2 14
Schemes of Teleportation with Sixqubit
Cluster State
Qian Lan
*1
, Xinwei Zha
2
, Jing Wei
3
School of Science, Xi’an University of Posts and Telecommunications, Xi’an 710061, China
*1
lanqian198711@163.com;
2
zhxw@xupt.edu.cn;
3
weijing129@126.com
Abstract
In this paper, we have proposed a quantum state
teleportation of an arbitrary twoqubit state using
nonmaximally entangled sixqubit Cluster state as channel.
The first scheme is described as: the sender Alice introduced
an auxiliary particle and operators orthogonal complete
bases measurement, and the controller Bob performed
nonBell measurements on his particles in the quantum
teleportation process. At last, the receiver Charlie can get the
arbitrary twoqubit state only by operating appropriate
unitary transformation. The second scheme is: the sender
Alice operated joint Bell state measurement, and the
controller Bob performed nonBell measurements on his
particles, the receiver introduced an auxiliary particle and
operated appropriate unitary transformation, the quantum
teleportation will be successful.
Keywords
Quantum Teleportation; NonBell Measurements; Joint Bell State
Measurement; Unitary Transformation
Introduction
Quantum communication is a popular topic in the
communication field. The quantum communication
includes many sides, such as quantum teleportation
[114], quantum key distribution [15], quantum secure
direct communication [16], dense coding [1719],
quantum secret sharing [20], remote state preparation
[2122] and Quantum state sharing [2324] which is
also named QSTS. QSTS, which plays an important
role in quantum communication, is the scheme of
sharing an unknown state among some agents.
Recently Cluster state has been discussed a lot not only
in quantum information but also in quantum
communication. In this paper we compared two
schemes of teleporting an arbitrary twoqubit state
which used a nonmaximally entangled sixqubit
Cluster state as channel. In the first scheme, the sender
Alice first introduces an auxiliary particle and
performs an orthogonal complete bases measurement;
the second one is the receiver introduces an auxiliary
particle and performs an appropri ate unitary
transformation, the unknown particle state can be
teleported. And both of the two schemes’ probability
of success is proved to be
2
4 a 。
The First Telepertation Scheme of the
Arbitrary TwoQubit State
Suppose that the sender Alice plans to teleportate the
following arbitrary twoqubit entangled state to
Charlie
1 2
1 2
0 1
2 3
 ( 00 01
10 11 )
a a
a a
x x
x x
_ > = +
+ +
(1)
Where
0 1 2 3
, , , x x x x
are arbitrary complex numbers,
and it is assumed that the wave function satisfies the
normalization condition
2
3
0
1
i
i
x
=
=
¿
.The sixqubit
cluster state can be written as
1 2 1 2 1 2
1 2 1 2 1 2
6
( 000000 010101
101010 111111 )
A A B B C C
A A B B C C
C a b
c d
= +
+ ÷
(2)
And
2 2 2 2
, 1 a b c d a b c d s s s + + + = . No w we
consider that Alice, Bob, and Charlie hold particles
(
1
A ,
2
A ), (
1
B ,
2
B ), (
1
C ,
2
C ) respectively. In order to
teleportate the state
1 2
a a
_ in this scheme, Alice first
introduces an auxiliary particle 0
A
.The system state
of particles becomes
15 JOURNAL OF OPTICS APPLICATIONS – Oct. 2012, Vol. 1, Iss. 2
1 2
1 2 1 2 1 2
0
1
2
3
 0
[ ( 000000000 000010101
001001010 001011111 )
( 010000000 010010101
011001010 011011111 )
( 100000000 100010101
101001010 101011111 )
( 110000000 110010101
1
a a
s A A B B C C A
C
x a b
c d
x a b
c d
x a b
c d
x a b
c
¢ _ = > © ©
= +
+ ÷
+ +
+ ÷
+ +
+ ÷
+ +
+
1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2
11001010 111011111 )]
a a A AA B B C C
d ÷
(3)
step1: In order to realize the teleportation, Alice can
make a measurement on the five particles ‘
1 2 1 2
a a A AA ’
and convey her resul ts to Bob vi a cl assi cal
communication. If Alice operates a measurement using
the states
{ }
1 2 1 2
, 1, 2,3,...30,31,32
i
a a A AA
g i = , which are
given as follow:
1 2 1 2
2
1
2 2
1
( 00000 01001 1 01011 10100
2
1 10110 11101 1 11111 )
a a A AA
a a a
g
b b c
a a a
c d d
 
