NATIONAL

AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION WASHINGTON, D.C. 20546

TELS. WO 2-4155 WO 3-6,925

FOR RELEASE:

WEDNESDAY AM, S October 20, 1965

REUSE

NO:

65-327

PROJECT:

6

CONTENTS
Title GENERAL NEWS RELEASE ........... '.......... Pa_e 1-6 7-10 ll-12 13-I_ 15,1b 17 17-18 19 20 21 22 23-24 25-26 27-32 33 34- 43 44

Orbits - Revolutions ...................... Launch Vehicle Countdown .......... -....... Experiments ............................... Radiation Terrain Photography _ .......... Synoptic ................... ....... '.Synoptic Weather Photography ........... Bio-Ch_mical Analysis of Body Fluids--70MMHasselblad Camera .................... 16MMMaurer Movie Camera .................. Gemini 6 Nominal Maneuvers ................ Checks while docked ....................... Laser Beam0bservation .................... Y_mmediate Preflight Crew Activities ....... Mission Description ....................... Manned Space Flight Tracking Network Gemini 6 Mission Requirements ........ Tracking .................................. Network Configuration .....................

I

Crew Safety ............................... _-47 Gemini Parachute Landing Sequence ......... 48 Atlantic Recovery Area Communications ..... 49 Abort Procedures .......................... Planned and Contingency Landing Areas ..... 50-51 Weather Requirements ...................... 52 Body Waste Disposal ....................... Gemini 6 Suit ............................. Medical Checks ............................ Food ............. "................ --- .....
Men_s ............... @ystem..................... - .......... ,......... Waher Measuring

T

5_ 55 75_-5± 5G 1965.

To be launched

no earlier than October - more -

25,

-2

-

Gemini Spacecraft ........................ Liquid Rocket Systems General

58

Arrangement--- ........................ Thrust Chamber Arrangement ............... _ Maneuvering Control ...................... 61 Spacecraft Responses to Orbit Attitude Control Thrust ........................ 62

RCSFunct±on System _--_ _......6_-64 ........... Electrical Power -- ..... "........... _ 64-65
Rendezvous ............................... Propellant Radar .......................... Static Charge Device ..................... Gemini Launch Vehicle .................... Agena Target Vehicle ..................... Atlas Launch Vehicle ..................... Atlas Agena Launch Sequence .............. Crew Biographies Flights .................. Previous Gemini ......................... U.S. Manned Space Flights ................ Project Officials ........................ Spacecraft Contractors ................. _Abbreviations and Symbols Frequently Used _ 66 66 66-67 68-7@ 71-72 72a _ _ 81 82 83-84 85-86

NOTE TO EDITORS: Supplemental information will be released as rapidly as it develops.

NEWS
RELEASE NO: 65-327

NATIONAL

AERONAUTICS ANDD.C. _0S46 SPACE ADMINISTRATION WASHINGTON,

TELS. WO 3-6925

wo2_,,,

FOR RELEASE: WEDNESDAY AM:S October 20, 1965

NASA

SCH_ULES

GEMINI

6

RENDEZVOUS, MISSION

DOCKING,

Late

this

month

the

National

Aeronautics

and

Space

Administration

will

attempt

the

most

difficult

manned

space

flight docking to and

yet

unde_aken in with

by which an

the the

United Gemini vehicle.

States--a 6 spacecraft

rendezvous will be

and flown

mission linked

Agena

Development

of

the

ability

to

rendezvous

and

dock

is

necessary Apollo repair

for manned of

the Moon

accomplishment landing, satellites.

of resupply

such of

missions space

as

the and

stations

unmanned

Gemini the fourth

6,

scheduled mission two-man were

no in

earlier the

than National

Oct.

25,

will

be and Space two

manned

Aeronautics The

Administration's Gemini missions

space

flight

program.

first

unmanned.

Gemini

6

is

planned

as

a

two-day

mission.

However,

if

all

objectives will be

are ended

accomplished then.

by

the

end

of

one

day,

the

flight

-more-

-

2 -

Prime command crew Gemini Air

crewmen and of

ate

Astronauts P.

Walter

M. pilot.

Schirra, The the

Jr., backup in a an

pilot,

Thomas first

Stafford, men to

consists

the

two

orbit I. w. and

Earth Grissom, a Navy an

spacecraft, lieutenant Schirra, the

Astronauts colonel, a Navy crew

Virgil and John

"Gus" Young,

Force

commander. major, were

captain, for the

Stafford, 3 mission.

Air

Force

backup

Gemini

Target an and Agena lock

for

the

rendezvous modified Agena is

and so

docking that

operations the to Gemini be

will can

be

space onto

vehicle, it. The

joln from

schedul_d

launched

Cape follow

Kennedy, it into

Fla., space

at an

i0

a.m.

EST. 41

Plans minutes

call

for

Gemini

to

hour

and

later.

The until Gemini more their one its

crew orbit

will

be

required that of

to

maneuver Agena

their and then

spacecraft guide be per be less the traveling hour), than

matches target. miles speed at

the

into than

the 17,500

Although per the hour time

both (28,170 of

vehicles kilometers must

will

relative mile per

docking

hour.

-more-

- 3

-

During by radar and the and

the

first

part

of

the

operation, and will

they on be the

will

be

aided but their

computers few

in the hundred

spacecraft feet, they

ground, by

during eyes

final

guided

their

judgment.

If after will

the

mission has it

goes

as

scheduled, one fourth

Gemini

6 will of the

be Earth

launched and

the dock

Agena with

completed the

revolution spacecraft

during

revolution.

An near Gemini orbit and The over an

Atlas

launch

vehicle

will

insert

the

Agena

into

a The

circular launch with

185-statute-mile vehicle will or place low

(298 the

kilometer) spacecraft of i00 miles (270

orbit. into (161 an

elliptical

a perigee, or will high be

point, of same 168

kilometers)

apogee,

point, in the

miles

kilometers). the same path

vehicles the

plane,

following

Earth.

At to the Earth will the raise

its its

second perigee is than a at

apogee, to in and a 134 lower

the

spacecraft (216 it to

will

be

maneuvered Because around This the

miles orbit, up 161

kilometers). is traveling Agena. (260

spacecraft faster produce vehicles

catching of about

the

maneuver between

range third

miles

kilometers)

apogee. -more-

- 4

-

At orbit and the at

third an

apogee, altitude

the of

crew

will

circularize (270 kilometers).

the

spacecraft's An hour

168 as

miles the

eleven crew

minutes will begin

later, to

spacecraft the be spacecraft 17 miles

enters into

darkness, the Agena's

transfer Gemini will

orbit. below initial

At and

that 39

time,

(28 kilometers) Agena. later. The

miles

(63 kilometers) occur about

behind

the

docking

could

a half-hour

Each and and while time The one both in

astronaut darkness. sleep They and of 27 the

will They for will

perform will

two

dockings, several at from

one

in

daylight

conduct seven hours Gemini the be

experiments same time for the last

will

about

the

docked. 18 hours

separate after will

Agena

minutes flight

spacecraft conducting

was launched. experiments.

remainder

spent

Experiments to aid research

include: in the

weather of

photography, geology, bodies and

terrain and

photography oceano-

fields celestial body,

geography the Agena;

graphy; the the mass

photographing of an orbiting

determining inside

and

measuring

radiation

spacecraft.

-more-

-

5

-

Primary and as docking, required. makes span is

objective using Gemini its first as both

of

the

mission and

is

to

demonstrate propulsion 2% hours

rendezvous capabilities after This be when flight the

spacecraft be

Agena within

must

launched to

Agena time met, the is

revolution the will T_ launch be

achieve and until active

rendezvous. if the it cannot day in

known

window, delayed

spacecraft window five

launch

next

"opens"

again.

Agena's

lifetime

days.

Rocket maneuvered Agena Gemini

engines by

on

the from be

Agena the to the

give ground effect first

it or

the

capability the

to

be

commands must launched

from

Gemini. if of the the window.

propulsion is not

used

rendezvous 25 minutes

during

Secondary

mission

objective

s

are:

1. computer.

Conduct

rendezvous

and

docking

using

onboard

radar

and

2. conditions.

Have

both

crewmen

conduct

dockings

under

various

lighting

-more-

-6

3. docked 4.

Evaluate vehicles. Demonstrate

attitude

and

translation

capability

of

the

reentry

guidance

capability

and

landing

point

control. 5. 6. Evaluate Determine Agena. Evaluate conditions Conduct the visibility ranges. tests and in-flight experiments. of the Agena under various spacecraft useful command lifetime of and Agena ground while control undocked. capability

of

the 7.

lighting 8.

and systems

After

the

spacecraft

has

landed

in

the

West

Atlantic

recovery the be target sent

area,

fuel

in into

the

Agena

will orbits. Center

be

expended Maneuver at NASA's

by

maneuvering will Space-

vehicle the

various Control Tex.

commands Manned

from

Mission

craft

Center,

Houston,

The Manned managed space areas and

Gemini

Program NASA

is

under

the

direction

of

the

Office and

of is

Space by effort as

Flight, the Manned is

Headquarters, Flight by

Washington, Gemini of

D.C., is

Space supported

Center. the

a national in such

and

Department launch

Defense

launch

vehicle

development,

operations,

tracking

recovery. (BACKGROUND INFORMATION -moreFOLLOWS)

-- 7

-

Mission based prior on to

information a normal or during

presented mission. flight to

in Plans meet

this may

press be

kit altered

is

changing

conditions.

ORBITS

-

REVOLUTIONS

The around

spacecraft's Earth. A

course revolution

is

measured is

in

revolutions each time the

the

completed

spacecraft Gemini

passes

over about

80

degrees every

west 96

longitude, minutes.

or

at

altitudes

once

Orbits 90 minutes.

are

space

referenced

and

in

Gemini

take

about

The rotation. moves

longer As

time the

for

revolutions circles the in same about

is the

caused Earth,

by

the

Earth's

spacecraft degrees an for in orbit the

the

Earth the

about

22.5

direction. 90 to minutes, reach

Although it 80 takes

spacecraft another west six

completes minutes and

spacecraft a revolution.

degrees

longitude

complete

Gemini crosses the

completes 80th per

16

orbits of

per

day, 15

but

in

24 --

hours hence 15

meridian day.

longitude

times

revolutions

-more-

-8

NASA's responsibility of the Gemini

John

F. for

Kennedy pre-flight

Space

Center

has checkout for

the

overall and launching 6 mission.

testing, vehicles

and

Atlas/Agena

the

Gemini

The with day the later.

Gemini first The

launch stage stages

vehicle arriving were The 4.

was Aug. erected

shipped 2 and at

to the

KSC second

by

aircraft stage 19, to a Cape KSC installation

launch

complex was flown

Kennedy from St.

Aug.

30-31. Aug.

