value chart to solve the problem and the use the shortcut method. Discuss some more examples in their worktexts. 3. Have them work in 2s. 2.

Provide them with more practice in On Your Own on pages 62-63. Tell the class the importance of the following instructions. Go around to check whether the pupils are following instructions correctly. Have them work by group to answer Take the Challenge on page 63.

Make them use their acquired skills in the previous lessons to answer On Your Own on pages 67-69. Remind them that after borrowing, the next digit at the left is decreased by 1, if in the difference the leftmost digit is zero, the zero should not be written for it is no longer important. Group the class and let

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]Lesson 6 Subtraction with Zeroes

 Subtract whole  Have a drill on numbers 2-digit subtracting 2-sigit number with zero in the number with zero in the minuend. minuend.  Provide boardwork  Provide boardwork exercises on exercise on subtracting subtracting whole whole numbers. numbers.

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tell them to ask their partners the year they were born. Tell them to use subtraction to find their ages. Let them work on Lets Work Together on page 6667. Provide subtraction sentences on the board and call on volunteers to explain or demonstrate the correct way of subtracting whole numbers with regrouping. Show the problem 1. written on manila paper. Have the students study the problem. Make use of the model approach for them to understand better why the operation is subtraction. Take up some more problems is their worktexts and discuss 2. precisely the proper way of subtracting whole numbers with zeroes in the minuend. Have the pupils answer Let’s Work Together on page 71 to check on their difficulties Ask volunteers to give one subtraction sentence on the board and explain the correct way in subtracting

them work in answering Take the Challenge on page 69.

Develop their skills in subtracting whole numbers with zeroes in the minuend further by providing Exercise A (On Your Own) on page 72. Have them find the missing word by answering the puzzle in Exercise B (On Your Own) on page 72. Motivate them to answer Take the Challenge on page 73 by a short play. Ask a volunteer to act as a fisherman.

Lesson 7 Estimation

 Recall the rules in  Show to the class a rounding off whole picture of a truck full of numbers coconuts and have them  Estimate the sums and guess the number of differences of two or coconuts. more numbers

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Lesson 8 Mental Calculation on Addition and Subtraction

 Add and subtract whole  Present the cards to the numbers mentally class.  Ask them what makes it easy to add or subtract without actual computation.

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whole numbers with zeroes in the minuend. Ask the pupils to open their worktexts to page 74. Discuss some of the examples in estimating the land area of the three big islands of the country. Have them read aloud the rules to follow in estimating sum and difference in the Math Box on page 76. Proceed immediately to Let’s Work together on pages 76-79 to check their answers and understanding of the concepts. Work with them and have them write their solutions and answers on the board. Call on volunteers to enumerate the rules in estimating the sum and difference of whole numbers. Ask the class what makes numbers easy to add or subtract. Have them open their worjtexts to pages 8388. Discuss the examples given. Provide more boardworks to explain the concepts further. Call on volunteers to demonstrate some examples.

1. Allow them to work in twos in answering Exercise A and B (On your Own) on pages 80-81 to further discuss among themselves the concept. 2. Motivate the class in answering Take the Challenge on page 82.

1. Provide enough time in allowing the pupils to answer On Your On pages 89-90 on their seats. 2. Ask the pupils to discuss their answer and entertain questions it problems arise. 3. Group the class into four and provide them with manila paper and

5. Work with the pupils in answering Lets Work together on pages 8889 and ask some pupils to write their answers on the board. - Ask the class how to make addition and subtraction easier without actual computation. Chapter 3 Lesson 1 Concepts of Multiplication  Show that  Collect the things multiplication is a assigned to the class, repeated addition such as toys, fruits etc.  Identify the different let them count the properties of natural way. multiplication  Group the object into  Review the basic equal numbers and multiplication facts have them realize that there is an easier way to find the total numbers, and that is by multiplication. Have them write multiplication sentences from the given situation.  Discuss “multiplier”, multiplicand”, “factors”, and “product”. 1.

markers so they can illustrate their solutions to answer Take the Challenge problems on page 90.

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Lesson 2 Multiplication by 1-digit

 Multiply 2-to 4-digit  Using flashcards, numbers by a 1-digit conduct a drill on

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Discuss with the class 1. Guide them in the examples in their answering Lets Work worktexts. Together on pages Tell the class that 101-104 of their similar to addition , worktexts. multiplication also 2. Have them work on has properties. Your Own on pages Discuss with them 104-107; roam around that similar to to check their addition, understanding multiplication also regarding the lesson. has properties 3. Challenge the pupils to Discuss with them the and answer Take the properties and some Challenge on page important notes. Have 108. them realize that knowing the different properties of multiplication will help them find the product easily. Have the pupils define and identify the factors, product, multiplicand, and multiplier. Ask them to illustrate the multiplication properties. Make use of the place 1. Have them turn their value chart in worktexts to page 111

Numbers without Regrouping

numbers regrouping

without

multiplication of 1-digit by another 1-digit number.

