NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION WASt-lINGTON.

D C 20546

WO 1-4155 TELS W O 3-6915

FOR RELEASE:

RELEASE NO: 65-81

Wednesday AMs March 1 . 1965 7

R E S S

PROJECT:
GENERAL NEWS RELEASE

GEMINI-TITAN 3

............................. 1-4 TECHNICAL BACKGROUND 5 Primary Objectives............................. Secondary Objectives ........................... 6 Mission Description ............................ 7 Flight Data .................................... 8 Weather Requirements ........................... 8 Countdown...................................... 10 Summary Flight Plan ............................ 11a I;il.unch ......................................... 12 In-Flight......................................14 Reentry. Landing. Recovery .....................15 Abort Modes .................................... 1gA Spacecraft Landing Sequence.................... 19B Manned Space Flight Tracking Network ...........20 Network Responsibility......................... 23 Network Configuration. Capability,............. 25A Experiments .................................... 26 Reentry Communications........................ 26 Sea Urchin Egg ................................ 28 White Blood Cells ............................. 29 Cardiovascular Effects ........................ 30 Medical Checks ................................ 32 Photography................................... 32 Food Evaluation ............................... 32 Meals ......................................... 34 Gemini Survival Package ........................ 35 Gemini Spacecraft.............................. 37 Gemini Launch Vehicle ..........................39 Gemini Space Suit .............................. 41 Crew Biographies ............................... 43 Virgil I. "Gus" Grissom ....................... 43 John W . Young ................................. 45 Walter M . Schirra. Jr ......................... 4 6 Thomas P . Stafford ............................ 48 project Officials ..............................5 0
GT-3 Information Mission Organization.. Launch scheduled no e a r l i e r than March 22. 1965

........~ O A

NEWS
RELEASE NO:

WASHINGTON, D.C. C ADMINISTRATION NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND S A20546 P E

TELS' W O 2-41 5 5 3-692 5

FOR RELEASE: WEDNESDAY A M ' S March 17, 1965

65-81

N S SCHEDULES FIRST AA
MANNED GEMINI FLIGHT

F O CAPE K N E Y RM E ND The f i r s t United S t a t e s two-man space f l i g h t i n a Gemini Spacecraft i s scheduled t o be launched from Cape Kennedy no e a r l i e r than March 22, t h e National Aeronautics and Space Administration announced today. Astronauts V i r g i l I. (Gus) G r i s s o m and John Young make up t h e crew f o r t h e t h r e e - o r b i t f l i g h t . Astronauts Walter

M. S c h i r r a , Jr., and Thomas P. S t a f f o r d a r e t h e backup crew.

They w i l l r e p l a c e t h e prime crew should e i t h e r member o f t h a t team become i n e l i g i b l e f o r medical o r o t h e r reasons.
T h i s f i r s t manned f l i g h t i n a Gemini s p a c e c r a f t i s

designated Gemini-Titan 3 o r GT-3 T i t a n I1 f o r t h e launch v e h i c l e .

-

Gemini f o r the s p a c e c r a f t ,

A s u c c e s s f u l GT-3 f l i g h t w i l l achieve many s i g n i f i c a n t

f i r s t s f o r United S t a t e s manned space f l i g h t program:

--

The f i r s t maneuvering o r change of o r b i t a l plane by

t h e crew.

-- U s e

of a v a r i a b l e l i f t c a p a b i l i t y by t h e crew during

r e e n t r y t o " f l y " t o a s e l e c t e d landing area.

.*

- 2 -

The s p a c e c r a f t w i l l be launched by a two-stage T i t a n 11,

a m o d i f i e d U.S.

A i r Force ICBM, i n t o a 100-150 mile o r b i t .

*

I t ' s o r b i t w i l l t a k e about 90 minutes ( o r b i t a l p e r i o d ) and
range between 33 degrees n o r t h and south of t h e equator. T o t a l f l i g h t t i m e i s expected t o be about f o u r hours and
50 minutes

--

from l i f t - o f f t o landing i n t h e A t l a n t i c Ocean

n e a r Grand Turk I s l a n d i n t h e West I n d i e s .
The f i r s t maneuver w i l l take p l a c e n e a r completion of
t h e f i r s t o r b i t as t h e s p a c e c r a f t passes over Texas.

Small

r o c k e t s , c a l l e d t h r u s t e r s , w i l l be f i r e d t o change t h e o r b i t to n e a r c i r c u l a q a b o u t 100-107 miles. O t h e second o r b i t n

t h e t h r u s t e r s w i l l be f i r e d i n a l a t e r a l d i r e c t i o n causing

a s l i g h t s h i f t I n o r b i t a l plane angle.

They w i l l be f i r e d i n

a r e t r o d i r e c t i o n a g a i n on t h e t h i r d o r b i t r e s u l t i n g i n an
e l l i p t i c a l o r b i t w i t h a low p o i n t of about 52 miles. A f t e r f i r i n g t h e r e t r o r o c k e t s i n t h e f r i n g e s of Earth's
atmosphere, t h e a s t r o n a u t s begin t h e i r c o n t r o l l e d r e e n t r y t o

t h e p r e s c r i b e d landing p o i n t and recovery by U.S.

Naval f o r c e s .

Three i n - f l i g h t s c i e n t i f i c experiments are planned for
the GT-3 mission.

One experiment w i l l t e s t e f f e c t s o f Another w i l l measure t h e

weightlessness on l i v i n g c e l l s .

e f f e c t of weightlessness and r a d i a t i o n on human white blood
cells.

- more *
A l l miles given are s t a t u t e

- 3 I n a t h i r d experiment, t h e s p a c e c r a f t w i l l e j e c t water i n t o t h e plasma s h e a t h t h a t surrounds i t during r e - e n t r y and r a d i o s i g n a l s w i l l be d i r e c t e d through t h e sheath. Normally, t h i s plasma sheath, an ionized l a y e r o f a i r , causes r a d i o blackout , The study of c a r d i o v a s c u l a r e f f e c t s of space f l i g h t which began i n P r o j e c t Mercury w i l l be continued. Space food experiments, a l s o begun i n P r o J e c t Mercury,
w i l l be c a r r i e d o u t on t h e second o r b i t .
Two meals, each

c o n t a i n i n g freeze-dry foods and two b i t e - s i z e d items, w i l l
be c a r r i e d on t h e f l i g h t .

A water gun device w i l l be used

f o r r e h y d r a t i n g t h e food and drinking.

Gemini i s t h e second phase of America's manned space
f l i g h t program,

It w i l l provide experience i n o r b i t a l

maneuvers, permit long d u r a t i o n f l i g h t s l a s t i n g up t o 14 days and be a v e h i c l e f o r manned s c i e n t i f i c i n v e s t i g a t i o n s i n space, Gemini i s named a f t e r t h e c o n s t e l l a t i o n containing t h e twin s t a r s C a s t o r and P o l l u x .

GT-3 f o l l o w s two s u c c e s s f u l unmanned Gemini Launches.
GT-1 was launched i n t o o r b i t Apr, 8, 1964, i n a te,st of

booster and guidance systems and proved s t r u c t u r a l i n t e g r i t y
of the s p a c e c r a f t and booster.

GT-2, a s u b - o r b i t a l f l i g h t

Jan. 29, 1965, t e s t e d t h e s p a c e c r a f t a t maximum h e a t i n g rates and demonstrated structural integrity and systems performance
throughout f l i g h t , r e e n t r y and parachute water landing.

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more

-

-4Gemini i s under the d i r e c t i o n of the O f f i c e o f Manned
Space F l i g h t , NASA Headquarters, Washington, Do C , and i s

managed by NASA's Manned Spacecraft Center i n Houston. Gemini i s a n a t i o n a l space e f f o r t .
The p r o j e c t i s

supported by t h e Department of Defense i n such areas as

b o o s t e r development, launch operations, t r a c k i n g and recovery. (Background information follows)

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- 5 GT-3
PRIlvlARY OBTECTIVES

1 Demonstrate manned orbital flight in the Gemini .
spacecraft and further qualify spacecraft and launch vehicle systems f o r future manned missions.
2 .

Demonstrate and evaluate operations of the world-

wide tracking network with a spacecraft and crew.

3. Evaluate Gemini design and its effects on crew
performance.

4.

Demonstrate and evaluate capability to maneuver

the spacecraft in orbit using the Orbital Attitude and Maneuver System (OAMS)

.

5. Demonstrate capability to control the reentry
flight path and the landing point. 6. systems: Evaluate performance of the following spacecraft

a. Crew station controls and displays
b.
C.

Environmental control Gemini space suits Guidance and control Electrical power and sequential

d .
e.

f.

Propulsion Communications and tracking

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- 6 h. i.
j.

Pyrotechnics Instrumentation Food, water and waste management Landing and recovery Demonstrate systems checkout, prelaunch and launch

k .

7.
8.

procedures for manned spacecraft. Recover the spacecraft and evaluate recovery systems,
GT-3

SECONDARY ORJECTIVES
1 .

Evaluate the following spacecraft systems:

a. Astronaut equipment
b .
C.

Biomedical instrumentation Personal hygiene Execute the following experiments:

2 .

a.
b.

