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S.PREFACE With the reader's indulgence. having been presented in the form of papers and articles in the technical periodicals. 1920. the usual the problems confronting engineer in the conception and accomplishment of dredging projects.. working knowledge and then to consider. not a compendium of statistics. but incomplete. S. MD. which should be helpful alike to the student and engineer. Army. we will explain just what It is this small book is by first defining what it is not. U. To fill this want has been the author's objective. F. is obviously paramount. and in the records of the various departments of commonwealths and municipalities controlling dredging operations in their respective localities. April. in that each as a rule treats only of one particular phase of the subject. Neither is it a record of the actual performance of specific dredges of all kinds and under data. The importance of the subject. all conditions. L. Vll 423635 . while not always ap- parent to the layman. It has been the author's intention first to describe the principal types of dredge in such manner as to impart a fun- damental in concise form. is not only not readily available. exists for it is thought that a need a comprehensive treatise. involving the expenditure of many millions of dollars annually for the necessities of commercial life. operation. BALTIMOEE. nor yet a compilation of dredging cost Such information is already minutely available in the Annual Reports of the Chief of Engineers. of their construction and Because of the fact that most literature upon the subject.


.... .... .. ... "A" Frame and Back Legs The Pipe Line The Pump ix V 64 66 67 71 * . ........ .. vii 1 CHAPTER CHAPTER I. .. VI. ." Frame and Back Guys The Spuds The Machinery The Hull Operation Application of the Type High-powered Dipper Dredges .... ... .. ..... . . Scows 54 HYDRAULIC DREDGES OF THE RIVER TYPE Radial Feeding Dredge with Spud-anchorage General Description Cutter Head and Ladder ....... LADDER DREDGES Historical 46 46 50 52 52 General Description Stationary Type Sea-going Hopper Type CHAPTER CHAPTER V. '.CONTENTS PAGE PREFACE . ...*..*. ...... Spud-wells and Gallows-frame The Machinery The House The Hull Operation 20 22 24 24 26 29 29 29 31 37 CHAPTER III. H 12 13 15 16 Spuds..'. DIPPER DREDGES General Description The Bucket Boom... ..... .. 39 40 41 ^12 44 CHAPTER IV.. ..- v ... Boom.. . "A" Frame and Back Guys '. . GRAPPLE DREDGES General Description 4 4 6 6 The Bucket The Common Grab Bucket Axioms The Sliding Cross-head Bucket Other Types Grab Bucket Details and Appurtenances Boom. Dipper-stick. "A. 58 58 58 61 . .. Feeding v ... DEFINITION AND CLASSIFICATION II..

Historical ... . Cut and Range Layout Hydrography Inspection ... >'-. CHAPTER XI..... OBJECTS AND PHASES OF THE SUBJECT CHAPTER IX.. 89 89 91 General Description v /""..' * * Operation Booster or Relay Pumps Forward-feeding or Mississippi River Type General Description . -.AQUEOUS ROCK Undermining and Blasting Drilling and Blasting from the Surface Rock Breaking Machines Dredging the Broken Rock INDEX... CHAPTER Vll. . ' Organization . OPERATING . REMOVAL OF SUB. . .'. .X Power CONTENTS PAGE 78 79 81 83 83 86 86 Method of Design The Machinery .. . Basin Regulation Progress Keeping . 167 170 170 171 172 173 175 CHAPTER XII. PRELIMINARY ENGINEERING Exploration of Site Estimating the Quantities Choice of Plant and Method of Disposal of Dredgings Plans.. TYPE.. . ..-. .. HYDRAULIC DREDGES OF THE SEA-GOING HOPPER '.. .....>.. PRELIMINARY CONSTRUCTION Dikes for River Control Dikes for Impounding Basins Dry Dikes Wet Dikes Spur Piles Pressures on Wet Dikes . Design Sluiceways.. .. Pipe Lines .. .... Specifications and Contracts Scheduling Estimating the Cost CHAPTER X. Advantages of the Type Typical Examples 92 93 PART II DREDGING 95 97 97 100 107 118 121 123 125 125 130 130 132 136 139 146 150 152 154 154 155 157 158 164 CHAPTER VIII. . .. ..

from which the great volume of water. or upon spoil banks. are machines that remove the material by means of buckets. and the process of removing subaqueous material is termed dredging. into adjacent or into natural or prepared reservoirs. be classified dredges may heads I. broadly under two general II. There are many kinds of dredges and several classifica- tions are possible. Hydraulic Dredges. impounding basins. disregarding the older and practically obsolete plant such as stirring and pneumatic dredges. 1 . called deep water. known also as Suction or Pump dredges.DREDGING ENGINEERING PART I DREDGES CHAPTER I DEFINITION AND CLASSIFICATION A dredge is a floating excavating machine. are raised water to dump either into waiting scows. excavate by direct centrifugal pumping through suction pipe. pump and discharge pipe into hoppers conclear of the tained in the dredge itself. obviously. differing in the choice of a basis of It is the author's intention to discuss only distinction. which. into hopper barges. Hydraulic Dredges Bucket Dredges. the usual equipment of to-day. the more important types. after obtaining their loads by biting or digging into the bottom. selfcontained hoppers. Bucket Dredges : With 'this limitation.

Ladder Dredges are susceptible of sub-division three classes: (a) (6) (c) into Stationary Dredges Self-propelled. first is The . The (a) (b) (c) pumped along with the dredged material. Ladder Dredges consist of a series of smaller buckets travelling in endless chain succession upon an inclined frame called a ladder. An orangepeel bucket has generally four shells. it is suspended from the end of a swinging boom and consists of two or more shells or jaws. it is a scoop attached to a long handle and "digs" in the same manner as the familiar steam shovel on land. In the former. discharging into a chute while passing over the upper tumbler. bucket class may be sub-divided into three types : Grapple Dredges Dipper or Scoop Dredges Ladder or Elevator Dredges Both Grapple and Dipper machines have a single bucket each. Barge-loading Dredges Hopper Dredges the usual river or calm-water type. Apparently it is simply an application of the old principle of the bucket elevator. forming a hemispherical bowl when closed. but spreading when open like the quadrants of an half orange. which is fed laterally or radially by means of anchorages or spuds Sea-going. by the closing and opening of which the bucket is loaded and discharged. may be divided into two sub-types: (a) (b) Clam-shell Dredges A A Orange-peel Dredges distinction only by virtue of the style of bucket carried.2 necessarily DREDGING ENGINEERING runs off. in turn. leaving a deposit of solid matter. In the latter. in passing under the lower end of which they receive their loads by scraping along and into the bottom. clam-shell bucket has two quadri-cylindrical shells arranged in a manner sufficiently analogous to those of the more humble clam to warrant the pilfered title. Grapple or Grab Dredges.

In the former. Both the second and third types have moulded hulls and sea-going qualities. comprising both barge and dredge in one. the ladder only pivots about the bow of the dredge. are the exception rather than the rule and would result in unwarranted complication of the above. The entire classification may be summarized as follows: Dredges . Again. but the second.DEFINITION AND CLASSIFICATION 3 and hauling cables. because of the accompanying barge. Hydraulic Dredges are of two general types: (a) The River Dredges (b) Sea-going Hopper Dredges There are two principal River Types (a) Radial Feeding with Spud Anchorage : (b) Forward Feeding or Mississippi River Type Radial Feeding Dredges may be either of the Swinging Dredge Type or the Swinging Ladder Types. is confined to the calmer waters of ports and estuary channels. as both Radial and Forward have been built to navigate under their Feeding Machines own motive power. or into deep water or spoil basins more remote from the dredge. while the third is a sea-going vessel. and discharges either into waiting barges. the dredge itself pivots about a stern spud. however. The subdivision of Hydraulic Dredges might be carried still further with self-propulsion as the distinguishing feature. and in the latter. They. which is held stationary by four spuds.

" They are: 1.CHAPTER II GRAPPLE DREDGES derrick General Description. Any may perform the operation of dredging by simply attaching a grab bucket to its fall. "'A" frame and back legs and the requisite hoisting machinery. Spuds are long timbers of heavy section suspended from tall masts or so-called gallows-frames and running vertithrough ope'nings are raised in or cally pockets attached to the hull. itself. . To To operate the bucket control the position and local movement of the dredge 3. is merely a makeshift. auxiliaries and appurtenances. itself To handle the scows The first requires a derrick. thus anchoring the hull and holding it in position while digging. by means of which it is raised. by anchors. principal functions of the grapple necessary to the complete " business of mud-digging. 2. or a combination of both. of a double consisting cylinder. mounted on a derrick lighter A grapple dredge is. the into river bottom by virtue of their own penetrate weight. a float and swinging a grab bucket. comprising boom. by two wires ered. lowopened and closed and by which also the boom is or chains swung. in principle. They by hoisting engines and. however. when released. This. The trolled position and local movement of the dredge is con- by spuds. important machine in and its proper design is most It will be discussed essential to the efficiency of the dredge. It is hung from the end of the boom in detail subsequently. double drum engine with The bucket is a very boiler. and by no means constitutes a The operation of the bucket is but one of three dredge.


standard orange-peel bucket of the Hay ward Co. Both have the same principle of operation.6 DREDGING ENGINEERING The plished third function. that the clam-shell has two jaws or shells while the orange-peel has three or four. Figure 2 is a soft-digging clam-shell of the common type. 6. 3. but The Bucket. is shown in Fig. that of handling the scows. The scow is thus moored to the starboard quarter of the dredge and. Figure 3 is the extra heavy. 1 and the frontispiece. shown working for the American " Figure 1 is " International Shipbuilding Corporation in the construction of the Hog Island Shipyard on the Delaware River. each of which may be distinguished further as a hard. and Back Legs and Gallows-frame Spuds. is accomby three wires attached to the scows and lead to capstans or to hoisting engines on the deck of the dredge. A general knowledge of the construction and operation of grapple buckets may be had by an analysis of the common grab. A hard-digging clam-shell bucket of the sliding cross-head type with a capacity of 7^ cubic yards. each component part will be discussed successively as follows: 1. detailed exposition of the grapple dredge. in a more The Bucket 2. There are two principal differ in types of clam-shell bucket. medium or soft-digging bucket according to the class of material for which it is designed. is hauled aft until the next pocket comes under the bucket. . the common type and the sliding cross-head bucket. as briefly defined in the foregoing classification. For convenience. "A" frame or the grab bucket as it is called. of the American Dredging Camden. the clam-shell and the orange-peel. as each pocket is loaded. Spud-wells The Machinery The House The Hull Boom. Company of Philadelphia. The Common Grab. 4. the Dredge a 7^ yard clam-shell. The grapple dredge bucket. a first-class representative grapple. 5. is of two kinds.



The bucket has


main constituent parts



in the outline drawing, Figure 4.
2. 3.


The two shells a The spool and shaft b The four arms c The cross-head d The two closing chains


FIG. 2.

Soft-digging clam-shell bucket of the common type. Vulcan Iron Works, Inc., Jersey City, N. /".)












the spool is keyed. The spool consists of a large central sheave to the perimeter of which the closing wire / is attached, and two cylinders of smaller diameter, (the spools proper) to which the two closing chains e are fastened.



Whether a single casting or independent parts, these three wheels are keyed to the main shaft. The arms are pin connected to both cross-head and shells. The upper ends of the closing chains e are attached to the under side of the

FIG. 3.

Extra heavy orange-peel bucket.

(Courtesy of the



d. The closing wire / is confined by a lead sheave g mounted on the side of the cross-head. The opening wire h is bridled to the cross-head. Obviously, therefore, if the bucket is suspended from the opening wire with the closing wire slack, the spool and shells fall by virtue of their weight until the spool has




rotated to the point at which the closing chains are vertical and taut, preventing further motion. The bucket is hanging open. If, now, the closing wire is given the load,

caused to rotate so that the spools proper are rolled up on the closing chains toward the cross-head until the bucket's jaws come together. The bucket is closed. The limit of tension in either opening or closing wire is the weight of the loaded bucket in air, plus an allowance for impact and

and the opening wire slacked, the central sheave


Side Elevation

Front Elevation

Force Polygon (One Shell)
Forces Acting on each Shell

FIG. 4.

The common grab bucket.

breaking bottom suction. With the bucket resting open upon the bottom, however, the closing wire tension at the beginning of the "bite" is necessarily less than the weight of the submerged bucket empty since the bucket obviously would be raised clear of the mud by a pull greater than its weight. As the bucket closes, the weight of the enclosed material becomes effective and the wire tension increases. The total stress in the two closing chains is equal to the product of the closing wire tension by the ratio of the diameter of the central sheave to that of the chain spools. The total compression in the four arms is equal to the sum of the total closing chain tension and the weight of the



cross -head divided

by the

cosine of the angle 6 between the

arms and


Isolating one shell of the bucket, (Figure 4) the forces acting upon it when closing are the following:


the thrust of the two arms.
one-half the


upward pull of the main shaft. the horizontal pull of the opposite shell. one-half the weight of shaft and spool.


the weight of the shell itself. the resistance offered by the bottom material to the cutting lips of the bucket.


Beginning at m and going clockwise, the force polygon as shown, mnopqr. The force no represents one half the


of the closing wire and closing chain tensions. The force qr acts through the center of gravity of the shell. For any given position of the bucket, the force rm, or the

cutting resistance at the lips, will be maximum when the tension in the closing wire is greatest (i.e., when equal to the weight of the submerged bucket) but when this condition
obtains, the bucket is on the verge of rising so that the vertical component of rm is zero, or, in other words, the

cutting force rm at the lips becomes horizontal, and its value may be determined for any position of the bucket

by taking moments about the main shaft as a center, after computing mn as above and approximating the weight qr and its point of application. The form of the shell, therefore, in so far as it influences the magnitude of the moments mn qr and rm about the shaft, is an important factor,

the shape of the inscribed triangle formed by lines joining" the main shaft, arm-pin and edge of lip determines the relation between the lengths of the lever arms of the

forces acting.

the above considerations, the following conclusions be drawn in reference to the bucket's ability to dig, may or, in other words, its closing power as measured by the
cutting force at the lips 1. It is a function of three co-related quantities: the weight of the bucket, the form of the shell and the ratio of diameters of central sheave and chain spools.


results in a central sheave of considerable diameter. would be supported by one lip and the central sheave and would have to close partially before being able to "bite. It is made.reason that. The bucket designed for soft-digging need not have inordinate closing power. therefore. in shaping the shells. since weight of bucket and contents is by the power of the main engine. essential to the hard-digging bucket. the bucket so built instead of resting on its two lips in the wide open condition . the consideration of maximum 3. since the diameter of the closing chain spools cannot be less than enough to reel up with one revo- must be sacrificed to of swinging a 10 lution a sufficient length of chain to close the bucket.GRAPPLE DREDGES 2. that the perimeter of the sheaves must not extend below the horizontal plane through the lips of the open bucket. It varies directly with the width and weight of the bucket and with the diameter ratio of sheave to spools. bucket capacity bucket weight. A dredge capable yard soft-digging bucket will carry a somewhat smaller hard-digging bucket. . 11 It varies inversely with the depth of bucket from shaft to lip. that the closing power be excessive in proportion to the weight. Weight in or near the curved back of the shells is no more effective than that concentrated about the shaft. however. on a hard level bottom. Bucket Axioms. diameter of the closing wire sheave to that of the closing chain spools is less than in the hard-digging bucket. for the. capacity outweighs that of the adjustment of the inscribed The ratio of the triangle to maximum closing moment. probably about 7K yards. The relatively large sheave to spool ratio. The hard-digging bucket requires great weight that it may obtain a full load the maximum combined fixed in refractory material and." This fault is negatived in the soft-digging bucket by the nonresistance of the bottom. 4. The designer should be mindful. It is entirely possible. as light as consistent with strength and durability and. causing the bucket to close too quickly before attaining the penetration necessary to get a full load. too.