Lesson 3 Multiplication by 1-Digit Numbers with regrouping

 Multiply 2 – to -4 digit  Using flashcards, numbers by a 1-digit conduct a drill on number with multiplication of a 1regrouping digit by another 1-digit number.  Provide exercises on multiplying a 1-digit number by 2-digit to 4digit numbers without regrouping.

multiplying numbers without regrouping and follow this using the shortcut method. Related how the distributive property is used in the shortcut method. 2. Discuss with the class the examples in their worktexts. 3. Motivate them to answer Lets Work Together on page 110 for more practice. - Ask the pupils to discuss and illustrate 2- to 4-digit numbers by a 1-digit number without regrouping the shortcut method. 1. Make use of the place value chart in multiplying numbers with regrouping and follow this using the shortcut method. 2. Discuss with the class the examples in their worktexts. 3. Motivate them to answer Let’s Work Together on pages 116-117 by telling them that if they want to help the lion to find her cub, they could should first find the product on that activity. - Ask the pupils to discuss and illustrate multiplying 2- to 4digit numbers by a 1digit number with and

and answer Exercise A (On your Own) 2. Let them answer exercises B and C (On your Own) on pages 111-112 on their seats 3. Have them work by group to discuss among themselves Take the Challenge on pages 112-113.

1. Have them turn their worktexts to page 118 (On Your Own). Tell them that Carlo is saying something and to find out what it is, they should answer numbers 1-14 first. 2. Let them answer Exercise B and C (On Your Own) on pages 119-122 on their seats. 3. Have them work by group to discuss among themselves Take the Challenge on page 122.

Lesson 4 Multiplication by 2-digit Numbers with and without Regrouping

 Multiply number without

by 2-digit  Practice multiplying 1with and digit numbers using flashcards. Have this in front of contest.

Lesson 5 Multiplication involving Multiples of ten

 Multiply 2 to -4 digit  Using flashcards, numbers by multiples of review multiplying 1- to 10 2-digit numbers.  Provide more exercises on the board.

without regrouping using the shortcut method. 1. Discuss examples on pages 123-124. Explain the importance of place value and the distributive property in multiplying numbers. 2. Discuss the other examples with the class. 3. Let the students do board work to check on possible errors in the procedure. - Call some volunteers to give examples on the board and discuss with their classmates how to multiply by 2digit numbers 1. Have the class study the examples on page 128. 2. Elicit from the pupils what they have observed. 3. Discuss more examples on the board. - Call on pupils to recite the rules for multiplying numbers by 10, 100, 1 000 based on the examples and exercises.

Lesson 6 Estimation in Multiplication

 Use estimation in  Using flashcards, finding the product. review multiplying 2-to 4- digit numbers and

1. Let them turn on 125 and answer Let’s Work Together. 2. Roam around to check the difficulties encountered by the pupils. 3. Have them proceed to On Your Own on pages 126-127 to enhance their skills ion doing multiplication. 4. Group the pupils into five and have them discuss among themselves the solution to Take the Challenge on page 127. 1. Solve Let’s Work Together on pages 129130 orally. 2. Have the pupils answer On Your Own on pages 130-131 in the shortest possible time so that they will receive a reward. Encourage them to solve mentally as much as possible. 3. Challenge the pupils to do Take the Challenge on page 131. Tell them that the first to finish answering will receive a reward. Encourage them to solve mentally as much as possible. 1. Tell the class that 1. Have them answer On sometimes it is hard to Your Own on pages give the exact value 134-135 at their seats

rounding off numbers.  Provide more examples on the board.

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 Use the shortcut  Using flashcards, method in review multiplying 1 to multiplication 2 digit numbers.  Provide more exercises on the board.

Lesson 7 Shortcut in multiplication

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right away, that is why we estimate. Ask the pupils to open their worktexts to page 132 and read the story problem. Discuss this with them. Elicit form the class other situations that may require estimation. Give Lets’ Work Together on pages 133-134 as an exercise Have them answer on the board to check their answers and understanding. Call on volunteers to enumerate the rules in estimating product. Have the class observe the examples on pages 136-137. Elicit from the pupils what they have observed. Discuss the shortcut calculation. Call on pupils to give factors of 10, 100 and 100 that will make easy multiplication.

2. Tell them to answer as fast as they can by using the shortcut method. 3. Group the class by 3s. ask the pupils to participate in a role play answering Take the Challenge on page 135. Make sure each one is participating.

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Solve Let’s Work Together on page 138 orally. Have the pupils answer On Your Own on pages 138-139 in the shortest possible time so that they will not use the manual computation. Advise the pupils to use the commutative property for them to find the products in Exercise C and D mentally. Look for two factors that will give 10, 100, 1 000, or numbers that are multiplies of 10. Challenge the pupils to do Take the Challenge

Lesson 8 Solving 2-step word problems

 Solve 2-step word  Discuss simple problems using the problems they model approach encounter each other and elicit form them how they can easily solve a problem.

1. Present the problems they encounter each day and elicit from them how they can easily solve a problem. 2. Tell the pupils that it is easier to solve word problems if there are some representations. Introduce to them the model approach. Solve the problem using this method. 3. Discuss more examples in their worktexts. - Provide simple word problems as boardwork and call some pupils to solve these by using the model approach. Ask them to explain their solutions. 1. Discuss the example on pages 152-153. 2. Discuss the two ways in writing division sentence and its parts 3. Using the examples of division sentence, make the pupils realize that division and multiplication are closely related to one another. 4. Take more examples on

on page 140. Tell them that the first to finish answering will receive a reward. Encourage them to solve mentally as much as possible. 1. Guide the pupils in answering Let’s Work Together on pages 143145. Point out some important things such as a  represents a unit; the bigger the number, the bigger  and so on. 2. Ask the pupils to do On Your Own on pages 145-146 further enhance their skills. 3. Challenge them to answer Take the Challenge on page 146 using the model approach.