Sea urchin egg growth Radiation and zero-g effects on blood Reentry communications Obtain general photographic coverage in orbit,

c.

3.

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- 7 M I S S I O N DESCRIPTION

The s p a c e c r a f t w i l l be launched from Pad 19 on a t r u e azimuth heading of 72 degrees e a s t o f n o r t h , Second s t a g e engine c u t o f f w i l l occur about 533 s t a t u t e m i l e s from Cape Kennedy a t a v e l o c i t y o f about 17,400 m i l e s p e r hour. Twenty seconds l a t e r , engine t a i l o f f will i n c r e a s e

t h e v e l o c i t y t o about 17,500 mph, a t which time the crew w i l l s e p a r a t e t h e s p a c e c r a f t from t h e launch v e h i c l e by f i r i n g t h e O M thrusters. A S
This w i l l add 10 f't/sec

t o the

v e l o c i t y and w i l l i n s e r t t h e s p a c e c r a f t i n t o a 100-150-mile elliptical orbit. A f t e r one o r b i t , a t about one hour, 30 minutes a f t e r lift-off, t h e forward-firing OAMS thrusters w i l l be f i r e d t o

provide a 66 f t / s e c

(45 mph) v e l o c i t y change i n a n in-plane

r e t r o g r a d e a t t i t u d e t o p u t the s p a c e c r a f t i n t o a 100-107mile o r b i t .
A t two hours, 20 minutes a f t e r l i f t - o f f ,

during t h e

second o r b i t , south and n o r t h out-of-plane burns t o t a l l i n g

14 f t / s e c w i l l be performed.
be used for t h e 12 f t / s e c

Forward-firing t h r u s t e r s w i l l

burn, f o l l o w e d by a 2 f t / s e c burn

of t h e a f t - f i r i n g thrusters.

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- 8 FLIGHT DATA Launch Azimuth

-- 72 degrees

-- Approximately 4:50 hours Initial Orbital Parameters -- 100-150 and 100-107 miles Reentry Velocity -- About 24,000 ft/sec, 16,450 mph Reentry Temperature -- Approximately 3000 degrees Fahrenheit
Flight Duration on surface of heat shield Oxygen

--

Primary 15.3 pounds, Secondary 13 pounds

OAMS Fuel

-- Approximately 300 pounds 0 Cabin Environment -- 1 0 percent oxygen pressurized
5.5 seconds. Will fire separately
Landing Point

at 5 psi

Retrorockets

-- Each of the four retrorocketsthrust for produces approximately 2500 pounds of
-- Atlantic
Ocean, about 60 miles from Grand Turk Island WEATHER REQUIREMENTS

Recovery capability is based primarily on reports from recovery force commanders to the recovery task force commander at the Mission Control Center.

A weather condition which results in an unsatisfactory
recovery condition in a planned landing area will be considered as the basis for a hold or a scrub. The following

are guidelines only, and conditions along the ground track will be further evaluated prior to and during the mission.

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- 9 Launch Area: Surface winds Ceiling

-

1 knots with gusts to 8

25 knots.

-

5,000 feet cloud base minimum.

Visibility Wave height

-

6 miles minimum.

-

5 feet maximum,

Planned Landing Areas: Surface winds Ceiling

- 30 knots maximum.
feet cloud base minimum.

-

1,500

Visibility

- 6 miles minimwn.
8 feet maximum.

Wave height

Contingency Landing Areas: Weather and status of contingency recovery forces will be continually monitored during the countdown and orbital phases of the mission. Recommendations will be made to the

Mission Director who will make the go-no-go decision based upon conditions at the time. Pararescue: The decision to use pararescue personnel depends upon weather conditions, surface vessel locations, and the ability to provide air dropped supplies until the arrival of a surface vessel. master.

The final decision to jump will be made by the jumpWeather guidelines for pararescue operations are:

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Surface winds Ceiling

10

-

-

25 knots maximum.

-

1,000 f e e t cloud base minimum.

Visibility Waves

-

target visible.

-

5 f e e t maximwn, s w e l l s 10 o r 1 f e e t m a x i m u m . 1

Near t h e end of t h e t h i r d o r b i t , a p r e - r e t r o burn o f 93 ft/sec

(63 mph) w i l l be performed w i t h t h e a f t - f i r i n g
This maneuver w i l l be

t h r u s t e r s t o put the spacecraft i n t o a r e e n t r y e l l i p t i c a l
o r b i t with a p e r i g e e o f 52 miles.

performed west o f H a w a i i , 1 2 minutes p r i o r t o t h e time t h e r e t r o r o c k e t s f i r e f o r r e e n t r y i n t o t h e primary landing a r e a n e a r Grand Turk I s l a n d . R e t r o f i r e i s planned a t f o u r hours, 33 minutes and
30 seconds a f t e r l i f t - o f f .

The s p a c e c r a f t w i l l land about

20 minutes a f t e r r e t r o f i r e .

COUNTDOWN
T minus one day

S p a c e c r a f t and launch v e h i c l e prelaunch s e r v i c i n g and checks Begin countdown S p a c e c r a f t power on Gemini launch v e h i c l e (GLV) and s p a c e c r a f t systems Check s p a c e c r a f t command checks
w i t h Mission Control Center

T minus 420 minutes
T minus 400 minutes T minus 380 minutes T minus 330 minutes

T minus 258 minutes
T minus 220 minutes

Awaken crew Spacecraft/computer memory loading

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T minus 190 minutes T minus 173 minutes T minus 160 minutes
T minus 145 minutes

11

Pad clear for GLV ordnance and range command checks Begin sensor placement and suiting of crew
GLV tanks to launch pressure

Ground test of launch program Crew enters spacecraft Spacecraft hatch closure. Dismantle White Room Erector lowering Activate all spacecraft communication links Spacecraft to internal power GLV-spacecraft final status check Update GLV launch azimuth and spacecraft computer Engine start signal Thrust chamber pressure calibrated for switch 77 per cent of rated engine thrust -- is activated, starting a two-second timer.

T minus 100 minutes
T minus 75 minutes T minus 35 minutes T minus 30 minutes

T minus 20 minutes
T minus 6 minutes
T minus 3 minutes

T minus 0
T plus 1 8 seconds .

--

T plus 3 8 seconds .

Spacecraft umbilicals release, GLV tiedown bolts fire Lift-off Staging Fairing jettison SECO (Second stage engine cutoff) Separation maneuver. Confirm orbit.

T plus 4 seconds
Lift-off plus 2 minutes 36 seconds

LO plus 3 minutes 15 seconds

LO plus 5 minutes 38 seconds
Lo plus

5 minutes 58 seconds

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-

lla

-

GT- 3 SUMMARY FLIGHT PLAN

P I LOT
Launch I n s e r t i o n Checklist Align Platform Unstow Equipment T r a j e c t o r y Update Communications Check Blood P r e s s u r e Empty Launch Day Urine Bag S u i t I n t e g r i t y Check

I

Blood P r e s s u r e T/M CalYb

Oral Temp

S/C GMT T i m e Hack T r a j e c t o r y Update Human Blood I r r a d i a t i o n Exp Start

RCS Plume Observation Catch-up Mode Check Sea Urchin Egg Exp

-

Once

Iuman Blood I r r a d i a t i o n . Exp stop

GO/NO GO Update f o r T r a n s l a t i o n No. 1
L

30

GT- 3 SUMMARY FLIGHT PLAN

u-

- C o n t r oCOMMAND l S/C t o :'-Translation
i= I
oO,
-ORBIT

c

P I LOT
oO,

P I LOT
T r a j e c t o r y Update Blood P r e s s u r e

0 '

NO.

1

2

Tape Plybk

- 1

- 1

- 50
1

P l a t f o m Alignment and Caging Check Blood p r e s s u r e

---

C o n t r o l S/C t o O o , 180°, 0 '

- 2 LOO

I

Horizon Scanner Check

2 C o n t r o l S/C t o

9 Yaw 0 '

Y T s l a t i o n a l Systems Check

-

GO NO GO Decision

:

T r a j e c t o r y Update Hor Scan C o n t r o l Mode C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s Check

- 2 40

-:

Suit Integrity Check Align Platform
0 High R a t e Check

1

2
t g e Correlation

-2 GO/NO :x

GO D e c i s i o n
.

1

Report

2 f Tracking Task
00

Oral Temp
Blood P r e s s u r e

-

llc

-

U

E -

!
1

GT- 3 SUMMARY FLIGHT PLAN

COMMAND P I LOT
Tracking Task

P I LOT
SEC Coolant Pump, B Check PRI Coolant Pump B Check T r a j e c t o r y Update Tape Plybk

C o n t r o l S/C t o oO, o O , 0 ' Oral Temp ~O-ORDIT 3 Blood P r e s s u r e Landing Area-Conditions Update

o;

Platform S t a b i l i z a t i o n Check

-

3 30 Backup C 0 2 Sensor Check

b 3

io P r e r e t r o

3 Sea Urchin Egg Exp

-

Once

1 .
C o n t r o l S/C t o Oo, Preretro Checklist

T

C o n t r o l Mode Characteristics Check

180°, ' 0

Checklist

4
1 0

T r a j e c t o r y Update i f required

6

b

Align Platform

Update f o r T r a n s l a t i o n No. 2 i f required

E
6

T r a n s l a t i o n No. 2

Align P l a t f o r m

1 0

TR-5 C h e c k l i s t
1

0

-

lld

-

GT- 3 SUMMARY FLIGHT PLAN

bo
-

COMMAND P I LOT

P I LOT

TR-30 Checklist Retrofire €k&mtro Checkliet
BBO
ORBIT 4

Reentry Commdnications Exp

EBO
1OK-

L

00

- 12 Crew safety i s paramount. Gemini represents thousands of hours of design, modification, fabrication, inspection, testing and training. Every component or system critical

to crew safety has a redundant (back-up) feature. Launch The malfunction detection system (MDS) in the launch vehicle is the heart of crew safety during the powered phase of flight

--

lift off to second stage shut down.