when closed. resisting the closing of the bucket. are pinconnected to the lower corners of a pair of triangular links. cross-head type. is formed by the main shaft of the bucket. Sliding Cross-Head Bucket. in principle. the pressure of the water upon the protruding shell surface has a tendency partly to close the bucket. Thus the hinge centers of the shells are below the main shaft. are hung from the main shaft. A bucket having this fault may be difficult to keep closed when loaded and will open very quickly. grab bucket supplemented by a rectangular frame. with a consequent decrease in the length of the lever arm of the force rm. Otherwise. which. but in the harddigging type. The curvature of the shells in front elevation should be sharper than a full quadrant so that the bucket will not fit the "bite" so neatly -as to create a mud suction resisting the lifting of the bucket. Figure of a tough bottom by the use Better results can be obtained in of what is known as the sliding common It consists. effective. in turn. Figure 4. when wide all open.12 DREDGING ENGINEERING The depth of any bucket from main shaft to lips must not be so great with respect to the width that. the lips of soft-digging buckets may be straight or nearly so without detriment. the main shaft is so far above the horizontal plane through the arm-pins that the closing moment is materially reduced for the last part of the closing. lips of considerable curvature are more ture All buckets should be so designed in regard to shell curvaand maximum spread of opening that. In side elevation. 1. instead of hinging directly on the main shaft. It is difficult to design a hard-digging bucket of the common type just described that will combine all the advantages and omit all The the faults mentioned. page 5. All the desirable features of an efficient bucket may readily . parts of the shells may lie within the verticals through the lips. the two side members of which act as guides for the travel of the cross-head and the lower member of which The shells.

to the ends of the long curved handles of which. and the frame. capable unique in its closing power arm. in this case. outside the bucket. while the frame adds effective weight.GRAPPLE DREDGES 13 be embodied without the presence of any of the faults. There are several single-wire buckets on the market. Buckets of larger size have been constructed with the arms pinned to lugs projecting from the back or convex This type side of the shells. is a powerful. The Williams bucket. reduces the capacity of the bucket. this bucket has the further good points that the elevation of the spool above the shell hinges allows plenty of open spread. durable and efficient ing tool. the bridled closing wire is attached. is an bucket cross-head excellent. For soft digging. which drives a piston in a cylinder contained in the bucket. . in order to yield greater closing moment by increasing the lever arm length of the arm thrust. minor detail and small buckets. stiffens the entire structure and provides convenOn the whole the slidient fastening for the bucket poles. some differing in several in closing principle.e^ from about to 1% yards capacity are rigged to close by a three and four sheave block purchase through which the closing wire is reaved. i. a huge pair of tongs. in principle. The Arnold bucket is closed by compressed air. In addition to the prime advantage of great closing power. page tool. In addition to the above. Many % is seldom used in dredging however. The Stockton bucket resembles. keeps the spool clear of the contents of the loaded bucket and raises the central sheave well above the plane of the lips when open. however. 14. the author prefers the common grab type. greater closing power is not required nor are bucket poles. as. by adding unnecessary weight. The object is to correct the omnipresent fault of the common grab consisting of the loss in effective closing weight due to the lifting propensities of the closing wire. Other Types. there are many types of grab buckets.

H.) . (Courtesy of G. The Williams bucket. Williams Co. 5.14 DREDGING ENGINEERING FIG.

Grab Bucket Details and Appurtenances. square. Co. manganese steel. after wearing castings or built up. may be fitted with attachable The built up shell is made of steel plates varying in lips. % to % inches according to the size They are reinforced at the corners and edges with bent plates and steel castings and usually at one or two intermediate points in the width of the curved face with The cutting edge or lip of each shell is plates and angles. the better to resist the severe abrasion. Three blade orange-peel bucket in operation.) (Courtesy of the Hayword thickness from about of the bucket. the shells. preferably. away FIG. . at the cutting edge. in section are variously round. 6. generally strengthened by the addition of a steel casting or. The arms. Both the cross-head and the shells may be either monolithic steel If castings. They present the advantage of ready attachment to any two-drum hoist.GRAPPLE DREDGES 15 but they are seldom used in dredging.

e.. Boom. may be increased temporarily in material that has sufficient cohesion to stand up. hard material.. Teeth are rarely used on large buckets. they are often helpful. about midway of its length. by the use of so-called " side-boards " which are bent plates bolted to the arms. The capacity of a bucket for soft digging. Or a pair of hardwood poles may be fastened to or set in the uprights of the bucket frame.e.16 DREDGING ENGINEERING rectangular and "H" shaped. extending up through rings attached to the boom head. shafts and pin and shaft bearings should be generously proportioned and provided with renewable bushings. struts paralleling . or nearly so. The derrick or crane element of the dredge. This is accomplished in one of two wire called a "dorsey wire" is attached to the side of one of the bucket shells and is lead by sheaves up ways.e. All parts of a bucket. The "A" Frame is usually vertical. A through the boom. "A" frame and back legs with guys. which are relatively light in weight. by which the bucket is handled. body and The tendency of the bucket to rotation must be prevented. to a small pendant weight. alongside when the first pocket Back guys and and supporting usually also back legs. rising and falling in the plane of the gallows frame. more particularly the pins.j -preventing " it from falling over" when landed upon sloping. i. comprises boom. "A" Frame and Back Guys. they are considered by many " mud-diggers" to be an absolute necessity for efficient dredging in hard stuff. but on the smaller types. i. The poles have the additional function of maintaining the bucket in an upright position on the bottom. and is set some distance back from the bow of the hull in order better to trim the ship hull forward of the and is to permit a sufficient length of boom heel for holding the scow being loaded. one to each shell. i. as otherwise the two bucket wires would become crossed and fouled. For this reason. and having the effect of raising the backs and sides of the shells.



the tension rods, extend from the peak of the A" frame down to the after deck. There are generally two such.

The boom

heel is approximately in the plane of the "A" frame and its upper end is suspended from the peak of the " A" frame by a topping fall of fixed length so that the boom


Fig. a




Fig. c


The grapple








end force polygon.

has a constant angle of inclination, which, for loading scows will be from 35 to 45 degrees with the horizontal, and generally less than 35 degrees for long-boom, banking machines. The two bucket wires pass over main and guide sheaves at the boom end, thence between the so-called " Table



sheaves" mounted on the " table" which is analagous to the horizontal bar of the letter "A" in the "A" frame,

and from there to the drums of the main engine. The two sets of table sheaves are spread some distance apart
athwartships for the purpose of giving the bucket wires enough lead to the boom to swing it. The weight of the loaded bucket and the boom and the pull of the engine create stresses in the boom, topping fall, "A" frame and back guys, which are readily determined. The manner of rigging and the forces acting at the boom

end are shown in Figure 7a and b, and the stress diagram in Figure 7c. For the analysis, it will be. assumed that the closing wire lies in the same vertical plane with the boom and that it takes the entire load of bucket and contents. Since this wire passes over a sheave in the boom head, the forces ab and cd representing the tension in it must be equal to each other and to the weight in air of the loaded bucket. It is advisable to increase all stresses by an impact
allowance of at least 50 per cent. The boom compression ad and the topping fall tension be may be scaled from the diagram, a study of which will reveal that both these stresses increase with the decrease in the boom angle 6 and also with the decrease in the angle 4> between boom


added those due to the weight of the boom, which may be found graphically by drawing a second force polygon of the three forces, end reaction of weight of boom, boom compression and topping fall tension, omitting the bucket and closing wire.
tension creates stresses in the legs of the "A" frame, alternately tension and compression as the boom swings and maximum when the boom is at the limit


closing wire to engine. the above stresses must be

The topping

of its arc.




tension in a back leg will be greatest when in the plane of that leg. graphical analysis


will easily yield these stresses.

bending due to

designed for combined compression and own weight. The choice of section is influenced by the use of wire cable or chain for the bucket

The boom




Either may be employed with equal success, operation. the preference being largely personal. If wire is used, the sheaves in the boom and on the table must be of large

diameter in order to prevent undue bending stresses in the The end of the boom, therefore, must be designed cable. in such a manner as to provide a fork between the prongs of which, the two large sheaves are mounted on a shaft. The guide sheaves need not be so large. If chain is selected, all sheaves can be much smaller and those at the boom head may be suspended beneath the boom. There are many types of boom. In the smaller machines, it may consist simply of a single stick of timber with or without In the larger dredges it may be built up of two truss rods. timbers braced together side by side with sufficient clearance between to contain the two end sheaves. The timbers are often reinforced with steel plates or channels. Or it may be a lattice or truss boom of timber or of steel. A convenient form of the latter comprises four angles laced both ways and with deep plates at the ends and one intermediate point at least. Booms of this type require transverse or sway frames to resist racking strains. The "A" frame members, if built of wood, must be supplemented with steel stay rods because of the reversal of stress. Although the back legs are subject to compression only in rare instances, yet
it is

advisable to combine in

them both strut and rod the better to hold the "A" frame rigidly and truly in its intended plane without oscillation
or vibration.

All sheaves, shafts, boxes and the derrick fittings should be proportioned generously to withstand the exceptionally severe wear and tear and to cut repairs and renewals to a minimum. The connections of the "A" frame and the back legs to the hull and the bearing and thrust of the

boom heel casting upon the hull require care as to the proper transmission of the stresses to the hull and will influence the hull design to the extent of the provision of adequate
strength at those points.



Spuds, Spud Wells and Gallows-Frame. The grapple dredge is held in position, oriented and advanced in cut by means of spuds alone, or by wires alone, or by a combination of spuds and wires. Many machines are fully equipped both with a full complement of spuds and spud handling apparatus and with all the necessary machinery and appliances for operation by wires and anchors. This dual arrangement is obviously advantageous, since, while the spud method is more convenient through the saving of lost time in running lines and anchors and through the
Anchor Anchor



Position control by wires.

Grapple dredge.

non-interference with traffic and adjacent structures, yet there are times when the wires must be used, as in deep

water or in swift currents or in the event of the breaking of a spud. 1 For position control by wires, five lines are generally They used, two quarter lines on each side and a stern wire. may be arranged as in Fig. 8a, or as in Fig. 8b. The rigging of 8b presents advantages over the former in that the two quarter lines forward are not as likely to foul the bucket In either case, the in digging and dumping into the scow. two wires on the scow side of the dredge, usually the starboard, must be elevated to clear the light scow. This is done by leading them from the drums up through overhead sheaves, one attached to the end of a cross arm set in the

In the larger machines they are square built-up members comprising four or nine pieces of heavy square timber bolted together. both round and square. Some spuds are as large as four feet square. This arrangement has been patented by the Osgood Dredge Company. tom and the spuds travel may be either holes in the hull or housings attached to the sides and stern of the hull and called " outside" wells. The stern spud is hung from a frame of more are suspended from a tall. The spuds must have sufficient clearance in the wells to permit perfect freedom of operation. The spud wells or openings at the deck through which to of the timber. with the connection high wires on one side and the low deck wires on the other exert a force couple tending to resist the listing of the dredge in the direction of the low wires "A" when the boom is swung to that side. two forward at the sides and one aft. The 10 yard clam-shell dredge "Finn Mac in them through sheaves Cool" was so equipped. Three spuds are required for control entirely independent of wires. The spuds in the smaller dredges are single sticks of round or square timber. in the center. Another expedient. to prevent scow and other interference with the anchor wires is the complete submergence of the wires by running the toes of the spuds.GRAPPLE DREDGES 21 frame or gallows-frame for the bow wire and another mounted on a post or column erected on the after deck Some machines have symmetrifor the stern quarter line. It is readily seen that the wires. used in either or both sides. which has been successfully used. are They equipped with pointed metal shoes to facilitate penetration into the bot- add enough weight to overcome the buoyancy All-steel and wrought iron spuds are sometimes used. vertical The two forward spuds rectangular frame approximately in the plane of the "A" frame and often braced to it. cal wire equipment so that the wires may be elevated on Others have but two spuds. " " called the gallows-frame humble proportions or from a single mast maintained plumb .

excessive listing is sometimes prevented by the use of boom logs attached to the sides of the chains of such length that the logs are afloat when the machine is on an even keel. It is usually designed to carry from 125 to 150 pounds pressure. by the maximum pull of which the spud hoisting engine is capable due to the fact that the careening of the dredge when digging is resisted by the reaction of the spud on the high side. . the spud wire is made fast to taut.'2 "2 DREDGING ENGINEERING by guys. but which grips the spud when the wire is In rarer instances. The spuds are raised by the spud engine. The usual machinery of the clam : shell dredge comprises the following units 1. but are raised clear of the hull by water when the boom swings to the opposite side. and is located aft. with the appurtenant coal bunkers and water tanks it acts as a counterweight to the active loads forward. The gallows-frame consists simply of two or four columns with a top cross cap and the necessary transverse struts and diagonal braces or knees. the spud well housing from which it is lead down through a sheave in the toe of the spud itself. Eigged so.. The main engine for operating the bucket wires: generally a two cylinder horizontal type driving two drums 2. The Bailer: The Scotch Marine is a general favorite although Locomotive. It must be borne in mind that the load upon the gallows-frame may be much more than that due to the dead weight of the spud because of the difficulty frequently encountered in pulling " the spud out of the tenacious river bottom. having a wire leading through a sheave at the gallowsframe cap thence down to a collar encircling the spud and free thereof. breaking " It even may be greater than that developed the suction. where. the gallows frame need not be as high as the full length of the spud. i. comprising both weight of spud and the grip of the mud. e. Vertical and others are used. Leg. It is interesting to note here that in the case of a dredge swinging a long boom. thence up through the gallows frame sheave and finally to the drum of the engine. The Machinery.

The secondary engines are under local control upon signal from the pilot house. grip dredge be fully equipped with a complete compleand anchor wires and with symmetrical scow-handling equipment for right and left hand digging. spur gears and frictions. Condenser: The main and secondary engines may be run as* condensing engines by piping the exhaust steam from all to a single condenser. one forward and one aft. steam or compressed air is used. Miscellaneous equipment.GRAPPLE DREDGES 23 through pinions. a total of 14 drums or drums and capstans are required. such as electric light plant. 3 for the spuds. The frictions may be either of the block or disc type. one and the other for pumping from the bilge. water tank or water scow and for fire purposes. The secondary engines should be double If the ment of spuds cylinder. The Secondary Engines: The operation. If a surface condenser be used. circulating and air pumps will be 4. the drums were thrown into clutch with the frictions by means of a long hand-operated lever in the pilot house. of two pumps is essential. given careful consideration. and 3 on each side for scow control. The frictions are a very important item of the unit and should be For efficient digging their must be positive and their release quick and complete. An idea of the relative engine sizes may be had from the following data: The dredge "ADMIRAL/' shown on air The runner's . of the spud hoists. In the older dredges. compressor and refrigeration plant. The drums are in line athwartship and spread to give a direct lead to the table sheaves. 5. Now. control in the pilot house comprises simply main engine throttle and frictions. The pinions are as a rule below the elevation of the drum shaft. 6. 3. 5 for the anchor lines. the anchor wire drums and the capstans or drums (as the case may be) for scow lines may be accomplished through two engines if desired. Pumps: A minimum for the boiler feed required. the latter being preferable for large machines. except in small machines. however.