Chapter 4 Lesson 1

 Division Concepts

 Define division and explain the parts of a division sentence  Recognize the relationship between multiplication and division.

1. Make use of Let’s Work Together on pages 155158. Discuss this with the pupils. 2. Have them answer Exercise A-H (On Your Own) on pages 158-161 individually. 3. Group them into three to answer Exercise I (On Your Own) on pages 161-163. Them them to discuss their

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page 154 for further understanding of this concept. Call on volunteers to define division and its parts. Ask some to relate division to multiplication.

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Lesson 2 Division of 2- to 4-digit Numbers by a 1-digit Divisor without Remainder

 Divide 2- to 4-digit  Play the game “The numbers by a 1-digit Boat is Sinking.” divisor without  Give the class a short remainder drill on division facts using flashcards.  Have this in a form a contest.

Lesson 3 Division of 2 –to -4 digit Numbers by 1- digit Divisor with Remainder

 Divide 2 to 4 digit  Drill the pupils on number by 1-digit division facts using divisor with remaider flashcards, Review the definition of dividend, divisor and quotient.

1. Tell them to open their worktexts to pages 164166. Discuss examples 1-3. 2. Expound on the steps and the proper places in the quotients. 3. Tell them that they can use estimation to check their answer on multiplication by multiplying the quotient and divisor . 4. Give some examples on the board and call on pupils to answer in order to check their understanding. - Have them state the steps ion dividing numbers and the two ways of checking the quotient. 1. Start the lesson by saying “We Filipinos are known to be generous individuals especially to the needy.” Tell them to find out what Ronald did to his poor neighbors. 2. Let them open their

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ideas and solutions with their groupmates. Challenge the pupils to answer Take the Challenge on page 163 as fast as they can. Tell them that the first group to finish and get the answer correctly will receive a reward. Let them answer Let’s Work Together on page 167. Tell them to check their own work and that they will answer on the board afterwards. Proceed with On Your Own on pages 168-170. Give them more time to practice their skills. Group the class into three, fours or fives. Let them discuss Take the Challenge on pages 170-171.

1. Discuss On Your Own pages 175-176 briefly. Tell the class that Tessie is saying something. To find out what it is, they must answer Exercise B. 2. Have them match the division sentences with the same answer in

Lesson 4 Division of 2-to 4-digit Numbers by a 2-digit Divisor with and without Remainder

 Divide 2-to 4-digit  Review the class on numbers by a 2-digit division using facts and divisor with and drill them using without remainder flashcards.

Lesson 5 Dividing Numbers by 10 and 100

 Divide numbers by 10  Have a brief discussion and 100 about the foundation day celebration. Lead them to one of the highlights, which is the field demonstration.  Discuss with them the word problem on page 183. Solve the problem with them. Also discuss the checking of their answers.

digit divisor. Call on pupils to explain and demonstrate the steps in dividing 2-to 4-digit numbers by a 2-digit divisor with and without remainder. 1. Provide the cartolina with number sentences on dividing numbers by 10 and 100. 2. Have them discover the shortcut method in diving numbers by 10 and 100. 3. Use some more examples in the worktexts. - Call on volunteer to explain the process of dividing numbers by 10 and 100 and to illustrate the short way of dividing.

Lesson 6 Order of Operations

 Solve mixed operations  Provide three number following the correct sentences on the board steps using two operations. One is using addition and subtraction, another, using multiplication and addition, and the third, using multiplication and subtraction.  Call on two pupils to show their solutions. Continue calling until two pupils will have shown different solutions with the same answer.  Ask the class which of

the solutions is correct.

Lesson 7 Solving Multi-step problems

 Solve 2-to problems.

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word  Tell the class that there are different ways to solve word problems using more than one operation. One very important thing to consider is to concretize the problem for easy solution.

and substation; and division and multiplication. - Call on pupils to state the rules in solving mixed operations. 1. Let them open their worktexts to page 196. Discuss the problem using the model approach. 2. Have them realize that using the model approach will help them understand Take example 2. Discuss it briefly using the model approach. - Elicit from pupils the advantages of using the model approach in solving word problems.

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Chapter 5 Lesson 1 Odd and Even Numbers

 Identify and describe  Show the pupils a odd and even numbers picture of a class going to the zoo.  Ask them to count and to match the number of boys with the girls  Discuss what odd and even numbers are. - Have the pupils differentiate odd from even numbers and to give examples of each.

1. Discuss the number line example in their worktexts to page 208. 2. From the given examples, ask the class to say something about odd and even numbers. 3. Ask them to give examples.

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Lesson 2

 Define what a factor is  Ask the pupils to bring

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Factors and Numbers

Find all the factors of a number

out the 12 balls assigned to the,  Have them arrange the balls in six different ways.  Discuss with the class what factors are

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Lesson 3 Multiples

 Identify the multiples of  Show the pupils a chip a number puzzle board.  Study the chip puzzle board with the class  Discuss with them what multiples are.

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Lesson 4 Prime and Composite

 Determine whether a  Discuss briefly with the number is a prime or a class what factors are.

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Lesson 5 Prime factorization

 Find the prime  Ask volunteers to write factorization of a on the board an even number using the factor and an odd numbers. method  Recall the terms factors and prime numbers.  Ask pupils to write the factors of the numbers on the board and identify which is prime and which is composite. Ask them to explain their answers.  Discuss with them “prime factorization”.