This system was designed for the Gemini launch vehicle
and had no counterpart in the Titan weapon system. Its

f’unction is to monitor Gemini launch vehicle pulbsystem performance and warn the crew of a potentially catastrophic malfunction

in time for escape, if necessary.

The MDS monitors engine

thrust for both stages, turning rates, propellant tank pressures, staging, Stage I hydraulic pressure, a spacecraft switchover command or engine hardover. During the powered phase of flight there are three modes for crew escape. These are (1) ejection seats, (2) firing the

retrorockets to separate the spacecraft from the launch vehicle, then initiating the spacecraft recovery system, (3) normal spacecraft separation followed by use of the thrusters and retroroclqets. For malf’unctions dictating retro-abort node

which occur between 15,000 and 7 , 0 feet, the astronauts 000 will not initiate abort until aerodynamic pressure has decreased to the,point where successflrl separation of the spacecraft from the launch vehicle is assured., more
~

Escape procedures w i l l be i n i t i a t e d by t h e command p i l o t following two v a l i d cues t h a t a malfunction has occurred. The p a r t i c u l a r malfunction and t h e time a t which

i t occurs w i l l determine a b o r t procedures as follows:
1 L i f t - o f f to 15,000 f e e t .
malfunctions
2.

. .
--

--

Immediate e , j e c t i o n for all

15,000 t o 70,000 f e e t

Delayed r e t r o - a b o r t for

a l l malfunctions

T h i s a c t i o n c o n s i s t s o f arming abort c i r c u i t s , w a i t i n g

u n t i l aerodynamic p r e s s u r e has decreased, then salvo f i r i n s t h e f o u r r e t r o r o c k e t s to s e p a r a t e from t h e launch v e h i c l e .
T h i s delay r e q u i r e s approximately i'ive seconds.

3.

A f t e r t h e launch v e h i c l e i s above 70,GGO feet,

aerodynamic drag w i l l have decreased to t h e point where no d e l a y between engine shutdown and r e t r o - a b o r t i s r e q u i r e d Tor successful separation. Retro-abort w i l l be used u n t i l a
(14,100 mph) i s

v e l o c i t y o f approximately 20,700 f t / s e c achieved.

For r a p i d malfunctions, r e t r o - a b o r t will be i n i t i a t e d
For slow

immediately a f t e r r e c e i p t of two v a l i d cues.

malfunctions, r e t r o - a b o r t w i l l be i n i t i a t e d a t t h e next occurring
fixed t i m e i n o r d e r to land near pre-positioned recovery v e s s e l s .

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more

-

14
4.

-

For velocities exceeding 2 , 0 ft/sec, but less 070

than orbital velocity minus 300 ft/sec, the normal spacecraft separation abort sequence isused for all malfunctions. The most probable cause of abort at this time would be'early shutdown o f the booster due to h e 1 depletion.
Also, abort

may be requested by ground monitors if the trajectory exceeds acceptable limits. The general abort plan in this flight

regime is to separate from the launch vehicle, assume retroattitude, insert landing area parameters in the spacecraft computer, retrofire, and descend to a planned recovery area. In-Flight There are no single point failures which would jeopardize crew safety during in-flight operations.
A l l systems and

subsystems have redundant features or there is an alternate mode

.

The Environmental Control System (ECS) controls suit and cabin atmosphere, crew and spacecraft equipment temperatures

and provides drinking water and a means of disposing of waste
water. The spacesuit itself is a redundant system. Should cabin

pressure fail, the spacesuit provides life support.

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w i t h t h e ECS.

15

-

I i s a f u l l p r e s s u r e s u i t which works i n conjunction t
Gaseous oxygen i s d i s t r i b u t e d through t h e s u i t

v e n t i l a t i o n system f o r cooling and r e s p i r a t i o n and p r o v i s i o n s allow t h e a s t r o n a u t t o take i n d r i n k i n g water while i n a hard s u i t ( p r e s s u r i z e d ) condition.
A 100 p e r c e n t oxygen environment a t 5 0 psia i n a .

p r e s s u r i z e d cabin o r 3.7 p s i a i n an unpressurized cabin i s provided i n s p a c e s u i t by t h e ECS. Additional oxygen i s

a v a i l a b l e from tanks i n t h e r e e n t r y module i n case o f emergency and f o r use during r e e n t r y . I n event t h e f l i g h t must be terminated before mission completion, t h e Gemini propulsion systems w i l l permit a c o n t r o l l e d landing i n a contingency recovery a r e a . Reentry, Landing and Recovery The Reentry Control System (RCS) c o n t r o l s t h e s p a c e c r a f t a t t i t u d e during r e t r o r o c k e t f i r i n g and reentry.
Two complete

and independent systems provide 100 p e r c e n t redundancy. four retrorockets a r e wired with dual i g n i t e r s .

The

The O r b i t A t t i t u d e and Maneuver System (OAMS) s e r v e s as

a redundant s a f e t y f e a t u r e should t h e r e t r o r o c k e t s f a i l t o
fire,
&$

case o f r e t r o r o c k e t f a i l u r e t h e OAMS w i l l have been

used t o lower t h e o r b i t t o the p o i n t where g r a v i t y and atmosdrag would cause s p a c e c r a f t r e e n t r y .

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more

-

-

16

-

The OAMS is normally used to perform translation maneuvers along three axes of the spacecraft and provide attitude control during orbital phases of the mission. In GT-3, should the retrorockets fail, reentry will occur

near Ascension Island in the South Atlantic. Parachutes are used for descent following spacecraft reentry. The crew has an excellent view of parachute

deplpyment through the Spacecraft windows.

I there is a f

parachute malfunction the crew will eject themselves from the spacecraft and use their personal chutes for landing. Survival equipment is carried on the backs of the ejection seats and remains attached to the astronauts until they land. Recovery forces will be provided by the military services and during mission time will be under the operational control of the Department of Defense Manager for Manned Space Flight Support Operations. Planned and contingency landing areas have been established. Planned areas are those where the probability of landing is sufficiently high
to justify pre-positioning of recovery

forces for support and recovery of crew and spacecraft within given access times.

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- 17 Contingency areas a r e a l l o t h e r areas along t h e ground t r a c k where the s p a c e c r a f t could p o s s i b v land,

The p r o b a b i l i t y

of landing i n a contingency area i s s u f f i c i e n t l y low t h a t

snecial s e a r c h and rescue techniques w i l l provide adequate
recovery support , There a r e f o u r types o f planned landing areas:
1,

Primary Landing Area

-- Landing

w i l l occur w i t h

normal t e r m i n a t i o n o f the mission a f t e r three o r b i t s . This a r e a i s i n the A t l a n t i c Ocean, o f f Grand Turk Island i n t h e West I n d l e s , approximately 805 m i l e s s o u t h e a s t of Cape Kennedy
2.

.

Secondary Landing Areas

--

i n A t l a n t i c Ocean where

a landing would occur i f it i s d e s i r a b l e t o terminate t h e
mission a f t e r the f i r s t o r second o r b i t f o r any cause, and a i r c r a f t w i l l be s t a t i o n e d t o provide support, Ships Aircraft

w i l l be a b l e t o drop pararescue personnel and f l o t a t i o n
equipment w i t h i n one hour a f t e r s p a c e c r a f t landing.

3,

Launch Abort Landing Areas

-- Along

t h e launch ground

t r a c k between F l o r i d a and A f r i c a where landings would occur following a b o r t s above 45,000 f e e t and before o r b i t a l insertion.

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18

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Surface s h i p s w i t h medical personnel and r e t r i e v a l equipment, and search and rescue a i r p l a n e s w i t h pararescue personnel, f l o t a t i o n equipment and e l e c t r o n i c search c a p a b i l i t y
w i l l be s t a t i o n e d i n t h i s a r e a before launch.

A f t e r t h e success-

f u l i n s e r t i o n o f t h e s p a c e c r a f t i n t o o r b i t , some o f t h e s h i p s and planes w i l l deploy t o secondary areas to provide support on a l a t e r o r b i t , and t h e remainder w i l l r e t u r n t o home

s t a ti ons

.

4,

Launch S i t e Landing Area

-- Landing

w i l l occur and e a r l y

following an abort during countdown, launch

powered f l i g h t i n which e j e c t i o n seats are used.

