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UNIVERSITI TEKNOLOGI MARA FINAL EXAMINATION
COURSE COURSE CODE TEST TIME
ENGLISH FOR ACADEMIC PURPOSES BEL311 OCTOBER 2012 3 HOURS
INSTRUCTIONS TO CANDIDATES 1. This question paper consists of two (2) parts: PART A PARTB SECTION 1 (7 Questions) SECTION 2 (7 Questions) (1 Question)
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© Hak Cipta Universiti Teknologi MARA CONFIDENTIAL
these initiatives have not been very successful. the "Returning Scientist Programme". doctors. 5 II The Government is aware of this and has implemented several programmes to reverse the situation. 10 15 20 III A medical specialist. such as researchers. as it continues to suffer from a leakage of intellectual capital. launched in 2004. started in 2006. the global competition for these talents is intensifying. 70 of whom were foreigners and 23 were Malaysians. However. scientists. managed to attract only 93 researchers. part of the Ninth Malaysia Plan. the ongoing "Returning Expert Programme" has attracted less than 600 returnees since its inception. There is limited information about these individuals.CONFIDENTIAL 2 LG/OCT2012/BEL311 PART A : READING COMPREHENSION (20 MARKS) Read the following articles and answer all the questions in the answer booklet provided. SECTION 1 : Article 1 Our Loss is Another Country's Gain I Over the last decade. such an effort is not easy for the Government. However. to work in the country. such as researchers. For instance. Malaysia is not in a favourable position. The first "brain-gain" programme. or the so-called brain drain. called the "Returning Expert Programme". The "Malaysia My Second Home" programme. Nevertheless. attributes the poor response to the lack of advertisement and awareness among high-skilled professionals. started in 2001 and "Brain Gain Malaysia". scientists and engineers. He thinks the Government should make more effort to promote its brain-gain programmes overseas. renewable energy. the Malaysian Government has been actively pursuing highskilled professionals. who came back last year under the Government's brain-gain programme. scientists and engineers. Experts in these areas have been identified as the necessary building blocks to help move the country's economy up the value chain. who are residing abroad. biotechnology and Islamic finance. as it does not have the database on the Malaysian professionals. although the 25 © Hak Cipta Universiti Teknologi MARA CONFIDENTIAL . engineers and information-technology experts. is also part of a brain-gain effort to attract foreign talents and individuals with a high net worth into the country. In addition. This is especially so for those who are specialized in emerging sectors such as green technology. which ended prematurely three years after its launch.
Such is the case for Aileen Ko. good infrastructure and efficient systems. the low crime rate is another reason she has chosen to work in Singapore.CONFIDENTIAL 3 LG/OCT2012/BEL311 Government believes that the majority of them are now residing in Singapore. when she was still slogging away at work in a public-listed construction company in the Klang Valley. and now perhaps China as well. 45 40 35 V Singapore is believed to be the major benefactor of Malaysia's brain drain. including Malaysians. These countries are said to be attracting many foreign talents. who does not drive. and had little time for the family. A better working environment aside. The project manager at SingTel has been working in the country for more than 15 years and feels that the quality of life in Singapore seems to be better. The professionally certified quantity surveyor has since moved away from the construction industry to venture into oil and gas as an estimator. even though people in London work hard. she likes it there because she feels her life is more balanced. 55 50 VI Needless to say. Although the often-grey skies and high cost of living in London tend to cast gloomy shadows on her stay. Australia. companies there emphasize rest and believe in family life. For Magladen K. Lum. but many of the Malaysians working there also like the island's environment. 30. 30 IV Many Malaysian professionals find it hard to uproot from the foreign countries in which they are currently settled not only because of the high salaries that they are earning now. Britain. so they allow flexible working hours. other countries offer a wider breadth of experience and opportunities to be involved in bigger projects with different levels of complexities. but also because of the working environment there. the efficient public transport system in Singapore is a major draw. The proximity between the two countries is one of the reasons for that. She added that the systems are more transparent and the people are more open-minded. says that there are more interesting things to learn while working in Singapore. She explains that besides the efficient public transport system. because of their rapid growth and increasing career opportunities.. According to Aileen. Canada and the United States. That is a very different scenario for Ko compared to five years ago. Singapore offers better pay packages and most of the Malaysians who work there also feel that the living cost in Singapore is comparatively lower than © Hak Cipta Universiti Teknologi MARA CONFIDENTIAL . a 40-year-old investment manager.
In a nutshell. b) It can be assumed that all the programmes organized by the country to attract professionals working abroad have not been very successful. The Star. 6 February 2010 Answer the following questions in complete sentences where appropriate. 1. Human capital is the best asset a country has. Every government needs to develop that and ensure its policies can help its own people to do well within the country.CONFIDENTIAL 4 LG/OCT2012/BEL311 that in Kuala Lumpur. c) The "Returning Expert Programme" has attracted fewer returnees since its inception than the "Returning Scientist Programme". 60 Adapted from: Cecilia Kok. d) Some professionals prefer the working environment in other countries rather than the working conditions in Malaysia. State whether the following statements are TRUE (T) or FALSE (F). Starbizweek. (2 marks) 2. a) Malaysia is facing the problem of a lack of intellectual capital in the country. people leave because they find that they can do better outside their own country. What do the following words mean as used in the article? a) necessary building blocks (line 4) b) hard to uproot (line 32) (2 marks) © Hak Cipta Universiti Teknologi MARA CONFIDENTIAL .
b) Some professionals prefer flexible working hours. The following statements are possible reasons why Malaysia has failed to attract professionals back to the country except a) Other countries provide a better working environment. what are two (2) steps the Malaysian Government could take to attract professionals working overseas to return to work in Malaysia? (1 mark) © Hak Cipta Universiti Teknologi MARA CONFIDENTIAL . d) The 'brain-gain' programmes organized by Malaysia are not really effective. (1 mark) 4. (2 marks) 5. (1 mark) 7. Why do you think that Aileen Ko's life is more balanced in London? (1 mark) 6. List four programmes the Malaysian Government has come up with to attract professionals back to the country.CONFIDENTIAL 5 LG/OCT2012/BEL311 3. List two reasons why professionals may prefer to work in Singapore. c) The brain-drain is not really a major concern for the Malaysian Government. In your opinion.