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that on page 223. Ask the students to get the factors of the encircled numbers. Make them realize that the encircled numbers which have only 1 and itself as factors are called “prime” numbers. Give them another set of numbers with three or more different factors. Make them realize that these numbers because they have three or more different factors. Provide them with more examples. Make a generalization on composite and prime numbers. Using a number chart, ask some pupils to group the numbers into composite and prime numbers. Tackle with the pupils the factor tree method provided in their worktexts on pages 228-229. Give them more examples on prime factorization using the factor tree method. Ask a pupil to read to the class the definition of prime factorization and the factor tree method written in their worktexts.

answer to answer Exercise A and B (Let’s Work Together) on page 225. Guide them through the exercises. 2. Ask them to answer On Your Own on pages 225-226 to check their understanding of the concept. 3. Challenge the pupils to answer Take the Challenge on page 227 as their final evaluation.

1. Ask some volunteers to answer on the board Let’s Work Together on pagers 229-230 and the class evaluate the answers. 2. Ask them to answer on the board Let’s Work Together on pages 231232 for better understanding of the concepts. If the outcome is good proceed to the next level. 3. Give the pupils Take the

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Lesson 6 Greatest Common Factor (GCF)

 List the factors of two  Provide the class a numbers Determine the board drill on greatest common factor factorization. of a given set of numbers.

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Lesson 7 Least Common Multiple (LCM)

 Find the common  Give the class a board 1. multiples of a given drill on multiples. number. Identify the least common multiple of a given set of 2. numbers

Given the composite numbers on the board, call some volunteers to show the prime factorization of each using the factor tree method. Provide them with a cork board and two sets of pins, one with eight pieces and the other with 12 pieces. Factor each numbers and make them realize that there are factors that appear on both sets. These are called common factors, the greatest of which is called the “greatest common factor (GCF)”. Give them more examples. Ask a pupil to read to the class the definition of common factors and GCF provided in the worktext. Call on some pupils to discuss the concepts learned in words and with the use of examples. Provide them with examples on how to find the multiples of a number. Guide them in finding the multiples of the 2 numbers given in their worktexts on page 238 as an example.

Challenge on page 232.

1. Tell the pupils to answer Let’s Work Together on pages 234235 in groups. Their answers will be compared later on. 2. Guide them in answering On Your Own pages 235-237 as an exercise. 3. Challenge the pupils to answer Take the Challenge on page 237 and give extra points to the first 10 pupils who can answer correctly.

1. Ask the pupils to answer exercise A and B (Let’s Work Together) on pages 239-240 and check whether their answers are right. 2. Group them by fives and ask them to

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Ask them to identify the common multiples and the least of them all. Let the class read the definition of “Least Common Multiple (LCM) provide in the Math Box of their worktexts on page 239. Have the pupils discuss the concepts learned on the board with the use of examples.

answer Exercise An and B (On Your Own) on pages 240-241 on the board. 3. Challenge them to answer Take the Challenge on page 241 as fast as they can.

Chapter 6 Lesson 1 Concept of Fraction

 Recall the meaning of  Using a bond paper, fractions instruct the pupil to fold  Read and write the sheet into 2, 4,8,16 fractions and so on. Discuss the parts briefly.

Lesson 2 Kinds of Fractions

1. Have them open their 1. Work with them on worktexts to page Let’s Together on 246. Ask them about pages 249-251 to their birthday parties. check their 2. Discuss letters A and B understanding on this on pages 246-247 of topic. Ask them to their worktexts. Point recite the answers. out the use of the 2. Encourage them to “numerator”, answer On Your Own “denominator”, and pages 252-254. “fraction line”. 3. Before letting them 3. Discuss the proper way answer Take the of writing and reading Challenge on page 25. fractions. Discuss Tell the class that letter C on page 248 getting half is dividing briefly. Emphasize the the number or figure use of “th” or “ths” into two equal parts. - Ask for the definition of fraction. Have them tell something about the numerator, denominator, and faction line.  Identify similar and  Give the class a review 1. Present one apple 1. Discuss Let’s Work dissimilar fractions. on the concept of assigned to a particular Together on pages 260 Difference proper fractions. pupil. Cut the apple into 261 thoroughly so as let fractions, improper two equal parts and them fully understand fractions, and mixed have them name one the topic. numbers. part. Then cut it again 2. Have the pupils do On

Lesson 3 Equivalent Fractions

into four parts and have Your Own on pages them name the part. 262-264. 2. Ask if the parts are less 3. Have them answer Take than one. Tell the class the Challenge on page that a fraction less than 264 for a firmer grasp one are “proper of the kinds of fractions. fraction”. If its numerator is less than its denominator. 3. Provide one more apple and lead them to discover the concepts of “improper fraction” Tell them that if can also be written as a “mixed number”. “Discuss similar” and “dissimilar” fractions. - Call on pupils to differentiate fractions taken up and to give the process on how to convert a mixed number to an improper fraction, or vice versa.  Find the equivalent  Conduct paper folding. 1. Tell the class that David 1. Have the pupils answer fractions of a given Give a review on equal is doing a project in his Let’s Work together on fraction parts. Science class. Let them pages 268-271 orally. open their worktexts to This is to check on page 265 to know more their difficulties. Have about it. Discuss it them explain their briefly. answers if possible. 2. Have them discover that 2. Provide On Your Own sometimes fractions on page 271-274 as with different names their seatwork. may have the same size. 3. Group the class by Introduce “equivalent twos and let them fractions”. Take more answer. Take the examples from their Challenge on page worktexts. 275. This is to make 3. Discuss the ways of them interact with finding equivalent. each other. 4. Discuss the ways of

Lesson 4 Comparing and Ordering Fractions

 Compare and order  Group the class into similar fractions fives and sixes.  Compare and order  Conduct a game on dissimilar fractions comparing the size of their shoes, height age, etc.