(soft digging) main engine. and sleeping quarters Deviations in detail from this for the crew and inspector. bucket 2>4 yd. of of have secondary engines cylinder.24 DREDGING ENGINEERING the frontispiece. swings a 7>2 yd. The House/ The usual grapple boasts a two-story frame first floor of which comprises boiler and and mess room. MAC CQOL. X 39 ft. X 15 in.. X 40 ft. X 24 in. X 39 ft. bucket and has\ horizontal. hull 78 ft. X 10 ft. two-cylinder. a 5J^ yd. the dredging. and the second engine housing. to keep the ship in reasonable trim in resistance to the listing moments of the swinging stability when bucket. The engines Dredges of this size usually from 8 X 10 to 10 X 12 double clam shell machines are seldom run condensing. The freeboard should be such as to assure some reserve buoyancy when the machine is at the point of maximum inclination due to the limiting position boom and . two-cylinder main engine 20 in. The "PACIFIC" (same owners). 9 in.. a 4 yd. 6 in. X 7 ft. The beam and the length forward and aft of the "A" frame must be sufficient to provide adequate or steel house. e. has a hull 110 ft. X 11 ft." of the same Company. X 35 ft.. has a hull 110 ft. has a hull 90 ft. X 12 ft. galley or house floor. i. horizontal 10 in. pilot operators room. The width of hull cannot be so great. soft-digging bucket. X 24 in. twoThe dredge "FINN cylinder.. arrangement are not uncommon. The main engine and boilers are generally depressed below the main deck. X 23 ft. The dredge " BALTIC. 18 in. The " ADMIRAL" mentioned above will swing a 10 20 in. bucket and a horizontal two-cylinder main engine 16 in. X 24 in. 10 in." hull 120 ft. bucket 10 yd. main engine. as to necessitate an excessive length of boom in order to reach beyond and clear the pocket coaming of the light scow. X yd. all the above mentioned superstructures and machinery with adequate fuel and water storage. X 12 ft.. with comfortable freeboard. on the other hand." American Dredging Company. bucket and a two-cylinder horizontal engine 14 in... The Hull/ The dredge hull must be of sufficient size to contain. The dredge " COLUMBIA.

and finally wave action. Therefore. fuel and water tanks. the weight of the machinery. The efficiency of a dredge depends among other things upon the ratio of its working time to the total. the weight of fuel. if steel) and checked subsequently from the accurate bill of material taken from the detailed design. the alternate thrust and pull of the frame. length of boom. The ratio of hull depth to the width is as a rule slightly less than 1 to 3 and that of beam to length a little more than fuel 1 to 3. The principal loads acting upon a dredge hull are the normal water pressure on bottom sides and ends. The first quantity is first approximated by roughly estimating the total feet board measure of lumber in the hull (or the tonnage. While the majority of the above loads are capable of reasonably accurate determination. and water. to the end . the thrust of the heel of the boom which may be . more or less concentrated under the main engine and boilers the pull of the main and secondary engines. 25 the problem is the proper co-ordination of hull dimensions with the location and height of "A" frame. the less valuable is the unit. with rake at the Moulded hulls have been stern only to facilitate towing. the pull of the back guys. in vertical plane passing radially through the heel casting. The total depth of hull is the sum of the draught of the empty hull. any A horizontal force couples due to spuds in their wells or to anchor wires. constructed for grapples but are quite rare. water tanks and superstructure.GRAPPLE DREDGES of the loaded bucket in its arc. the displacement depth due to machinery. The more the time lost for repairs and renewals. In shape of the hull both in plan and section. bucket capacity and disposition of machinery. and the desired freeboard. it is hazardous to design upon a purely theoretical basis. the bearing of the gallows-frames. either the with the temper theory knowledge resulting from practical experience or else use a large safety factor. superstructures. causing both local impact and bending moments in the structure as a whole. The solution is simplified by the commonly rectangular brief.

in principle. Most hulls are built of wood. trusses and knees to resist distortion. More commonly the deck beams are transverse members and the decking longiThe deck is usually crowned about 3 inches. tudinal. They are virtually heavily constructed boxes stiffened with bulkheads. . stiffness is provided by lateral bracing or by is hackmatack knees. The reactions of the keelsons are taken by heavy cross keelsons. Operation. to 4 ft. Frequently two or more side strakes are thicker than the others. extending the full length of the ship and spliced with long scarf joints from 4 to 6 ft." are spiked to the side stanchions.c. as follows: bottom planking is laid transversely upon the under side of longitudinal keelsons. 6 in. Upon the cross keelsons in turn bear the longitudinal bulkheads There are at least two or trusses and the stanchions. heavy timbers spaced from about 2 ft. called "strakes. usually of the Howe type. the usual design is. in length. the thrust of which is transmitted to the cross keelsons and the deck beams by fore and aft ribbon pieces sometimes called side cleats. outgaged and caulked with pitch and oakum. The dredge towed to the site of the work and placed in position at the starting point of the project. with the keelsons side planking (acting also as deep longitudinal girders) furnish the requisite stiffness fore and aft. trusses. Upon the trusses. The side planks.26 DRE])GING ENGINEERING that the members shall be proportioned generously to " " withstand the severe duty required of mud-diggers. running athwartship at greater intervals on top of the keelsons and notched down and over them. Transverse Deck spikes are covered with wood plugs. A hull that has become convex " upward longitudinally is said to be hogged" and when concave upward. extending beyond the The inclined members side plane and acting as fenders. or solid bulkheads extending the full length of the hull which. and bulkheads and stanchions are placed the deck beams carrying the deck planking." Although varying widely in The detail. of the stern are called rake timbers. All the exposed planking is dressed. "dished.. c.

he signals by blowing the whistle to the deck hands who haul the scow aft by operating the releases Still wire and . He releases the port friction. grips with the starboard and partly opens the throttle. The end pocket nearest the dredge having been thus closed. Keeping the load on the closing wire and controlling the resulting boom swing to starboard by a lesser backing strain on the port wire. The deck hands board the scow and. opening the bucket. swinging the boom to port and then lowers it open into the water as before to take another bite. wind up the door chains of each pocket about the shaft until the doors are raised to the closed position and held so by ratchet and pawl.GRAPPLE DREDGES 27 case tar- Her spuds are dropped or lines and anchors set as the may be. when he closes the throttle. digging is started. When the pocket is fully loaded. 17. The cut to be dredged is indicated by range A light scow is brought gets stationed ahead of the dredge. The operator in the pilot house releases the starboard friction to slack the closing wire and the bucket opens a shown in Figure 7. using bars as levers. he opens the throttle partially. with his gripping port friction. ready for the bite. and a third wire extending from the starboard stern of the scow to the starboard stern of the dredge. the operator lifts the bucket up over the side of the scow and pocket coaming until it is suspended above the pocket. He then slowly lowers the open bucket into the water by easing up the port friction until the bucket rests on the bottom. which are generally 3 in number located as follows: A breast wire leading from a "U" bolt in the pocket coaming of the scow to the port bow of the dredge. tender and moored to the as the acting alongside by tug machine by the wires of the scow handling machinery. It is customary to interpose boom log hanging by the port wire. holds fast the port the starboard. The arrangement is page between dredge and scow. a second wire attached to the port stern corner of the scow and running forward to the starboard bow of the machine. The closing wire is thus stressed and the bucket closes upon its load and rises.

When specified depth has been made over the area within " reach of the bucket. settles more and loading. the desired distance. the advance is achieved by so-called "walking on the spuds. referred to the datum. The operator then stresses that bucket wire which tends to swing the boom toward the side on which the bow spud is up. therefore. after which the stern spud When all pockets is dropped and digging is resumed. this movement is accomplished simply by winding in the forward quarter lines and slacking the stern quarters and stern spuds alone are being used for position control. . he is guided in his digging by his knowledge of the overall height of the bucket or by graduations. usually mean low water. dredging in tide-water. tide A guage. so that the boom retains its line. the dredge is moved ahead or advanced in the cut. constantly decreasing the necessary height of bucket If lift. If When the free bow position and the dredge swings.. but the boom is anchored by the grounded bucket and the dredge is free to pivot about the third spud. forward corner has thus been pulled that spud is dropped and the operation repeated for the advance of the other bow spud. i. e. water as the loading progresses. the operator must know the stage of the tide so that he may dig the depth specified." If the machine is operating under wire control. lowered into the mud and the stern and one bow spud are raised clear of the bottom. or by means of a wire leading from the bucket through sheaves in the boom end and "A" frame thence through reduction tackle to a weight sliding on a graduated scale in the pilot house. In addition to actul lead-line soundings over the bow of the dredge. the operator blows for the tug to bring a light scow and to remove the loaded one. or a single mark upon one of the bucket wires or chains or upon the bucket poles." as follows: The bucket is grounded. is set where he can see and read it. of the scow are full.28 scow-line DREDGING ENGINEERING drums until the next pocket in position for more deeply in the is The scow.

in the grapple by means of two bucket wires." frame. The boom supported by "A" frame and back guys as in the grapple. The hull is stiffer and the spuds heavier than those of the grapple. with the "A. to which teeth are attached. which runs over a sheave in the boom head and thence to the main The boom is swing in one of two ways. General Description. III DIPPER DREDGES As has been said. the crew is quartered on the dredge. swinging a 6 cubic yard bucket. The dredge is held in position fcy three spuds. 9 dipper stick back toward the hull." boom is necessarily of heavier construction than that of the grapple and. the latter being the more common. The bucket obtains its load by digging into the bottom under the impetus of dipper stick and bucket wire. and the backing chain. when it is termed the shear legs. which is carried by the boom is at or near the centre of the latter. is set well forward at the very bow of the hull. is a picture of a Bucyrus Dipper Dredge. 29 is fastened either to the . The bucket. either as engine. which draws bucket and Fig. because of the greater strains. which is essentially a scoop with heavy teeth and a flap bottom. The bucket hoisting wire is made fast to the centre of the bail. is attached to the end of the dipper stick. the "A" frame is " The tilted forward. The Bucket. and advances by grounding her dipper and stressing the backing chain. a handle or bail and a reinforced cutting edge or lip. The scows are handled as on grapples. As a rule. ' ' ' ' the Dipper Dredge digs like the familiar steam shovel. or by bull wheel and swinging engine. provided with a hinged flap bottom. except that.CHAPTER . frequently. The bucket is an open steel cylinder.


large The capacity. is set well forward in order that the dipper stick may more clear the bow in in all positions. particularly inclined "A" frames or shear legs. high powered machines. or even while still in the mud. a fixed topping fall. For the same topping-fall stress. teeth are usually from three to five in number. principally those caused by starting to swing the boom before the bucket is clear of the water. and are detachable for sharpening and renewing. and a second line from the end of the lever to the cranesman stationed at the heel of the boom. is The in the grapple. There is a structural economy in the vertical "A" frame. ings to facilitate its movement and. but. in that it and the gallows frame may be designed as a unit frame." frame. the stresses in "A" frame and back guys are greater in the case of the inclined shear legs than in that of the vertical "A.DIPPER DREDGES 31 rear face of the bucket or to the dipper stick near the bucket. The latch is drawn back to open the door by means of a line extending from it to a lever at a point near the fulcrum. the point of bearing on the deck may be some distance aft of the boom heel. The principal boom stresses . Dipper boom. In the larger buckets the latch rests on roller bearclosed by a latch. without back legs or struts. The bottom door or floor of the bucket is held which locks automatically by virtue of its bevelled end when the door is forced upward and closed by the water pressure. The boom is the most difficult part of the dredge to Some of the very heavy loads to which it is subdesign. Boom. is approximately in the plane of the heel of the U hung from the A" frame by boom. necessarily. when inclined. jected are indeterminate. The "A" frame. is steam operated. but is usually at a flatter angle with the horizontal than that of the grapple. "A" Frame and Back Guys. The boom. as Stick. in the recent. The back those dredges having stays. whereas the inclined "A" frame necessitates a distinct and independent gallows frame. when vertical. with tool steel points. are frequently tension members only. and by sudden stop- page and reversal of swing.

In addition there is. . 10. the bending is due to live as well as dead load and is very much greater. in this instance. ^To investigate understandingly the vertical bending stress in the boom. in those booms swung by a bull wheel at the heel. FIG. and maximum at the boom heel casting. a knowledge of the action and control of the dipper stick is necessary. stress A. but. Forces acting at the dipper for two positions of the arm.32 DREDGING ENGINEERING are again combined compression and bending. B B. diagrams for the two positions. Furthermore. caused by the rotation of the bull wheel Fig. the side thrust of the dipper stick requires considerable lateral boom stiffness. a horizontal bending movement.

are equipped with a so-called "crowding engine/ which is mounted on the boom and drives the pinion down through the boom by 7 meshing with the rack of the stick. keyed to a shaft carrying a pinion which meshes into a rack on the under side of the dipper stick. knowing the greatest pull of which the main engine is capable. The motion of the stick through the boom is controlled by two band friction wheels C on the boom. and that th. It is apparent from the stress diagrams (fig. however.e compression in the dipper stick is are maximum when L and 6 maximum. or the parting . one of translation with and through the boom at or near its mid point. which. too. Many dippers. or back toward the hull by the backing chain B. the maximum comprssive stress in the stick follows. tension in hoisting wire or backing chain. This. By this means. so that the stick can be pushed or pulled through the boom. the dipper may be pulled either toward the end of the boom by the main engine wire A. which will be the weight of the loaded bucket in air. varies inversely as the length L of stick below the boom and the angle 6 between boom and stick. entirely possible. and the other of rotation in a vertical plane through an arc centred at the same point. Referring to Fig.DIPPER DREDGES 33 two movements. 10-b) that the digging power. the dipper can be thrust out beyond the end of the boom to an increased reach. is enough to require a test of the stick formula in It is details for resistance to the tensile stress involved. so that the stick may be held fast at the boom at any point of its length. that the dipper stick be subjected to tension. and drops The stiek has respect to gravity alone. or the thrust at the bucket perpendicular to the dipper stick. although insufficient to influence the choice of section. is the critical loading of the stick and. then. 10. through faulty operation. Its length will usually be such as to necessitate the use of long column its design. at the same time being free to rotate about that The stick is pulled up through the boom by the point. or both. This condi- tion obtains when.