It i n c l u d e s

an a r e a of approximately 26 m i l e s seaward and t h r e e m i l e s
toward t h e Banana River from Pad 19.

I t s major axis i s

o r i e n t e d along the launch azimuth.
A s p e c i a l i z e d recovery f o r c e of land v e h i c l e s , amphibious

c r a f t , s h i p s and boats, a i r p l a n e s

and h e l i c o p t e r s w i l l be

s t a t i o n e d i n t h i s area from t h e t i m e t h e a s t r o n a u t s e n t e r t h e s p a c e c r a f t u n t i l l i f t - o f f plus f i v e minutes. Recovery a c c e s s time v a r i e s from 0 minutes f o r a water landing t o 10 minutes f o r a land landing.
The a s t r o n a u t s

w i l l be taken t o t h e P a t r i c k A i r Force Base h o s p i t a l f o r
examinations a f t e r pickup.
c

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19

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Contingency Landing Areas: Search and r e s c u e a i r c r a f t equipped w i t h e l e c t r o n i c search equipment, pararescue men and f l o t a t i o n equipment

w i l l be staged along t h e ground and sea t r a c k s o that t h e
s p a c e c r a f t w i l l be l o c a t e d and a s s i s t a n c e given t o the a s t r o n a u t s w i t h i n 18 hours a f t e r t h e recovery f o r c e s a r e n o t i f i e d of t h e probable landing p o s i t i o n .

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NASA-S-65-2333

ABORT MODES
SEPARATION USING MANEUVER ENGINES TOUCHDOWN CONTROL THRU USE OF: 1 ) OAMS 2) RETROGRADE ROCKETS 3 ) LIFT MODULATION
V / V R 0.8
T

RETROGRADE ADAPTER

A

TITAN THRUST TERMINATED PRIOR TO SEPARATION MODE 11 IMED1ATE SEPARATION

REENTRY MODULE

I

I' \o P,
I

DROGUE DEPLOYMENT

(01:40)

DEPLOYMENT ALTITUDE

SPACECRAFT LANDING SEQUENCE
-DROGUE CHUTE DEPLOY AT 50,000 FT. PILOT CHUTE DEPLOY AT 10,600 FT. R E N D E Z V O U S & RECOVERY SECTION SEPARATION

/-

MAIN CHUTE DEPLOY (REEFED)

I

f

Q
SPACECRAFT AT SINGLE POINT SUSPENSION

1

SPACECRAFT IN L A N D I N G POSITION
FIGURE 2.9-2

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2-16-65

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20

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Manned Space F l i g h t Tracking Network Within weeks a f t e r t h e l a s t manned Mercury mission

(MA-9) i n May 1963, work began on t h e $56-million program t o
reshape t h e network for Gemini's needs. Tracking network requirements for Gemini missions were q u i t e d i f f e r e n t f r o m and more demanding than those for Mercury. Mercury flew one man i n one capsule, t h e network was b u i l t w i t h e x i s t i n g or " o f f - t h e - s h e l f " equipment and the s p a c e c r a f t t r a v e l l e d i n a f i x e d o r b i t a l path. Gemini involves n o t only a two-man capsule but, on rendezvous missions, an Agena t a r g e t v e h i c l e ; imposing a d u a l t r a c k i n g requirement on t h e s t a t i o n s . Moreover, Gemini

a s t r o n a u t s w i l l be a b l e t o e x e r c i s e considerable c o n t r o l over t h e i r o r b i t a l p a t h and w i l l , i n long d u r a t i o n missions, s u b j e c t

a i r b o r n e and ground systems to tremendous r e l i a b i l i t y s t r a i n s . I n terms o f information t o be handled t h e g e a r used i n t h e Gemini network w i l l be asked t o absorb some 40 times t h e amount generated by Mercury. Gemini capsule measurements o f

275 t e l e m e t r y

items alone are t h r e e times those o f Mercury.

A i n d u s t r y team (comprised of ITT, Canoga, Bendix, E l e c t r o n Mechanical Research, RCA, IBM, AT&T, C o l l i n s Radio, Radiation, Inc., and UNIVAC) helped p u t t h e Gemini n e t ''on l i n e . " By t h e s p r i n g

o f 1964 t h e equipments were i n s t a l l e d , s t a t i o n s t a f f s were t r a i n e d

and up t o s t r e n g t h and t h e network was e x e r c i s e d by t h e Saturn I SA-6, GT-1, and Centaur AC-3 missions.

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Some new equipment has been installed, some old equipment modified, a few stations have been dropped from the network, a few added. language. The most basic change in the network is its

It has changed from an analog system to a digital

system to acquire a data handling capability, a speed and precision which has already out-distanced Mercury's best. The Manned Space Flight Network f o r Gemini is composed
of tracking and data acquisition facilities around the world,

a Mission Control Center at Cape Kennedy and a computing and communications center at Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md. (The Mission Control Center at Houston, Tex.,

when completed, will be used for many of the flight control and computing functions presently performed at'dze Mission Control Center, Cape Kennedy, and Goddard Space Flight Center ) The basic network consists of seven primary land sites; two ships, the Rose Knot Victory and Coastal Sentry Quebec;

six additional land stations; and the computing/comnications
and c o n t r o l centers.

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Primary S t a t i o n s

22

Additional S t a t i o n s

The l o c a t i o n s of t h e land s t a t i o n s a r e as follows:

Cape Kennedy, F l a , , and downrange A i r Force E a s t e r n T e s t Range s i t e s . Bermuda Grand Canary I s l a n d "Carnarvon,
Hawaii

Kano, Nigeria
*Madagascar (Tananarive)

Canton I s l a n d P o i n t Arguello, C a l i f .
White Sands, N , M.

Australia

E g l i n AFB, F l a .

Guaymas, Mexico Corpus C h r i s t i , Tex.
Two Ships:.

The Rose Knot

and Coastal Sentry Other t r a c k i n g and data a c q u i s i t i o n f a c i l i t i e s , such

as r e l a y a i r c r a f t , i n s t r u m e n t a t i o n s h i p s , communications, r e l a y
stations, etc., w i l l be c a l l e d up as r e q u i r e d and i n t e g r a t e d Also considered p a r t of t h e network

i n t o t h e b a s i c Network.

i s t h e Network Engineering and Training Center a t Wallops
Island, Virginia.

*

The s t a t i o n a t Muchea, A u s t r a l i a , has been d e a c t i v a t e d as a r e s u l t of t h e new s t a t i o n a t Carnarvon. Also t h e Zanzibar s t a t i o n was removed and Tananarive, a STADAN s t a t i o n , i s supporting i n its place.

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Network Responsibility

23

The MSC has the overall The direction

Manned Spacecraft Center (MSC).

management resbonsibility of the Gemini program.

and mission control of the Network immediately preceding and during a mission simulation or an actual mission is the responsibility of the MSC.
Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC).

NASA has centralized

the responsibility for the planning, implementation, and technical operations of manned space flight tracking and data acquisition at the Goddard Space Flight Center. Hence, the GSFC has the responsibility for the technical operation

of the Network f o r Gemini.

Technical operation is defined as

the operation, maintenance, modification, and augmentation of tracking and data acquisition facilities to function as an instrumentation network in response to mission requirements. About 370 persons directly support the network at Goddard. Weapons Research Establishment(WRE). The WRE, Department

of Supply, Commonwealth of Australia, is responsible f o r the

maintenance and operation of the Network stations in Australia. Contractual arrangements and agreements define this cooperative effort.

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- 24 Department of Defense (DOD). The DOD i s r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t h e maintenance a n d a p e r a t i o n a l c o n t r o l o f those DOD a s s e t s and f a c i l i t i e s r e q u i r e d t o support P r o j e c t Gemini. These i n c l u d e network s t a t i o n s a t t h e E a s t e r n T e s t Range, Western T e s t Range, and t h e A i r Proving Ground Center,
NASCOM.

The e n t i r e network i s supported by t h e NASA This Division, a Goddard r e s p o n s i b i l i t y ,

Communications Network.

i s r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t and o p e r a t i o n of t h e world-wide ground communications network t h a t provides

tdkthe

voice, and data l i n k s between t h e s t a t i o n s and

c o n t r o l c e n t e r s f o r t h e network.

It links 89 s t a t i o n s , i n c l u d i n g 34 overseas p o i n t s , with
message, voice and data communications.

I t s c i r c u i t s and
c i r c u i t miles.

t e r m i n a l s span 100,000 r o u t e m i l e s and 5OO,OOO

Also part of NASCOM i s t h e voice communication n e t .
A s o p h i s t i c a t e d switchboard system, w i t h m u l t i p l e dual-

o p e r a t i n g consoles, e n a b l e s one o p e r a t o r t o devote f’ull a t t e n t i o n t o any s p e c i a l mission conferences,
This system i s

c a l l e d SCAMA I1 ( S t a t i o n Conferencing and Monitoring Arrangemeqt).
SCAMA I1 can now handle 100 l i n e s and can

u l t i m a t e l y be expanded t o handle 220 l i n e s .