Lesson 5 Fraction in Lowest Term

 Change fractions to  Review the class on lowest terms equivalent fractions,  Identify the lowest term especially by using of a fraction Name division. factors of a given number.

finding equivalent fractions. - Call on volunteers to discuss the ways of finding equivalent fractions. 1. Ask them to open their 1. Let the pupils answer worktexts to page 2673 Let’s Work Together on discuss example A with pagers 278-279. Work them. Have them with them for further discover the easiest way understanding of the of comparing similar concept learned. fractions. 2. Have them answer On 2. Discuss example B on Your Own on pages page 277. Let them 280-281 for more discover that having the practice. same numerators will 3. Ask them to answer make the comparison Take the Challenge on easier; that is, by page 282 to enhance comparing their their critical thinking. denominators. The higher the denominator, the lower the value of the fraction. 3. Make use of drawing or shaded figures in comparing dissimilar fractions. - Ask some pupils to differentiate similar from dissimilar fractions, to compare fraction, and to use the symbols > and <. 1. Make use of the figure 1. Motivate the class to on page 283 of the answer Let’s Work worktext in discussing Together on pages 285“lowest terms” 287. Tell them that the 2. Have them realize that figure will help them the fraction is in the understand the concept lowest terms when the better. Check their only number that can answers as well. divide the numerator 2. Challenge them to find

 Add similar and  Review similar dissimilar fractions. fractions, dissimilar  Add mixed number with fractions, mixed similar fractions. numbers and lowest terms.  Discuss what parents can give their children aside from education and money.

Lesson 7 Subtraction of Fractions

 Subtract similar and  Give exercises on the dissimilar fractions. board in adding similar  Subtract mixed and dissimilar numbers with similar fractions. fractions  Emphasize that in any operation, the answer must always be in lowest terms.

and the denominator is 1. 3. Take another example and call on volunteers to go to the board and simplify the fractions. - Ask the pupils how to reduce fractions to lowest terms. 1. Let the class find out what Mr. Ong shared with his children on page 289. Discuss briefly how to add similar fractions using the given figures. 2. Emphasize the answers should always be in lowest terms. 3. Proceed with dissimilar fractions and mixed numbers so that the pupils could determine their difference. Make use of the easiest way if possible. - Call on volunteers to give the steps in adding similar and dissimilar fractions with mixed numbers. 1. Have them open their worktexts on page 296 and discuss with them the first problem on subtracting similar fractions. 2. Ask them to Answer Work Together on page 297 mentally. 3. Proceed with the subtraction of mixed numbers. Check their

out the mystery behind the will left by a famous Arabian Mathematics. Al-Kwarizmi Muhammad by answering Take the Challenge on page 288.

1. Have the pupils answer Let’s Work Together on pages 290, 292 and 294 or ask them to answer these as boardwork exercises to further explain the concepts. 2. Let them answer On Your Own on page 295. This time as seatwork exercises. 3. Tell them to proceed to Take the Challenge on page 295 and make them answer it as fast as they can.

1. Answer Let’s Work together on pages 300301 with the class. Explain the concept further. 2. Have them do. On Your Own on pages 301-302 to further enhance their skills. 3. Challenge them to answer Take the Challenge on page 302

Lesson 8 Fraction of a Number

 Find the fractional part  Divide the class into of a given number groups with an equal number of pupils (example: into fives). Have them count how many , , , and so on.  Write on the board the number sentence. Example of 35 is 7.

understanding by letting them answer. Let’s Work Together on page 299 orally. Then introduce dissimilar fractions. 4. Have them discover that the process is the same as in addition, except that they subtract in this cause. - Give them number sentences on the board in subtracting fractions, mixed numbers with similar and dissimilar fractions. Ask volunteers to explain how to solve them. 1. Ask the pupils to open their worktexts to page 303 and review fractional parts. 2. Discuss briefly work problem B. make use of objects or drawings before discussing the lesson with the class by using the number sentence. 3. Discuss the remaining examples and ask them to give their own problems and solve them on the board. - Call on volunteers to illustrate on the board how to solve for a fractional part of a number. 1. Using the shaded

by using the diagram.

1. Check their understanding by letting them answer Let’s Work Together on pages 305307. Do this orally. 2. Proceed with On Your Own on pages 308-309 as seatwork. 3. Before letting them answer Take the Challenge on page 309. Let them discover that it is easy to divide first before multiplying. If possible, especially when the numbers are big.

Chapter 7 Lesson 1

 Determine

the

place  Ask them to open their

1. Aid

the

pupils

in

Place Value of Decimals

value of decimal worktexts to page 316 numbers and see the topic about  Read and write “place value of decimals through decimals”. hundredths including  Have them read and money study the selection silently.  Discuss the place value of decimal.

squares provided in their worktexts, explain the principle of decimals. 2. Have them read for themselves and understand the properties of decimals written in the Math Box on page 317. 3. Provide them with more examples without using the shaded squares. - Ask some volunteers to briefly define the properties of decimals in their own words.