If there be a crowding engine. c.M. -the positive vertical B. 12-C. result in a sort of compromise design. and are measured by the pull of the main engine. the positive dead B. 12. representing the bucket wire tension. and the topping tension cd increases with the angle 0. through the agency of that engine.DIPPER DREDGES of the 35 frictions. There are four values of bending moment to be conmore sidered in the boom: a. main hoisting wire. It must be remembered in the design of the latter. caused by the thrust of the dipper stick when perpendicular to the boom. due to the weight of the boom itself. indetermistresses. in conjunction with those due to the nate loads previously referred to and with the physical the boom. fig. dead load stress in the topping fall is obtained as described under grapples. The critical condition of stress in is the greatest possible combination of compression and compressive fibre stress due to vertical and horizontal bending moment. that the angle 9 is not limited by the bucket may vertical position of the bucket wire. the negative vertical B. because the wire passes over a sheave in the boom head. as the easily be thrust out beyond the end of the boom. 6. caused by the suspension of the loaded bucket and dipper stick as mentioned above. held by its frictions at the boom. there resisted.M. then. The boom compression is maximum when fall ac is perpendicular to cd. 12-B. and d the horizontal B. not omitting These to investigate and provide for the fibre tension. as a result of the bull-wheel rotation. are obviously equal in amount. a certain amount of twisting to be The direct stress in boom and topping fall may be found The forces be graphically as in fig. The especially by the use of a crowding engine. or slipping main engine load of the bucket and contents is suspended from the boom by the dipper stick..M. and b are maximum at the point of intersection of dipper . direct considerations influencing the shape of the and location of some a members.M. the same ten- the full sion may easily exist is In addition. as are ac and de of fig. and ac.

and d at the heel casting. the B. boom-end forces and stress same for the direct-wire dipper. The horizontal B.- A. section. . but is an important destructive agent acting upon the heel casting and the boom structure immediately adjacent thereto.36 DREDGING ENGINEERING stock and boom.M. The purchase-rigged dipper. diagram for purchase-rigged dipper. 12. C. d is equal to the pull of the swinging engine multiplied by the radius of the bull wheel. c at the centre of the boom. It has little bearing upon the choice of the boom FIG. and one warranting complete investigation and the provision of ample resistance.

and. 12-A. to double the lifting power of the engine and to halve the speed and that. raises the spud. fig. having a slotted well. and a second wire of larger diameter. The stern spud remains in the mud during the operation. "A" frame or shear legs and back legs or stays are found as for grapples in Chapter I. raising the two bow spuds clear of the bottom and stressing the backing chain. by transferring part of the weight of the machine to the two bow spuds. in dippers of the same digging power. stress in the machine which is purchase rigged will be less than that in the direct wire dredge (Fig. In pin-up dredges. the end of the wire is attached to the boom end. from whence it passes down to a single-sheave block fastened to the bail of the bucket. and is The stress in of plate." a term applied to the process of maintaining the dredge upon an even keel while digging. so that it is not dependent upon the stability of the hull to resist transverse oscillation. Spuds. girder or latticed truss construction. becomes taut when the dredge attempts to list to that side. thence up over the boom-head sheave and to the main It is apparent that the result of such a rigging is engine. top and bottom.e. 10). having considerable depth at the dipper stick and tapering toward both lifting the boom ends. Some dippers are rigged to "pin up. i. A running down around the toe sheave and thence up to the drum of the spud hoist. slowly inclines forward as the dredge progresses. They are of heavy section and are subject to considerable bending moment occasioned by the reaction of the forward thrust of the dipper. tending to force the spud more deeply into the bottom. The two bow spuds are set either in "outside" " or through" wells. The dredge advances by grounding her bucket well ahead of the bow.DIPPER DREDGES 37 Some dippers are rigged with a single sheave purchase in the bucket wire. which pulls the machine toward the dipper. fastened at the same place and leading up over the top sheave and down to the drum. It is . The boom is a relatively large member. the fore spuds are provided with sheaves both wire attached to the spud-well housing.


14. engine and bull wheel. Dipper dredge with bank spuds. after which. gallows by spud spuds frame.DIPPER DREDGES called 39 " on this or trailing-spud walking-spud hoist and raised The are account. Co. the object being to inof digging coils crease the pull on the bucket wire during the early stage when the bucket is loading. The Machinery. In dipper dredges having two bucket wires to swing the boom and raise the bucket. accelerating the raising of the dipper. stepping down to a smaller diameter for the balance. the drum cylinder of large diameter for part of the width. or by a rack on the spud engaging a pinion at the deck level. Such a device is termed a differential drum. the main engine is a two cylinder horizontal type. the main engine may have but one hoisting drum. is In some machines. with two drums the " " " FIG.) (Courtesy the Marion Steam Shovel If the boom is controlled by swinging as in the grapple. and is used to good advantage with the purchase rigged . the wire upon the larger drum surface. obviating the necessity of a gallows frame.

8 in. e. the machines. American Dredging Company. how ever. hor. triple hitch. main engine 14 X and a 4>^ yd. the Bucyrus built of the boom. . Some machines are equipped also with a crowding engine mounted upon the boom. FIG. 7 in. 39 ft. The machinery for spud and scow handling is similar to that of the grapple. In is general dimensions and construction the hull very similar to that of the grapple. bull wheel and crowding engine. S. dipper. DREDGING ENGINEERING In addition to the main and swinging engines.g. (Courtesy the Osgood Co. Hull. The Tellico U. X 10 ft. r The details. with direct wire rigging. complete dipper control requires an engine for handling the backing chain which draws the bucket back toward the hull. is a "pin-up" machine.) The dredge PRESIDENT. longitudinal trusses are steel and of great There is. 15. X 16.. a need for greater stiffness due to the thrust of the dipper and the extreme forward mounting In some types. hull 105 ft.. dipper.40 dipper. Army Engineers 1M yd. 2 cyl. pictured on page 38. with the function of dipper stick motion as previously described.

There is. thereby reducing the lateral stresses in that member. from which it when the bucket is is swung out over apparent that the same hull will a of bucket carry grab larger capacity than a dipper. runner. the "cranesman" or dipper tender. in addition to the usual men and deck hands. dipper dredge. 16. boom motion through the throttles main.) of the deck house. relatively less stability forward than in grapples to resist listing the scow. the to operate the bucket. (Courtesy the Bucyrus Co. In the latter position. it exerts a more direct pull upon the boom." controls the bucket hoist. " other. too. operator" or backing chain and " " One. The bow structure of the hull must be well stiffened and the truss and superstructure design there is dependent in some measure upon the locating of the bull wheel. dipper stick and crew of engineer. at the ." is stationed at the boom heel and regulates the dipper stick frictions of the and The frictions on the boom and opens the bucket. Operation. permitting to drop into the water. Dippers require two oilers boom. and tied horizontally by a top lateral truss. backing and swinging engines. which may be upon the deck or elevated to the plane of the roof FIG. reaching from the cross keelsons to the roof of the deck house. In the process of digging. firemen.DIPPER DREDGES 41 depth. 14" X 16" engines and hoisting machinery for a 6 yd. the runner slacks the bucket it wire or wires.

and is used to advantage in canal work through solid ground containing stumps and roots. inexpensive and versatile machine. in the dredging of previously blasted or loose rock . To the need of the American contractor for a simple. and the dipper tender applies his friction bands. 17. The cranesman releases the dipper stick frictions so that rests it falls through the boom until the dipper on the bottom. gripping the dipper stick at the boom. which shoots up through the boom. the dipper dredge owes its rapid development in this country.) (Courtesy the cranesman releases the stick. cuts its way forward in an the arc of radius equal to that portion of the dipper stick below boom until it is loaded and clear of the mud. therefore. Application of the Type. The runner releases the backing chain and stresses the hoisting wire. provided the depth is not excessive. The runner swings the boom until the bucket is suspended over a pocket of the scow and the cranesman pulls the latch string. whereupon FIG. Hoisting and Backing Drums the 14" X 16" dipper dredge. Bucyrus Co. The bucket. It is very efficient in hard material. dumping the bucket.42 DREDGING ENGINEERING same time pulling it back toward the hull by stressing the backing chain.


built by the Bucyrus Company. the largest exponents of the type were probably the two 10 yard machines used on the Cape Cod Canal.000 cubic yards per year. owned and operated in New York Harbor about 1904 by the contractors Hughes Brothers & Bangs. the GAMBOA. old foundations. capacity of more than 3. The earliest dipper dredge of large size was the 12 yard machine ONONDAGA. containing pieces of rock of all sizes and lacking uniformity of formation. The conditions of uniformly hard materials and moderate requisite depth of channel on the Great Lakes have occasioned an extensive use of the dipper there. Since then. attributed by some engineers to defects in the main hoisting wires. The decision resulted in the con- by the Bucyrus Company of three 15 yard dipper machines. the latter being the last built and arriving at the Isthmus in October struction of 1915. was a large capacity and highpowered dipper dredge. High-powered Dipper Dredges. and the 15 yard dredge TOLEDO. Thus it is a most capable machine. The princiwere justified and by the fact that the first pal statistics of the above dredges are given in the Table. with a wide application. the dipper arms and the spuds. . PARAISO and CASCADAS. and prior to 1904.44 DREDGING ENGINEERING and in the removal of old filled cribs. built by the Atlantic Equipment Co. It was decided that the only type of machine suitafirst ble for the removal of this huge mass of broken rock and all earth.000. both the builders and the management by the splendid performance of the machines two were in large part copies of the TOLEDO because of the lack of time to prepare new Each of the three dredges had a demonstrated designs.. Although open to criticism perhaps as to the abnormally high cost of maintenance. At the time of the closing of the Panama Canal by the large slide. page 45. with steel hulls. They are all pin-up machines. the largest dippers in use there were 5 yard. sunken wrecks and stone dikes.

000 Ibs. 50' 235. the spuds sheaves in the spud toes.5 X 24" . 15'-6". yd. which and in the use of a gallows frame to raise .. . 15 cu. without the use of differed principally in the width of hull. X 80' 3' Length Capacity of Dipper 15 cu. Several improvements were also made in the machinery and in other details as dictated by the experience with the other two. Compound 16 and 28 4' X 24 Forward Spuds Material Section Oregon Fir 5' Structural Steel . X 80' 5' X 82' 4' Length Dipper Arm Material Section Oregon Fir 3' Long Leaf Y. which proved objectionable because of the cable abrasion due to the rock.DIPPER DREDGES ONONDAGA Hull length 140' 50' 15' 45 GAMBOA & PARAISO 144' 44' width depth Main Engines 13'-6" Type Size Double cylinder condensing 20"... B. in the depth. yd. 50' Rock 10 Mud Max. The CASCADAS was 55 ft. yd. Working Depth Bail Pull cu. 72' P. N.

W. therefore. required the rapid execution of a great number of works suited to immediate necesThis system has sities. of work. which will be assured of employment through a series of years.CHAPTER IV LADDER DREDGES Historical. which is found so frequently in Europe and so rarely in America. they do not The small contractor invest largely in special plant. On the other vested than his contract will warrant. until recently." The inexpensive and versatile dipper dredge. " A. istration of port their plant. Robinson. both on the seaboard and in the interior.. virgin country. was early and rapidly developed in this country. under the small contract system. has found little favor in the United States for major dredging projects. and as their contracts are liable to be varied both as to locality and conditions. proving an excellent tool especially for harbor and shallow work as 46 .. The ladder or elevator dredge is distinctly a European product and. the opening up of a vast. or Board of Harbor Trustees. Mr. . writes: "In America. must employ a plant which is adapted to a variety and which does not represent more capital in- . 1905. This has developed the large and complete seaworthy dredge of the ladder and bucket type. contractors of who build class of all rise to a grades." printed in Vol. in his paper on the Review of General Practice. The reason lies not so much in the qualities of the dredge but rather in the quite opposite methods of admindevelopment of the two continents. under the European method of administration. and own . the large corporation. given itself. LIV of the Transactions of the American Society of Civil Engineers. is able to lay out a comprehensive plan of the works under its charge and provide permanent plant adapted to it. hand.


The type secured a foothold in Canada from early examples imported from Scotland. in Canada. and the grapple dredge attained equally rapid development on the softer tidal work of the Coast. 35 cubic feet. The capacity of each of the soft-digging buckets of this dredge is 2 cubic yards. in hard clays. the choice between the ladder and the dipper is difficult. are most economically dredged by ladder machines and that. are the clean pick-up of The the gold bearing gravel with a minimum of agitation and the delivery to the screen of an almost continuous stream . its popularity there has persisted. because of its adaptability both to the local dredging conditions and to the method of government operation through a number of years. has led to a more general acceptance in this country of the advantages of the elevator dredge. and of the hard-digging. however. in the belief that their lower unit cost of output justifies the greater This trend.48 DREDGING ENGINEERING found in the Great Lakes. on the St. its peculiar virtues of the type. The ladder dredge of the so-called "stationary" type has found favor for some years in two American industries. and both to the almost absolute exclusion of the ladder or elevator type. indurated clays. as is evidenced by the purchase in Scotland of a large machine of this type for use on the Panama Canal. demanded by the ladder type gravel. except as determined by depth of water and depth of cut. soft rock formations and hard-pans. the ladder dredge has been in active use for years. when excavated in their original condition without previous blasting. even antedating the development of the dipper. viz. dredging for gold in the western states with the large placer. It is now generally conceded that the very hard. Moreover. Lawrence River Ship Channel. and. elevator machine. the tendency has been to the design of machines of larger capacity. and for commercial sand and initial outlay. together with the attention in its economic performance on the Panama Canal. In more recent years. shales. to which it owes superiority for gold dredging.


and are re-enforced on the cutting edge with hard steel lips. endless chain succession a series of buckets traveling in up the top side and down the lower side of the ladder. has militated against their employment in the industry. In Chapter IX. driven by the main engine through chain or belt. preferably through the gearing independent of the main engine. capacity. charge which or when they invert at the upper or driving tumbler. resulting in failure of other types of dredge an excessive loss of gold.50 DREDGING ENGINEERING without leakage. The buckets obtain their loads by scraping along the bottom in the act of revolving about the lower tumbler. The velocity of the bucket travel is varied to meet the conditions of material and depth. and carried by two tumblers or drums at the two extremities thereof and by rollers upon its upper and the main engine actuating the upper tumbler. is This sible last is intended to safeguard the engine against pos- sudden shock due to abrupt resistance or impact of the buckets. pivoting about the tower top. more commonly through gears and a friction clutch. The soft digging buckets are larger for the same machine than the hard digging. yd. Both digging and discharging are facil- by tapering the buckets in longitudinal section both vertically and horizontally. which engages the endless bucket chains. The buckets designed for hard material are heavily constructed and are provided with teeth at the itated lip. It is essential that the dredge be equipped with two sets of buckets." American and Continental opinion upon the relative merit of the ladder dredge is further cited. General Description/ The digging mechanism of the ladder dredge consists of a long trussed ladder. They vary in size generally from 5 cu. in these The two essentials. The ladder may be raised and lowered. inclining from the top of a tower through a slot or well in the hull down to the mud line. to 1 cu. . and disface. under the caption "Choice of Plant. one for hard and the other for soft digging. ft.


the dredge pivoting about a stern spud in the manner of the radial-feeding hydraulic machine. through which the material is forced by water from a discharge pump. contain a cylindrical rotating screen at the top which segregates the material so that sand is discharged into a scow on one side of the dredge and gravel into a second scow on the other side. Sea-going Hopper Type. with moulded hull and selfcontained hoppers. a series of belt conveyors mounted on lighters has been used. type is traffic. They are usually of the twin-screw type. times accelerated by pumping water through them. The sea-going ladder dredge is a self-propelling steamer. In some instances. depositing the dredgings Flow in the chute pipes is someat some little distance. Some dredges have abnormally high towers and long chutes supported from the dredge. When it becomes necessary to transport the material to points more remote from the dredge. of sand and gravel for commercial usage. American The objection practice tends toward the latter method. the extensive movement being permitted by exceptionally long head lines of wire rope carried on floats for a considerable distance ahead of the dredge to obviate the resistant dragging on the bottom. floating pipe lines are employed. hull of the stationary type is both in plan and in cross section. The dredged material is conducted to scows moored to the dredge through chutes leading from the receiving hopper Machines operating in a mixture at the top of the tower. it travels to the dumping ground under its own power and discharges through doors at the base of the hoppers. making a cut as wide as 750 feet in one operation. generally rectangular with a well or slot pierced through which the ladder The feeding movement is either lateral through operates. When loaded. to the former and an argument in favor of the self-propelled The the obstruction presented by the cables to river The St. driven either by the main dredging .52 DREDGING ENGINEERING Stationary Type. Lawrence River dredges are of the lateral feed type. or radial. the agency of six mooring cables to as many anchorages.