Gemini It was

6 spacecraft taken to the

Louis, Merritt and

pyrotechnic

building, installation section mated, of the

Island, assembly control

for

receiving The of

inspection, rendevous the and

ordl%ance recovery were installation parachutes.

checks. section

and and pilot

reentry the

spacecraft with and

"premate

buildup" seats, seat

was

completed

ejection

pyrotechnics

The as Cape

modified

Atlas launch of last

booster vehicle year.

for

the

target first

vehicle, arrived at

known the

a standarized in December

(SLV),

-more-

i

- 9

-

The Center craft Radio 6 to crew

Agena

and

its

docking two

adapter components

were and

shipped the

to

the

Kennedy

July were

26-27. mounted Test

These atop

Gemini at prime on the Tests KSC's

space-

a 50-foot site

"Timber Aug. the 25.

Tower" The

Frequency and their

Systems

Gemini tower between checks was

backups of

boarded Radio target. the two

spacecraft Capability

conduct

a series the

Frequency Docking vehicles. 19 Sept.

Gemini also

6 and were made

Agena

compatibility The 9 and of to mated spacecraft hoisted

between launch

transported the launch that the Sept.

to

complex Following a simulated 6 was

above verifications

vehicle. included Gemini 16.

a series flight

premate verify to

tests, systems, rocket

spacecraft its Titan II

mechanically

The and

launch

crew of

then the of for

conducted spacecraft both were

some and ready

two

weeks

of

individual to The and

combined that

tests all was

launch for

vehicle flight. batteries

insure

systems removed

spacecraft

installation

of _esh

remated pilots of the

for

final

systems in

and

simulated space Agena systems suits. was

flight

testing.

The mating 2. with passed

participated Atlas booster

their the

Mechanical Oct. conducted was

and and

performed were

Combined the

interface vehicle.

joint On Oct.

tests

complete

7 a major -more _

milestone

- i0

-

when

a

simulataneous -was

launch completed.

countdown

--

a

complete

"Dress

Rehersal"

The countdowns, are

Gemini

6

count

actually

is

a combination The the

of

ii

different counts

mostly with

running the two

simultaneously. launch vehicles,

different two

associated

spacecraft,

Houston the

Mission Test

Control Range

and and

the the

worldwide Radio-Command

tracking Guidance

network, System.

Eastern

Timing the day craft the

is

critical In Agena the count

in

this

count final at

in

order countdown

to

complete on launch spacejoins set in

rendezvous. the at Atlas T-360

so-called starts and the

T-530

minutes,

the

minutes, count at

Gemini (all

launch these

vehicle times are

combined to

240

minutes

relation

the

GLV

liftoff).

Liftoff mark in the

for

the

target

vehicle The

is

scheduled

for

the

95-minute be

simultaneous

count. i01 minutes of

Gemini

spacecraft depending 9 Agena. T-3 minutes the launch on

will the If to

launched exact

approximately and

later, the

location

performance hold will time the

orbitin at

necessary, adjust target's adjustments
__ -. .

a built-in Gemini pass

be to

called coincide After will

the

liftoff over

with the

Agena sequence

first are

Cape.

computed,
--

the count -more....

resume.

LAUNCH TIME

VEHICLE GEMINI

COUNTDOWN ATLAS-AGENA

F-3 F-I T-12 T-530 T-390 T-300 T-235 T-120 T-II5 T-95 T-83 T-75 T-50 T-35 T-15 T-04 T-0 T+2

days day hours minutes minutes minutes minutes minutes minutes minutes minutes _inutes minutes minutes minutes seconds seconds minutes 36 seconds

Start Start GLV

pre-count mid-count loading

Countdown

propellant

Begin Complete Begin propellant terminal loading

terminal

count

countdown Start tower removal

Flight Crew

Crew enters

to

Complex

19

spacecraft Lift off into orbit

insertion Close White Begin spacecraft room hatches

evacuation lowering static firing

erector OAMS

Spacecraft GLV Lift ignition off

Booster Second

engine stage

cutoff engine

(BECO) cutoff (SECO)

T+5:41 T+5:57

Spacecraft-launch separation -more-

vehicle

- 12 -

T+6:07

Insertion

into

orbit

REENTRY (Elapsed 46 hours: 20 46:11:05 46:30:39 46:33:13 46:38:05 i0 minutes Retrofire Jettison 400,000 retrograde feet altitude blackout section Time from Gemini lift-off)

seconds

Communications Blackout ended

46:39:41 46:40:39 46:41:22 46:45:45

Drogue Pilot Main

chute chute chute

deployed deployed fully landing

(50,000 (10,600

feet) feet) feet)

deployed

(9,800

Spacecraft

-more-

13 -

EXPERIMENTS Mass Determination

The by which

object the

of

this

experiment mass in an

is

to

develop

a technique can the be

propellant This Gemini

orbiting

vehicle

determined. vehicle thrusting knowing craft and

technique spacecraft The mass

involves while of the

accelerating docked propellant total by using can

Agena Gemini be determined space-

the then

system. the resultant and

acceleration, level.

Gemini

and

Agena

mass,

thrust

Method the

--

Before

docking, firing exert.

the

command by

pilot

will

calibrate the on the the of and thrust.

forward they

thrusters He will

calculating the and the

force the mass

measure indicator

velocity determine of

incremental of the

velocity by to

spacecraft

adding

weight The in the

remaining the Gemini by

propellant is the

the by burn

spacecraft. the to change obtain

mass

multiplied time of

velocity exact

divided

-more-

- 14 -

When thrusters formula since

the will will

spacecraft be fired to the

is

docked for

with 25 the the

the

Agena, The of the

the same Agena, they

again

seconds. mass

be

used of

determine thrusters,

the

force

acceleration

produce, total

and mass

the

mass

of from

the this

spacecraft calculation

is

known. can be

The subtracted

obtained

from

the mass

of

the

spacecraft

to

obtain

the

mass

of

the

Agena.

experiment. in the

The

following

spacecraft

equipment

will

be

involved

experiment: Computer Data Timer Attitude Maneuver System recorder System Insertion Unit

Gemini Manual Event Orbital

Instrumentation On-Board voice

WEIGHT: LOCATION:

None Part craft of the space-

VOLUME: POWER Fuel

None .REQUIREMENTS: 20 ibs a. b. Electrical Translations 17 ibs Attitude Control 3]ks. -

systems

-more-

- 15 -

OPERATIONS: are required. TELEMETRY: used ground to provide analyses. VOICE: voice tape GROUND All

Communications

- No

special

communications

The either

Gemini stored

data or

acquisition transmitted

system signals

will for

be

parameters

shall

be

recorded

on

the

Gemini

recorder. SUPPORT: The to in No additional ground translation rigidized support will is be required. performed will will be

PERFORMED: inflight performed take prior while

calibration This

docking. the five docked

translation Both maneuvers

position.

approximately

minutes.

Radiation Purpose -To the -wall measure the radiation level and distribution

inside Equipment the

spacecraft. sensors pressure the sensors crew in the vessel is spacecraft. and two are to are Five are on the

Seven of One the of of

inside

cabin. the

shielded members

simulate receiving

amount

radiation skin.

beneath

their

-more-

16-

Method

--

Shield Atlantic dips

will

be

removed the

during area

pass

through the

the

South belt

anomoly, to the on

where

radiation This

closest was Synoptic

Earth's Gemini 4.

surface.

experiment

flown

Terrain

Photoqraphy

Purpose

--

To

obtain use

photos in

of

selected in This

parts

of

Earth's

surface geography, flown Equipment lens; Areas of of on --

for

research

geology, experiment

geophysics, has been

oceanography. every 70 mm flight since

MA-8. camera with 65 80 mm Zeiss F2.8 each. the deltas

Hasselblad of -color

two

packs

film

with

exposures and

Interest

Southern Amazon, will be

Mexico, Congo of on

Africa, and the Nile

the

Mississippi, also with Betsy. Scientists for evidence reefs,

Rivers. Islands

Photographs to compare

taken taken

Bahama

pictures

Gemini

5 before

Hurricane

will of

compare changes

the to

photographs underwater ridges,

coral,

etc. -more-

- I? -

Synoptic

Weather

PhotoqraDhv

Purpose

--

To

obtain to

selective, study This 5. the

high fine

quality, structure also

color of the

cloud Earth's on

photographs weather Gemini Equipment lens; Areas of not of of -two

system. 3, 70 4, mm and

experiment

was

performed

Hasselblad of

camera color line

with with

80

mm 65

Zeiss exposures

F2.8 each. activit_ and views stratus

magazines --

film clouds, lines, clouds,

Interest associated fronts, Gulf

Squall with

thunderstorm f_ontal typical tropical clouds

squall cirrus

jetstream

morning and zone,

states, cyclones, in

coastal

cloudiness,

extracellular

tropical patterns by the islands trade

intertropical phenomenon, ranges, regions. of

convergence wave

subtropical and mountain or other

clouds of

induced clouds in

broad

banding

winds

Bio-Chemical Purpose -To collect for and body

Analysis fluids of which

Body

Fluids* during and immediately proteins, flight.

before, hormones, might

after amino

flight acids

analysis enzymes

electrolytes, result from space

-more-

18 -

Method

--

Urine

will A

be

collected

in amount

a special of

bag

for water

each will of

elimination. be added

specified

tritiated has the of a tracer amount tritium volume. A

automatically. tritium. with can the By

The

water

amount of tritium

radioactive in it, cc the sample

comparing amount the be The dump

known

placed Sixteen

in 75 be be

biochemists capacity for

measure bags will

total

sample each into

carried. remaining of

sample urine

will will

drawn

elimination. the urine

transfered

system

the

spacecraft.

*

Purposes the

of

this for on

experiment later 6.

are

to

flight It will

qualify not be

and

evaluate

equipment

missions.

a complete

experiment

Gemini

-more-

- 19 -

70MM

HASSELBLAD

CAMERA

I.

Camera A. Equipment i. Camera 2. 80 MM lens 3. 250 MM lens _. Photo event 5. Ring Sight 6. DV filter 7. Film backs Characteristics i. 2. 3. 4. 5.

indicator

B.

80 mm focal length f2.8 to f22.0 aperture Time exposures and speeds up to 1/500 second Resolution: approximately 125 lines/mm. Approximately I.SX magnification

II.

Film A. Three film magazines ASA-64 color emulsion of Kodak S.0. 217, MS, Ektachrome on 2.5 mil Estar Polyester base

Ill.

Purpose Weather General and Terrain Purpose

-more-

- 19 -

70MM _ASSELBI_D

CAMERA

I.

Camera A. Equipment i. Camera 2. 80 MM lens 3. 250 MM lens 4° Photo event indicator 5. Ring Sight 6. DV filter 7. Film backs Characteristics i. 2. 3. 4. 5. 80 mm focal length f2.8 to f22.0 aperture Time exposures and speeds up to 1/500 second Resolution: approximately 125 lines/mm Approximately 1.5X magnification

B.