= + + ÷ +

\ .
   
+ ÷ + ÷
 
\ . \ .
(4.1)
1 2 1 2
2
2
2 2
1
( 00000 01001 1 01011 10100
2
1 10110 11101 1 11111 )
a a A AA
a a a
g
b b c
a a a
c d d
 
= + + ÷ ÷

\ .
   
÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷
 
\ . \ .
(4.2)
1 2 1 2
2
3
2 2
1
( 00000 01001 1 01011 10100
2
1 10110 11101 1 11111 )
a a A AA
a a a
g
b b c
a a a
c d d
 
= ÷ ÷ ÷ +

\ .
   
+ ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷
 
\ . \ .
(4.3)
1 2 1 2
2
4
2 2
1
( 00000 01001 1 01011 10100
2
1 10110 11101 1 11111 )
a a A AA
a a a
g
b b c
a a a
c d d
 
= ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷

\ .
   
÷ ÷ + + ÷
 
\ . \ .
(4.4)
1 2 1 2
2
5
2 2
1
( 00001 1 00011 01000 10101
2
1 10111 11100 1 11110 )
a a A AA
a a a
g
b b d
a a a
d c c
 
= + ÷ + +

\ .
   
+ ÷ + + ÷
 
\ . \ .
(4.5)
1 2 1 2
2
6
2 2
1
( 00001 1 00011 01000 10101
2
1 10111 11100 1 11110 )
a a A AA
a a a
g
b b d
a a a
d c c
 
= + ÷ + ÷

\ .
   
÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷
 
\ . \ .
(4.6)
1 2 1 2
2
7
2 2
1
( 00001 1 00011 01000 10101
2
1 10111 11100 1 11110 )
a a A AA
a a a
g
b b d
a a a
d c c
 
= + ÷ ÷ +

\ .
   
+ ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷
 
\ . \ .
(4.7)
1 2 1 2
2
8
2 2
1
( 00001 1 00011 01000 10101
2
1 10111 11100 1 11110 )
a a A AA
a a a
g
b b d
a a a
d c c
 
= + ÷ ÷ ÷

\ .
   
÷ ÷ + + ÷
 
\ . \ .
(4.8)
1 2 1 2
2 2
9
2
1
( 00100 1 00110 01101 1 01111
2
10000 11001 1 11011 )
a a A AA
a a a a
g
c c d d
a a
b b
   
= + ÷ + + ÷
 
\ . \ .
 
+ + + ÷

\ .
(4.9)
1 2 1 2
2 2
10
2
1
( 00100 1 00110 01101 1 01111
2
10000 11001 1 11011 )
a a A AA
a a a a
g
c c d d
a a
b b
   
= + ÷ + + ÷
 
\ . \ .
 
÷ ÷ ÷ ÷

\ .
(4.10)
1 2 1 2
2 2
11
2
1
( 00100 1 00110 01101 1 01111
2
10000 11001 1 11011 )
a a A AA
a a a a
g
c c d d
a a
b b
   
= + ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷
 
\ . \ .
 
+ ÷ ÷ ÷

\ .
(4.11)
1 2 1 2
2 2
12
2
1
( 00100 1 00110 01101 1 01111
2
10000 11001 1 11011 )
a a A AA
a a a a
g
c c d d
a a
b b
   
= + ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷
 
\ . \ .
 