Lesson 2 Comparing and Ordering

 Compare decimals  Show the class two through hundredths. decimal figures. Order decimals  Ask them to name each through hundredths number and compare.  Discuss comparing and ordering numbers in decimals.

1. Have them compare the two decimal figures of the examples on page 327. 2. Ask a volunteer to read and explain in their own words what is written in the Math Box provided in their worktexts on pages 328. 3. Discuss how to order and compare decimals through ones, tenths, hundredths, and so on. 4. Provide more examples and guide them - Elicit from pupils how to compare and order decimals through hundredths.

Lesson 3 Addition of Decimals and Money

 Add decimal numbers  Have a role play with up to hundredths students buying in a canteen.  Use of play money.  Based on the skit, elicit from them the importance of adding and subtracting their money.

Lesson 4 Subtraction of Decimals and Money

 Subtract decimals up to  Have the class open hundredths their worktexts to page 339 (subtraction of decimals).  Ask them to read and analyze the problem. Ask what operation is to be used.  Discuss with them subtraction of decimals up to the hundredths.

Lesson 5 Problem Solving on Addition and Subtract of Decimals

 Solve work problem  Provide the class with involving addition and the drill on adding and subtraction of decimals subtracting decimals

1. Discuss what transpired in the role=playing. 2. Using the shortcut method, discuss with the pupils how to add decimals up to hundredths. 3. Guide them in answering the second example on page 335 of their worktexts using the shortcut method. 4. Ask volunteers to do the steps in adding decimals provided in the Math Box on page 335. - Ask some volunteers to show the step-step process of adding decimals up to the hundredths place. 1. Using the shortcut method, discuss subtraction with decimals. 2. Have the answer the other examples in the worktexts using the diagram and the shortcut method as a guide. 3. Ask some volunteers to demonstrate on the board the steps in the Math Box on page 340. - Ask volunteers to demonstrate to the class the steps in subtracting decimals. 1. Present a problem on decimals. 2. Present a technique in deriving the answer.

1. Guide them in answering Exercises A and B (Let’s Work Together) on pages 335-336 by group. 2. Have them work On Your Own on pages 336-338 to further check their understanding the concepts. 3. Challenge the pupils to answer Take the Challenge on page 338 as an assignment.

1. Ask volunteers to answer Let’s Work Together on page 341 on the board following the step-by-step process. 2. Group them by 3’s and have them answer On Your Own on pages 342-343 as their exercise. 3. To evaluate their learning, give them Take the Challenge on page 344 for bonus points.

1. Have them answer Let’s Work Together on pages 347-348 by group on their

3. Guide a volunteer to answer another problem involving decimals. Tell him or her to use the model approach. 4. Make them realize that the use of the model approach makes it easy to present and solve the problem on decimals and that they should use this approach whenever they solve problems involving decimals. 5. Discuss another example. - Ask volunteers to show how to solve problems on addition and subtraction of decimals using the model approach. Chapter 8 Lesson 1 Points and Lines  Represent points, lines  Point out to the class and planes some concrete examples  Name found inside and of “points,” “lines”, outside the classroom and “planes” that can be found inside the classroom.  Have them open their worktexts to page 358 (lines and points).  Discuss the concept of points. 1. Have them open their worktexts to page 358 on examples of problems involving points. Discuss and describe what points are. 2. Ask them if they can identify the figures that follow. 3. Guide them to identify each figure by giving meaning or descriptions. 4. Let them find out that all these figures are connections of several points and are different from each other. - Ask volunteers to

notebooks. Let them exchange work afterwards. 2. Ask them to answer On Your Own on pages 349-351 and then have them present their answer to the class for evaluation. 3. Give them Take the Challenge on page 351.

1. Let them answer Let’s Work Together on pages 362-364 orally. 2. Ask them to answer On Your Own on pages 364-367 by group. 3. Let them show their answers to the class foe evaluation. 4. Encourage them to do more by answering Take the Challenge on page 367.

Lesson 2 Angles

 Name an angle  Give the class a brief  Differentiate the kinds review on “lines,” “line of angles segments”, and “rays”  Define an angle  Ask them if they can find objects that form angles inside the classroom.

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Lesson 3 Plane and Space Figures

 Differentiate different kinds polygons

the  Have the group the of proper according to shape and paste the papers on the chalkboard in tabular form.  Have them fill up the table that describers the different figures according to the number of sides and angles.  Discuss with them the different “polygons”.

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5.

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summarize the conceits learned. Ask them to bring out their protractors and discuss with them their function. In groups, ask them to measure the angles of the objects which they think form angles. Report to the class their findings. Using their findings, discuss with them the kinds of angles. Have some volunteers draw on the board the different kinds of angels using their protractor Have them open their worktexts to page 378 (Planes and Space Figure). Give them enough time to read and study the definitions of polygons. Give them an oral recitation by calling each one to define or name a figure and vice versa. Guide them in answering Exercises A,B, and C 9Let’s Work Together) on pages 381-382 as their beginning exercise. Discuss with them space figures using the things commonly seen and used. Have the pupils

1. Have an oral recitation by answering Let’s Work Together on pages 372-373. 2. Let the pupils answer On Your Own on pages 374-375 on their notebooks and compare their answers with the others. 3. Challenge them to do more by letting them answer Take the Challenge on pages 377.