II.

Film A. Three fiimmagazines of Kodak S.O. 217, MS, Ektachrome ASA-64 color emulsion on 2.5 mil Estar Polyester base

llI. Purpose Weather and Terrain General Purpose

-more-

- 20 -

16MM MAURER

MOVIE CAMERA

I.

Camera A. Equipment i. 2. 3. B. two cameras 75 mm lens (one camera) 75 mm, 25 mm, 18 mm lens set (second camera)

Characteristics 1. 2. 3. 4. Six frames/second f-ll aperture 1/200 second shutter speed 40 lines/mm resolution

II.

Film A. B. Twenty magazines Kodak each containing 113 feet of film

S.0. 217 color film

III. Purpose Agena and rendezvous General Purpose photographs

-more-

21

-

GEMINI

6 NOMINAL Ground

MANEUVERS

Rev. _aneuver _eparation _eight Phase Adjustment Adjustment _o. 1 2 2 3

Elapsed Time 00:06:00 1:35:23 2:19:14 3:48:34 Thruster Aft Aft Aft Aft

Perigee/ Apoqee 100/168 100/168 134/168 168/168

Lighting Conditions Day Day Night Night

Co-elliptical Maneuver Terminal Phase Initiation Ist Correction

4

4:59:58

Aft

168/185

Night

4

5:12:19

As

re-

168/185

Night

quired 2nd Correction 4 5:24:21 As re168/185 Night

quired Velocity Match 4 12 5:32:40 18:26:56 Forward Forward 185/185 179/185 Night Day

S/C Agena Separation Retrofire

29

46:10:20

Retros

Night

-more-

- 22

-

CHECKS

WHILE

DOCKED

These information in later

are

not

experiments, the performance

but of

are

designed and

to

gather for use

about Gemini

crew

vehicles

and

Apollo

flights.

Lateral

Translation

Check

A left Agena

10-second

out-of-plane thruster. system of the

maneuver It to

will Will

be

performed use of of

using the

firing

spacecraft control Purpose

require attitude

attitude

control is

combined Gemini/

Gemini/Agena. Agena dynamics.

maneuver

to

determine

Attitude Roll, will The also crew

Control pitch, be will

Check yaw (attitude) at 90 a rate maneuvers, of in about all using three attitudes Gemini OAMS

performed maneuver dynamics.

degrees/second. tO determine

degrees

Gemini/Agena

Platform Crew systems performance indicator maneuvering

Parallelism will in use

Check both Agena to and and spacecraft attitudes. data of from the attitude They incremental vehicles will control observe

maneuvering visually to determine together.

various record

velocity while

alignment

two

-more-

LASER

BEAM

OBSERVATION

At attempt toward

an to them

elapsed acquire from to to

time

of

25

hours,

30

minutes, argon Missile laser The White crew laser

crew

will aimed is

visually ground at

a two-watt White Sands

beacon This

Range.

preliminary experiment their for

a Manned be flown in an

Spacecraft aboard attitude laser Gemini

Center 7.

communications will orient look

spacecraft pinpoint of

toward light.

Sands,

then

blue-green TRAINING to the

CREW In prior Gemini to addition flight

BACKGROUND extensive and the

- GEMINI

6 received for will the be

general training

training received have

assignment the to

3 mission, prior Launch Dynamic Egress model

following launch: training Procedures

preparations

or

accomplished I. and the 2. boilerplate Pad emergency 3.

abort Crew and

in

the

Gemini

Mission

Simulator

Simulator. activities recovery using using equipment elevator in the and a spacecraft and personnel. wire.

recovery actual training pattern Hill,

and

egress

slide

Celestial Chapel

recognition N.C. -more-

Moorehead

Planetarium,

-

21-.L -

4. towed

Parachute

descent technique.

training

over

water

using

a

parachute 5. 6. 7. Zero Suit,

gravity seat,

training and harness

in

KC-135 fittings.

aircraft.

Training on the

sessions Gemini sessions Gemini systems mission

totaling mission totaling translation briefing; rules in

approximately simulators. approximately and docking

90

hours

per

crew

member 8.

Training on the

20

hours

per

crew

member 9.

simulator. briefings;

Detailed plans and

detailed

experiment

flight

reviews. reviews, systems review, sub-

i0. system

Participation and

mock-up

tests,

spacecraft

acceptance

regiew.

During in wet At be data network mock T-2

final launch

preparation abort

for

flight, joint final medical for

the

crew

participates systems flight test, tests. will obtain results.

simulations, and the crew

combined simulated

simulated days, the

launch, majo_ to

flight

examinations flight and

administered for

confirm with

readiness post flight

comparison

medical

examination

-more-

- ?5

Immediate T-7

Preflight hours

Crew

Activities Back-up to the White final flight 100-foot Room flight to crew reports level of the participate preparations. room, Room and 100-foot and crew made ready in

T-5

hours

Pilots' ready level of White quarters for prime manned crew. crew

T-4 T-4 T-3 T-3 T-3

hours, hours hours, hours, hours,

30

minutes

Primary Medical

awakened

examination

40 15

minutes minutes

BreaMfast Crew leaves quarters at ready room

5 minutes

Crew arrives on Pad 16

During underwear helmets helmets

the and

next

hour,

the

biomedical are and blood and

sensors

are

placed, suits minus The oral

signal

conditioners are are put then on

donned, pressure

flight is

and and

gloves gloves systems

checked. and

attached

communications

temperatures T-2 T-2 T-I T-I

are minutes

checked. Purging Crew Crew Crew of suit ready at begins room 100-foot level

hours, hours, hour, hour,

15

4 minutes 59 55 minutes minutes

leaves arrives enters

spacecraft.

-more-

26

From monitors

entry systems

until checks

ignition, and

the

crew

_articipates

in

or

preparations.

Fliqh

t Activities

At of

ignition

the

crew status SECO,

begins and the

the

primary abort pilot

launch

phase

task

assessing seconds thrusting selects

system after and rate velocity

detecting command

situations. initiates for-

Twenty ward and

the

pilot

actuates

spacecraft Ground and

separation computations of

con_nand

attitude are

control. received After list,

insertion are and plan made

corrections or the aft

velocity

adjustments insertion flight

by

forward of

thrusting. check

successful the detailed

completion is begun.

insertion

-more-

27
MISSION DESCRIPTION (all miles are statute)

Simultaneous are the

Countdown

-- Countdowns so that

of

all

vehicles

involved in one,

coordinated others may

if a hold also.

is encountered

be

held

Launch

Times 6

-- Atlas-Agena - 11:40:52 -- Begins and the extends first

- lO

a.m.

EST,

Launch Complex minutes the

Complex 19. after

14.

Gemini Launch Window launch during can be

a.m.

EST,

Launch lO1 If that

approximately for 2¼ hours. of

Agena

launch

occurs

25 minutes using

period,

rendezvous only. as If space-

achieved occurs

spacecraft in the window,

propulsion Agena

launch craft A

later

as well

propulsion

must at

be used. the beginning of the the of the window permits

spacecraft

launch during i00

rendezvous A delay of

latter

part slips

fourth

revolution. to the the fifth

seconds

rendezvous moves 200

revolution. to sixth

A delay revolution. put the of the

of 200

seconds past in

rendezvous into the

A delay rendezvous tracking !6th

seconds

window However, be If

would

the

15th

revolution. would

because for

limitations

rendezvous

planned the

revolution. be launched for within one active day, the when 2¼-hour the in window flight

spacecraft launch

cannot be

window, will is

must

delayed

be available days.

again.

AgenaTs

lifetime

five z

-more-

- 28

Azj_muth -- Atlas-Agena provide

biased

from 83.7 to about 85.7 to during Atlas sustainer burn 4.2 deof in

for yaw steering

to shift orbital grees Earth which to east. rotation,

equatorial

nodes or crossings

This shift equals about therefore allows

17 minutes

17 additional capability

minutes to launch

to use Gemini

launch vehicle plane.

spacecraft

into Agena's

The launch azimuth

places

the Agena back over launch site after one revolution. Because of the Earth's rotation this would not be possible launch vehicle slightly azimuth so that

if the azimuth

was fixed.

Gemini

will be 92.8 degrees, a small amount the spacecraft 0ut-of-Plane

but will be biased in second

of yaw steering in Agenats

stage will place

plane. allows spacecraft to

Capability

-- Fuel budget

burn one-half if booster plane.

of one degree

out-of-plane

if necessary in Agena's

yaw steering

does not place Gemini

Corrections

of greater magnitude

must be performed

by the Agena, maneuvering. Inclination Vehicle

capable of lO degrees

out-of-plane

-- 28.87 degrees (GLV).

for both Agena and Gemini

Launch

-more-

29
Orbits -- Agena Gemini at near-circular in elliptic 185 miles 100-168 (298 miles kilometers). (161-270

initially

kilometers). Height Adjustment orbit, at a one -- Because of drag during initial burn is spacecraft scheduled (.93 a

foot-per-second to raise

posigrade apogee about may

first

perigee

.58 miles necessitate a

kilometers). larger (270 Phase

Insertion The

dispersions object or is to 17 miles

maneuver.

achieve below apogee

168-mile orbit. of time.

kilometers)

apogee,

Agena

Adjustment 2 hours, Poslgrade second It will 4.51 will

-- Near 19 minutes, horizontal raise the per third

spacecraft 14 seconds

second

at an time elapsed feet per

(2:19:14) addition 134 of

ground 53.5

velocity

perigee catchup and

to about rate

miles

(198

kilometers). to

reduce

from

about

6.68

degrees

degrees at

orbit

provide

necessary

phase

relation Co-elliptical 3:48:34, (270

apogee. -- Near will This fps the third spacecraft orbit to 168 apogee miles at

Maneuver the crew

circularize will

kilometers). of 52.4

be achieved

by a posigrade up 4.5 degrees.

maneuver At this

with

spacecraft trails have Agena

pitched by

time,

spacecraft and

about radar

161 miles lock-on. comsystems

(259 Terminal puter

kilometers) Phase Maneuver

should

onboard crew

-- At mode

3:52:34, and At crew begin

will

switch phase one

to rendezvous and

terminal about

checkout after

procedures. darkness,

4:59:58, will

minute of 32 fps

entering

perform

a burn

-more-

0

30 along about llne-of-sight 39 miles of Agena. Range to Agena will be and spacecraft will be

(63 kilometers), travel

130 degrees of angular Spacecraft maneuver. Intermediate pulse, Correetlons computer

from point of rendezvous. for the posigrade

will be pitched

up 27 degrees

-- Twelve minutes

after initial

im-

displays

first correction

to be applied another (7¼ to to

by the crew.
J

Twelve minutes

later, at 5:24:21

correction kilometers) Agena.

is applied.