CONFIDENTIAL 6 LG/OCT2012/BEL311 SECTION 2: Article 2 Brain Drain. as they seek a better life abroad. according to medical specialist Uma K. the compulsory three-year government service requirement has always been the main factor discouraging many Malaysian doctors overseas from returning to the country. She said that the standards of living and quality of life there were also perceivably better. skills were not nurtured and salaries were still low. the government also operated on a fairly strong subsidy policy as staple goods such as fuel. it is for the sake of their children's education and their future. Malaysia has driven its economy through a low cost model. In addition. However. She added that her choice to stay in Ireland after her studies was based on better opportunities for career progression. a private equity manager. chicken. says that one of the main reasons why he is reluctant to return to Malaysia is the issue of meritocracy and education. 5 II Michael Wong. and its standards pushed to alarming levels. 25 © Hak Cipta Universiti Teknologi MARA CONFIDENTIAL . Some forty years ago.. many parents themselves encourage their children to study and make a living abroad. Moreover. because Malaysia did not do the research on and design of the products. The education system has flip-flopped with language switches. it is one that involves much thought and soul searching. has stated that many Malaysians have left for Singapore's Asian scholarship programme. 10 III Sherilyn Foong. these young Malaysians have taken up permanent residence there. electric and electronic parts. After being bonded for three years to the Singaporean government. 15 20 IV Malaysian salaries are significantly lower than its neighbours' as historically. so they leave for more developed countries. Through the Eyes of the Beholder I Why do people leave the country of their birth and seek a new life in a foreign country? Do you think the reasons could be related to socio-economic and political factors? Usually. In addition. Hence. sugar and flour were kept at low prices. an orthopaedic specialist who is currently working abroad. It is a decision that is not made overnight. Malaysia started off as a small manufacturing base assembling televisions. Foong also said that some of them simply cannot find jobs here.
Malaysia is still being left behind by these countries. Associate Professor Dr Edmund Gomez of University Malaya believes that most foreign investors are aware of the human capital conditions in Malaysia. The industries are not competitive. despite having natural resources. The Star. He also added that the Government knows the importance of having an economy that is more knowledge centric. efforts to reverse the brain drain need to be enhanced to maintain the country's competitiveness and appeal to foreign investors. V As Malaysia's poverty rate was high at that time. explained that the Government has realized in the last five to six years that it has got itself into a dead end. infrastructure and an English-speaking population. the executive director of the Malaysian International Chambers of Commerce and Industry (MCCI). It is the competition that spurs the 40 innovation. Starbizweek. this policy widened the wage disparity between Malaysia and other countries. Therefore. However. providing a low cost environment was essential. 45 VII The lack of quality human capital can dent investors' sentiments towards the country. Besides. and do not permit high salaries. 12 June 2010 © Hak Cipta Universiti Teknologi MARA CONFIDENTIAL . and South Korea. Taiwan. more Malaysians seek greener pastures elsewhere.CONFIDENTIAL 7 LG/OCT2012/BEL311 people did not go in search of higher salaries as they were contented with the situation at that time. Thus. This act was important to get its people out of poverty. Stewart Forbes. 30 35 VI The other issue that needs to be addressed is the incentive for industrial companies to grow and move up the value chain. 50 Adapted from: Tee Lin Say. Malaysia's slowness in phasing out uncompetitive industries and in implementing meritocracy perhaps explains why Malaysia's development is behind economies like those of Singapore. he says.
(2 marks) 7. Taiwan and South Korea? (1 mark) 6. 1. What do the following words mean. providing a low cost environment was important. how will Malaysia be affected if the brain drain is not stopped? (2 marks) © Hak Cipta Universiti Teknologi MARA CONFIDENTIAL .CONFIDENTIAL 8 LG/OCT2012/BEL311 Answer the following questions in complete sentences where appropriate. what are four (4) reasons why doctors may prefer to work abroad? (2 marks) 3. In the past. In the opinion of Uma K. Based on the views of Associate Professor Dr Edmund Gomez. Do you think that giving higher salaries to Malaysian professionals working abroad will be an effective way to attract them to work in their own country? Explain your answer. What do the following phrases refer to? a) situation at that time (line 29) b) This act (line 31) (1 mark) 4. What effect did this have on the wages of Malaysians? (1 mark) 5. as used in the passage? a) flip-flopped (line 8) b) dent (line 46) (1 mark) 2.. Why is Malaysia's economic development still behind the economic development of Singapore.
which are "Our Loss is Another Country's Gain" and "Brain Drain. Using information from the two articles.400 words to support your opinion.) In-text citations and proper acknowledgement of references used must also be included. (You are required to use information that you have gathered from reading the two articles but marks will be deducted if you copy sentences from the articles.CONFIDENTIAL PART B: WRITING (20 MARKS) 9 LG/OCT2012/BEL311 QUESTION 1 As a member of the editorial board of your campus bulletin. You have found two articles. END OF QUESTION PAPER © Hak Cipta Universiti Teknologi MARA CONFIDENTIAL . you have been asked to write an article on why many Malaysian professionals prefer working in foreign countries instead of serving their own country. write an article of about 300 . Through the Eyes of the Beholder". Include three main ideas with supporting details for your article.
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