Experiment No.


Objectives: The activity aims to provide knowledge on the calculation of heat losses from bare and lagged pipes.

Intended Learning Outcomes: The student shall be able to: 1. Explain the principles of heat loss and heat gain from bare and lagged pipes considering the materials used in the system. 2. Apply the appropriate standards and tables in the calculation of heat losses to improve the system efficiency. 3. develop professional work ethics, including precision, neatness, safety and ability to follow instructions.

Discussion: A good pipe covering, in addition to being a good insulator, should be fire proof, water proof, vermin proof, odorless and light in weight. It should also be mechanically strong and should suffer no loss of insulating value with age. Asbestos and carbonate magnesia are the most commonly used pipe-covering materials. The only logical method for testing commercial pipe covering is, of course, to mount those coverings on pipes of the size for which they were intended. Two general methods for heat measurement have been used. For steam-pipe coverings, the most natural method is to fill the covered pipe with steam, to measure the heat content of the steam entering and leaving the test section, and to condense and weigh the steam. A dead-end pipe is ordinarily used, the pipe itself acting as the steam condenser. Movement of cooling water, brine, compressed air and steam is essential in any industrial complex. Fluid movement takes place in piping due pressure difference. For carrying out study in these systems, knowledge of pressure at various points is essential. For a given length of pipe, pressure drop can be measured or calculated. Measurement of pressure drop is recommended if instruments of good accuracy are available and measurement is practically possible. In systems where measurement is not possible, estimation of pressure drop is recommended. The measurements and estimations enables to take a decision whether the energy cost due to pressure drop in existing piping system is more than the total cost of installing a new pipeline of same size or higher size in order to reduce pressure drop. Recommended pipe size for steam systems is given in this

Measurements of fluid temperature and pipe surface temperatures are necessary for above calculations.code to help in proper selection and to verify whether existing piping is properly sized. the pressure drop should not normally exceed 0. Where q = heat loss from pipes D = pipe surface outside diameter T2 = temperature of stream inside the pipe T1 = temperature of stream outside the pipe Leff = effective length of pipeline K = thermal conductivity = thickness . Piping if left bare can lose heat due to temperature difference between pipe surface temperature and ambient temperature. Heat Loss Calculations: Heat loss from pipes: Area of pipe surface. This code describes methods of measurements and calculations for estimation of heat losses and heat gain in piping systems and insulation thickness.1 bar/50 m. As a general rule.

open steam valve a small amount. With the drain valve open wide.Types of pipe insulation Materials and Equipment:    Bare and Lagged pipe assembly Non-contact temperature sensor Laptop Procedure: 1. set the main pressure of steam to 5 bar. Direct the steam to the bare and lagged pipe assembly by opening and closing the corresponding valves in the steam boiler. 3. With the assistance of the laboratory technician. Fire the boiler. Read the steam . 2. and allow steam to blow through long enough to purge apparatus of all air. then close the drain valve.

Compute the efficiency of the insulation using this formula: Data and Results: D Bare pipe Calcium silicate 1” 1D x 2” thick Double sided aluminum foil 1” fiber glass (blanket type) Single sided aluminum foil 1” fiber glass (blanket type) Rockwool pipe molded 1” 1D x 2” thick Fiberglass premolded k L A T2 T1 q E Computation.temperature inside the pipes and measure the outside temperature using non-contact temperature sensor. Analysis and Interpretation of Data: . 4.

Conclusion and Recommendation: .

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