Both p o i n t -

t o - p o i n t connections and conference arrangements are p o s s i b l e .
A l l l i n e s can be connected i n t o one conference w i t h o u t l o s s o f

q u a l i t y . The S C m o p e r a t o r can add c o n f e r e e s o r remove them. He a l s o c o n t r o l 3 which of the conferees can talk filch cm T i s t e n only. more

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- 25 The SCAMA c u r r e n t l y has 10 times t h e c a p a b i l i t y of t h e network used f o r Mercury. One of t h e most c r i t i c a l f u n c t i o n s t h e world-wide network must perform i s t h a t of o b t a i n i n g data and making high-speed near-real-time computations. During a f l i g h t , the t r a c k i n g

data from the Manned Space F l i g h t Network s t a t i o n s a r e sent

v i a ground communications to the Goddard Space F l i g h t Center,
f o r processing.
The development o f an extensive computer

program was r e q u i r e d t o handle the t r a c k i n g data and t o
make c r i t i c a l computations f o r t h e so-called "go or no-go"

and r e t r o f i r e and r e e n t r y d e c i s i o n w i t h i n m i l l i s e c o n d s of t r a c k i n g measurements.
A t t h e Goddard Computing Center, t h r e e

IBM 7094 computers a r e i n s t a l l e d .

Two operate i n p a r a l l e l

t o a c c e p t p o s i t i o n data i n d i g i t a l form d i r e c t l y from the
s t a t i o n s and perform computations for each of the s e p a r a t e f l i g h t phases:

the launch phase, the o r b i t a l phase, and
The o t h e r s e r v e s as a backup,

t h e recovery phase.

The Computing Center a l s o houses various d i s p l a y s and p l o t board p r e s e n t a t i o n s for v i s u a l i n d i c a t i o n o f capsule l o c a t i o n , v e l o c i t y , and s t a t u s of c e r t a i n c r i t i c a l capsule systems. The number o f people a t Goddard, a t t h e s t a t i o n s and a t o t h e r support groups such as t h e t r a i n i n g c e n t e r and a l o g i s t i c s

d e p o t , t o t a l s some 1500 personnel f o r the e n t i r e network.

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Voice Communications Remote Air to Ground Voice Communications Air to Ground Voice Communications
F1 ight Controller
X

25

-

XXI
x x
x x

Manned High Speed Radar Data Telemetry Communications
RF Command

X

xx
X

xx

x
X X

Down Range Up Link Digital Command

System
Gemini Launch Vehicle Command On Site Data Processor (1218) Telemetry Real Time Display Telemetry Receiver
& Recorder

X X

X

X X X X
X

X
X
~

xx
xx

xx
X X

1

X

x

x

xx xx

Acquisition Aid C-Band Radar

Ixx

I
X X

I

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EXPERIMENTS NASA has scheduled a series o f scientific, biological and technological experiments for Project Gemini. These

were first undertaken in Project Mercury and involve experiments submitted by NASA, the Department of Defense and the scientific community. Reentry Communications An object reentering the Earth's atmosphere from space

generates extremely high temperatures.

These temperatures

ionize the air and create a plasma sheath which surrounds the object and effectively eliminates radio communications with it.

Project Mercury manned space flights suffered l o s s of

telemetry and voice communications during reentry. Research has developed a method for restoring radio communications during this period.

I has been determined t

that injecting fluid into the Lonized plasma will decrease the amount of ionization to a level where communications are possible. The technique has been successful for objects with

a maximum nose diameter of eight inches and at velocities up
to approximately 18,000 feet per second (12,270 mph). This

experiment is designed to establish whether the same technique can be applied to a large, blunt, high-velocity vehicle. The

experiment was designed by the NASA Langley Research Center, Hampton, Va. and I s sponsored by the NASA Office of Advanced Research and Technology. There are three experimenters, The0
Sims, W.F.

Cuddihy, and L. C. Schroeder, all of Langley. - more

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The GT-3 f l i g h t o f f e r s an opportunity f o r an engineering

experiment under very p r a c t i c a l c o n d i t i o n s . During the Gemini r e e n t r y , water w i l l be i n j e c t e d i n extremely b r i e f , timed p u l s e s a t d i f f e r e n t flow rates i n t o the ionized plasma sheath. S i g n a l l e v e l s received

w i l l be monitored and recorded f o r use i n e v a l u a t i n g t h e

e f f e c t i v e n e s s of t h e d i f f e r e n t flow rates.

For purposes

of t h e experiment, t e l e m e t r y s i g n a l measurements w i l l be s u f f i c i e n t , and t h e r e w i l l be no attempt t o r e s t o r e a s t r o n a u t voice channel communications on t h i s f l i g h t . The experiment c o n s i s t s of a water expulsion system designed t o f i t on t h e i n s i d e s u r f a c e of t h e s p a c e c r a f t ' s r i g h t main landing g e a r door. The system i s completely s e l f -

contained except for t h e experiment a c t i v a t i o n switch i n s i d e t h e cabin. T o t a l weight of t h e equipment s e r v i c e d f o r f l i g h t

i s approximately 85 pounds.
A s t h e s p a c e c r a f t r e e n t e r s t h e E a r t h ' s atmosphere,
the communications blackout w i l l begin a t approximately
3OO,OOO

feet.

A t a s p e c i f i e d time a f t e r r e t r o - f i r e the

p i l o t (John Young) w i l l f l i c k a switch t o s t a r t the experiment.

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The switch w i l l open a solenoid shut-off valve and
a l l o w n i t r o g e n gas p r e s s u r i z a t i o n of the water s t o r a g e tank.

It w i l l a l s o s t a r t t h e mechanically run i n J e c t i o n sequence
timer.
This w i l l a c t i v a t e the i n j e c t i o n nozzle solenoid

valves a t t h e i r programmed times t o allow i n j e c t i o n of' viater i n t o t h e s p a c e c r a f t flow f i e l d . The water supply w i l l be

exhausted i n approximately 150 seconds. E f f e c t s of Zero Gravity on the Growth of Sea Urchin 3ggs This experiment i s designed t o explore the p o s s i b i l i t y
of t h e e x i s t e n c e o f a g r a v i t a t i o n a l f i e l d e f f e c t on c e l l a

exposed to low g r a v i t y c o n d i t i o n s .

C e l l u l a r e f f e c t s are

more e a s i l y d e t e c t a b l e i n simple c e l l systems, and t h i s experiment w i l l i n v e s t i g a t e zero-gravity e f f e c t s o n sea u r c h i n eggs during s e n s i t i v e stages o f development, such a s f e r t i l i z a t i o n and c e l l d i v i s i o n .

For comparison, a s f x i l a r

s e r i e s o f c o n t r o l samples w i l l be developed simultaneously a t
t h e launch s i t e .

The experiment c o n s i s t s of a metal c y l i n d e r containing

e i g h t s e p a r a t e samples o f sea u r c h i n eggs, sperm, and a fixative solution. on t h e l e f t hatch. The capsule i s mounted i n s i d e t h e cabin

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After

A t designated times, t h e eggs and t h e sperm w i l l be

u n i t e d t o s t a r t t h e f e r t i l i z a t i o n and growth process.

a s p e c i f i e d time, t h e f i x a t i v e s o l u t i o n w i l l be a p p l i e d t o
t h e egg embryo t o s t o p i t s growth. Rotation of a handle a t

one end o f t h e c y l i n d e r a c t i v a t e s e i t h e r t h e f e r t i l i z a t i o n

o r t h e f i x a t i o n process.
by c y l i n d e r design.

The a c t u a l sequence i s prearranged

The c y l i n d e r i s 3

1 4 inches i n diameter and 6 3/4 /

inches long.

It weighs 25.4 ounces.

The experiflent w i l l , be conducted by t h e N S Ames AA Research Center. experimenter. Sciences. S y n e r g i s t i c E f f e c t o f Zero Gravity and Radiation on White Blood
Cells

Dr. Richard S. Young of t h a t Center i s t h e

The sponsor i s t h e NASA Office of Space

This experiment w i l l be conducted by the Atomic Energy

Commission and i s sponsored by t h e NASA O f f i c e of Space Sciences.

Dr. Michael Bender of Oak Ridge National Laboratory

i s the experimenter.

The o b j e c t i v e i s radiation.

t o examine t h e b i o l o g i c a l e f f e c t s o f

This i s important because of p o s s i b l e r a d i a t i o n

exposure d u r i n g prolonged f l i g h t s .

The experiment w i l l t e s t

t h e p o s s i b i l i t y t h a t weightlessness i n t e r a c t s w i t h r a d i a t i o n

t o produce unpredicted e f f e c t s g r e a t e r than t h e sum of t h e i r individual effects

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The experiment w i l l measure t h e changes i n human blood samples exposed t o a known q u a n t i t y and q u a l i t y o f r a d i a t i o n during t h e zero g r a v i t y phase of t h e mission.

For comparison,

a similar s e r i e s o f c o n t r o l samples w i l l be exposed
simultaneously a t the launch s i t e . An a n a l y s i s a l s o w i l l be

made on blood samples taken from t h e f l i g h t crew immediately b e f o r e and a f t e r t h e mission. The r a d i a t i o n source w i l l be Phosphorus-32 an i s o t o p e which emits only a s i n g l e b e t a . p a r t i c l e w l t h an average energy of 0.7 mev ( m i l l i o n e l e c t r o n v o l t s ) . The experiment i s housed i n a h e r m e t i c a l l y s e a l e d aluminum box 3.7 inches wide, 1.3 inches deep, 3.8 inches long.