Range is then about 4½ miles a semi-optlcal approach directly

and crew begins

The crew will use radar information

read out range and range rate. Velocity Matching Maneuver -- The magnitude at 5:32:40 of a theoretical is about 43 fps.

veloclty-matching However,

maneuver

since the command

pilot will be controlling techniques, he will make difference

final approach real-time between continue fps.

by semi-optical

decisions.

He will reduce

velocity

two vehicles reducing

to 4 fps at about 2,000 feet, then until docking at less than 1

velocity

Initial docking after

could occur as early as five hours lift-off. Docking -- During practices the next two will be performed. a docking scheduled

and 33 minutes Activities Following

Initial

revolutions,

three more docking

The command pilot in daylight

and pilot will each perform Other activities

and in darkness.

-more-

31 -

during lation Agena

this

period mass

are:

Gemini-Agena

lateral

transGeminitarget yaw the crew

check, attitude

determination check,

experiment, photography check, and of

control

vehicle, maneuver. will Final

platform After 7-hour from

parallelism completing rest Agena period -- At

Agena

these

activities, docked. during

begin

while 18:27 from

Separation the grade minutes provide

12th

revolution,

spacecraft maneuver before proper

will of

separate

Agena

with

a retrofive and will

7 fps.

This darkness

will

occur

about

entering conditions

over

Carnarvon sextant

for Apollo and by star about about will and about

sighting The space-

experiment craft will

involving fall and below will

Agena Agena

background. 3½ miles 21 miles be 179-185

(5¼ kilometers) after one (289con-

at perigee revolution. 298

lead Gemini

it by orbit

Final

miles will per

kilometers) to get

until ahead

retrofire, by

spacecraft 21 miles

tinue Nominal End

of Agena

revolution.

of Mission of 168.7

-- Retrofire degrees

is at 46:10:20 spacecraft's recovery 10:25

at west 29th area a.m. (27 EST. will

longitude revolution. N/62 Should occur Landing W)

during

Landing

in West

Atlantic or

is planned the mission

at 46:45:45, be at not ended 5 N/174 change.

about one

after

day, 15th

retrofire revolution.

at

23:40:50 area does

W during

-more-

Agena

Activities will exercise

Following Agena

Spacecraft to gain "_

Landing

-- Ground on

control its

further

information simu.late Agena

capabilities. rendezvous They when will Agena

Exercises mission

will

probably requiring after

typical

maneuvers 2_ hours over command

propulsion, landing these

begin again ground 276

about passes will

spacecraft

North

America.

Following

exercises3 of about

Agena

to a circular where future it will Gemini (271

orbit be left

miles

(;$_!-5 kilometers), target to about for

as potential This in orbit

non-powered would decay

missions.

185 miles

kilometers)

four

months.

-more-

L

33

-

MANNED SPACE FLIGHT TRACKING NETWORK GEMINI 6 MISSION REQUIREMENTS

NASA by using

operates its own

the

Manned

Space and those and

Flight of

Tracking the

Network of

facilities

Department

Defense

for

mission

information

control.

For

Gemini

6 the

network

will

provide

flight

controllers:

(I) launch and the

Continuous orbital

tracking, insertion

command of the

and

telemetry Target

data

from

through Gemini

Agena

Vehicle

spacecraft.

(2) onboard

Verification the Gemini and

of

the

proper target.

operation

of the

systems

Agena

The the

network

also computer

will

update

via

the

control

center, space

spacecraft and

to provide displays for

ephemeris the

(computed

position)

reentry

astronauts.

Irmmediate through Manned receive Eastern computing impact

computing by the

support

will

be

provided Complex flight, and Cape

from (RTCC) the Air

launch at the will

Real-Time During data

Computer powered

Spacecraft launch Test

Center.

RTCC

trajectory (AFETR)

from

Bermuda the

Force CDC-3600

Range

radars

via

Kennedy

complex.

-more--

L

- 34

-

TRACKING

For tracking Agena Launch called tracking C-band bounce) launch

the

first

time space

a Gemini vehicles:

mission the

will

require

separate the

of four

Gemini

spacecraft, is the Gemini Booster two C-band

Target Vehicle SLV-3.

Vehicle (GVL), The

(ATV)_ and as

Titan

II which the will Vehicle tracking

required,

Atlas carry will

Gemini The

spacecraft Target Skin

beacons. and of one the

Agena beacon.

carry

one

S-band

(radar and

signal Gemini reRadar Air However,

spacecraft, throughout MSFN

Agena orbital

target

vehlcle_

vehicle The and Command will not

lifetime (WL£) the for

is a mission Space Range

quirement. (SPANDAR) Defense NORAD

Wallops

Station of

various (NORAD) track

facilities will

North this

American mission.

be used the

during

rendezvous

phase.

For assignments tion

Gemini will

6, be

various carried

combinations out according radar

of

spacecraft to individual capable Gemini

tracking staof and

capability. space

Some position

sites

have

systems the

providing Agena and have be

information through Data

on both their

vehicles

simultaneously antennas. system

Verlort

(S-band) however, will

FPS-16 only

(C-band) a single by

transmission therefore, or Flight

links, priority Dynamics

capability, Director

established

the Mission to their

Officer

according

meeds.

-more-

- 35 After target for Titan C-band II launch, the spacecraft will be the prime

tracking.

Manned Cape

Space Kennedy Island AI_ Bahama

Flight

Tracking

Network Grand Pt. _ite

Configuration Canary Island Calif. N. M.

Merritt Patrick Grand

Arguello, Sands, Hawaii Rose Knot

Island

Kauai, USNS USNS

Ascension Antigua Bermuda Pretoria, Carnarvon,

Island Island Island, South B.W.I. Africa

Coastal Range Turk Fla. Christi, are:

Sentry Tracker Island

USNS Grand Eglin, Corpus

_stralia

Texas

Stations Merritt Patrick Grand Antigua Ascension C_rnarvon_ _ermuda Pretoria,

Capable Island Ab_

of

C-Band

Tracking

_._ite Sands, I_NS Island Bange

N.

M.

Tracker

Bahama Island

F4_lin, Fla. Grand Grand Pt. Turk Canary Island Island Calif.

Island Australia B.W.I. A_rica

Arguello_ }_waii

Island, South

Kaual,

-more

-

- 36 -

Stations Cape Grand Grand Bermuda Grand

Capable

of

S-Band

Tracking

are: Australia

Kennedy Bahama Turk Island Island B.W.I.

Carnarvon, Kauai, Pt.

Hawaii Calif.

Arguello, Mexico Christi,

Island, Canary

Guaymas, Corpus

Island

Tex.

Stations Gemini Vehicle Merritt Patrick Grand Antigua Ascension

Capable Launch are: Island AFB

of Skin

(radar

signal and

bounce) the

Tracking Target

the

Vehicle,

Spacecraft,

Agena

Carnarvon, _ite Island Eglin, Grand Fla. Turk Sands,

Australia N. M.

Bahama Island

Island

Island

Skin mission

tracking

procedures permit.

will

be

used

as

needed

and

priorities

Other

Computer

Support

The port for

Goddard Gemini

Space

Flight the the

Conter

realtime of

computing realtime

suptracking be-

6 includes from

processing Titan !I and

information ginning recovery with and

obtained mission Agena

Agena

systems spacecraft

siraulations lifetime.

through

Gemini

-more-

- 37 -

Goddard's

computer

also

w[".],ce{,ti]'y the @era .n.lo through

worldwide

net-

wom,k's re_]diness system, method Flow also when

to support

m. syo<.em-b,}-

station-by-statio_b called

<;om]:}nter-pro[_]rc_unedheckout c CADFISS (Computation of' petwork during and Data

CA_ ._ I_)o _.eo-t._ Subsystem) by

Integrated will the be

checkout Goddard

facilities periods by within some ac-

perfomned are

postlaunch "visible" are again

spacecraft and

not

electronically the vehicles

stations quisition

co_itinue until

range.

Data Spacecraft ducted

flow

tests

from

the

worldwide Computing Center

network Complex

to will

the be

Manned conof

Center's Manned

Realtime Spacecraft Test

from

under

the

direction

Goddard's

CADFISS

Director'.

Control by the Mission 4 and

of

the

entire

Gemini in

6 mission Houston, Realtime

will Texas. Complex

be As

exercised it did serve on

Control Gemini 5,

Center

Gemini as the

Houston's

will

computer

center.

Gemini

Spacecraft

The beacon and the

spacecraft

has will

two be

tracking installed (adapter)

beacons. in in the the

The reentry adapter

model

ACF*

(spacecraft) DPN-6@model

module package.

beacon

-more*Contractor nomenclature

The _eentry

ACF phase,

beacon using

will the

be

prirae for

lau.nch,

insertion, these

and

DPN-66

as a bac½_p

for

periods.

_GENA

TARGET The

_J]!]HI CL]'] Target The uso be Vehicle C-band one prime The will contain one C-band and one

Agena

S-band

beacon. will will

be_ocon _'ill be lineararly fo_, Agena _

a modified antenna.

DPN-66. The to C-

E.'ch beacon band the beacon Gemini for

polarized Target

Vehicle will be

prior the

launch. C-band

Gemini

spacecraft

prime

target

tracking

following

launch.

ACQUISITION Sites Agena and

SYST]_[S with Gemini (RE) spacecraft spacecraft inputs and aid systems capable will to their of tracking the

simultaneously pointing data

provide

radio

frec_uency telemetry have

associated which do not

J:'eceivers and

steerable

antennas. will

Sites track the

simultaneous-tracking only. All

capability

the

Gemini Target

spacecraft Vehicle

stations insertion

'4i!I track of the

Agena

until

orbital

Gemini

spacecraft.

MISSION

MESSAGE

REQUIR]_4ENTS

Times teletype will be

and

types

of flight from flight

data

transmission manned Center

(on-site stations immediately.

summaries) sent to the

controller Control

Houston

M_tssion

i

-more-

39Bermuda and data Grand mote Agena and Corpus Vehicle Christi tra_smit @emini via i_ spacecraft digital

Target

PCI.Itelemetry Control Turk Agena Center Island, data

high-speed computer Arltigua Cape

to IIouston Mission Bahama Gemini Island, spacecraft Center

format. will re-

Grand and

and to the

Kennedy

Mission

Control

in the

same

manner.

SPACECRAFT

COMMAND

SYSTEM

(SCS)

The Digital out from the imum the

prime Command

ground System

system (DCS)

in

effecting

rendezvous stations of be the

is the throughmission by Max-

located Command will

at key control

worldwide through Director

network. recovery at

launch Flight command

as always

provided Center.

Houston

Mission

Control

coverage

is required

throughout

the

mission.

Grand the DCS all two

Canary

Island, Coastal by

Carnarvon, Sentry £1ight

Australia, and USNS Rose

!_waii, Knot, will

and are initiate

ships,

USNS and

equipped uplink

manned command

controllers

who

data

transmissions.