the sea-going dredge. purchased in Scotland by the Isthmian Canal Commission. The tower is erected amidships and the well may be either forward or aft. in to 2200 tons. There are two types of well. General practice employs the bow well for single-screw steamers and the stern well for twin-screw. in length from hopper capacity from about 500 depth of dredging. from about 30 to 50 feet. of intermittent dredging operation due to the frequent trips to the dumps. The length of the ladder should be such as to reach the well is The maximum required depth when at an inclination of 45 degrees. when raised. It is open to the criticism. proportioned to the length of the ladder. the closeended and the open-ended. both into the dredge hoppers and into hopper barges moored alongside. so that the lower sec- may always have a slope of 45 degrees. The latter is more commonly used. however.LADDER DREDGES engine or 53 by an independent provide for discharging It is customary to unit. In the bow-well dredge. Dredges of this type vary through wide limits as to size. capacity and maximum depth of dredging. so destructive both to such plant and the dredge itself. lies wholly within the well. due to the advantage of being able to dig flotation for the dredge. has but one on the longitudinal axis of the hull. Some designers have even gone so far as to build the ladder in two parts. and a maximum dredging depth of 50 about 130 to 275 feet. tion . For the sea-going ladder dredge. The previously mentioned machine. the ladder. and in greatest possible feet. when loaded. The speed of sea-going ladder dredges is generally from 6 to 8. the advantage is claimed of entire seaworthiness in ocean dredging and the absence in rough water of the pounding of attendant plant. since the maximum amount of work is said to obtain at that angle. for reasons of stability. one on each side. and a breakwater is installed at the after end of the well to deflect the water under the keel of the vessel when steaming ahead. has a specified capacity of 1200 cubic yards of mud or sand per hour. While the stationary machine may have two ladders. miles per hour.

a name given to the portions of the pocket coamings walls projecting above the deck. consisting simply of a hull rectangular in plan cross section. somewhat more than three times as long as and the wide. While these two features may appear objectionable. Thus. but also to add to the transverse strength. between the ends of the scow and the faces of the first and last pockets. not merely to increase the displacement. When light. depth of hull from deck to bottom plank- ing is about one-third of the beam. The common form of cross section is shown in fig. it has considerable freeboard. it is (in it is elevation) for towing in either direction.CHAPTER V SCOWS The most common conveyance for the transportation of dredgings (pumpings excepted) is the bottom-dump mud scow. as is sometimes done.. it floats with decks awash. and while we do hear. without means of self propulsion. the displacement tonnage per inch immersion decreases quite rapidly as the draft increases. occasionally of the capsizing of a mud scow. yet the good points of the design are so preponderant and the disaster of capsizing so trivial that the popularity of the type lives on. and the loaded scow has no reserve buoyancy. 22. Neglecting the fore and after holds. and with both ends raked or and rounded Roughly. 54 . the material being retained by the pocket " . but when fully loaded. the vessel is dependent for buoyancy upon the polyhedral spaces between the sides of the scow and the sloping side walls of the pockets. The coaming height is ' usually from two to three feet. It is in effect a hopper barge. unless the continuity of the pockets is broken by one or two transverse holds. containing a number of independent hoppers called pockets.

therefore. the Howe type. running through a lead chock to a shaft just outside the coaming. hinged at the sides to open downward at the centre. Cross section of the common. bottom-dump mud scow. Obviously usually they the resultant tendency is to "hog" the scow. e. the sides of the FIG. The lower strakes are as a framed with long scarf joints without the tension feature. i. In timber scows. floor of each pocket consists of a pair of doors.scows It will 55 be remembered that mud scows are loaded. A chain at each end holds them horizontal or closed. The truss rods should be provided with turnbuckles. they are generally of Supplementing them. not would have them for minimum stresses but from one end to the other. The transverse strength of the scow is provided by the walls between pockets. solid The . The intermediate courses may be butted at stanchions. to render it convex upward. a pair of strong trusses are built in the plane of the side coamings for the full length and depth of the scow. vessel are detailed to further resist the in that the "hogging" strains upper strakes are in long lengths and spliced rule with long tension scarf joints. which are bulkheads extending the full width of the ship. by negaas the designer in the structure. and that are dumped in the same way. To provide adequate stiffness tive longitudinally. 22. that they may be adjusted to timber shrinkage and local fibre crushing. bending moment in the structure as a whole.

by pounding the pawl out of Upon and pawl. requiring deep water for dumping. in which position they are liable to damage in shoal water. Current practice builds the body of the scow of long leaf yellow pine. Sometimes the two ends are protected likewise. shaft and winding gear on the side remote from the dredge. For this reason. The scow is equipped with towing bitts. such sheathing on all sides is of paramount importance. Larger sizes present the objectionable features of great freeboard when light. requiring an inordinately high bucket lift. Consequently. preferably the former. The corners are armored with steel The scow is always moored to the dredge with the plates. it is the hull that wear of side the and the port coaming port most rapidly. Although steel has been used in some instances. are fitted with eye-bolts at each pocket to receive the hook of the breast line from the dredge. of prime inspection. to a minimum.most popular. in The becomes an important factor dumping to a hy- . and great draft when latter loaded. and in teredoinfested waters. so that the danger of damage to the gear shall be reduced The coamings on the port side. engagement with the ratchet wheel. it should be strongly and durably designed. whereat the chain is released. ratchet wheel Each pocket has its own gear and is dumped independently of the others. with corners and deck strake of white oak. Although not always feasible. Whatever the material of which the scow is constructed.56 DREDGING ENGINEERING this the chain is wound by lever bar. scows of 500 or 600 yards capacity are the . to withstand the severe treatment necessarily meted out to it. the doors fall open and the load drops through. it is desirable that the depth of well below the door hinges be equal to the width of a single door. and with hatches for ventilation and siphoning out fore and aft. the port side is not uncommonly sheathed with 2 or 3 inch oak or pine. in order that the doors when open may not project below the bottom of the scow. timber appears to be best adapted to the purpose and is quite prevalent. For river and harbor work. therefore. due to the destructive impacts of the bucket.

when it is checked by a stop.. The limits of the re- handling basin are defined by ranges to control the operation. Such an arrangement is particularly adaptable to shoal water.SCOWS draulic 57 machine for pumping ashore. and discharging through vertical doors on both sides. their loads is by the use of a sliding deck platform charge mounted on rollers on a slight incline. For rock. large dump scows. For towing to sea.released. with mercial common the ridge in the plane of the longitudinal axis of the hull. have been used. The momentum the scow to list of the load and its eccentric position cause until the material slides off into the water. the so-called rehandling basin. a layer of sheathing is usually laid on the deck planking. although the centre of gravity of the loaded scow is abnormally high. is located preferably as close to the impounding basin as the consideration of minimum depth for dumping scows will permit. deck lighters are employed. the idea being of course to reduce the length of discharge pipe line to a gaged in rehandling minimum. upwards of 2000 yards capacity. . Hydraulic dredges enwork are required to maintain a depth in the rehandling basin at least as great as the surrounding depth. Particular attention must be given here to the design of the deck for the heavy loads and impacts. in order that as little material as possible shall be lost between dumping and pumping. This false deck when loaded and unlatched slides to one side by gravity for a distance of several feet. the scow. In this instance. For rock and comsand and gravel. or rectangular hole excavated by the pumps to receive the dumped material. Scows of types other than the bottom-dumps are in less use for handling dredgings. and in some instances self-propelled hopper barges have been employed to transport dredgings. rights itself. Concrete deck scows have been successfully used for sand and Deck lighters may be converted into mud scows gravel. and dumping at times proves a rather delicate A second method of rigging deck scows to disoperation. by erecting on the deck a series of gable bottom bins. whereupon.

there are two general and distinct classes of hydraulic dredges. S. The type . The dredge may be said to have three principal functions. Briefly. ocean-going steamer. and is rarely self-propelling except those designed by the Mississippi River Commission among to meet the special and unique conditions obtaining upon sheltered that mutinous water-course. it consists of a centrifugal pump directly connected to a steam engine or a motor and mounted on a hull equipped with a hinged ladder. Although at times economically adaptable to ship-channel rivers work in and harbors. second. The second is the more imposing. the breaking up or cutting of the bottom material that readily may be drawn into the suction pipe. carrying both suction pipe and cutter-head. built for use in the calm waters of rivers and harbors. and with some means of position control and feeding movement.CHAPTER VI HYDRAULIC DREDGES OF THE RIVER TYPE As outlined in Chapter I. in the great majority of cases.Commission embodies many distinctive features. The text immediately following refers only to the of dredge developed by the Mississippi River under the direction of the U. the horizontal and vertical movement of the suction pipe it 58 . RADIAL-FEEDING DREDGE WITH SPUD ANCHORAGE General Description. it is primarily intended for the removal * of obstructive ocean bars. with moulded hull and. with self-contained hoppers for receiving and transporting the pumpings. the River Type and the Sea-going Hopper Dredge. The first is the smaller machine. Government. by virtue of which it has been isolated in the foregoing classification and will be discussed subsequently in this chapter. so first.



and cutter so that the material may be fed constantly to the suction; third, that of pumping the material through suction pipe, pump and discharge pipe into the spoil basin
or the adjacent deep water. The first is accomplished by means of a rotating cutter at the suction end of the

keyed to a shaft carried on the ladder and driven

engine, called the cutter engine, located at the ladder hinge. The vertical movement of the second function is obtained by boom, "A" frame, back guys, fall and

by an

hoisting engine,

by which the ladder



and lowered.

FIG. 23.

The Pennsylvania

American Dredging Co.

movement, laterally, is effected in one of by swinging the dredge and ladder as a whole about one of the two stern spuds as a pivot, or by


two ways;


swinging the ladder only, the dredge being held by three or four spuds. The forward movement or the " advance in cut" is obtained in the first instance by the alternate use of the two stern spuds and, in the second, by " walking" spuds. The third function is accomplished by the pump and its drive with the appurtenant suction pipe, floating
discharge pipe or pontoon line, and the shore pipe-line. All operations, with the possible exception of the spud hoists, are controlled from the pilot house or lever-room.

The "runner"



faces the suction

end and




guided in his manipulation of the dredge by pressure, vacuum, steam and depth gages and by the behavior of the
cutter engine.


size of the



from twelve to forty-eight

inches, but the

is generally conceded the most advantageous for all around work. Twelve and fifteen inch dredges are useful for dredging in confined

twenty inch dredge

areas and for


into basins of small capacity, or into

FIG. 24.

The Tampa

Atlas Dredging Co.,



The larger sizes are well or behind bulkheads. fine sand and to the of silt and to the removal adapted of excavated material by bucket rehandling previously dredges and dumped from scows to the hydraulic dredge
filled piers

to be



Figure 23, Page 59 is a photograph of the thirty inch dredge PENNSYLVANIA, of the American Dredging Company, of Philadelphia, and is a good example of the swinging ladder type with walking spuds* This dredge has been used exclusively for rehandling dredged material, and has pumped as high as 753,000 cubic yards of mud in one month, working 24 hours per day. Figure 24 Page 60 is the twenty-two inch hydraulic dredge Tampa of the Atlas Dredging Company of New York City. It is a powerful machine of the swinging-



dredge type and performed yeoman service in the removal heavy mixture of mud, sand and some gravel incident to the construction of the Hog Island Shipyard.
of a

FIG. 25a.

The open

or cage cutter.

(Courtesy of

Marion Steam Shovel


FIG. 25b


closed or round-nose cutter.

30 inch, light type.


of Bucyrus Co.)


Head and Ladder.

There are two principal

types of cutters, the open or cage type as shown in Figure 25a, Page 61, and the closed or round-nose cutter as
illustrated in Figure 256.

The former

consists of a set



of knives or blades, straight or nearly so, mounted on a pair of annular frames of different diameters so that the

blades converge outboard. The blades are set at an angle of from 15 to 25 degrees with the cutter head axis or shaft

and protrude a short distance beyond the end frame. The great wear caused by the excessive abrasion makes it
advisable that the blades be independent of the frames to facilitate renewals. In the closed or round-nose cutter,

the blades are spiral shaped and converge to a. hub at the nose or outboard end into which the end of the shaft is fitted. In both types, the cutter shaft is set immediately above the suction pipe, the end of which must, of course, The lie within the surface described by the cutter blades. large diameter of the cutter-head, therefore, will be somewhat greater than twice the outside diameter of the suction


relative merit of the

two cutters


vary with the

character of the material and even more perhaps in the judgement of dredging men. Mr. Charles Evan Fowler, " in his Subaqueous Foundations" writes "The round-nose

type is best suited to soft material, but usually the ordinary inward-delivery cage cutter is to be preferred especially If working in for the compact and harder materials." of blades number with a a cutter relatively large clay, retain the to clay within closely spaced has a tendency itself, finally becoming entirely choked with the sticky mass.



straining devices are used.

and other obstructions, various The cutter becomes a strainer with a series of bands or rings at the blades in

planes perpendicular to the shaft, resulting in a cage-like structure, admitting only such objects as are smaller than the trapezoidal openings between the blades and the transverse rings. The material is excluded from the rear
or large end of the cutter either

by a transverse screen or the closure partially which a solid disc, completes by Another scheme effected by suction pipe and ladder. involves the use of a circular transverse screen or grating

cutter and shaft. It is carried on pillow block journals set on the top face of the stresses set ladder. or a pair of plate girders braced together.HYDRAULIC DREDGES OF THE RIVER TYPE set in the big 63 and It is cutter. Ladder and cutter machinery for 20 inch dredge. therefore. It is well. resulting in the continual procession of the strainer openings across the mouth of the suction. adapted for use in swift streams. The last mentioned type offers less resistance to the current and is on that account better In swinging dredges. (Courtesy the Bucyrus Co. of relatively large section (about eight inches for a twenty-inch dredge) because of the torsional is The cutter shaft up in it by the maximum moment of which the cutter engine. The ladder may be a heavy steel box girder enclosing the suction pipe. 26. It is apparent that any long and narrow obstruction.) Extra heavy. is capable. perpendicular to the shaft a short distance in front of the end of the suction pipe. generously to pro- portion these parts that they may be capable of stalling the cutter engine without overloading themselves. end of the attached to the cutter and rotates with it. such as a stick of wood or a long stone. passing through one strainer opening and protruding into the suction pipe would be subjected to considerable FIG. or a pair of lattice trusses. through its gears. . shearing strain and would cause high stresses in the strainer.