÷ + + ÷

\ .
(4.12)
1 2 1 2
2 2
13
2
1
( 00101 1 00111 01100 1 01110
2
10001 1 10011 11000 )
a a A AA
a a a a
g
d d c c
a a
b b
   
= + ÷ + + ÷
 
\ . \ .
 
+ + ÷ +

\ .
(4.13)
1 2 1 2
2 2
14
2
1
( 00101 1 00111 01100 1 01110
2
10001 1 10011 11000 )
a a A AA
a a a a
g
d d c c
a a
b b
   
= + ÷ + + ÷
 
\ . \ .
 
÷ ÷ ÷ ÷

\ .
(4.14)
1 2 1 2
2 2
15
2
1
( 00101 1 00111 01100 1 01110
2
10001 1 10011 11000 )
a a A AA
a a a a
g
d d c c
a a
b b
   
= + ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷
 
\ . \ .
 
+ + ÷ ÷

\ .
(4.15)
1 2 1 2
2 2
16
2
1
( 00101 1 00111 01100 1 01110
2
10001 1 10011 11000 )
a a A AA
a a a a
g
d d c c
a a
b b
   
= + ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷
 
\ . \ .
 
÷ ÷ ÷ +

\ .
(4.16)
17
1 2 1 2
2 2
1
( 00010 1 01001 01011 1 10100
2
2
10110 1 11101 11111 )
a a A AA
a a a
g
b b c
a a a
c d d
   
= ÷ + ÷ ÷ + ÷
 
\ . \ .
 
÷ + ÷ ÷

\ .
(4.17)
1 2 1 2
18
2 2
1
( 00010 1 01001 01011 1 10100
2
2
10110 1 11101 11111 )
a a A AA
a a a
g
b b c
a a a
c d d
   
= ÷ + ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷
 
\ . \ .
 
+ ÷ ÷ +

\ .
(4.18)
JOURNAL OF OPTICS APPLICATIONS – Oct. 2012, Vol. 1, Iss. 2 16
1 2 1 2
19
2 2
1
( 00010 1 01001 01011 1 10100
2
2
10110 1 11101 11111 )
a a A AA
a a a
g
b b c
a a a
c d d
   
= ÷ ÷ ÷ + + ÷
 
\ . \ .
 
÷ ÷ ÷ +

\ .
(4.19)
1 2 1 2
20
2 2
1
( 00010 1 01001 01011 1 10100
2
2
10110 1 11101 11111 )
a a A AA
a a a
g
b b c
a a a
c d d
   
= ÷ ÷ ÷ + ÷ ÷
 
\ . \ .
 
+ + ÷ ÷

\ .
(4.20)
1 2 1 2
21
2 2
1
( 1 00001 00011 01010 1 10101
2
2
10111 1 11100 11110 )
a a A AA
a a a
g
b b d
a a a
d c c
   
= ÷ ÷ ÷ + ÷
 
\ . \ .
 
÷ + ÷ ÷

\ .
(4.21)
1 2 1 2
22
2 2
1
( 1 00001 00011 01010 1 10101
2
2
10111 1 11100 11110 )
a a A AA
a a a
g
b b d
a a a
d c c
   
= ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷
 
\ . \ .
 
+ ÷ ÷ +

\ .
(4.22)
1 2 1 2
23
2 2
1
( 1 00001 00011 01010 1 10101
2
2
10111 1 11100 11110 )
a a A AA
a a a
g
b b d
a a a
d c c
   
= ÷ ÷ + + ÷
 
\ . \ .
 
÷ ÷ ÷ +

\ .
(4.23)
1 2 1 2
24
2 2
1
( 1 00001 00011 01010 1 10101
2
2
10111 1 11100 11110 )
a a A AA
a a a
g
b b d
a a a
d c c
   
= ÷ ÷ + ÷ ÷
 
\ . \ .
 
+ + ÷ ÷

\ .
(4.24)
1 2 1 2
2 2
25
2
1
( 1 00100 00110 1 01101 01111
2
10010 1 11001 11011 )
a a A AA
a a a a
g
c c d d
a a
b b
   
= ÷ ÷ + ÷ ÷
 
\ . \ .
 
÷ + ÷ ÷

\ .
(4.25)
1 2 1 2
2 2
26
2
1
( 1 00100 00110 1 01101 01111
2
10010 1 11001 11011 )
a a A AA
a a a a
g
c c d d
a a
b b
   
= ÷ ÷ + ÷ ÷
 
\ . \ .
 
+ ÷ ÷ +

\ .
(4.26)
1 2 1 2
2 2
27
2
1
( 1 00100 00110 1 01101 01111
2
10010 1 11001 11011 )
a a A AA
a a a a
g
c c d d
a a
b b
   
= ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ +
 
\ . \ .
 
÷ ÷ ÷ +

\ .
(4.27)
1 2 1 2
2 2
28
2
1
( 1 00100 00110 1 01101 01111
2
10010 1 11001 11011 )
a a A AA
a a a a
g
c c d d
a a
b b
   
= ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ +
 
\ . \ .
 
+ + ÷ ÷

\ .
(4.28)
1 2 1 2
2 2
29
2
1
( 1 00101 00111 1 01100 01110
2
1 10001 10011 11010 )
a a A AA
a a a a
g
d d c c
a a
b b
   
= ÷ ÷ + ÷ ÷
 
\ . \ .
 
+ ÷ ÷ ÷

\ .
(4.29)
1 2 1 2
2 2
30
2
1
( 1 00101 00111 1 01100 01110
2
1 10001 10011 11010 )
a a A AA
a a a a
g
d d c c
a a
b b
   
= ÷ ÷ + ÷ ÷
 
\ . \ .
 
÷ ÷ + +

\ .
(4.30)
1 2 1 2
2 2
31
2
1
( 1 00101 00111 1 01100 01110
2
1 10001 10011 11010 )
a a A AA
a a a a
g
d d c c
a a
b b
   
= ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ +
 
\ . \ .
 
+ ÷ ÷ +

\ .
(4.31)
1 2 1 2
2 2
32
2
1
( 1 00101 00111 1 01100 01110
2
1 10001 10011 11010 )
a a A AA
a a a a
g
d d c c
a a
b b
   
= ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ +
 
\ . \ .
 
÷ ÷ + ÷

\ .
(4.32)
If Alice’s measurement outcomes are:
{
1 2 1 2
, 1, 2,3,...14,15,16
i
a a A AA
g i = }.
The unknown particles entangled state can be
teleportated, if Alice’s measurement outcomes are:
1 2 1 2
, 17,18,19,...30,31,32
i
a a A AA
g i = .
The unknown particles entangled state can not be
teleportated. Therefore, if Alice’s measurement
outcome is{
1 2 1 2
, 1, 2,3,...14,15,16
i
a a A AA
g i = }.
Alice can inform Bob of the measurement outcomes via
a classical channel.
Step2: If Alice’s measurement outcome is
1 2 1 2
1
a a A AA
g ,
the state of particle
1 2 1 2
B B CC
will collapse into the
following states:
1 2 1 2
1 2 1 2
0 1
2 3
( 0000 0101
2
1010 1111 )
B B C C
B B C C
a
x x
x x
¢ = +
+ ÷
(5)
Then Bob takes a j oi nt X basi s measurement
1 2
ˆ ˆ
B B
X X © on his two particles
1
B
and
2
B
, which is
Von Neumann measurement under the condition of
( )
1
0 1
2
X ± = ± . After measuring, Bob announces
his result. If Bob's result is
1 2
B B
X X + © +
, the
collapsed states are written as:
17 JOURNAL OF OPTICS APPLICATIONS – Oct. 2012, Vol. 1, Iss. 2
1 2
1 2
0 1 2 3
1
( 00 01 10 11 )
4
C C
C C
a x x x x ¢ = + + ÷
(6)
Step3: After Alice and Bob announce their
measurement results publicly, Charlie performs the
joint unitary operation
2
U
on his particles
1 2
CC
.
2
1
1
1
1
U
(
(
(
=
(
(
÷
¸ ¸
(7)
the resulting state of Charlie’s particles will be the
original state of
1 2

a a
_ > . Thus Charlie can get the
original state with a successful probability
2
4 a .
The Second Scheme of the Arbitrary
TwoQubit State Telepertation
The system state of particles is
1 2
1 2 1 2 1 2
0
1
2
3

[ ( 00000000 00010101
00101010 00111111 )
( 01000000 01010101
01101010 01111111 )
( 10000000 10010101
10101010 10111111 )
( 11000000 11010101
11101010 11111111
a a
s A A B B C C
C
x a b
c d
x a b
c d
x a b
c d
x a b
c d
¢ _ = > ©
= +
+ ÷
+ +
+ ÷
+ +
+ ÷
+ +
+ ÷
1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2
)]
a a A A B B C C
(8)
We consider that Alice, Bob, and Charlie hold particles
(
1
a ,
2
a
1
A
,
2
A
),(
1
B
,
2
B
) (
1
C
,
2
C
) respectively.
Step1: Alice performs joint Bell measurement on her 4
qubits (
1
a ,
2
a
1
A
,
2
A
)respectively and then she
announces her result publicly. The measurement basis
is as follow:
1 2 1 2
1
1
( 0000 0101 1010 1111 )
2
a a A A
g = + + + (9.1)
1 2 1 2
2
1
( 0000 0101 1010 1111 )
2
a a A A
g = + ÷ ÷ (9.2)
1 2 1 2
3
1
( 0000 0101 1010 1111 )
2
a a A A
g = ÷ + ÷ (9.3)
1 2 1 2
4
1
( 0000 0101 1010 1111 )
2
a a A A
g = ÷ ÷ + (9.4)
1 2 1 2
5
1
( 0001 0100 1011 1110 )
2
a a A A
g = + + + (9.5)
1 2 1 2
6
1
( 0001 0100 1011 1110 )
2
a a A A
g = + ÷ ÷ (9.6)
1 2 1 2
7
1
( 0001 0100 1011 1110 )
2
a a A A
g = ÷ + ÷ (9.7)
1 2 1 2
8
1
( 0001 0100 1011 1110 )
2
a a A A
g = ÷ ÷ + (9.8)
1 2 1 2
9
1
( 0010 0111 1000 1101 )
2
a a A A
g = + + + (9.9)
1 2 1 2
10
1
( 0010 0111 1000 1101 )
2
a a A A
g = + ÷ ÷ (9.10)
1 2 1 2
11
1
( 0010 0111 1000 1101 )
2
a a A A
g = ÷ + ÷ (9.11)
1 2 1 2
12
1
( 0010 0111 1000 1101 )
2
a a A A
g = ÷ ÷ + (9.12)
1 2 1 2
13
1
( 0011 0110 1001 1100 )
2
a a A A
g = + + + (9.13)
1 2 1 2
14
1
( 0011 0110 1001 1100 )
2
a a A A
g = + ÷ ÷ (9.14)
1 2 1 2
15
1
( 0011 0110 1001 1100 )
2
a a A A
g = ÷ + ÷ (9.15)
1 2 1 2
16
1
( 0011 0110 1001 1100 )
2
a a A A
g = ÷ ÷ + (9.16)
Assuming that her measurement result is
1
g , the
composite system of particles
1 2 1 2
B B CC
becomes
1 2 1 2
0 1
2 3
1
( 0000 0101
2
1010 1111 )
sub
B B C C
ax bx
cx dx
A = +
+ ÷
(10)
Step2: Bob takes a joint X basis measurement
1 2
ˆ ˆ
B B
X X © on his two particles
1
b
and
2
b
, which is Von
Neumann measurement under the condition of
1
( 0 1 )
2
X ± = ±
. After measuring, Bob announces
his result. If Bob's result is
1 2
B B
X X + © +
, the
collapsed states can be written as:
1 2
1 2
0 1
2 3
1
( 00 01
4
10 11 )
C C
C C
ax bx
cx dx
A = +
+ ÷
(11)
Step3: Charile introduces an auxiliary twostate
particle
C
with the initial state
0
C
to reincarnate
1 2
C C
A under the basis as follows:
1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2
1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2
{ 000 , 010 , 100 , 110 ,
001 , 011 , 101 , 111 }
C C C C C C C C C C C C
C C C C C C C C C C C C
,
1 2
1 2
0 1
2 3
1
( 000 010
4
100 110 )
C C C
C C C
ax bx
cx dx
A = +
+ ÷
(12)
A collective unitary transformation
1
U
on particles
1 2
, , c c c
may take the form of the following 8 8 ×
JOURNAL OF OPTICS APPLICATIONS – Oct. 2012, Vol. 1, Iss. 2 18
matrix, namely
1 2
1
2 1
A A
U
A A
(
=
(
÷
¸ ¸
(13)
Where
1
A
and
2
A
are 4 4 × matrixs and may be
written as
{ }
1 0 1 2 3
, , , A diag m m m m =
and
2 2 2 2
2 0 1 2 3
{ 1 , 1 , 1 , 1 } A diag m m m m = ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷
if
0
1, m =
1 2 3
, ,
a a a
m m m
b c d
= = = , the unitary transformation
1
U
will transform the state
1 2
C C C
A as follow:
1 2
1 2
0 1
2 2
1 2
2 2
2 3
2 2
3
1
( 000 010
4
011 100
101 110
111 )
C C C
C C C
ax ax
x b a ax
x c a ax
x d a
A = +
+ ÷ +
+ ÷ ÷
÷ ÷
(14)
Then Charile measures particle c on the basis of
{ 0 , 1 }. If his measured outcome is
1
, the quantum
state teleportation will be failed . If 0 is obtained,
the teleportation will be successful. The state will be
collapsed into
1 2
1 2
0 1 2 3
( 00 01 10 11 )
4
C C
C C
a
x x x x ' A = + + ÷
(15)
After Alice and Bob announce their measurement
results publicly, Charlie performs the joint unitary
operation
2
U
.
2
1
1
1
1
U
(
(
(
=
(
(
÷
¸ ¸
(16)
On his particles
1 2
CC
, the resulting state of Charlie’s
particles will be the original state of
1 2

a a
_ > .
Conclusions
In summary, we have proposed two quantum state
teleportation scheme of an arbitrary twoqubit state
using a nonmaximally entangled sixqubit Cluster
state as channel. The receiver Charlie recovers the
original state with a certain probability, the two
scheme’s probability of success depends on the
coefficient of the nonmaximally entangled sixqubit
Cluster state, the probability is
2
2 1
16 4 4
4
a a
 
× × =

\ .
,
if
1
2
a b c d = = = =
, the probability will be 1.
Comparing the two quantum state teleportation
schemes, it is known that the first one is better than the
second one. In our first scheme, the receiver Charlie
does not need introduce an auxiliary particle and
operator unitary transformation. Only the sender Alice
introduces an auxiliary particle and makes a
measurement on her particles and the auxiliary
particle, the quantum state teleportation can be
successfully realized with the maximal probability.
The first scheme is more convenient for the receiver
Charlie.
Acknowledgements
This work is supported by the National Natural
Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 10902083) and
Shaanxi Natural Science Foundation under Contract
(No. 2009JM1007).
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Qian Lan was born On November 27
1987 in Tianjin. she will get a
master's degree in 2013. Now she is
studying in Xi’an University of
Posts and Telecommunications,
Xi’an, Shanxi China. Her major field
of study is quantum communication.
Email: lanqian198711@163.com