Following required System Vehicle for support

astronaut the Agena be

recovery, Target

further

co_ands

will

be Command Target

Vehicle. to

Network

Digital the Agena

will

continued

determine

lifetime.

-more-

The and

Texas,

Cape

Kennedy, not

Grand

Bahsma, by

Grand

Turk,

Antigua, All be

Bermuda data

sites

will

be manned

flight these

controllers. sites will

upiink remoted

cortland transraissions time from Houston

through Mission

in real

Control

Center.

!n addition date

to

real-time i'ollowing

co_mnar_ds and digital

on-board

clock may be

upsent:

¢,o_,mnands,the

instructions

a.

Gemini I. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

spacecraft

b.

Agena

Target

\?ehicle

Preretro with maneuver Preretro without maneuver Orbital navigation Maneuver Rendezvous Accelerometer error corrections

i. Maneuver 2. Ephemeris 3. Engine burn

time

SPACECRAFT

COMMUNICATIONS

All

MSFN

stations

having

both either

HF and by

UHF

spacecraft or by

comre-

munications _ote (tone)

can be keying

controlled from Houston

the

station

Mission

Control

Center' and

Goddard.

The

following (CapCom

sites and

are

not be

scheduled remoted

to to

have Houston

a command Mission

co_mmunicator Control

will

Center:

-more-

Grand Kano,

Bahama Nigeria;

Island;

Tananarive, Grand

Malagasy Island; Ascension and the

Republic; Pt. Island; voice relay

Bermuda; Antigua

Turk

Arguello, Canton

Calif.;

Island; Tracker,

Island;

USNS

Range

aircraft.

SPACECRA_ The beacons, covery ing the of

SYSTemS Gemini voice

SUPPORT communications telemetry system) systems (antennas, retrack-

spacecraft

communications, and digital

transmitters, allows radar

light, the

command

spacecraft, and the of

two-way

voice and

communications astronaut

between to astronaut; systems

ground

spacecraft the and link

from

ground data

command

spacecraft, postlanding between by these

instrumentation and the recovery amd

transmission, The sole

data the

trams-

mission. spacecraft

groumd

Gemini

is provided

systems.

The beacons, allows the

Agena

Target

Vehicle

communications and digital from and

system command the

(antennas, system) ground and

telemetry radar

transmitters, of the Ground also are

tracking

vehicle station

both

Gemini

spacecraft. Agena

Gemini through

spacecraft this system.

cor_and

to the

accomplished

-more-

-

42

Agena Target Vehicle Systems supported by Stations Table HI

On-Board Network

Gemini Spacecraft Systems Supported Stations Table #2 Module Module Module Module Module Package Module package Package Package Module

On-Board by Network

Telemetry (Real Time) Telemetry (Dump) L-Band Transponder S-Band Transponder C-Band Transponder Colmmand Receiver (Range Safety) Command Receiver (Command Control)

Reentry Reentry Reentry Reentry Reentry Adapter Reentry Adapter Adapter Adapter Reentry

UH[_(voice)xrait-Rcv HF(voice)xmit-Rcv Telemetry(Real Time) Telemetry(Dump) Telemetry[Backup) L-Band Radar C-Band Transponder

C-Band Transponder Acquisit$on Aid Beacon Digital Command System UHF Recovery Beacon

GROUND

CO_@_UNICATIONS

The will and

NASA

Communications for Gemini Sentry ship 6. Ship

network Shore

(NASCOM) for be

used USNS

for

Gemini Knot the propa-

5

be used USNS

stations will

Rose upon

Coastal

support and

based

mission-designated gation conditions.

positions

predicted

H_' radio

NETWORK

RESPONSIBILITY

Manned management and mission

Spacecraft responsibility control

Center

(MSC). Gemini

The

MSC

has

the The

overall direction and

of the Network

program.

of the

i_mmediately mission

preceding is

during bility

a mission of

simulation

or an actual

responsi-

the MSC. -more-

- _3 -

Goddard and the Data

Space

Flight has

Center. centralized and and

The

NASA

Office

of Tracking for of the

Acquisition

the

responsibility operations at

planning, space Space

implementation, flight Flight tracking Center.

technical data

manned Goddard as the

acquisition operation and to

Technical

is defined augmentation as an

operation, and

maintenance, data acquisition

modification, facilities

of tracking

function

instrumentation About 370 persons

hetwork

in response support the

to mission the network

requirements. at level Goddardj to some

directly bring

contractor

personnel

total

network

150o.

Department Commonwealth and operation of

of

Supply,

Australia.

The

Department for the

of Supply,

Australia, NASA

is responsible station and at

maintenance

of the

Carnarvon, define

Australia. this cooperative

Contractual effort.

arrangements

agreements

Department the maintenance and facilities network

of and

Defense

(DOD).

The

DOD

is

responsible DOD assets These Western Ground

for

operational to at

control

of those Gemini. Range, Proving

required stations

support the

Project Test Air

inTest Center,

clude Range, and

Eastern the

_,_ite Sands tracking

Missile

Range,

the

and telemetry

ships.

-more-{

- _+4NETWORK CONFIGURATION

x .
C)

X x >4 X X

x >_ X >4 × x
I

C-band S-band X

Radar Radar

x >4 >_ X >d _ X X

X >4 >_

I Telemetry I Receive & Record

,
>4 X I , } t x >4

!
Xl Telemetry Real i Time Display L

!
>4 X X X >4 >_I Telemetry Data Transmis s ion >4 High Speed Transmission On Site Data

× >4

x

>4

×

Data & Summary

Process Gemini Vehicle Gemini Vehicle I × >4 >4 I Digital System × ! 1 x x x >_ >_ x × Command Voice

Launch Telemetry Launch Command

Command

>_ >_

>4

>4

>_ X

>_ >4

Frequency System - Transmit ..................... .

I ......... i.&Receive_ >4 _ × ..... >_! X X X X × × ×

× _I Teletype-Transmit l& Receive

i
>4 >4

+ >4>4_;>4_x !
• >_! >_ ' >4

J

X 1 Flight Control i Team Manned t

×>4 x>4>4 >4

>4 tSpacecraft
I

Acquisition

!Antenna >_ >4[ Flight I Air >_ × x × × x &

S_v_tem Controller Group Voice

>_

>4

>_

|

J

MCC-H-Air to Ground Remote

Voice

J

ABORT PROCEDURES
MODE I - EJECTAFTER SHUTDOWN MODE "ff - SALVO RETROSAFTER SHUTDOWN MODE TIT- SHUTDOWN, SEPARATE, TURN AROUND, RETROFIRE

20,700 FPS

MODE

VELOCITY

b_

t

A TI /
11" (WAIT 5

T
SECONDS I SECONDS

SECS)
]5,000 FT.

OOE
r

SEA LEVEL

I

46

CREW

SAFETY

Every (Back-up) the the for launch crew of

Gemini feature. vehicle

system The

affecting Malfunction

crew

safety

has System

a redundant aboard warns time

Detection

monitors

subsystem catastrophic

performance malfunction

and in

a potentially

escape. There MODE I are three modes of escape:

Ejection seats, and personal parachutes, used at ground level and during first 50 seconds cf powered flight, or during descent after reentry. (Delayed) Retroroekets used between 50 and I00 seconds, allowing crew to salvo fire four solid retrorockets five seconds after engine shutdown is commanded. Normal separation from launch vehiclej using 0AMS thrusters, then making normal reentry, using computer.

MODE

II

all

MODE

III

Except Vehicle, landing

for

Mode

I,

spacecraft forward,

separates then

from

Gemini reentry

Launch and

turns with

blunt-end aboard.

completes

crew

Survival

package gear, mounted parachute on each ejection seat and attached weighs

Survival to 23 the

astronaut's

harnesses

by nylon

line,

pounds.

-more-

47 -

Each 3.5

astronaut pounds of

has: drinking water

Machete One.nan flation, sea life raft, dye 5_ by 3 feet, with sun CO 2 bottle bonnet. signal mirror, and power. for in-

anchor, light kit,

markers, with

nylon

Survival compass, striker, sewing

(strobe), 14 feet

flashlight, line, and

of nylon

cotton

balls for

halazone

tablets, with

a _listle, homing beacon

batteries voice

Survival

radio,

and

reception.

Sunglasses. Desalter of seawater. Medical antibiotic sickness° kit, tablets containing and stimulant, plus pain, motion for sickness pain and and motion kit, with brickettes enough to desalt eight pints

aspirin,

injectors

-more-

- 48--

GEMINI PARACHUTE LANDINGEQUENCE S
50,000 FEET _ HIGH ALTITUDE DROGUECHUTE DEPLOYED

21,000 FEET

OPEN CABIN VENT VALVE PILOT PARACHUTE DEPLOYED

10,600 FEET

DEPLOYMENT 9,_I_ FEET _ _ MAIN CHUTE

6,700 FEET

i_

_

TWO- POINT SUSPENSION

1,500 FEET

_

_

CABIN WATER SEALCLOSED _ TOUCHDOWN

SEALEVEL

__

_

JETTISONCHUTE

)

--

PLANi'iED AND

CONTINGENCY

IJ_ND!NG AREAS

There and are

are

two

types Planned

of

landing are

areas those

for

Gemimi

6,

planned forces

contingency. pre-positioned time. All

areas

where and

recovery

to recover other areas

spacecraft under the

crew

within1 a are con-

short

orbital and

track rescue

tingency and a

areas,

requiring

special

search

techniques

longer

recovery

period.

Planned

Landing

Areas

PRIMARY

Landing in the West Atlantic (30-1) where the primary recovery vessel, am aircraft carrier, is pre-positioned. Landing in East and Mid-Pacific deployed. Atlantic, West Pacific areas where ships are

SECONDARY

LAUNCH

SITE

Landing in the event of off-the-pad abort or abort during early phase of flight, includes an area about 41 miles seaward from Cape Kennedy, 3 miles toward Banana River from Complex 19. Landing in the event of abort during powered flight3 extending from 41 miles at sea from Cape Kennedy to west coast of Africa.

LAUNCH

ABORT

-more-

Contingency

Landin$

Areas

All except Landing recovery

the

area

beneath

the Planned

spacecraft's Landing and

grou_d are

track Contingency support for

those Areas,

designated requiring a period

Areas

aircraft of

pararescue

withi_

i_3 hour_: from

splashdown.

Recovery and of during the

forces

will time

be

provided be under Manager

i)y the military the for operatio_al Manned Space

services, control Flight

mission

will

Department Operations.

of Defense

Support

-more-

WEATHER

REQUIREMENTS

The ground

following will

are be

guide

lines

only.

Conditions during

along the

the

track

evaluated

prior

to and

mission.