1. In groups, have them answer Exercises A, B, C and D Let’s Work Together) on pages 384-385. 2. Have them answer On Your Own on pages 384-386. 3. Have them answer On Your Own on pages 386-384 in their notebooks and check their answers. 4. Have them answer Take the Challenge on page 389 under time pressure.

Lesson 4 Symmetry

 Identify symmetrical  Have the pupils bring figures and lines of out their bond papers symmetry into equal parts using the concepts of symmetry.  Tell them that the figures they formed are symmetrical figures and the dotted line in each figure is the line of symmetry.  Discuss symmetry figures.

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 Determine which  Review the lesson on motion creates a given patterns. tessellation from simple  Present two sets of symmetrical designs identical unit shapes. out of given shapes.  Ask the pupils which tessellate and which does not.  Define “tessellation,” then ask again which set of shapes tessellates.

Lesson 5 Tessellations

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summarize the concepts learned. Guide them in drawing lines of symmetry and discuss. However, stress to the students that not all lines that divide a figure into two equal parts are line of symmetry. Guide them in folding figures having more than one line of symmetry. Stress that some figures may have more than one line of symmetry. Have some pupils illustrate to the class the concepts learned. Show them several shapes that tessellate and those that do not. Ask them to identify the shapes that tessellate. Provide more examples of shapes that tessellate. Stress that they can rotate the unit shape to form tessellations but cannot use a mirror image that is not identical to the original unit shape. Ask volunteers to explain tessellation to the class, using the concepts of symmetry.

1. Guide the pupils in answering Let’s Work Together on pages 393-394 on the board. 2. Have them answer On Your on pages 395396. 3. Give them Take the Challenge on page 396 as an assignment.

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Have them answer, as a class, Exercises A and B (Let’s Work Together) on pages 398-399. Have a boardwork using Exercise C (Let’s Work Together) on page 400. Ask them to answer On Your Own on pages 400-402 and let them exchange their works. Allow them to explore more by answering Take the Challenge on page 402.

Chapter 9 Measurement

LESSON 1 Telling Time and Duration

 Tell the correct time in different ways  Tell the duration of time

 Survey the class on who 1. wears a watch and on what type of watch they use. 2.  Ask them for the current time. 3.  Ask the pupils regarding the parts of the watch and their importance. 4.

LESSON 2 Conversion of Time Measurement

 Convert Units of time  Add and subtract time  Solve problems involving units of time

1. Have them answer Let’s Work Together on pages 413-414 on the board. 2. To further enhance their skills, give them On Your Own on pages 415-417. 3. As an assignment, challenge the students to answer Take the Challenge on page 417.

1. Guide them in answering Let’s Work Together on pages 422423 2. Have them answer On Your Own on pages 424-427 orally. 3. Challenge the pupils to answer Take the Challenge on page 427.

LESSON 3 Measures of Length

 

Choose the unit of length measure Change kilometer to meter, centimeter to meter, and vice versa

 

Review the class on the metric unit. Review them on the use of the ruler and other measuring instruments.

LESSON 4 Addition and Subtraction of Linear Measurement

 

Add and Subtract lengths and distances Solve problems involving linear measurement

Expound on “what is linear measurement.” Ask the class about the distance they travel to a specific place. Ask the pupils the importance of knowing linear measurement.

LESSON 5 Perimeter

Find the perimeter of a closed figure

Ask the pupils to give concrete examples of

learned by giving concrete examples. 1. Ask the pupils to measure some of the things around them using “cm” and “m”. 2. Make them realize that the units “cm” and “m” are used to measure short lengths and distances only. 3. Have them open their worktexts on page 428. Ask them to study the examples. 4. Discuss more examples. - Ask volunteers to illustrate the concepts learned in measuring length. 1. Discuss with them the examples on linear measurement provided in their worktexts on page 436. 2. Guide them in answering the other example on nadding and subtracting linear measurement. 3. Have some volunteers answer on the board a sample problem. 4. Provide them with pointers in adding and subtracting linear measurement. - Have the pupils demonstrate the concepts learned. 1. Ask them to open their worktexts on page

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3.

Let them answer Let’s Work Together on page 432 as an exercise. To enrich their skills in measuring lengths, give them On Your Own on pages 433-435 as seatwork. Those who will get a perfect score will exempted from the assignment. As an assignment, challenge the pupils to answer Take the Challenge on page 435. Guide the pupils in answering Let’s Work Together on pages 438-439 as an exercise. Take their understanding on the topic by giving On Your Own on pages 439-441. For bonus points, challenge the pupils to answer Take the Challenge on page 442.

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3.

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Solve word problems involving perimeter measure

LESSON 6 Area, Counting Square Units

Find the area of the figure in square centimeter or square meters.

   

closed figures. Choose one from the 2. examples and ask one pupil to measure each side with a ruler. 3. Tell the pupils that the purpose in measuring the sides of the figure 4. is to find its perimeter. Ask a pupil to read the definition of perimeter provided in the worktext on page 443. Ask them to guess the answer; reveal it if they cannot figure it up. Show a flat surface to 1. the class. Ask the pupils to describe the square 2. figure. Tell the class that they will find the area of a surface. 3. Ask them to answer to measure the sides of the flat surface. 4.

443. Guide them in answering the word problem. Remind them that only 2. closed figures have perimeter. Provide more examples and supervise them in 3. answering. Have volunteers illustrate the concept of the perimeter to the class.