It weighs approximately one pound and i s l o c a t e d on

t h e r i g h t h a t c h i n s i d e t h e cabin. I r r a d i a t i o n of t h e b l o o d samples i s i n i t i a t e d manually by t w i s t i n g a handle on t h e box. Cardiovascular E f f e c t s o f Space F l i g h t
T h i s i s a c o n t i n u a t i o n o f s t u d i e s begun during P r o j e c t

Mercury t o e v a l u a t e t h e e f f e c t s o f prolonged weightlessness
on t h e c a r d i o v a s c u l a r system. Astronauts S c h i r r a and Cooper

experienced l o w e r than normal blood p r e s s u r e i n the e r e c t p o s i t i o n immediately a f t e r emerging f r o m t h e s p a c e c r a f t .

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- 31 The experiment will be conducted by the Space Medicine Branch o f the Crew Systems Division of the Manned Spacecraft Center and is sponsored by the NASA Office o f Manned Space Flight. Comparisons will be made of the astronauts' preflight
and postflight blood pressures, blood volumes, pulse rates,

and electrocardiograms.

The data will reveal the cardiovascular

and blood volume changes due to heat stress, the effect of
prolonged confinement, dehydration, fatigue, and possible effects of weightlessness. There are no inf'light requirements.

Measurements will be taken before, during, and after a head-up tilt of 80 degrees from the horizontal. The astronauts will remain in the spacecraft while it is hoisted aboard the recovery vessel.
A portable biomedical

recorder w i l l be attached to each astronaut before he leaves the spacecraft, and 61ood pressure and electrocardiogram measurements will be taken. Each astronaut will then egress Blood

from the spacecraft and stand on the vessel's deck.

pressure and ECG measurements will be recorded automatically before, during, and for a short time after egress. The

astronauts will then go to the shipls medical facility for the tilt table tests.

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MEDICAL CHECKS

Medical checks w i l l be based on biomedical t e l e m e t r y and voice communications.
T h i s data w i l l be used t o e v a l u a t e

g e n e r a l c o n d i t i o n of t h e crew, blood pressure, and o r a l temperature

.

PHOTOGRAPHY

A

7Omm Hasselblad still camera and a 16m motion

p i c t u r e camera w i l l be a v a i l a b l e f o r g e n e r a l purpose photography.
FOOD ETVALUATION

Evaluation o f f l i g h t food packaging and handling i s one of t h e tasks scheduled during t h e mission. One hour

during t h e second o r b i t has been provided i n t h e p i l o t ' s
f l i g h t p l a n t o v e r i f y food items f o r use i n l a t e r Gemini

missions. Two meals of f o u r items each w i l l be aboard t h e spacecraft. Each meal w i l l be contained i n a n aluminum f o i l There w i l l be two rehydrated items and

laminated over-wrap.

two b i t e - s i z e items t o a meal, s u g a r l e s s chewing gum, and

a wet pack f o r c l e a n s i n g hands and face.
The food w i l l be stowed i n a box on t h e l e f t s i d e of t h e Gemini c o c k p i t . During the second o r b i t , the command p i l o t

w i l l t r a n s f e r t h e meals t o the p i l o t i n t h e r i g h t seat who w i l l e v a l u a t e each i t e m . more

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33

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The rehydrated i t e m s w i l l be r e c o n s t i t u t e d by adding

water w i t h a s p e c i a l water gun developed by Manned Spacecraft center engineers. When t h e gun i s i n s e r t e d i n t o the nozzle

on t h e food c o n t a i n e r s i t can t r a n s f e r water i n t o t h e food without s p i l l i n g .
The b i t e s i z e items do n o t need water.
For c u t t i n g

They a r e coated t o prevent crumbling.

open the overwrap, and packaging around b i t s i z e items, t h e a s t r o n a u t has a s p e c i a l p a i r of s c i s s o r s , stowed i n a pocket on the l e f t l e g of h i s s u i t .
After the p i l o t has r e c o n s t i t u t e d t h e food and sampled

i t , he w i l l go through t h e food wasted.sposa1 procedure.
each package of t h e f r e e z e - d r i e d food, t h e r e i s a yellow t a b l e t o f food d i s i n f e c t a n t i n a separate pouch.

In

When i t i s

placed i n t h e food pouch, it a c t s chemically t o prevent s p o i l a g e of t h e remaining food.

All products used during t h e f l i g h t must conform w i t h
s t r i n g e n t b a c t e r i o l o g i c a l requirements which a r e higher than normal i n d u s t r y requirements on commercially processed food. The food formulation concept was developed by the U.S.
Army Laboratories, Natick, Wss.

O v e r a l l food procurement,

processing, and packaging w a s performed by t h e Whirlpool Corp., S t . Joseph, Mich. P r i n c i p a l food s u b c o n t r a c t o r s are Minneapolis.

S w i f t and Co.,

Chicago, and P i l l s b u r y Co.,

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Meal A Beef P o t Roast

34

d r i e d beef cubes i n gravy. Formulated

-- Freeze

The item i s i n bar shape and weighs 27 grams.

from a r e c i p e of cooked d i c e d beef, beef j u i c e s and water. Orange J u i c e

--

Contains 20.7 grams of orange j u i c e A instant n

c r y s t a l s and 0.3 grams o f orange o i l granules. product. Meal B Applesauce

--

Commercially prepared i n s t a n t powder.

Weighs 42 grams and c o n t a i n s mixture of i n s t a n t applesauGe and i n s t a n t apple j u i c e . Grapefruit Juice powder.

--

Commercially prepared i n s t a n t

Weighs 2 1 grams.

Brownies procedure.

--

Compressed irito cubes with no s p e c i a l drying

Has double c o a t i n g o f s t a r c h and g e l a t i n .

Contents include shortening, b i t t e r chocolate, g e n e r a l purpose f l o u r , chemical leavening, s a l t , whole f r e s h eggs, granulated sugar, v a n i l l a f l a v o r i n g , and midget pecans.
o f six cubes i s 45 grams.

T o t a l weight

Chicken b i t s

--

Six pieces, f r e e z e d r i e d .

T o t a l weight

i s 24 grams.

Contains diced chicken., water, gravy m i x ,

shortening, and minced onion.

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G E M I N I SURVIVAL PACKAGE

The Gemini s u r v i v a l package c o n t a i n s 14 items designed
t o support an a s t r o n a u t i f he should land o u t s i d e normal

recovery a r e a s .
The package weighs 23 l b s . and has two s e c t i o n s .

One

s e c t i o n , holding a 3 1/2-pound

water c o n t a i n e r and machete The main

i s mounted by the a s t r o n a u t ' s l e f t shoulder.

package, containing t h e l i f e r a f t and r e l a t e d equipment, i s mounted on t h e back of t h e e j e c t i o n s e a t . Both packages

a r e a t t a c h e d t o t h e a s t r o n a u t ' s p e r s o n a l parachute harness by a nylon l i n e . A f t e r e j e c t i o n from t h e s p a c e c r a f t , as

t h e s e a t f a l l s c l e a r and t h e parachute deploys, t h e s u r v i v a l
k i t w i l l hang on a l i n e , ready f o r use as soon as t h e a s t r o n a u t

lands. I n f l a t e d , t h e one-man l i f e r a f t i s f i v e and one h a l f

f t . long and t h r e e f t . wide.
inflation.

A C02 b o t t l e i s a t t a c h e d for

The r a f t i s a l s o equipped with a s e a anchor, sea

dye markers, and a sun bonnet of nylon m a t e r i a l w i t h an aluminized c o a t i n g which t h e a s t r o n a u t can p l a c e over h i s head.

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I n h i s s u r v i v a l k i t , t h e a s t r o n a u t a l s o has a r a d i o beacon, a combination s u r v i v a l l i g h t , sunglasses, a medical
k i t , and a d e s a l t e r k i t assembly.

The combination s u r v i v a l

l i g h t i s a new developmentfbr t h e Gemini k i t , combining many i n d i v i d u a l items which were c a r r i e d i n t h e Mercury k i t . About t h e s i z e o f

a

paperback novel, t h e CSL c o n t a i n s

a s t r o b e l i g h t for s i g n a l i n g a t n i g h t , a f l a s h l i g h t , and a

s i g n a l m i r r o r b u i l t i n on t h e end o f t h e case. c o n t a i n s a small compass.

I also t

There a r e t h r e e c y l i n d r i c a l c a r t r i d g e s i n s i d e t h e case.
Two c o n t a i n b a t t e r i e s for t h e l i g h t s .

The t h i r d c o n t a i n s a

sewing k i t , 14 f e e t o f nylon l i n e , c o t t o n b a l l s and a s t r i k e r f o r k i n d l i n g a f i r e , halazone t a b l e t s for water p u r i f i c a t i o n , and a w h i s t l e , The d e s a l t e r k i t includes e i g h t d e s a l t e r b r i c k e t t e s , and a processing bag. seawater Each b r i c k e t t e can d e s a l t one p i n t o f

.
There also a r e s t i m u l a n t , pain, motion sickness,

The medical k i t c o n t a i n s a one cubic centimeter i n j e c t o r f o r pain, and a two cubic centimeter i n j e c t o r f o r motion
sickness.

and a n t i b i o t i c t a b l e t s and a s p i r i n .