Launch

Area Surface Ceiling Winds -- 18 knots feet miles feet with gusts to 25 knots.

-- 5,000 -- Six

cloud

base

minimum.

Visibility Wave Planned Height

minimum. maximum.

-- Five Areas

Landln$

Surface Ceiling

Winds --

-- 30 knots feet

maxim1_u base minimum.

1,500

cloud

Visibility Wave Contingency Flight at the time. Height

-- Six miles -- Eight Areas will

minimum. maximum.

_eet

Landin$ director

make

decision

based

upon

conditions

Pararescue Surface Ceiling Winds --- 25 knots feet maxilm_n. base minimum.

1,000

cloud visible.

Visibility Waves

-- Target feet

-- Five

maximum;

swells

i0 or

ii feet

m_num.

-more!

53-

MEDI JAL CHECKS

At crew a

least

one

medical

check over

a day

will

be made ground blood

by

each

member. will

Performed consist food and of:

a convenient temperature,

station, pressure

check

Oral

measurement,

water

intake

evaluation.

BODY

WASTE

DISPOSAL

Solid secure

Wastes

-- Plastic to body. and and

bag

with

adhesive germicide lip in

lip

to provide prevents to form

attachment of bag

Contains gas. bag

which also

formation seal and for

bacteria after back use

Adhesive is stowed

used

empty

:food contai_'ler

brought

for

analysis.

Urine Co either

-- Secreted a collection

into device

fitted or

receptacle overboard

connected

by hose

dump.

-isor

6_ -

GEMINI

6 SUIT

The to that

pressure wor_ by

suit the

worn

by

the

c L(_w )_[Gemmnm It is not

6 is identical for

Gemini

5 crew.

suitable

extravehicular

activity.

It has

five

layers: wear undergarment instrumentation with equip-

I. White cotton constant pockets to hold biomedical merit. 2. 3. Blue Black nylon comfort

layer. n_rlon pressure garment. link its net shape.

neoprene-coated

_. Restraint layer of dacron and teflon to restrain pre'_sure garmeut and maintai_ 5. White HT-1 wear and solar nylon outer reflectance. layer

to protect

against

The with

suit

is a

I_II sealed

pressure visor.

garment, Oxy[qen is Gaseous the

including _rnished

a helmet by the to the

mechanically

environmental suit him in The through with cabin suit, a

control "suit

system. loop"

oxygen

is provided and

to cool

astronaut

provide Oxygen

a breatheable maintains if cabin five

atmosphere pounds per

el" i00 percent square inch

oxygen. pressure. to 3.7

press1_re

fails,

is pressurized

psia.

-more-

55

FOOD

Number

of Meals

-- Three per day per astronaut

for two days.

Type -- Bite sized and rehydratable. rehydratables rehydration. Storage polyethelene, compartments right -- Meals individually laminate. wrapped with special gun. Bite-sized

Water is placed items need no

in

in aluminum

foil and

polyamide

First day meals

stored in in

beside knees

of each crewman.

Second day meals

aft food compartment.

WATER MEASURING

SYSTEM

A mechanical It consists cylinder

measuring

system has been added to water gun. housed in a small metal

of a neoprene

bellows

mounted

at base of gun. When plunger

The bellows holds one-half a spring

ounce of water. pushes water

of gun is depressed,

out of bellows number

and through gun. of times bellows

A counter in right is activated. numbers at Each

side of gun registers crewman

will record how much he drinks and end of each use of gun.

by noting

beginning

-more-

56 -

Day

J!,!

_]]

"A"

CALORIES

Bacon Square Potato Soup (Rehydratable) Gingerbread Peanut Cubes Grapefruit Drink (Rehydratable) TOTAL CALORIES

90 252 183 297 83

MEAL

"B"

Chicken and Gravy (Rehydratable) Cheese Sandwiches Strawberry Cereal Cubes Pineapple Fruitcake 0range-Grapefruit Drimk (Rehydratable) TOTAL CALORIES

92 32_ 171 253 83 9_

Salmon Salad (Rehydratable) Cinnamon Toast Butterscotch Pudding (Rehydratable) Brownies Grapefruit Drink (Rehydratable) TOTAL

CALORIES

2_6 99 117 241 83 7_

FIRST

DAY

- T()TAL

2,614.

-more-

57

-

Day,,#2

MEAL

"A"

CALORIES

Chicken Sandwich Shrimp Cocktail Date Fruitcake Coconut Cubes 0range-Grapefruit

(Rehydratable)

Drink

(Rehydratable) 'I_TAL CALORIES

196 13.9 262 310 83 9-_

MEAL

"B"

Tuna Salad (Rehydratable) Apricot Cereal Cubes Strawberry Cubes Peaches (Rehydratable) Grapefruit Drink (Rehydratable) TOTAL CALORIES

214. 171 283 98

MEAL

"C"

Bacon and Egg Bites Meat & Spaghetti (Rehydratable) Toasted Bread Cubes Chocolate Grapelrult Pudding,(Rehydratable) Drink _Rehydratable) TOTAL CALORIES

178 'TO 161 307 83 7-_

SEC0_[D DAY

TOTAL

2,618

-more-

- 58 -

GEMINI

SPACECRAFT

The lO the feet top.

Gemini

spacecraft at major its

is conical, base and are 39

18 feet, inches

5 inches

long, at and the

in diameter Its two

in diameter module

sections

the

reentry

adapter

section.

Reentry

Module

The at its

reentry

module

is

II

feet

high

and

7½ (I) and

feet

in

diameter and

base.

It has (2)

three reentry

main

sections: (RCS),

rendezvous (3) cabin.

recovery

(R_R),

control

Rendezvous of and the

and

recovery containing

section drogue,

is

the

forward and main

(small)

end

spacecraft,

pilot

parachutes

radar.

Reentry tains eight fuel

control and

section

between valves, each

R&R

and

cabin and

sections two rings

conof

oxidizer control

tanks, thrusters

tubing for

attitude

control for main

during

reentry.

A parachute attachment.

adapter

assembly

is included

parachute

Cabin crew each hull. between seated seat

section

between

RCS their

and

adapter

secbion, and

houses

the Above

side-by-side, is a hatch. not hull shingled

instruments

controls.

Crew

compartment pressurized beryllium

is pressurized environment shell which and

titanium is is protection. located

Equipment pressure and

requiring and outer

corrugated

to provide
-more-

aerodynamic

heat

- 59 -

- 6o

- 61 -

r_

.<

0 Z
R

ILl

ev

>

- 62

-

- 63

Z

o

_o

\

_Y

_:

Dish-shaped

heat

shield

forlas the

large

end

of cabin

section.

Adapter

Section

The its base,

adapter

is 7_

feet

high

and and

i0

_eet

in diameter sections.

at

containing

retrograde

equipment

Retrograde and part of the

section radiator

contains for the

four

solid

retrograde

rocket:_

cooling

system.

Equipment fuel oxygen serves for the

section orbit

contains and

batteries maneuver

for system

electrical (OAMS),

power, primaT.y

attitude

for

the

environmental for _ue

control cooling

system _ystem,

(ECS). also

It also contained in the

as a radiator section.

equipment

NOTE: retrorockets jettisoned

The

equipment fired retres

se_tlon For are

is

j_ttisoned The

il_ediately section

before Js

are after

re enSry. fired.

terror, fade

ELECTRICAL

,

, i J

PO%_:_RSYST[_I

Gemini use fuel

6 ca rrie_

I0 batterle:_'. to

Future on

Gemini the

flights

will

cells,

idcntical

thorpe uzed

Gemini

5 flight.

_ore-

- 65 -

The

batteries

;['or

this

flight

include:

Adapter

}]etteries

three ;TOO-amp/hour units, housed in the adapter sectffon. Ju_mtry
power source.

Main

Batteries

four 40-amp/hour units in reentry section for power and during reentry.

the prior

to

Squib

Batteries

three 15-amp/hour units in the reentry section, used to trigger explosive squibs.

PROPELLANT

Total

Available

-- 669

pounds

Mission

Propellant

budget

with

No

0ispersions

-- ;[85 pounds

RENDEZVOUS

RADAR

Purpose bearing System angle

-- Enables to Agena. so crew

crew

to measure data

range, to

range

rate,

and

Supplied can

Inertial

Guidance for

computer

determine

maneuvers

necessary

rendezvous.

Operation and returns Radar

-- Transponder to spacecraft only

on Agena at

receives

radar

impulses and pulse

them

a specific processed

frequency by

width.

accepts

signals

transponder.

Location rendezvous and

-- small recovery

end

of

spacecraft

on

forward

:['aceof

section.

-more-

- 6_;-

Size Weight Power

-- less

than

two

cubic

feet.

-- les_ Requirement

than --

70 pounds. less than _0 watts.

STATIC

CI_ARGE DEVICE

Experimcnt;_ problem Agena of during

on Gemini charge but

4 and between these

5 indicated the

there

_s no and be the considev, ed fingers

a static docking,

spacecraft cannot

experiments

conclusive. are with in installed the

Thorefore_ on the

th_oe

protruding cone will be

flexible to make carried rate.

copper first

Agena Any

docking charge at

contact

spacecraft. and

to a ground

the

Agena

dissipated

a controlled

GEMINI

LAUNCH

VEHIC_

The

Gemini II

Launch

Vehicle

(GLV-6)

is a modified missile

U.S.

Air

9'orce Titan of two

intercontinental identical to the

ballistic launch

consigting used in previous:

stages, flights.

vehicles

Gemini

HEIGHT DIAMETER THRUST

FIRST STAGE 63 feet I0 feet

SECOND STAGI{ _7 feet iO feet i00,000 Pounds (one engine)

i_30,000 Pounds (two engines)

-more-

- 67 -

FUEL

50-50 blend of monomethyl and unsymmetrical-dimethyl Nitrogen tetroxide (Fuel ts hypergolic, eously upon contact

hydrazine hydrazine

OXIDIZER

ignites spontanwith oxidizer.)

Overall Combined

height

of

launch

vehicle

and

spacecraft

is

109

feet.

weight

is about

340,000

pounds.

Modifications Vehicle include:

to Titan (NOTE:

II

for use 6 same as

as

the

Gemini

Launch 5)

GLV

GLV

i through

I. mit

Malfunction

detection

system to

added the

to detect crew. to provide

and

trans-

booster 2.

performance flight system

information control fails. substituted rockets equipment forward

Back-up if primary

system

added

a secondary

system 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. _.

Radio Retro New New

guidance and second second

for

inertial

guidance.

vernier stage stage

deleted. truss oxidizer added. skirt assembly added.

Trajectory Electrical,

tracking hydraulic

reqJirements and

simplified° systems modified.

instr_J_en%

Gemini the direction

Launch of

Vehicle the Space

pro_'_ram ma_a<_eme_Y_ Systems Division of

for the

NASA Air

is under Force Systems

Comraand.