permitting dredging to a depth of about 45 or 50 ft. or by spreading the two girders forming the ladder so that it is triangular in plan. in order that the point of attachment of pontoon line to dredge shall be as close as possible to the center of rotation to minimize upon the alignment of the pontoon line. This radial motion is effected by two swinging wires. horizontal and vertical hull movement when the cutter head is in the mud upward pull of the fall from the boom in the ladder and the dead weight of the ladder itself. clear of the bottom and the other down in the mud. The arrangement of spuds depends upon the method be first of feeding. but in the swinging dredge vertical motion only is required. extending from the effect of the rotation . The stresses in the ladder are due to the pull of the swinging- wires. If the discharge pipe leaves the hull at a point near a stern corner. The maximum depth below the water surface to which a hydraulic dredge can dig is determined by the length of the ladder and the hinge construction. about 10 or 12 feet apart and. the points of attachment of guy rods must be in line transversely and vertically with the center line of the hinge. raising The ladder is set in a well or recess in the center of the bow and finally to the of the dredge. If the outboard end of the latter is guyed to the hull corners. forming the pivot about which the dredge rotates or swings. considered. the spuds are set off center in the direction of that same corner. The case of the swinging dredge will It has but two spuds set in the same transverse plane at or near the stern of the dredge. below the water.64 DREDGING ENGINEERING the ladder's perpendicularity to the bow is maintained by guy rods to the forward corners of the hull. In the case of the swinging ladder dredge this joint must permit both horizontal and vertical motion of the ladder with respect to the dredge. the reaction of the rotating cutter. or by a combination of these two methods. if the discharge pipe is centered in the hull. one spud is always up. symmetrical with respect to the dredge axis. Feeding. When working. Ladders 70 feet in length are not uncommon.

to the bow corners of the hull or to a kind of triangular horizontal apron extending forward from the bow. When it in order again to thrust the cutter into the bank. The first method has the advantage of keeping FIG. Thus. to the winding drums on the dredge. becomes necessary to advance the dredge . (Courtesy the Bucyrus Co. one on each side of the bow. The pull of the wires may b$ applied by means of sheaves to the outboard end of the ladder near the cutterhead. the movement is accomplished by dropping the high spud and raising the other when the dredge has swung to the limit of the cut. 27.) the swinging wires down on the bottom out of the way of passing vessels but presents also the disadvantage of the possibility of entanglement of the slack swinging wire about the cutter in the event of careless operation. The cutter-head at work.HYDRAULIC DREDGES OF THE RIVER TYPE 65 two anchors.

the swingingladder dredge makes a much narrower cut than the swinging-dredge and can. two forward mud while pumping. At least three of the four spuds are set in slotted wells. therefore. To move ahead. the absence of side wires is often an advantage as they interfere with traffic in the vicinity of the dredge. the from 30 to 45 degrees with the horizontal. by the alternate use of the two spuds. due to the fact that the rotation and. It is well to remember that the stress in one swinging wire is nearly always greater than in the other. the latter generThe ladder is suspended from the boom ally vertical. Such dredges usually are equipped with a stern wire for hauling astern. by straight The swinging-ladder dredge has and two aft. Further more. Boom "A" Frame and Back head by a wire fall. the reaction of the cutter is always in the same direction. while the ladder swung by means of swinging wires from cutter head to winding drums after passing through guide sheaves at the bow corners. When pulling the dredge forward and inclining the spuds. permitting them to incline forward from the vertical and are " " Two wires extend from the two called walking spuds. if plotted and joined lines. which is purchase rigged to the ladder . all of which are in the four spuds. would form a series of saw teeth. the walking spuds can be raised and plumbed. Legs. On the other hand. is Thus the hull is held.66 DREDGING ENGINEERING the new pivot is further ahead in the cut and the center of In this manner. which fact at times becomes a factor in locating the dredge to the best advantage. Boom and "A" at a fixed angle of former frame are set well forward. Obviously. the dredge rotation therefore. the total time lost in moving and shifting the dredge is greater for the swinging-ladder type because it covers less area with one set up. these wires are wound on the drums. moves ahead. one at a time. advanced. therefore. successive positions of which. desirable. thence to drums of the winding engine. forward spuds at or near their toes to sheaves on the stern corners of the hull. work in more confined spaces.

The total length of discharge pipe three distinct parts. an acute frame to prevent lateral movement. its heel. knowing the maxi- mum ratio and the angles pull of the ladder hoisting engines. or. The "A" frame and back- guy stresses will be greater in the swinging-ladder type than in the swinging dredge. The boom of the swinging-ladder dredge necessarily swings with the in dredges that "A" ladder. to such dredges as there is no space for living quarters on the dredge. same In some dredges. A notable example of this is afforded by dredges used in the construction and maintenance of the New York State Barge Canal. becoming maximum for the positions of the boom as outlined under grapples. in plan. being mounted upon the same rotating bearing that carries the ladder trunnions. the portion on comprises the dredge from the pump to the point of leaving the hull Line. line . therefore. third. there are three principal methods of discharge pipe arrangement resulting in three . For the usual central transverse position of the pump. First. The purchase retards and eases the vertical motion and at the same time economizes The boom may be a single strut. which is but one story A house boat is generally an indispensable adjunct high.HYDRAULIC DREDGES OF THE RIVER TYPE 67 near the cutterhead and partially bridled to relieve the bending stresses in the ladder. The stresses in boom. such as in canals with limited clearance under bridges. the boom angle is quite flat and the topping-fall almost horizontal. in engine capacity. The Pipe second. built for use in localities where head room is a consideration. the purchase of lead. and. it is made of heavy cast iron pipe with flanged joints. it may be. "A" frame and back-legs or guys may be obtained graphically. swing as a unit. the shore line. and at about the same elevation as the roof of the house. Since the first constitutes a permanent integral part of the dredge and also because any break therein might flood the hull and sink the ship. The "A" frame varies greatly in design from the ordinary tim- ber type to steel frames of rectangular and even polygonal outline. the floating or pontoon line.

since in the swinging dredge type it is essential that the point of connection of pontoon line to dredge stern location. and No. 2. for the point of attachment of the pontoon Referring to Figure 28. the sheets varying in thickness from No. comcurvature. a direct lead from the pump to the side of the hull. The precaution is sometimes taken to enclose the pump in a watertight trough so that. so coupled to each other as to provide the necessary flexibility to allow the dredge to swing and advance or. in the event of a break in the pipe.2 FIG. the hull will not be flooded. No.68 possible DREDGING ENGINEERING locations line. 1 discharge is limited to the swingingladder dredge.3 No. bining Nos. a stern discharge near one corner. Discharge pipe arrangements on the dredge. For general use. 1. to "wag her tail. they are No.. 10 The shore pipe is built in sections of inch. Location No. the axial No. 28. 2 appears to be preferable. or 1 and 3. usually the former. Location No. No. 2 is particularly adapted to this safety measure in that the side of the hull and the adjacent longitudinal bulkhead form the two sides of such a trough and easy access may be had to the pipe so located by substituting removable hatches for the deck over the pipe.each carrying a section of pipe from 20 to 50 feet long. in other words. 3 presents the objection of loss of head due to reverse Discharge No. gauge to such length as to preclude a weight too great for handling by manual labor alone. 3. be close to the spud about which the dredge rotates. They are seldom greater than % . Some swinging-ladder machines are equipped to discharge either at the stern or side. The floating line from the hull to the shore pipe consists of a series of pontoons. 1 and 2." Both pontoon and shore pipe are lap or spiral riveted.


There are several types of pontoon. bends In order of 15 degrees and up are often essential fittings. however. Although the slip joints allow a certain amount of curvature. the pontoon line than is permitted by the couplings and it is met by the insertion of one or two elbows in the line. "Y"s and gate The necessity often arises for sharper curvature in valves. the male end of each length protruding into the female end of the next in the direction of flow. to facilitate the addition of pipe sections in the basin without stopping the pump. the catamaran" pontoon and the "cask" pontoon. with the idea that one leg of the fork can be lengthened while pumping continues uninterruptedly through the other.70 DREDGING ENGINEERING 20 feet long and frequently only 16 feet. rubber sleeves or by ball-joint connections. The shore pipe deviates from the straight line in circumventing obstructions and in continual shifting of direction in the basin to control the elevation of the fill. which may be desig" nated as the "scow" pontoon. a pair of hooks being riveted to each end of each section Leaks in such unions are almost the rule for this purpose. is built in long lengths to reduce the number of couplings and pontoons and is usually of heavier metal. Because of the short life and expense of the rubber sleeves (they are seldom less than 10 ply) the ball joint method is more economical. and wired together. In tide water. The first is simply a single box . the varying elevation of the pontoon line with respect to the shore line is permitted by a ball-joint pipe. elbows. The shore pipe is laid with slip joints. rather than the exception and are plugged by wedges made from wooden shingles or equally convenient shapes. For this to be a true economic advantage. it is apparent that the loss of head due to the fittings must be fully offset by the prevention of lost pumping time. The sections of the floating line are coupled either by heavy. The most common fittings used in connection with dredge discharge pipe are bends. it is common practice to divide the line into two branches by means of a "Y" and two gate valves at a point on the fill near the discharge. The pontoon pipe.

the head for which they are designed is greater than 50 feet. providing FIG. They are single inlet pumps. i..HYDRAULIC DREDGES OF THE RIVER TYPE of 71 The or steel.e.. the shaft is horizontal. They are high pressure pumps. 30.e. rectangular in plan and section. the head is generated by one impeller only.. the water enters the impeller on one side only. have the following features: They are horizontal pumps. Centrifugal pumps. The Pump. i. necessitating the interposition of a marine thrust bearing . They are single stage pumps.e. either steel cylinders or wood boxes. For the convenience and safety of the crew and pipe gang. second consists of two long narrow floats. i. as used for dredging. with their longitudinal axis perpendicu- wood pipe mounted upon them amidships. (Courtesy the Bucyrus Co. In the "cask" pontoon..e.) the requisite buoyancy. they are maintained at such a distance apart as to place one near each end of the lar to the pipe section. By struts from one to the other of each pair. it is desirable to provide a continuous walkway on the pontoons parallelling the pipe. The pump and thrust bearing. i. the pipe rests upon a horizontal frame to the under side of which a number of strong barrells or large kegs are fastened.

Dredge pump impeller or runner. i. The problem severe wear and to design a pump to stand the unusually tear. due to rapid wear. and yet . Shell and impeller are is cast iron or cast steel. Both impeller and shell are heavily proportioned to withstand the abrasive action of the pumpings. The openings between blades and between can pass through the cutterhead and into the suction. FI. 31. Figure 31. It is good practice to use an unlined pump of very heavy proportions fitted with lined side discs. impeller tips are bent backward and the angle O. of pump is the better able to take care of a fluctuating quantity without overloading its driver. between the absolute velocity of exit of the water. because the head decreases as the quantity increases. FIG. They are backwardthe discharge pumps. Page 72. The open type. short timbers. the enclosed type. This type most common even in water pumps and. the periphery of the impeller and the shell are large to permit the passage of large objects such as stones. It is this feature principally which makes it the most desirable type for dredging purposes. The pump must be designed to take anything that etc.. and the peripheral velocity between the pump and V 2 is greater than 90 degrees.72 DREDGING ENGINEERING its drive. Chokes in the pump involve loss of time and possibly serious damage.e. There are no discharge vanes The impeller is of in dredge pumps. it is of the impeller. loses in efficiency. to pass fairly large bodies.

Curvature in the .000 feet of pipe line. It is directly proportional to the length of pipe line. the suction head.e. which may be termed the elevation head. since the specific gravity of mercury is 13. This gage is usually calibrated in inches of mercury.304. the friction head.. The elevation head is the vertical height from the center of the moving and must also force the water and ma- pump The sum of the friction to the highest point in the discharge pipe line.13 which figure is the ratio between the weight of a column of mercury one inch high and a column of water one foot in height. partial vacuum in the suction pipe in order to give to the entering water a high velocity. and elevation heads is obtained from the discharge pressure gage in the lever-room. and seldom exceeds 50 per cent. The pump.56. the height through which the discharged pumpings are raised. the head represented by the gage reading must be increased by this distance in order to get the actual discharge head on the pump. decreases as the pipe diameter increases. sufficient to must create a draw in the material and to keep it produce the pressure necessary to terial through the discharge pipe against the resisting elevation and friction heads. As this gage is usually some distance above the center of the pump. The suction head is the amount of vacuum in the suction pipe and is read on the vacuum gage in the lever room of the dredge. Its readings may be converted i. The reading is in pounds of pressure per square inch and may be converted into feet of head by multiplying by the constant 2. the barometric column. second. It is apparent that the efficiency of a dredge pump cannot be as high as that of a water pump. into feet of water by multiplying by the constant 1. "The friction head increases as the velocity of discharge increases and . or the frictional resistance offered by the pipe to the passage of the pumpings. The total head to be overcome by the pump is the sum of three components: first. and third. therefore.HYDRAULIC DREDGES OF THE RIVER TYPE 73 be of reasonable efficiency. Twenty-inch pumps have been designed capable of elevating the pumpings to a height of 40 feet through 3.

and also with the angle of slope of the vanes at the periphery. By multiplying the friction values for water by 1. in the determination of the value of the friction head. this is neglected and.1 to 0. it can readily be is The key to the investigation determined that the peripheral speed is directly proportional to the square root of the total head. V. being higher for smaller diameter runners with the same throat opening. being . velocity and discharge for water flowing through pipes. being higher for higher capacity. also with the ratio between the outside diameter of the runner and that The value of the throat opening. the pipe is is regarded as straight. sleeve and ball joints in the pontoon line and gate valves develope a certain amount of friction head. V.74 DREDGING ENGINEERING line. but. for the average line of reasonable straightness. or if = H = and C = then P. Hyraulic dredging friction head in science. gives full data as to friction head. C. of the theory of the centrifugal pump. of dredge pump performance the relation between the total head and the peripheral From any discussion velocity of the impeller or runner. The Table on Page 75 copied from the Morris Machine Works Catalogue. the peripheral velocity of the impeller the total head a constant of the constant.35. very good results are obtained The increase varies from for average hydraulic material.5. varies somewhat with the capacity. = P. of with the nature the material varies particular dredged so that it would be inconsistent to attempt to evaluate such minor head losses as are caused by pipe fittings and by no means an exact and the moderate curvature. material 0. the values of the head tions in this table must be increased for dredging computaby an amount depending upon the nature of the being dredged. Since the frictional resistance is greater for hydraulic dredgings or pumpings than for water.



P. V. H is in P. Therefore. P. constant is purely a matter of judgment with the above for a guide. 20 inch pump driven by 1000 of Morris h. but for average practice a value of 435 may be used with very good results.g. the proper idiameter of impeller can be selected. and the impeller diameter of any machine. M. the of revolutions necessary for an impeller to turn that may FIG. it is well to remember that the diameter of the impeller.p. and total head. in feet per minute. or. when feet and P. the head of which it is capable can be found. should never be less than 2. e. for efficient operation. . =435 VH number it (1. knowing the R. (Courtesy Machine Works.HYDRAULIC DREDGES OF THE RIVER TYPE smaller 71 The determination of the for larger angles. M. or. 32.) From this important per minute equation. a 20-inch pump requires a runner at least 46 inches in diameter.' triple expansion engine.3 times the size of the pump. In this connection.V.) develop a given head can be determined.. having the R.

20 inch pump direct connected to 600 h.33 X'H or Q X H T H. or a trifle less. = then * 1 TT -D Theoretical H. is The theoretical horse power developed by the pump equal to the continued product of the discharge in gallons per minute by the weight of one gallon of water pounds by the total head pounds per minute. the velocity through the pipe should be no more than just enough to carry the material along because higher velocity means increased friction head and increased quantity. Q X 8. For maximum economy of power.p. however. w . -gg^- (2. such as coarse sand and gravel. P P. 33. The actual horse power required to drive the pump is about twice the above theoretical value since the efficiency of a dredge pump is generally about 50 per cent.) FIG. one of four built for Panama. or if in in feet divided by 33. motor.78 DREDGING ENGINEERING Power. the velocity . = Theo. For heavy material. . with both of which the horse power varies directly. P.000 foot Q= and H the discharge in gallons per minute the total head in rnu feet.