Together on pages 444-446 on the board to see if they understood the lesson. Ask them to answer On Your Own on pages 446-449 in their notebooks. Challenge the pupils to answer Take the Challenge on page 450.

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LESSON 7 More on Area and Perimeter

Find the area and perimeter of rectangles, squares, and triangle by using specific formulas Find the area of

Review the class on 1. how to find the perimeter.

Ask one pupil to read 1. to the class the definition of the area. Using the data gathered, guide them in deriving the 2. answer. Have them open their worktexts to page 451 to provide them with 3. more examples. Give the pupils some pointers provided in the Math Box on pages 451, 452, and 453. Ask the pupils to summarize the concepts by giving their own examples. Conduct an activity 1. where pupils discover how to find the areas and perimeters of rectangles, squares, 2. and triangles using

Supervise them while they answer Let’s Work Together on pages 454-459 as an exercise. Group the pupils and ask them to answer On Your Own on pages 456-459. Give them Take the Challenge on page 459.

Supervise them while they answer Let’s Work Together on pages 464-465. By group, ask them to answer Exercises A

composite figures Solve word problems involving area and perimeter of rectangles, squares, and triangles

2.

3.

    Show the class how to use a weighing scale and its part.  Ask the pupils to bring out their assigned object or thing. Let them weigh the object and record the data.

LESSON 8 Measures of Mass

Measure mass in grams and kilograms Add and subtract in grams and kilograms Solve word problems involving grams and kilograms

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   Measures the capacity  in liters and milliliters Add and subtract liters and milliliters Solve word problems involving liters and milliliters 

LESSON 9 Measures of Capacity

Have them bring out their assigned containers and ask them to fill each container with water using a beaker. Tell them that the amount of water a container can hold is its capacity, and it is measured in liters or milliliters.

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2.

formulas. Guide them in answering the examples presented in their worktexts on pages 460-463. Provide the class more examples for better understanding. Ask the pupils to illustrate the concept learned. Stress the importance of a weighing scale. Provide them with the reminders written in the Math Box on page 470. Using the data they have gathered, guide them in converting grams into kilograms, and vice versa. Provide more examples and allow the pupils to come up with a solution. Ask volunteers to demonstrate how to use the weighing scale. Ask them to record their data on the board and help them find out that milliliters are for all small quantities, while liters are for large quantities. 1 liter equals 1 000 mL. Using their containers with water, ask them to add or subtract their contents and

and B On Your Own on page 467. 3. For further application of the skills, give them C and D On Your Own on page 467. 4. Challenge the pupils to answer Take the Challenge on page 468. 5. 1. Guide them in answering Let’s Work Together on pages 471-474 as an exercise. As an oral recitation, give them On Your Own on pages 475-479 to develop their skills even more. For evaluation, challenge the pupils to answer Take the Challenge on page 480.

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3.

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Guide the pupils in answering Let’s Work Together on pages 484-486. If the result of the first exercise is good, give them On Your Own on pages 486-489. Challenge them to answer Take the Challenge on pages 489-490.

discuss the solution. 3. Give a word problem and help them derive the answer. - Ask the pupils to illustrate the concepts learned by using concrete examples. CHAPTER 10 Maps and Graphs LESSON 1 Pictographs    

interpret

Review the class on 1. the previous lessons on graphs Present a pictograph, but do not tell what kind of graph it is. Ask the pupils to describe the graph. 2. Then tell them its name and interpret it. 3.

LESSON 2 Bar Graphs

 

Read and interpret data using bar graphs Construct bar graphs using available data

Guide them in answering the example provided in their worktexts on pages 500-501 by calling on volunteers to interpret the graph. Help them in understanding the lesson. Ask them to make their own pictographs. - Ask volunteers to compare and contrast pictographs to other kinds of graphs. Review the class 1. Present to the class a about bar graphs. horizontal and vertical bar graph. 2. Guide the pupils to interpret the graphs by giving them questions. 3. Have them open their worktexts to pages 507-508 and give them enough time to study the examples. 4. Given the data, Ask them to make their own bar graphs. - Ask some volunteers to demonstrate how to

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Have them answer Let’s Work Together on pages 502-503 on the board. Have a class evaluation. Give them On Your Own on pages 503-505 as a quiz to further check their understanding of the lesson. As a take home exam, give them Take the Challenge on page 506. Ask them answer Let’s Work Together on pages 509-510as an exercise. Have them answer On Your Own on pages 511-513 as an oral recitation. Give them Take the Challenge on page 513.

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LESSON 3 Scale Drawing

Use scale drawing to determine the actual size or height of an object.

Demonstrate to the class hoe to use the ruler and tape measure. Ask the pupils to measure some of the things they see around the classroom in centimeter and meter. Ask them to write their findings on the board.

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make bar graphs. Ask others how to read and interpret them. Tell the class that they are going their knowledge on metric units and their data in the lesson on scale drawing. Have them open their worktexts to page 514 on scale drawing. Discuss with them the implemented scale drawing. Using the second examples on the worktext, guide them in answering the problem. Ask a pupil to read the Math Box on page 515. Provide them with another example that they should try to answer on their own. Ask a volunteer to get the actual height of one of his or her classmates using the scale drawing concept.

1. Ask them answer Let’s Work Together on page 516 only. 2. Group them in 3s and ask them to answer On Your Own on pages 517-518 for group discussion. 3. Challenge the pupils to answer Take the Challenge on page 518 under time pressure.