-more-

- 68 -

- 69 -

AGENA

TARGET VEHICLE

The Agena

target vehicle

for Gemini

6 is a modification to the space-

of the U. S. Air Force Agena D upper space vehicles craft which helped

stage, similar

propel Ranger

and Mariner

to the Moon and planets.

It acts as a separate vehicle, placing

stage of the Atlas/Agena

launch

itself into orbit with its main propulsion, either by ground systems. 36.3 feet 26 feet 5 feet 7,000 pounds 16,000 pounds 400 pounds UDMH (Unsymmetrical In orbit, fueled Including shroud control or the Gemini 6

and can be maneuvered crew, using HEIGHT LENGTH

two propulsion (liftoff) (orbit)

Minus shroud and adapter

DIAMETER WEIGHT THRUST FUEL OXIDIZER

Primary Propulsion Secondary Engines Dimethyl Hydrazine)

IRFNA (Inhibited Red Fuming Nitric Acid) in primary propulsion system MON (Mixed Oxides of Nitrogen) in secondary propulsion system IRFNA and UDMH are hypergolic, on contact ignite

COMBUSTION

-more-

- 70

Primary and secondary Main engine places Agena orbital changes.

propulsion

systems are restartable. for large aft-

into orbit and is used

Secondary

system, two 200-pound-thrust,

firing engines,

are for small phase changes. thrusters

Two 16-pound-

thrust, aft-flring adjustments. plished mounted

are fo_ ullage and vernier (roll, pitch, yaw) is accomjets

Attitude

control

by gimballing on Agena

main engine,

or by six nitrogen

aft end.

Modifications spacecraft 1. nection 2. 3visually _. 5. include:

co Agena for use a_ Gemini

renaezvous

Docking

collar and _qulpment during flight. compatible

to permit mechanical

con-

with Gemini Radar

transponder

with Gemini

radar. for

Displays locating Secondary Auxiliary

and instrumentation, and inspecting Agena propulsion equipment

plus strobe lights before docking.

system for small orbital changes. rack for special rendezvous equi)_-

ment and telemetry. 6. Command control equipment to allow control by Gemini 6

crew or grouna controllers. Agena prograxa management the Space Systems Division for NASA is under the direction of

of the A_r Force Sy_tom_ Command.

-more-

ATLAS

LAUNCH

VEHICLE

The of the

Atlas

Standard U.S. to Air the into

Launch Force launch orbit.

Vehicle Atlas vehicle

(SI_-3)

is a refinement ballistic Project

modified similar

intercontimental which placed

missile, Mercury

Astronauts

Atlas three booster engine vernier main

is a one-and-a-half engines at on the pad,

stage then

vehicle, dropping the

igJtiting off the

all

outboard

engines

staging, thrusting

allowing at

single aided

sustainer by two small

to continue engines.

altitude,

HEIGHT DIAI_ETER

66

Feet

Minus

Agena

Payload Section End minus

16 Feet i0 Feet 5 Feet, 260,000

I0

inches

Lower Booster Tank Sections Tapered Upper Fully Agena fueled, payload

WEIGHT

pounds

T_musT

390,000 330,000 57,000 Balance

pounds pounds pounds

Total at liftoff Two booster (outer engines) One Sustainer (center) engine Two small vernier engines for trajectory and final velocity control resembling -297 degrees kerosene F.

FUEL OXIDIZER

RP-I, Liquid

a hydrocarbon Oxygen at

-more-

- 72

-

COMBUSTION

Unlike Titan's hypergollc, spontaneous ignition, Atlas combustion is achieved by forcing propellants to chambers under pressure, burning them in gas generators which drive propellant pump turbines.

Modifications the Gemini I. 2. 6 mission Special Improved

to

the

Atlas

Standard

Launch

Vehicle

for

include: system for rendezvous system oxidizer. for support of mission. to assure

autopilot propellant of

utilization fuel and

simultaneous 3. Agena

depletion

both

Increased stage.

thickness

of Atlas

structure

upper 4. 5.

Simplified Retrorockets

pneumatic moved

system. from exterior equipment pods to

upper

interstage 6. Uprated

adapter MA-5

section. system (used on late Mercury

propulsion

flights.) 7. Modular telemetry kit tailored for each mission.

Atlas is under Force

Standard the

Launch of

Vehicle the Space

program Systems

management Division

for of

NASA Air

direction Command.

the

Systems

-more--

_],ooo, ooo'. 9ooooo

a,

START ROLL O. LIFT OFF 556 1085

RANGE,_L_fi_L NJLES

7B-

CREW Walter pilot BORN: Hackensack, l0 N. J., inches M. (for Marty)

BIOGRAPHIES Schirra, Jr., Gemini 6 command

Mar.

12,

1923 170 lbs. Brown hair,

HEIGHT: 5 feet, brown eyes EDUCATION:

WEIGHT:

Bachelor Academy,

of Science 194-5 to the Wash. June

degree,

United

States

Naval

_,I_RITAL STATUS:

Married Seattle, M. Ill,

former

Josephine

Fraser

of

CHILDREN:

Walter

23,

1950;

Suzanne,

Sept.

29,

1957

EXPERIENCE: Schirra, a Navy Captain, received flight training at Pensacola Naval Air Station, Fla. As an exchange pilot with the United States Air Force, 154th Fighter Bomber Squadron, he flew 90 combat missions in F-$4E aircraft in Korea and downed one MIG with another probable. He received the Distinguished Flying Cross and two Air Medals for his Korean service. He took part in the development of the Naval Ordnance Training Station, China was project pilot for the FTU3 Cutlass for the Cutlass and the FJ3 Fury. Schirra Fighter Sidewinder missile at Lake, Calif. Schirra and instructor pilot the

flew F3H-2N Demons as operations officer of the 124th Squadron onboard the Carrier Lexington in the Pacific.

He attended the Naval Air Safety Officer School at the University of Southern California, and completed test pilot training at the Naval Air Center, Patuxent River, Md. He was later assigned at Patuxe_t in suitability development work on the F_H. He has more 2,700 hours Schirra 1959. was than 3,_00 hours in jet aircraft. one of the seven flying time, including more tha_

Mercury

astronauts

named

in April

-more-

On Oct. j,_ I<)62, Schlrra flew a zJx-orbit mi_._on_'"" hie in "SigriJa 7" spacecraft. The fligbt la;Jted n_ne hours and 13 minutes from liftofi" th:eo,_gh lar_d_ng anc_ he attained a velocit_ of' 17,5_'/ miles (28_200 kilometers) per hour, a rr, aximum orbital altitude of 175 statute miles (281 kilometers) and a total range of almost I_L[,O()O statute miles (231,'#00 k_lometers). The impact point was in the [acifie Ocean, about 275 miles (4213 kilometers) northeast oi,' Midway Island. He was awardec] the NASA Distinguished Service Medal for h.L_ flight. He was the backup conmland pilot for the Gemini 3 mission. Sehlrra is the son c_f _r. and Mrs. Walter _4. ,_.hlrraj _'_ " St., San Diego, Calif.

-mot@.-

- 75

Thomas BORN: H_IGHT. EDUCATION:

P.

(for

Patten) Okla.,

,_ta..iord, GeminA Sept. 175 ].7, 19[JO Ibs. Black

6 pilot

Weather,or,d, 6 feet

WEIGHT:

hair,

olue

cy_;S

B_chelor of essence d_o_co Naw_l Academy, 195-]Married to the former Weatherlcrd, Okla. July ") ,_, 195}[; Karmn, ..

Prom Univc

{ St___te_:_

_¢_RITAL

STArI_CS:

Faye

L.

Shoemaker

of

• CHILDREN:

Dianne,

Aug.

_=_, .19_I ,)o _,

EXPERIENCE: S_afford, an Air Force ha jot, the United States Air Force upon graduabion Naval Academy at Annapolis. Following his he flew fighter _.nterceptor a_.rcra_ in the and Germany, and later attended the United Experlmental Flight Test School at EJward Calif.

was coI_mlmssmo_o_] im from the U. S. flight training, United _tat ..... Stat_-, Air Force Air Force ]]asc,

He served as Chief of th<; Performance Branch, USAF Ac_o_pac_ Research Pilot School at Edwards. In this assignment he was responsible for supervision and administration of the flying, curriculum for student test pilots He e_c,,b]._._acd ........ ' text books and participated in and directed the wrJ.til_g of ?li[.j_ test manuals for use by the staff and students. Stafford is co-author and of the Pilot's Handbook for Perf0_ancc FliJ_t

Flisht Testin_ Testin$.

Aerody-nammc

Handbook

Performance

He has logged more than than 3,000 hours in jet

4-,300 hours aircraft.

flying

tim(), muclu(_m_<_ more

Stafford was one of the nine astronauts named by NASA in September 1962. He was the backup pilot for Gemini3. Stafford is the son of Mrs. Mary E. Stafford and the late Dr. Thomas o Staf2ord, Weatherford, Okla.

-l_10re -

- 76

,

Virgil I. command pilot BORN: Mitchell,

(ffor Ivan)

"Gus"

Grissom,

Gemini

0 backup

Ind., 7

April

3,

]926 ]50 lbs. Brown hair, )

HEIGHT: 5 feet brown eyes EDUCATION:

inches

WEIGHT:

Bachelor of from Purdue

Science degree University former

in mechanical

engineering

MARITAL

STATUS:

Married to the Mitchell, Ind. May 16, ]-950;

Betty

L.

Moore

of'

CHILDREN:

Scott,

_4ark, Dec.

30,

1953

:_

EXPERIENCE: Grissom is a lieutenant colonel in the United States Air Force, and received his wings in March 1951. He flew i00 combat missions in Korea in F-86's with the 334th FighterInterceptor Squadron. He left Korea in June 1959 and became a jet instructor at Bryan, Tex. In August 19D5, he entered the Air Force Institute of Technology at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio, to study aeronautical engineering. In October 1956, he attended the Test Pilot School at Edwards Air Force Base, Calil'., and returned to WrightPatterson Air Force Base in 1957 as a test pilot assigned to the fighter branch. Grissom has logged more than 4,000 hours flying time, _cludLng more than 3,000 hours in jet aircraft. He was awarded th_ Distinguished Flying Cross and the Air' Medal with Cluste_' i'_, service in Korea. Grissom was named in April 1959 as one of the seven Mercury astronauts. He was the pilot of the Mercur_-Redstone 4 (Liberty Bell 7) suborbital mission, JuIy 21, 1961 and the command pilot of the Gemini 3 mission. He is responsible for the one of three organizational Apollo and Operations). Grissom is the son of Mr. Gemini group in the Astronaut units im that office. (The 0ff]ce, others

-

and

Mrs.

Dennis

Grissom,

M_tcheil,

Ind.

:
L

-more-

- 77 -

John BORN: San

W.