Page 76. but as this length of pipe is the ultimate condition and as the assumption of a high velocity here would result in an The next excessively high velocity for short lines even with a smaller impeller in the pump.52 or 100. mud and fine sand to prevent the settlement of the material in the pipe and the conse- Long pipe lines require a large impeller to give the high peripheral velocity necessary to overcome the great head. But this value is for water and must be multiplied by 1. It is obviously advantageous. pump is the most advantageous the 20 inch. the friction head per 100 feet of pipe is 1. we will fix 10 ft. of flow We shall select step is to choose the desired velocity 4000 the feet of line. The smaller impeller in the short line allows greater engine speed. through Ordinarily the velocity should not be less than 12 feet per second. 79 for silt. per second as the proper figure for 4000 feet of line and an elevation head of 15 feet. that a dredge intended for miscellaneous work have several impellers of different diameters. should the same impeller be used on short lines. greater quantity of material pumped. all that of it is desired to raising the pump average through round work involvingalso short time be suitable for lines and low It is generally accepted that a 20 or 22 inch for these conditions. increasing the size maximum power with lengthening pipe line. and. therefore.35 to obtain the head dredgings. and the friction head for for 4000 feet of pipe is 40 X 2. which is 2. Method of Design. Entering the table. .HYDRAULIC DREDGES OF THE RIVER TYPE must be higher than quent choking. therefore.52 feet. the engine speed would be so retarded as to prevent the engine from delivering its maximum power.87 feet.8 feet. The pump should be able to hold a vacuum of about 12 inches of mercury. Let us assume design a hydraulic dredge capable hydraulic material 15 feet above 4000 feet of pipe line and at the same general heads. we find that for 10 feet velocity in a 20 inch pipe. However.

80 Therefore. Let us assume for our problem a value of 220 R.0ft.. short line. feet per minute P. -^7:- for this condition is from formula efficiency = 322. 100.83 ft. Using the same impeller and engine speed as above.. Head . and. bearing in mind that the constant 435 involves the use head of the usual type of impeller as previously described.M. in diameter be substituted for the friction loss per 100 ft. V. 10 ft. = 6. the 86 in. The engine speed for dredges of this size on long lines appears to be generally from about 200 to 225 revolutions per minute. Suction head 12 X 1. p. The this peripheral velocity of impeller necessary to develop is found by formula (1) Page 77.142 X 220 = 4500 ft - and the developed head M^') /4500V = 107 Tne friction . Then the required diameter or 7. 4970 of impeller is ^ The water horse power (2) Page 78. and driven at the same speed and under the same low head conditions as above.V. per second. 13. elevation. The remedy is 19. Elevation head Friction head . for a pump of 50 per cent the engine brake horse 322 or about 650.. Suppose an impeller 78 in. power would be twice Assume a us investigate the same pump under a low head. = 435 V130 = 4970.6ft.. say 1200 feet and a low lift. corresponding to a velocity of about line.8ft. of which 13. friction head. 15.6 feet is let Now suction. 10 feet. ft. For a 1200 of pipe is 8. = = = . the developed head is again 130 feet. Total or say 130 ft.5 X 3. and the balance.5 ft.13 .. 129. 106 ft.19 feet or 86 inches. which is excessive.4ft. DREDGING ENGINEERING . .P. either reduced engine speed or a smaller impeller or both.

requiring . and the velocity 3960 be reduced by increasing the size velocity may Still of the discharge pipe or by reducing the K. . the nature of the material and the varying length of pipe line.oO . line. per 100. per second. the solution appears to be a pump two with 20 in.500 X 107 X 2 = .600 X 88 X 2 . using the 78 inch impeller. therefore unsatisfactory. least sizes of impeller.P. it is recommended because of the necessarily uncertain nature of the factors involved and the desire for reserve power to of take care of severe pumping conditions. or 6. .500 gallons per minute. per second and the discharge about 14.12. driven by a triple expansion steam engine about 800 horse power.95 and find that the corresponding velocity is almost 15 ft. of the 1200 ft.HYDRAULIC DREDGES OF THE RIVER TYPE head 81 = 107 - 24 = 83 ft. r The 20 in. the friction head is 88 - (fi 24 = 64 ft. that. is 5. The high * 1 ' or 88 ft.M. The pump drive must be capable of variable speed and of running at different speeds for long periods of time because the load on the pump is variable due to the fluctuating suction head. A steam engine meets this condition fully and purpose. synchronous Although electrically A .33 ft. a shaft horse power of about . For water. suction and discharge. having at about 78 in. is per 100 ft. the equivalent head = ^Vc = 1 .M. or 5..P. 900. turning over from 200 to 225 R.. for short and 86 in. Although this is a greater horse power than theoretically required according to the above figures. Dividing by 1. but cutting the engine speed to V 3 42 V 200\ 2 again excessive. the pump is driven electrically the motor must be designed for this varying motor is. The engine horse power required 14. approximating 17 ft. for the foregoing leads us to the following conclusions: problem stated. If is admirably adapted to the load. for long lines.35 we enter the table with a value 3. 16. The Machinery.91 6 91 ft.

with a of from 175 to 225 pounds. driving at least 5 drums for swinging be of wires.P. X 12 double cylinder 20 in. a thrust bearing on the shaft is required because of the axial pull of the impeller. the usual is a triple expansion vertical condensing engine. has cylinders 18 and 24 and 40 inches in diameter with a common stroke of 20 inches.M. or more if the dredge the swinging ladder type with walking spuds and stern The cutter engine will be about 12 for a wire. shown on Page 69. 225 horse power. Characteristic curves the dredge pump.P.p.82 DREDGING ENGINEERING driven machines have been successfully operated. The shaft bearing at the impeller is kept clean by a water service. 200 R. spuds and ladder hoist. there are the condenser and centrifugal circulating set for electric pump. 18 inch stroke. Morris Machine Works. & W. 34. The 22 inch machine " TAMPA" pictured on Page cylinders 14 and R. In addition to the above. drive The 20 in. 500 1000 1500 2000 2500 3000 3500 4000 Gallons per Minute FIG. 60. . and 800 Scotch. the generator lighting and the other auxiliaries. The boilers are variously Almy water tube. directly connected to the pump and called the main engine. Constant speed. the air pump.. and developes 750 h. machine and the winding engine about 8>i X 12 double cylinder.) (Courtesy Between the pump and the main engine. dredge NEW JERSEY. Heine or working pressure has 21^ and 36 inches. and B.M.

but the vacuum gage is more sensitive than the pressure. The vacuum in the suction pipe is greater when pumping solids than when water only is passing through. hydraulic dredges may reach a maximum solid output of 25 to 30 per cent of the pumpings. and the condition of the the In lever-room. but in average digging. the operator keeps himself informed as to the amount of swingThe ing wire left on the drums in the room below him. The discharge pressure falls off for chokes in the suction and rises for The leverman learns obstructions in the discharge pipe. Booster or Relay Pumps. depth of the cutterhead below the water surface is indicated by a sliding weight on the boom or by a dial in the leverroom. The dredge pump by discharges directly into the suction of the booster. maxmum Both vacuum and pressure readings acquaint the operator of restricted suction. the ranges to which he the behavior of the cutter engine line. which then forces the pumpings through the remaining length of . becoming maximum when the suction is choked. material assistance may be rendered the dredge ond pump placing in the shore line a seccalled a booster or relay pump. to keep the gauge readings at that point at which the pump will carry the amount of material without choking. The lever-room is located well forward and at such an elevation that the leverman can ladder. Through gratings in the floor of the lever-room. operated through reduction tackle. When a discharge pipe line becomes so long as to reduce the output of the dredge below the economic minimum. keep a watchful eye on the swinging of the machine or is working.HYDRAULIC DREDGES OF THE RIVER TYPE 83 Operation. The leverman has full control of the manipulation of the dredge. which guide the operator in the normal operation of the pump and feed. are the vacuum. in mud and silt. in the percentage will be more nearly 10 to possibly 15 and heavy material with long lines it will fall as low as 5. responding more quickly to the abnormal condition. the former by rising and the latter by falling. a tide gage. Under the most favorable conditions. floating pipe discharge-pressure and steam-pressure gauges.

leaving a void between supply columns during which the impeller rumbles around in a mixture of air and water before receiving the next column.e.P. If the booster is capable of a greater discharge than that booster receives more than delivered to it. therefore. that there is one best place in the line at which to install a given booster. it will draw air into its suction and pump the mixture. Knowing the diameter and R. although it may be greater than in the long line without the booster. Thus the dredge pump is relieved of the length of line beyond the booster and is enabled to accelerate the pipe velocity and to increase the quantity of discharge. It is difficult to make the ordinary dredge shore pipe air tight. If the dredge discharge is sufficiently less than that of the booster. the booster receives a column of of it so quickly that the continuity pumpings and disposes broken. the load on the latter will Line to Basin Valve B Booster Pump Typical booster installation. select a . be intermittent. 35. It is apparent that. by velocity. FIG. If the it can handle.84 line DREDGING ENGINEERING between itself and the fill. and the usual problem will be the determination of that point rather than to design or select a booster for a particular point. of the supply is i. The solution of the problem again involves the question of peripheral speed of impellers. which is as quickly discharged. the booster amount equal is to that delivered to it must discharge an by the dredge. Consequently the discharge at the end of the pipe on the fill reveals a very appreciable pulsation. It is apparent.. the output of the retarded decreased dredge. of the dredge and booster impellers.M. for maximum efficiency of the combination. since neither are dredging operations so permanent nor boosters so plentiful as to afford frequent opportunities for the latter.

it is obvious that the booster drive must be capable of variable speed. therefore. and that it may be given the load gradually. to facilitate transportation. wholly unsatisfactory for this purpose. Compute the pipe velocity created by the booster for the length of line beyond it not forgetting that this length will vary usually by the periodical addition. Synchronous of them are. second impeller for the booster may be necessary. to prevent an overload on the motor. a either dredge or relay. A are. . directly connected to the motor with a thrust bearing between the two. installation and opthe motor should be designed to run for long periods eration. The vacuum gage should read zero for normal behavior. as most sections. one beyond each end of the booster. is motors The pump typical installation is shown in Figure 35. at various speeds without overheating. The load on the motor must also be noted by gauge. It is almost -essential that there be a by-pass line around the booster so that it may be cut out of the line for repairs or other causes without interruption to the dredge pump. or both. in starting. From the above. The behavior of the pump should be carefully watched by means of vacuum and pressure gages on the suction and a pressure gage on the discharge. By a little manipulation the point in the line at which the relay must be located to insure equal pipe velocities of dredge and booster can be determined. of extra pipe Reasonable variations in pipe length can be taken care of by varying the speed of the drives on For large differences. created by the dredge for the length of line from dredge to booster. The by-pass is " effected by two Y" branches in the line. It is desirable to have a flexible shaft coupling near the motor to provide for changes in alignment. The "Y" branch between the dredge and booster must have a gate or valve in each leg but that beyond need have a gate in the booster leg only. If electrically driven. The latter need not be so heavy as that on the dredge since the water enters the pump normally without vacuum. page 84.HYDRAULIC DREDGES OF THE RIVER TYPE 85 Compute the pipe velocity point in the line for trial.

to do whatever dredging may be required. open B wide. To complicate matters. they are cut out by the current erosion.86 DREDGING ENGINEERING To throw follows : the booster into the line. of blowing the line apart at C if pumping against that valve closed. The installation should be housed. the usual dredging season. close A] have the dredge pump mud. appears to be fluctuation. open C partly then B about the same distance.. but as the river falls. during seasons of high water. is as Start the motor with valves B and C closed have the dredge pump water only. pump water and pump mud may be quickly conveyed. There is considerable danger. The maintenance of low-water navigation in the shallow waters of alluvial rivers through the persistent and shifting sand-bar formations is a problem requiring special treatment. .e. giving maximum opened. assume extensive proportions. is only four months in length in stage of uphas a river to December 15. then C all the way. leaving valve A open. and it is essential that telephone communication or some system of signalling be established between dredge and booster so that the orders to stop. The minimum load on the motor head. FORWARD FEEDING OR MISSISSIPPI RIVER TYPE General Description. however. and it is to assist and hasten this natural deepening tendency that the dredges are designed. start. that portion of the year during which the state of low water from August 15 exists. zero discharge and therefore a minimum power requirement which is the desired starting condition. the that dredges be available during the low-water simply season. The reasons are obvious. In the Mississippi River. range (The wards of 50 feet in places. these bars. i. Hence it is partially occurs with the valve C closed. therefore.) The amount of dredging to be done in any one season cannot be predicted. because of the impossibility of forecasting the stage or the rapidity of The only solution. the procedure .

of the dredge as is the pump also is flattened down to a of about 8 inches and flared horizontally to a condepth siderable width varying from about 20 to 40 feet. . For holding the dredge in position 2. until the type of to-day problem solved. While some units of the Mississippi River plant are self propelling. Smaller Maximum Depth Capable of being Made. 3. The Use of Water Jet Agitators.HYDRAULIC DREDGES OF THE RIVER TYPE 87 After repeated failures to make and maintain the depth necessary for low-stage navigation by means of current water jets. and the . the Mississippi River Commission. which is at the bow water-jet agitator. The ALPHA proved so successful that eight additional machines were built by the Commission within the next decade. as experience dictated. Mississippi River Dredges are generally equipped to lower their suctions to a depth not exceeding 20 feet. Various improvements and changes were made in the successive dredges. 4. spud while running lines or shifting the mooring piles. being equipped with side paddle-wheels. a single is set well forward. many are pulled forward over the bar to be dredged by two cables extending from hauling engines on the forward deck to mooring piles driven in advance of the dredge. both of which features 1 are necessitated by local conditions. for experimental deflectors. The Method of Feeding. principally in: Greater capacity and lighter draft. is a pressure chamber with a series of is pumped under pressure. On the Mississippi the mechanical cutter has been largely replaced by the The suction head. was developed and the Mississippi The typical Mississippi River Dredge differs from the radial feeding machine with spud anchorage. the province of which is to loosen the sand or other material for entrance into the through which water suction. Beneath the suction head nozzles. built the 30 inch hydraulic dredge. constituting the jet agitator. ALPHA. purposes. stirring and scraping machines and other devices. in 1892.

