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Code: 9A02603 III B. Tech II Semester (R09) Regular Examinations, April/May 2012 POWER SYSTEM OPERATION & CONTROL (Electrical & Electronics Engineering) Time: 3 hours Answer any FIVE questions All questions carry equal marks ***** 1

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Max Marks: 70

Distinguish between incremental fuel cost and incremental production cost for a thermal power plant. The fuel cost functions in Rs/hr for two thermal plants are given by: C1=420+9.2P1+0.004P12. C2=350+8.5P2+0.0029P22 . Where P1, P2 are in MW. Determine the optimal scheduling of generation if the total load is 640.82 MW. Estimate value of λ =12Rs/MWh. The transmission power loss is given by the expression PL(pu)=0.0346P12(pu)+0.00643P22(pu). Describe the objective function to minimize the cost of generation of hydro thermal scheduling. How do the governor characteristics of the prime mover affect the control of system frequency and system load? Two power stations A and B are interconnected by a tie line and have power frequency constants of KA and KB MW per Hz. An increase in load of 500 MW on system A causes a power flow of 300 Mw from B to A. When the tie line is open, the frequency of system A is 49 Hz and of B is 50 Hz. Determine the values of KA and KB. Derive any formulae used. Draw the block diagram of proportional plus integral controller and show the steady state frequency error is zero. (a) (b) (a) (b) Explain about series compensations. What are the limitations? Explain the difficulties with an uncompensated line. What is the need of deregulation? What is the role of modern technology in deregulated power market? *****

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Code: 9A02603 III B. Tech II Semester (R09) Regular Examinations, April/May 2012 POWER SYSTEM OPERATION & CONTROL (Electrical & Electronics Engineering) Time: 3 hours Answer any FIVE questions All questions carry equal marks ***** 1 2 (a) (b) Explain the advantages of competitive electricity market.

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Max Marks: 70

Why voltage is more sensitive against reactive power than active power? List out the different power system components and categorize them into reactive power sources and sinks. For a two area frequency control employing integral of area control error, obtain an expression for steady values of change in frequency for unit step disturbance in one of the areas. Assume both areas to be identical. Comment upon the stability of the system for parameter values given below: TSG=0.4 s ; Tt=0.5s; Tps=20s; Kps=100; R=3; Ki=1; b= 0.425; a12=1; 2πT12=0.05 For an isolated power system, the following is the system data: Rating of the generator =Pr= 100 MW. Nominal operating load = Pd=50 MW. Inertia Constant = 5 KW-sec/KVA. Speed Regulation of the governor = 2.5 Hz/pu MW. System frequency = 50 Hz. If the load would increase 1% for 1% frequency increase, find the static frequency change for uncontrolled case when the load is increased by 10 MW. Also find in what proportion the increase in load demand is met by the increase in generation and decrease in load due to drop in frequency. What are the methods of scheduling of generation of steam plants? Explain their merits and demerits. Obtain the condition for optimum operation of a power system with ‘n’ plants when losses are considered. Explain the mathematical formulation of long-term hydro thermal scheduling. Explain the characteristics of a typical governor of a steam turbine. *****

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Code: 9A02603 III B. Tech II Semester (R09) Regular Examinations, April/May 2012 POWER SYSTEM OPERATION & CONTROL (Electrical & Electronics Engineering) Time: 3 hours

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Max Marks: 70

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Answer any FIVE questions All questions carry equal marks ***** The cost curves of two generators may be approximated by second degree polynomials: C1=0.1 P12+20P1+α1 C2=0.1 P22+30P2+α2 Where α1 and α2 are constants? If the total demand on the generators is 200 MW, find the optimum generator settings. How many rupees per hour would you lose if the generators were operated about 15% of the optimum settings? Determine the incremental cost of received power and the penalty factor of the plant shown in figure if the incremental cost of production is dC1/dP1=0.1P1+3.0 Rs/MWh

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P1=10MW

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A thermal station and a hydro station supply an area jointly. The hydro station is run 12 hr daily and the thermal station is run throughout 24 hr. The incremental fuel cost characteristic of the thermal plant is CT=3+5PGT+0.02 PGT 2 Rs. /hr. If the load on the thermal station, when both plants are in operation, is 250 MW, the incremental water rate of the hydro power plant is dw/dPGH=24+0.004PGHm3 /MW-s. The total quantity of water used during the 12 hr operation of a hydro plant is 450 million m3. Find the generation of hydro plant and the cost of water used. Assume that the total load on the hydro plant is constant for 12 hr period. Explain about non-reheat type of steam turbines. Write short notes on: (a) Control area. (a) (b) (a) (b)

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PL=2 MW

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PD=8MW

(b) Load frequency control.

(c) Voltage control.

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Explain how the integral controller in load frequency control forms secondary loop. Explain how the initial droop in frequency is limited in load frequency control. What is series compensation? Explain. Explain the different aspects of design of series compensator. Explain the problems associated with power pools in deregulation. *****

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Code: 9A02603 III B. Tech II Semester (R09) Regular Examinations, April/May 2012 POWER SYSTEM OPERATION & CONTROL (Electrical & Electronics Engineering) Time: 3 hours

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Max Marks: 70

1 2 (a) (b)

Answer any FIVE questions All questions carry equal marks ***** Explain about reliability, power quality and pricing issues in deregulated market. Why Ferranti effect is seen in long lines? Explain the importance of reactive power in electromechanical energy conversion. Explain the loop response of an ALFC system with proportional plus integral controllers. Two generating stations A and B have full load capacities of 200 MW and 75 MW respectively. The interconnector connecting the two stations has an induction motor (plant C) of capacity 25 MW. The % changes of speeds of A, B and C are 5, 4 and 3 respectively. The loads at generating stations A and B are 75 Mw and 30 MW respectively. Determine the load taken by the station ‘C and indicate the direction of power flow. Explain the various factors to be considered in allocating generation to different power stations for optimum operation. A system consists of two power plants connected by a transmission line. The total load located at plant-2 is as shown in fig. Data of evaluating loss coefficients consist of information that a power transfer of 100 MW from station-1 to station-2 results in a total loss of 8 MW. Find the required generation at each station and power received by the load when λ of the system is Rs.100 /MWh. The IFCs of the two plants are given by dC1/ dP1 =0.12P1+65 Rs/MWh ; dC2/dP2=0.25P2+75 Rs/MWh. Plant-1 Plant-2

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Transmission line Total load

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Write the advantages of operation of hydro thermal combinations. Explain about Reheat type of steam turbines. *****

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