(for

Watts)

Young,

Gemini Sept. 24, 172

6 backup 1930 Ibs.

pilot

Francisco,

Calif.,

HEIGHT: 5 feet green eyes EDUCATION:

9 inches

WEIGHT:

Brown

hair,

Bachelor of Science degree in aeronautical engineering from Georgia Institute of Technology Married to the Savannah, Ga. Apr. 30, 1957; former Barbara V. White of

MARITAL

STATUS:

CHILDREN:

Sandy,

John,

Jan.

17,

1959

EXPERIENCE: Upon graduation from Georgia Tech, Young entered the United States Navy and is now a Commander in that service. From 1959 to 1962 he served as a test pilot, and later program manager of F4H weapons systems project, doing test and evaluation flights andwriting technical reports. He served as maintenance officer for all-weather Fighter Squadron 143 at the Naval Air Station, Miramar, Calif. In 1962, Young set world time-to-climb records in the 3,000 meter and 25,000 meter events in the F4B Navy fighter. He has logged more than than 2,700 hours in jet Young was among the in September 1962. He is the son of Mr. 3,200 hours aircraft. flying time, including more

group of nine astronauts selected He was the pilot of Gemini 3. and Mrs. William H. Young,

by NASA

Orlando,

Fla.

-more-

w

- 7_

-

PREVIOUS

GEMINI

FLIGHTS

Gemini

I, Apr.

8,

1964

Unmanned to test Gemini and and No

orbital launch

flight, vehicle

using

first

production and ability

spacecraft, of launch Spacefour

performance launch

vehicle craft days.

spacecraft stage

to withstand launch vehicle

environment. for about

second recovery

orbited

attempted.

Gemini

2, Jan.

19,

1965

Unmanned protection adverse launch shut craft and

ballistic spacecraft

flight

to

qualify Delayed Cleo

spacecraft three and

reentry by

heat

systems. hurricanes after

times

weather, attempt

including terminated

Dora.

December system Space-

malfunction

detection

engines

down

because

of hydraulic reentry

component into

failure. Ocean.

recovered

after

ballistic

Atlantic

Gemini

3, Mar.

23,

1965

First John 53 W.

manned as

flight, crew.

with Orbited

Astronauts earth (81 three

Virgil times

I. Grissom in four short

and hours,

Young

minutes. area lift

Landed in

about

50 miles because

kilometers) did not

of planned

landing expected out

Atlantic

spacecraft First manned Grissom, man to fly

provide to maneuver subtwice.

during after

reentry. its own

spacecraft who into made space

of plane, Mercury

orbit.

orbital

flight,

is first

-more-

.... 19

Gemini

4, June

3-7,

1965

Second landed minutes pilot.

manned

Gemini Atlantic

flight

completed area

62 revolutions after 97 hours, was

and 59

in primary of flight. Astronaut of

recovery James White

Astronaut Edward H.

A. McDivitt II was pilot,

command

accomplished a hand held

21 minutes maneuvering

Extravehicular for with first GLV

Activity time in

(EVA),

using

unit

space. failed

Attempt because

to perform of in insuf-

near-rendezvous ficient Guidance quantity System

second

stage fuel.

of maneuvering required crew

Malfunction zero-lift

Inertial

to perform

reentry.

Gemini

5, Aug.

21-29,

1965

Longest and Charles days,

space (Pete)

flight Conrad, and

om record. Jr., circled

Astronauts the Cooper in space becomes of oxygen mission eart_

L.

Gordon times

Cooper in two

120

seven orbital human. most

22 hours flights; on

59 minutes. more time flight,

is first than any

to make other second system first

space Conrad,

has

first

space

world's heating during power, by

experienced cell flight,

astronaut. system careful

Failure threatened use of

in fuel day of

supply but

electrical of fuel

and both crew and

excellant ground

operational

management crew

cells

personel, landed recovery

permitted about vessel 100

to

complete (161

flight

successfully. from primary

Spacecraft Atlantic

miles

kilometers)

because into

of

erroneous computer,

base-line although computer

information

programmed

onboard

-more

-

- _O

-

itself

performed

as

planned. pod carried with

Plan

to rendezvous by Gemini cell oxygen

with 5 was

a can-

transponder-bearing celled because

aloft fuel

of problem

supply.

-more-

f

- 81

U.o. MISSION

MANNED HRS. SEC, 22

SPACECRi_'T HRS. MIN. 15

,_PACJ FLIGHTS MANNED HOURS IN MISSION HRS. MIN. SEC. 15 22

T'OTAL mANNED CUMULATIVE HRS. MIN. 15

I{RS. SEC. 22

MR-3

(Shepard)

_4R-4 (Grissom)

].5

37

15

37

30

59

MA-6

(Glenn)

4

55

23

4-

55

23

5

26

22

MA-7

(Carpenter)

4

56

05

4

56

05

IO

22

27

MA-8

(Schlrra)

9

].3

ii

9

13

Ii

19

35

38

MA-9

(Cooper)

34

19

49

34

19

49

53

55

27

Gemini 3 (Grissom & Young)

4

53

O0

9

46

O0

63

41

27

Gemini 4 (McDivitt & White)

97

56

Ii

195

52

22

259

33

49

Gemini 5 (Cooper & Conrad)

190

56

Ol

381

52

02

641

25

57

-more-

- 92 -

PROJECT George E. Mueller

OFFICIALS Associate Office of Flight, Acting Administrator, Manned Space Program. Program, Flight,

NASA Headquarters Director, Gemini Director, of Manned Gemini Space

william

C.

Schneider

Deputy Office NASA

Headquarters. Mission Operations,

E.

E.

Christensen

Director,

NASA Headquarters Mission Director Charles W. Mathews Gemini Manned Flight Program Manager, Spacecraft Center, Director, Center, Manned Houston for Space

Houston.

Christopher

C.

Kraft

Spacecraft G. Merritt Preston Deputy Launch Center, Lt. Gen. Leighton I. Davis USAF,

Mission Director Operations. JFK Fla. National Range

Division

Commander and DOD Manager of Manned Space Flight Support Operations Maj. col. Gen. V. G. C. Huston Dineen USAF, Deputy DOD Manager

Richard

Director, Directorate Gemini Launch Vehicles, Space Systems Division, Air Force Systems Command

Lt.

Col.

John

G.

Albert

Chief, 6555th Air Kennedy,

Gemini Launch Division, Aerospace Test Wing, Missile Fla. Task Force 140 Test Center, Cape

Force

R.

Admiral

B.

W.

Sarver

USN,

Commander

-more-

--

C_ -)

--

SPACECRAFT

CONTRACTORS

McDonnell tractor for the

Aircraft Gemini

Corp.,

St.

Louis, Others

Mo.,

is

prime

con-

spacecraft. Co.

include: Control

AIResearch Manufacturing Los Angeles, Calif. The Eagle Pitcher Joplin, Mo. IBM New Corp. York, Co.

Environment System Batteries

Computer, N.Y. Parachutes

Guidance

Northrop Newbury

Corp. Park, Calif.

Rocketdyne Canoga Park, Thiokol Elkton,

OAMS, Calif. Corp.

RCS

Chemical Md.

Retrorocket

System

Weber Aircraft Corp. Burbank, Calif. Westinghouse Electric Baltimore, Md. Atlas _ontractors include: Convair Calif. Corp.

Ejection

Seats

Rendezvous

Radar

System

General Dynamics, Div., San Diego,

Airframe and Integration Propulsion

Systems

Roeketdyne Div., North American Aviation, Inc., Canoga Park, Calif. General Electric Co., Syracuse, New York Titan II Contractors include:

Systems

Guidance

Martin Co., Baltimore Divisions, Baltimore, Aerojet-General Corp., Sacramento, Calif.

Md.

Airframe and Integration Propulsion

Systems

Systems

-mo.ce-

Titan

II contractors General Electric Syracuse, N.Y. Burroughs Corp., Paoli, Pa.

(cont.) Co.,

include: Radio Command System Ground Guidance Guidance

Computer

Aerospace Corp., E1 Segundo, Calif. Agena D contractors include:

Systems Engineering Technical Direction

and

Lockheed Missiles and Space Co., Sunnyvale, Bell Aerosystems Co., Niagara Falls, N.Y. McDonnell Aircraft St. Louis, Mo. Food contractors: U. S. Army Laboratories, Natick, Mass. Whirlpool Corp., St. Joseph, Mich. Swift and Pillsbury Suit contractor: The David Worcester, R. Clark Mass. Co., Co.,

Calif.

Airframe and Integration Propulsion

Systems

Systems

Co.,

Target

Docking

Adopter

Food

Formulation

Concept

Procurement, Packaging Principal

Processing,

Chicago and Minneapolis

Food

Contractors

Co.,

- 85

ABBREVIATIONS

AND

SY_0LS

FREQUENTLY

USED

ASC0 CGLVTC

AUXILIARY

SUSTAINER LAUNCH

CUT

OFF TEST

CHIEF GEMINI CONDUCTOR GEMINI AGENA

VEHICLE

GATV ECS ETR FLT GAATV GEN GLV GN2 GT IMU IRFNA LC LD LD (14) (lJ_) (19)

TARGET

VEHICLE CONTROL SYSTEM

(S/C ) ENVIRON_ENTAL EASTERN FLIGHT GEMINI GENERAL GEMINI GASEOUS GEMINI INERTIAL INHIBITED LAUNCH LAUNCH LAUNCH LAUNCH LIQUID LIQUID LOCKHEED TEST RANGE

DIRECTOR ATLAS

(HOUSTON) TARGET VEHICLE

AGENA

INFORMATION LAUNCH VEHICLE

NITROGEN TITAN MEASURING RED FUMING UNIT NITRIC ACID 14 14 19

CONDUCTOR DIRECTOR DIRECTOR MISSION NITROGEN OXYGEN TEST

- COMPLEX - COMPLEX -COMPLEX DIRECTOR

L_'LD LN2 L02 LTC MCC

CONDUCTOR

MISSION CONTROL CENTER (DEFINED WITH THE WORD MISSION ORBIT PULSE DIRECTOR ATTITUDE CODE

HOUSTON

OR

CAPE)

MD OAMS PCM S/C

(HOUSTON) MANEUVERING SYSTEM

MODULATIC':

(GEMINI) -more-

SPACECRAFT

86

SPCFT SLD SLV STC SRO TDA UDHM WMSL

CHIEF

SPACECRAFT

TEST

CONDUCTOR

SIMULTANEOUS STANDARD SLV TEST

LAUNCH

DEMONSTRATION VEHICLE

(ATLAS) CONDUCTOR OF

LAUNCH

SUPERINTENDENT TARGET DOCKING

RANGE

OPERATIONS

ADAPTER DIMETHLHZDRAZINE LAUNCH

UNSY_ETRICAL WET MOCK

SIMULATED

- END

-

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful