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SPACE

The three-dimensional field in which objects and events occur and have relative position and direction. In painting, as in Architecture, space is of great importance. In Architecture, the exterior of a building is seen as it appears in space, while the interior is seen by one who is inside an enclosing space.

Sculpture involves very little space relationship or perception of space

Painting does not deal with space directly. It represents space only on a two-dimensional surface.

FORM
Describes the structure or shape of an object. Form applies to the overall design of a work of art. Form directs the movements of the eyes. Since form consists of size and volume, it signifies weight. Every kind of form has its own aesthetic affect. All visual arts are concerned with form. SCULPTURE and ARCHITECTURE deal with three-dimensional forms. SCULPTURE deals with exterior form alone because one cannot get inside a statue. The sculptor is restricted to masses in relation to other masses of interpretation. Michelangelo’s “David” idealizes and conventionalizes forms and features, like the best of the Golden Age Greek sculpture.

and furniture are usually composed of cubes or rectangular solids. openings. usually an area on a flat surface enclosed by a line. value or texture. buildings. therefore. is produced only when the elements of function and construction are integrated by creative design. A house is a place for a family to live in. stands out because of the difference in color. that inside is a place of worship for it to become a good work of art. In addition to function. Architecture is also concerned with shapes of planes. and silhouettes of building forms. To develop our ability to recognize these shapes or forms is to see objects around us as having a particular color. electric bulbs. lakes and domes are shaped as spheres. Trees. Great architecture. Tables. If the exterior form of the house expresses clearly the interior form.Good architecture allows outward forms to be governed by what goes on inside them. A church must express on the outside. the house becomes a good piece of art. . another factor in determining form is the way in which a building is constructed. therefore the inside should be carefully designed to meet the needs of the family. human arms or legs. picture frames. the form. In painting or other two-dimensional arts. This means that the inner content of purpose or function governs the outer appearance. or triangles or other geometric forms in paintings. The skyscrapers would not have been built had it not been made necessary by rising land values resulting from urban congestion. and pencils are cylinder. Throughout the use of forms therefore. cubes. Triangles. Oranges. because they are seen as parts of the objects or as the objects themselves. circles and rectangles are favourite designs used by painters. is the guiding principle “FORM FOLLOWS FUNCTION”. tecture or tone. This is the reason why it is sometimes difficult to recognize circles. mountains and flowers are cones. The trunk of trees.

linear forms.  REGULAR FORMS are those whose parts are related to one another in a consistent orderly manner. . irregular forms. They are generally stable and symmetrical in about one or more axis.FORMS are classified into: regular forms. central.and grid forms. They are generally asymmetrical and dynamic. and parent form.  IRREGULAR FORMS Are those whose parts are dissimilar and unrelated to one another.  LINEAR FORMS Are arranged sequentially in a row or a series of forms along a line. clusterd forms. Examples are platonic solids. It can result from a proportional change in a form’s dimensions. or the arrangement of a series of form along a line. centralized forms.  CENTRALIZED FORMS Consist of a number of secondary forms clustered to produce a dominant. radial forms.

. A grid is a two or more intersecting sets of regularly spaced parallel lines. therefore. The square grid generates a spatial network of reference points and lines and within this modular framework any number of form and spaces can be visually organized. The painter can only suggest volume. and by surface. The outlines and shadows change everytime the viewer shifts his position. VOLUME The amount of space occupied in three dimensions. RADIAL FORMS Are compositions of linear form that extend outward from central form in a radial manner. The sculptor is also concerned with volumes because his figures actually occupy space and can be observed from any direction. The outlines and shadows change every time the viewer changes his position. It therefore refers to solidity or thickness. light and shadow.  GRID FORMS Are modular forms whose relationships are regulated by 3dimensional grids. This is the primary concern of architects because a building always encloses space. may obtain not one but many different impressions from a single work. The viewer. It is perceived by contour lines or outlines or shapes of objects. Because painting is two-dimensional. volume is an illusion because the surface of the canvas is flat. The direction of sunlight will determine the areas of light and shadows. The building must have everything neatly at place no matter what angle the lights fall on it or from what view we look at it.

Large people should wear dark colored clothes to make them appear smaller. Dark orange is brown and yellowish brown is tan. Contrasting hues emphasize each other. Similar to the value scale in dark-and-light. A dark color also suggest foreground or nearness.VALUES OF COLOR Value is the lightness or darkness of a color. Black and white are omitted as these are impossible to be represented on paper for obvious reasons. Hence. Colors of light are yellow. as in a ceiling. A surface that absorbs all colors or light rays will appear black. while navy blue (blue and black) is shade. to give impression of stability. they are more advancing than dark hues. . Store goods on display must be so arranged that those with low or dark values are below and those with light or high values are above. It as the amount of light in an object. A color appears darkeragainst a white background but lighter against a black or gray. Therefore. Indigo is deep blue-violet and vermillion is brilliant red. In this case. A surface that reflects all colors equally will appear white. PSYCHOLOGICAL EFFECTS OF VALUES IN COLOR The effect of color values are similar to those in dark-and-light. Light values or tints make the size of objects appear larger because these values reflect light. Dark hues or values seem to decrease the size of objects because these values absorb light. Related values are quiet and restful and tend to merge into each other. Shade of a color is produced by adding a little black pigment to the color. An individual seems to look larger in light colored clothing. rooms can be made to appear higher by painting the ceiling with light colors. Besides dark colored floors make the room appear stable. In perspective. distant objects appear to have light values because these values suggest distance or background. White on black background is more conspicuous than black on white background because white reflects light while black absorbs it. Tints of a color in oil paint or watercolour may be produced by adding white pigment or water respectively. Light hues also seem to recede when seen from above. floors and rugs must be of dark hues. value of a color can be shown in seven steps.

Republic of the Philippines EASTERN VISAYAS STATE UNIVERSITY Tacloban City .