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37

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The water c o n t a i n e r was manufactured a t Manned S p a c e c r a f t Center by members of t h e Crew Systems Division. Other items were provided by t h e following c o n t r a c t o r s : machete, Case Knife Co., Bradford, Pa.; Co., Phoenix, Ariz.; r a d i o beacon, Sperry Houston, Tex.;

sunglasses, Cool Ray Co.,

combination s u r v i v a l l i g h t , ACR E l e c t r o n i c s , New York City; medical k i t i n j e c t o r s , Rodona Research Corp., Bethesda, Md.;

d e s a l t e r k i t assembly, Department of Defense; l i f e raft, S t e i n t h a l Co., New York City; C02 c o n t a i n e r , Arde Corp., Paramus, N . J .
GEMINI SPACECRAFT

The Gemini s p a c e c r a f t i s c o n i c a l shaped and c o n s i s t s

of two major assemblies, t h e r e e n t r y module and adapter section.

It i s 18 f e e t , 5 inches i n l e n g t h and 10 f e e t

a c r o s s a t t h e base. The r e e n t r y module i s s e p a r a t e d i n t o t h r e e primary sections:
(1) Rendezvous and recovery s e c t i o n (R&R).

(2)

Reentry c o n t r o l s e c t i o n (RCS);

(3) Cabin s e c t i o n .

The R&R s e c t i o n i s t h e forward s e c t i o n of t h e s p a c e c r a f t

and i s a t t a c h e d t o t h e RCS s e c t i o n . carried f o r t h i s flight.

Radar equipment i s n o t

Housed i n t h i s s e c t i o n a r e t h e

drogue, p i l o t and main parachutes.

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38

I contains t h e t

The RCS s e c t i o n , located between, and mated t o , the

R&R and cabin s e c t i o n s o f t h e s p a c e c r a f t .

f u e l and o x i d i z e r tanks, valves, tube assemblies and t h r u s t chamber assemblies ( T C A ) .
A parachute a d a p t e r assembly i s

on t h e forward face for main parachute attachment.

The cabin s e c t i o n houses t h e crew. t h e RCS and a d a p t e r s e c t i o n s . flotation attitude.

It i s l o c a t e d between

It w i l l provide proper water

The shape also allows space between i t

and t h e o u t e r c o n i c a l shell for i n s t a l l a t i o n of equipment. The o u t e r s h e l l i s covered w i t h Reng 4 1 s h i n g l e s w i t h an a b l a t i v e h e a t s h i e l f on the b l u n t end ?or heat p r o t e c t i o n .
The a d a p t e r c o n s i s t s o f a r e t r o g r a d e s e c t i o n and a n

equipment s e c t i o n .

Retrograde r o c k e t s and p a r t o f t h e r a u i a t o r

f o r t h e cooling system a r e contained i n the r e t r o g r a d e

section.

The equipment s e c t i o n holds b a t t e r i e s for e l e c t r i c a l

power, f u e l f o r t h e o r b i t a l t i t u d e and maneuver system, and t h e primary oxygen f o r t h e environmental c o n t r o l system. The equipment s e c t i o n also s e r v e s as a r a d i a t o r for the s p a c e c r a f t ' s cooling system which i s contained i n t h e s e c t i o n . The equipment s e c t i o n i s j e t t i s o n e d immediately p r i o r t o r e t r o f i r e , and t h e r e t r o g r a d e s e c t i o n i s j e t t i s o n e d a f t e r retrofire.

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Gemini's r e e n t r y module

The Gemini s p a c e c r a f t provides 50 per c e n t more cabin space than the Mercury s p a c e c r a f t .

i s 1 f e e t high and 7 1/2 f e e t i n diameter a t i t s base, compared 1
t o n i n e f e e t h i g h s i x f e e t i n diameter for Mercury.

The Gemini equipment a d a p t e r i s 7 1/2 f e e t high and
10 f e e t i n diameter a t i t s base.

Launch weight o f t h e s p a c e c r a f t i s approximately 7,000 pounds. Landing weight o f t h e r e e n t r y module i s about

4,700 pounds.
P r i n c i p a l s t r u c t u r a l materials i n t h e r e e n t r y module

are titanium, w i t h Rene' 4 1 and beryllium used f o r s h i n g l e s .
The a d a p t e r i s constructed mainly of magnesium. Prime c o n t r a c t o r f o r t h e Gemini s p a c e c r a f t i s McDonnell A i r c r a f t Corp.,
St.

Louis.
G E M I N I LAUNCH V E H I C L E

The Gemini Launch Vehicle i s a modified T i t * o f two stages.

I1 c o n s i s t i n g

Stage I i s 63 f e e t high, and s t a g e I1 i s 27 f e e t high. Diameter i s 10 f e e t . O v e r a l l l e n g t h of'the launch v e h i c l e

including the spacecraft i s 1 9 feet. 0 Launch weight, i n c l u d i n g the s p a c e c r a f t i s about 340,000 pounds.

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PROPULSION SYSTEMS OAMS, RCS, RETRO LOCATION IN SPACECRAFT
EQUIPMENT SECT10

RnROGRADE S C En

RE-ENTRY SECT1

FIGURE 2.5-1

2- 16-65

Propulsion is provided by two stage I and one stage
I1 liquid propellant engines which burn a 50-50 blend of

monomethyl hydrazine and unsymmetrical-dimethyl hydrazine
as fuel, with nitrogen tetroxide as oxidizer.

Stage I engines produce about 430,000 pounds of thrust at lift-off, and the stage 11 engine produces about 100,000
pounds of thrust at altitude.

Fuels are storable for easy

handling and hypergolic (ignite on contact with each other), which eliminates the need for an ignition system, Titan I1 was chosen for Gemini because of its simplified operation, thrust and availability.
were made:

The following modifications

a. Additions for a malfunction detection system.
b.
C.

Modifications of flight control system. Modification of electrical system. Substitution of radio guidance for inertial guidance. Deletion of retro rockets and vernier bottles.

d.

e.
f.

New stage I1 equipment t r u s s .
New stage II forward oxidizer skirt assembly.
Simplification of trajectory tracking requirements. Modification of hydraulic system. Modification of instrumentation system.

Q.
h.

i.

J.

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- 41 GLV program management for NASA is under the direction
of the Space Systems Division of the Air Force Systems

Command.

Contractors include:

air frame and system

integration, Martin, Baltimore (Md.) Division; propulsion systems, Aerojet-General Corp., Sacramento, Calif.; radio command guidance system, General Electric Co., Syracuse,

N. Y.; ground guidance computer, Burroughs Corp., Paoli, Pa.;
systems engineering and technical direction, Aerospace Corp.,

El Segundo, Calif.
GEMINI SPACE SUIT The Gemini space suit which will be used on this mission was designed as a close fitting f ' u l l pressure suit. The

wearer can take off the helmet and gloves in flight. The
remainder of the suit is designed for continuous wear. The

communications system (earphones and microphones) is an integral part of the suit. The inner layer of the suit is a rubberized material, and the outer covering is a nylon material. Air inlet and outlet connections are located at waist level. Oxygenis provided from containers stowed in the During reentry, after the

spacecraft's adapter section.

adapter section has been jettisoned, astronauts use an oxygen supply located in the reentry module.

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42

A small b a t t e r y pack

The gloves a r e a t t a c h e d t o t h e s u i t a t a r o t a t i n g wrist j o i n t which allows full wrist movement.

and i n d i v i d u a l f i n g e r t i p l i g h t s a r e mounted on each glove
90

t h a t t h e a s t r o n a u t s can read instruments on t h e n i g h t

s i d e o f t h e E a r t h while t h e cabin l i g h t i s o f f .
A pocket i s l o c a t e d on the i n s i d e of each l e g between

t h e ankle and knee.

The l e f t pocket c o n t a i n s a s p e c i a l

p a i r of s c i s s o r s for opening food packages, and t h e r i g h t

pocket holds a parachute shroud l i n e c u t t e r .

The c u t t e r would becoming

be used a f t e r landing t o prevent t h e a s t r o n a u t from

entangled by parachute l i n e s . The a s t r o n a u t dons t h e suit through a z i p p e r opening which runs from the c r o t c h up t h e e n t i r e back o f t h e c s u i t . The s u i t has been developed by M S C l s Crew Systems Division.
Mass
P r i m e c o n t r a c t o r i s t h e David C l a r k C o . ,

Worcester,

.
Each a s t r o n a u t i s provided w i t h t h r e e s u i t s .
One i s

f o r t r a i n i n g , t h e second i s worn during t h e mission, and t h e
t h i r d i s a back-up.

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CREW BIOGRAPHIES

NAME:

V i r g i l I. "Gus" Grissom

BIRTHPLACE AND DATE: EDUCATION:

M i t c h e l l , Ind., A p r i l 3, 1926

Bachelor of Science degree i n mechanical engineering from Purdue U n i v e r s i t y

MARITAL STATUS:
CHILDFUN:

Married t o t h e former B e t t y L. Moore of M i t c h e l l , Ind.

S c o t t , May 16, 1950; Mark, Dec. 30, 1953.

Grissom i s a Major i n t h e United S t a t e s A i r Force, and received h i s wings i n March, 1951. He flew 100 combat missions i n Korea i n F-861s w i t h t h e 334th F i g h t e r - I n t e r c e p t o r Squadron.
H e l e f t Korea i n June 1952 and became a j e t i n s t r u c t o r a t

Bryan, Tex. I n August 1955, he entered t h e A i r Force I n s t i t u t e of Technology a t Wright-Patterson A i r Force Base, Ohio, t o s t u d y a e r o n a u t i c a l engineering. I n October 1956, he attended t h e

Test P i l o t School a t Edwards A i r Force Base, Calif., and r e turned t o Wright-Patterson A i r Force Base i n 1957 as a t e s t p i l o t assigned t o t h e f i g h t e r branch. Grissom has logged more t h a n 4,000 hours f l y i n g time, including more t h a n 3,000 hours i n j e t a i r c r a f t .
H e was

awarded t h e Distinguished Flying Cross and t h e A i r Medal w i t h

C l u s t e r f o r s e r v i c e i n Korea. -more

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- 45 NAME:

John W. Young San Francisco, C a l i f . ,
Sept. 24, 1930

BIRTHPLACE AND DATE:
EDUCATION:

Bachelor of Science degree i n a e r o n a u t i c a l engineering from Georgia I n s t i t u t e of Technology
Married t o the former Barbara V. White of Savannah, Ga.

MARITAL STATUS:
CHILDREN:

Sandy, A p r i l 30, 1957; John, Jan. 17, 1959

Upon graduation from Georgia Tech, Young entered t h e United States Navy and i s now a Lieutenant Commander i n that service. From 1959 t o 1962 he served as a test p i l o t , and l a t e r program manager of t h e F4H weapons systems p r o j e c t , doing t e s t and e v a l u a t i o n f l i g h t s and w r i t i n g t e c h n i c a l reports

.
H e served as maintenance o f f i c e r f o r all-weather Fighter

Squadron 143 a t the Naval A i r S t a t i o n , N i r a m a r , C a l i f ,

In

1962, Young set world time-to-climb records i n t h e 3,000
meter and 25,000 meter events i n t h e F4B Navy f i g h t e r .
H e has logged more t h a n 3,200 hours f l y i n g t i m e , ihclud-

i n g more than 2,700 hours i n j e t a i r c r a f t . Young w a s among the group of nine a s t r o n a u t s s e l e c t e d by
NASA i n September 1962.

I n a d d i t i o n t o p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the

o v e r a l l a s t r o n a u t t r a i n i n g program he has had s p e c i a l i z e d d u t i e s including monitoring development of environment c o n t r o l
systems and s p a c e c r a f t e d e c t i o n seats and couches,

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N M: A E Walter M. S c h i r r a , Jr.
BIRTHPLACE AND DATE:

46

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Hackensack, N. J., March 12, 1923

EDUCATION:

Graduate of t h e United S t a t e s Naval A c a d a y Married t o t h e former Josephine Fraser of S e a t t l e , Wash.

MARITAL STATUS:

S c h i r r a , a,Navy Commander, received f l i g h t t r a i n i n g a t Pensacola, Naval A i r S t a t i o n .
A s an exchange p i l o t w i t h t h e United S t a t e s A i r Force,

154th F i g h t e r Bomber Squadron, he flew 90 combat missions i n

F-84E a i r c r a f t i n Korea and downed one M I G w i t h another
probable. He received t h e Distinguished Flying Cross and two

A i r Medals for h i s Korean s e r v i c e .

He took p a r t i n t h e development of t h e Sidewinder missile

a t t h e Naval Ordnance Training S t a t i o n , China Lake, Calif.
S c h i r r a was p r o j e c t p i l o t f b r t h e F7v3 Cutlass a n d i n s t r u c t o r pilot f o r t h e Cutlass and t h e J?J3 Fury. S c h i r r a flew F3H-2N Demons as o p e r a t i o n s o f f i c e r of t h e 124th F i g h t e r Squadron onboard t h e Carrier Lexington i n t h e P a c i f i c . He a t t e n d e d t h e Naval A i r S a f e t y Offic&School a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y of Southern C a l i f o r n i a , and completed t e s t p i l o t t r a i n i n g a t t h e Naval A i r Center, Patuxent River, Md. He

was l a t e r assigned a t Patuzent i n s u i t a b i l i t y development

work on t h e F4H.

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- 4'( He has more than 3,800 hours f l y i n g time, i n c l u d i n g more than 2,700 hours i n j e t a i r c r a f t . S c h i r r a was one o f t h e seven Mercury a s t r o n a u t s named i n A p r i l 1959. On Oct. 3, 1962, S c h i r r a flew a s i x - o r b i t mission i n
h i s "Sigma 7" s p a c e c r a f t .

The f l i g h t l a s t e d nine hours and

13 minutes from l i f t o f f through landing and he a t t a i n e d a
v e l o c i t y of 17,557 m i l e s p e r hour, a maximum o r b i t a l a l t i t u d e

of 175 s t a t u t e m i l e s and a t o t a l range of almost 144,000
s t a t u t e miles. The impact lpoint was i n t h e p a c i f i c Ocean, He was awarded about 275 m i l e s n o r t h e a s t of Midway I s l a n d .

t h e NASA Distinguished Sekvice Medal f o r h i s f l i g h t .

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- 48
NAME:

Sept. 17, 1930

Thomas P. S t a f f o r d Weatherford, Okla.,

BIRTHPLACE AND DATE:
EDUCATION:

Bachelor o f Science degree from United St&L&e3 Naval Academy Married t o t h e former Faye L, Shoemaker o f Weatherford, Okla.

MARITAL STATUS:
CHILDFEN:

Dianne, J u l y 2, 1954; Karin, Aug. 28, 1957

S t a f f o r d , an A i r Force Major, was commissioned i n the

United S t a t e s A i r Force upon graduation from t h e U.S. Academy a t Annapolis.

Naval

Following h i s f l i g h t t r a i n i n g , he flew

f i g h t e r i n t e r c e p t o r a i r c r a f t i n t h e United S t a t e s and Gerrhan;r, and l a t e r a t t e n d e d t h e United S t a t e s A i r Force Experimental F l i g h t T e s t School a t Edwards A i r Force Base,
Calif

.
He served as Chief of the Performance Branch, USAF

Aerospace Research P i l o t School a t Edwards.

I n t h i s assignment
He a l s o served

he was r e s p o n s i b l e f o r s u p e r v i s i o n and a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of t h e f l y i n g curriculum f o r s t u d e n t t e s t p i l o t s .

as an i n s t r u c t o r i n both f l i g h t t e s t t r a i n i n g and s p e c i a l i z e d
academic s u b j e c t s . He e s t a b l i s h e d b a s i c textbooks and p a r t i c i p a t e d

i n and d i r e c t e d t h e w r i t i n g o f f l i g h t t e s t manuals f o r use by t h e staff of s t u d e n t s . S t a f f o r d i s co-author of the P i l o t * s Handboqk. f o r Performance F l i g h t Testina; and Aerodynamics Handbook f o r Performance F l i g h t

Testinff.

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PROJECT OFFICIALS George E. Mueller Associate Administrator, Office of Manned Space Flight, NASA Headquarters. Acting Director, Project Gemini

.

William C. Schneider

Deputy Director, Project Gemini, Office o f \ Manned Space Flight, NASA Headquarters. Director, Missions Operations,
NASA Headquarters

E, E Christensen . Charles W. Mathews

Gemini Program Manager, Manned Spacecraft Center, Houston, Tex. Mission Director, Manned Spacecraft Center, Houston, Tex

Christopher C. Kraft

.

Lt. Gen. Leighton I Davis .

USAF, National Range Division Commander and DOD Manager of Manned Space Flight Support Operations. USAF, Deputy DOD Manager Director, Directorate Gemini Launch Vehicles, Space Systems Division,, Air Force Systems Commdnd. Chief, Gemini Launch Division, 6555th Aerospace Test Wing, Air Force Missile Test Center, Cape Kennedy, Fla.

Maj. Gen. V. 0 Huston .

Col. Richard C. Dineen

Lt, col. John G. Albert

USN, Commader Task Force 1 0 4.

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50a

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6T-3 FWFORMATION MISSION ORGANIZATION

ADMINISTRATOR FOR PUBLIC AFFAIHS

1

JULIA SCHEER

1

I

DIRECTOR

1

10.6. LLOYD, JR

1

I
NEWS OPERATIONS JACK KING MISSION COMMENTARY PAUL HANEY

D I RECTOR INFO

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PROTOCOL CHARLES JONES

SPECIAL ACTIVITIES

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BILL GREEN

1

COORD IM T O R LESGAVER

II

COORDINATORS LT* CoLCoLEMAN CMDR. FOLEY

I1

COORDINATOR ALFREDFUNCH

1

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