More detailed information regarding the Mississippi River Dredges and the performance tests made by the Commission is contained in a paper by F. Successive parallel cuts yield the desired channel width. Am. Soc. 5. Use of Ihe Double Suction. LIV. numbering generally from 45 to 50 men. thence to the pontoon line. As in the other river types. with a in cally double suction leading into it on both the port and starboard side. Most of the dredges built the Commission have a single dredge pump set vertiby the plane of the longitudinal axis of the hull. Maltby. and a single discharge pipe extending axially from the pump to the stern of the dredge. roughly.. M. is to dig head will permit. and the discharge pipe from 32 to 36 inches. 24 inches in diamIneter. the balanced suction obviates the necessity for a thrust bearing.88 DREDGING ENGINEERING always as deep as the suction practice. The bars to be dredged form as a rule diagonally across the river at the point of change in the direction of curvature of the current. published in Vol. apparently. the upper deck contains quarters for the captain and crew. E. B. should coincide with the direction of the current. Each suction is. . of the sufficient length of pontoon line to discharge into the Transactions. located at the outer bank of two sucThe axis of the dredged cut cessive bends in the river. C.. using a deep water below the bar. so that they lie between two pools of relatively deep water.. cidentally.

the Government.. in charge of all such work.. LIV. apparently adopted the only alternative. C. C. that the Historical. used in 1855. Since larger and more suitable dredges were not to be had of the contractors..CHAPTER VII HYDRAULIC DREDGES OF THE SEA-GOING HOPPER TYPE In the improvement and maintenance of harbors and entrance channels. realized by through the Corps of Army Engineers. Sanford's very excellent paper on Dredging Ocean Bars. and since 1890 more than twenty seagoing suction dredges have been built by them. With such types one of two cope results was experienced: either the undesirable equally dredges and the numerous items of appurtenant floating plant were rapidly destroyed by the continual pounding against each other. S. The use of this type of dredge in the United States dates as far back as 1855. "The earliest dredge of this type used in the United States was. it was early of ocean dredging S. This dredge is stated to have been a moderate sized commercial steamboat. Government the U. most economic method of attack was by government-built and operated dredges of large capacity. . failures of dipper and grapple dredges economically to with the situation. MOULTRIE. at Charleston. Quoting from Major " J. E. involving the important bars in exposed locations. or else the work proved slow and expensive because of the large precentage of lost time waiting for calm weather. Soc. Transactions Am. the GEN. C." printed in Vol. converted into a dredge by the addition of centrifugal dredging 89 pumps witlTnecessary . capable of removing great quantities of material within a reasonable time This conclusion was reached after repeated at low cost. it is believed.

. yd. by contract. drags. and on account of the great cost of dredging. the plan of deepening these bars by scour produced by practicable one. according to locality and amount of work. channel to full width and depth has been found to be very moderate. having one 15 inch a bin capacity of 340 cu. were probably somewhat similar to those now in use. in 1890.90 DREDGING ENGINEERING Her piping." The first suction hopper dredge built was the CHARLESTON. and with bins constructed in the hold. for material dredged. or suction heads. "the cost of maintaining the dredged However.00 per cu. Between 1890 by the Government pump and and 1900. 36. was still (previous to 1890) considered a fair price for dredging on ocean bars.) New after the conclusion. (Courtesy the Bucyrus Co." jetties was regarded as the only FIG.. yds. . to deepen the entrance channel to York Harbor. The Comstock. . of six years of dredging. etc. . From 25 cents to $1. in 1891.

is The sea-going hydraulic dredge moulded hull. The joint must be flexible to allow a certain amount of hull motion without disrupting the The suction end. The majority. the CARIBBEAN and CULEBRA. with a scraper or shoe to feed the pump. for the purpose of deepening these channels. during which the total number constructed and under construction was 14. which are operated by a vertical engine- When driven worm or similar arrangement. The material is distributed evenly in the bins through pipes and distributing chutes. the dredge travels forward at a speed of about 6 knots. the performance of which effected reduction in the cost of dredging ocean bars as to such a question the economy of constructing the costly jetty Since 1900. a self propelled vessel with apparatus required solely for the dredging operation. and with hoppers for receivIn addition to the ing and transporting the material. more were Government has built a goodly fleet of these machines. probably the most intensive construction period being from 1901 to 1904. resting on the bottom is provided pipe.DREDGES OF THE SEA-GOING HOPPER TYPE three 91 built. and raised and lowered by tackle. Two such dredges. were used in the conthe struction of the Panama Canal. built in 1907 by the Maryland Steel Company. The suction pipe is hinged at the pump. the dredge steams to the dumping ground and discharges the hoppers through gates on the bottom. In operation. The hull is generally steel with a hopper capacity of from 2000 to 3000 cubic yards. containing one or two main pumping plants.. as experience has proven the advantage of the dual installation. General Description. loaded. or over raised coamings. Md. suction pipe operating through a central well. it is equipped with all the machinery and appliances necessary to ocean navigation. Some dredges are . and from 200 to 300 feet Some types have but one dredge pump and one long. however. have two pumps arid two suctions. of Baltimore. with the suction head or shoe dragging on the mud. water is drained off The large amount of accompanying by overflow through the sides.

in order to reduce the load draft when working in shallow water. Chief Engineer. Because it excavates the shoal progressively from the top downward. Advantages of the Type Mr. and. inserted in the suction near the elbow. Panama Canal. it is open to criticism in two particulars. There are two details which merit especial attention. secondly. the large it offers On . many types have been used with varying success in different materials. and the superiority is largely due to its being self-contained.92 DREDGING ENGINEERING equipped to empty their bins by means of their dredge pumps. cooperates with the deepening tendencies of current scour. They member are the drag or scraper or shoe of the suction for the purpose of No one design can be ac- The latter usually cepted as a standard for all conditions consists of a section of rubber pipe about 10 feet long.. no obstruction to navigation. A troduction feature of the later suction hopper dredges is the inof overflows at different elevations in the hoppers. writes: "This type of dredge has proven decidely the most economical for the work of improving and maintaining the harbors and channels of our coast. Williamson. Pacific Division. instead of from the end. the other hand. it is economical of operation in shallow cutting and. one forward and one aft of the machinery space. increasing it is the dredge's scope and adaptability. yet regarded as a permanent improvement. the discontinuity of dredging operation due to frequent trips to the dump. as a proper consideration of them is so necessary to the success of the unit. viz. Requiring no anchorage. and the flexible accommodation to the pitching and rolling of the steamer. moreover. it presents certain advantages for maintenance work in rivers and sheltered harbors. Of the former. Sydney B. Although the use of the lower overflow necessarily effects a reduction in bin capacity. American practice tends to two large bins. self-propelling and possessing the ability to operate without anchorage. which is the work for which it was originally designed." While the machine is particularly adapted to ocean bar dredging.

owing to its very soft nature. 1908. tinues in use to-day and is called the "agitation" DELAWARE 1906 315' 52' This plan of operation conmethod. which. and the desired results were accomplished by using the bins on the flood tide only. of course. S. is much more true of alluvial silt than of The U. CULEBRA TYPICAL EXAMPLES When built Length overall 1907 288' Beam (moulded) Depth (moulded) 47H 25 2300 2 22>' yds 3000 2 Bin capacity No. of pumps Size of cu. with solid material.DREDGES OF THE SEA-GOING HOPPER TYPE 93 proportion of unremunerative pumping because of the material carried away in suspension in the hopper effluent. to deep water in the bay. Dredge Creek flats on the Delaware Duck on DELAWARE. pumps 20" 20" . pumping directly overboard on the ebb tide so that the liquid material was carried by the current material of greater specific gravity. operating it was that in found impossible to fill the bins River.


wharves. The The construction of dikes and levees.. for land reclamation. The sole or third heading covers the use of the dredge as the appurtenant agent in the construction of dikes 95 . nor have our mental processes erred in the spontaneous answer. the deposition of heavy material upon a soft mud bottom to displace and compact the mud with the idea of increasing the bearing power and lateral stability of the original yielding material. material." i. 2.PART II DREDGING CHAPTER VIII OBJECTS AND PHASES OF THE SUBJECT Our first thought as to the "why" of Dredging is the creation of water depths in excess of the natural. ally. 4. Yet there are several other important purposes of the art and many reasons for increasing the depth of water.e. shipways. acquisition of subaqueous material for its com- mercial value. dams and subaqueous foundations and gener- and for drainage The second tation or dredged of irrigation. for the control of rivers and other water-ways. for construction purposes in connection with piers. for harbors. for the rehabili- swamp-lands and marshes. The Objects of Dredging may be included broadly under four headings: 1. " refers to the utilization of the "dredgings. 3. The acquisition of subaqueous material for use as fill. and for "making bottom. for filling litoral structures. may be desired for the navigation of ships. first The docks. The creation of water depths in excess of the natural.

for river




impounding basins and land



fourth comprises the dredging of sand, gravel and

clay for building purposes; of phosphate rock for fertilizer; of gold and other metals; and even of subaqueoife coal in



Finally, a dredging operation may have a dual function, such as making depth and building up a fill at the same


beyond the scope of this book to treat of dredging summarized above but rather will the discussion apply to excavation for depth and the useful
It is

in all its branches as

disposal of the dredged material in

making fills. A dredging project of reasonable magnitude will usually have three successive phases or stages and we will present

the subject so divided, believing that both the readers' grasp and our exposition will be facilitated thereby. They are first, the Preliminary Engineering, by which the site

explored and the work laid out; second, the Preliminary Construction of appurtenant structures that must be built

before actual dredging can be commenced, such as dikes, sluiceways and pipe lines; and third, the Operation, when,

the stage set and the plant assembled and working upon the predetermined program, the job becomes, by natural growth, a purely operating problem.

any proposed dredging operation is the examination of the physical properties of the site of the work, and often of the adjacent terrain as well, for the determination of the location and outline of the area to be dredged, the quantity and nature
and the
be removed to meet the requirements, impounding basin sites for the disposal This is accomplished by a survey, of the dredgings.
of the material to

Exploration of Site/


initial step in

selection of

partly topographic as well as hydrographic, and by borings. As a basis for the survey, a set of coordinates is established with reference to a convenient origin, usually tied
in to the

War Department Engineers' stations, and a base and triangulation system are laid off. From the main

triangulation stations, secondary stations are located at points from which soundings may be located conveniently by instrument intersection. Sounding parties, each con-

two instrument men, a leadsman, a recorder and a boatman, are then sent out. A gauge, to measure the varying elevation of the water surface, is set with its zero at the datum used, and a gauge-reader
sisting of a chief of party,

observes and records the readings thereon at stated time intervals. The same results may be obtained automatically by the use of an instrument called a hydrochronograph,
in principle, a cylinder rotated by a clock and with cross section paper, upon which a stylus, wrapped and rising falling with the water, traces the curve of varyis,


If in tidal waters, the gauge will be a tide-gauge with its zero at mean low water, and, since all soundings are referred to the datum, the gauge record must be made whenever soundings are being taken.

ing surface elevation.

Ranges are established indicating the

lines of soundings.




As the boat containing the leadsman, recorder, boatman and usually the chief of party, traverses a range, the two transitmen on shore, set up on known stations, locate it by simultaneous angle readings upon signal from the boat.
customaty to signal at a constant time interval, perhaps of one minute. The leadsman heaves the lead conIt is

stantly, calling off the depths to the recorder, while the boatman keeps the craft on range and varies his speed with

the depth of water so that the soundings may be a more uniform distance apart. That sounding which is taken just as the signal is given the transitmen to read, is termed "on the cut-off" and is so marked in the book. The " draughtsman in the office first plots these cut-offs" and

then divides the straight line connecting each pair into equal parts for the intermediate soundings. The soundings may be obtained as close as desired by regulating the speed of the boat and the distance between ranges. The engineer in charge should use some judgment as to the proper number of soundings commensurate with the given requirements. When the entire area has been covered,
the final sounding sheet dinates and contours.

prepared, showing also the coor-

and velocity of flow will very often have an important bearing upon the proper location of a channel, particularly as to the maintenance thereof, it may be neccessary to obtain some data in this regard. Taking

As the

accomplished as follows: A deep enough to represent the average flow and almost entirely submerged to reduce the wind influence to a minimum. They are released at intervals in the cross section of the water way and permitted to take their own courses. The chief of party, in a motor boat, runs from float to float, signalling by flag to two transitmen on shore, who read simultaneously upon Each instrument man also records the time of signal.
as it is called, current-drift, number of floats are made,



each reading, their watches having been set in agreement. The angular intersections are plotted and the time of each shown, so that the broken line connecting successive



positions of each float shows the path taken and the distance travelled in a stated time. The current-drift tracing and the sounding chart should be drawn to the same scale that they may be superimposed to determine the

probing is meant simply feeling out" the bottom with a pointed rod or pipe, which is thrust into and worked down through the soil by two The depth of peneor three men or by a maul or monkey. tration is an indication of the hardness of the bottom, and an experienced man can tell, within limits, the nature of the The results strata by the feel of the probe as he works it. obtained are neither so complete nor so reliable as the information yielded by borings, and, unless taken by a The only feafirst-class man, may even be misleading. tures of probing that can be cited as recommendations for its use are inexpensiveness and convenience, with the reservation that the time and money saved may easily prove a false economy. For purposes other than the determination of the nature of the material to be dredged, however, such as locating the contour of the underlying bed rock by driving a heavy probe with a power driven

The character by probings or

between depth and flow. of the bottom strata


investigated either




of light proportions, probing


accurate results, and, in such employment, criticism is not entirely applicable.

give fairly the above

Borings differ from probings principally in that, with the former, samples of the material are obtained. There are two principal kinds of borings, wash and core borings, although a combination of the two methods will often effect Various makeshifts have been tried with bringing samples of the bottom material to the surface for examination, such as thrusting an open pipe into the soil and removing the contents thereof after raising it clear of the water and again by the use of a

an economy.

more or

less success for

true boring, however, whether wash or core, implies the use of a casing, consisting of sections of heavy pipe about 3 inches in diameter. In the wash



to esti- . obviating the use of the more expensive equipment. in hard material. The engineer is now in shape to locate definitely the area to be dredged. a tube or pipe of smaller diameter. the While the term. core samples whenever feasible. the use of core drill for the being sunk by rapid rotation and raised at intervals removal of the core contained within it. This is done by substituting for the drill rod a short piece of brass pipe which is pressed into the bottom within the casing and lifted out for examination. having at its lower end a chopping bit with an X-shaped chisel point and with worked down by rotating it. The results of a wash boring are possible of misinterpretation due to the fact that the samples. tubular bit may be used. The drill rod is inside the casing or in the bitt. the casing is also worked down by rotation or by driving. carries rod by a force pump. and the samples therefrom The are preserved in bottles duly labelled.100 DREDGING ENGINEERING boring the active instrument consists of a hollow drill rod. overflow from the top of the casing is caught in a bucket and allowed to settle. water is forced down the hollow drill openings for a water jet. escaping through the jet holes upward the loose material in the annular space between the rod and casing. by raising and dropping it through short heights. a saw-tooth. or by the two motions combined. having been jetted and churned. The apparatus is handled by a derrick frame and hoist mounted on a scow or is generally applied to with diamond bitts or chilled steel or* toothed cutters such as are used in testing rock strata. At the same time. The operation is performed in the dry and procures core samples of the material in its natural condition. Estimating the Quantities. or. Simultaneously. and. "core boring. core specimens may be obtained in connection with the use of the wash-boring apparatus described above and will generally suffice for dredging data. are not indicative of the true stratum relation and due also to the tendency of the jet to wash up only the It is advisable therefore to obtain dry finer material. " drills by a pile driver.

. which will be discussed more fully in a later chapter. the volume of dredging therein is computed and noted on the drawing. A n _i)] . to choose the type of plant and method of disposal of the dredgings. dikes or other factors of waterway control. which might be termed which the volume the "Unit" scheme. The second is the "planimeter" method. A z A s . Each contour is traversed by the planimeter to find the included area. and the second and third is method to large polygonal areas. docks. the represent the areas of successive cross sections. canals. and V. if not definitely fixed by local conditions. In the calculation of the volume by the method of average end areas. The quantity method of material to be puted in several ways. . the following arrangements are useful. is obtained by average end areas or by the prismoidal formula. uniformly spaced. to approximate the cost and finally to let the contract for the work. + A* +. To simplify the arithmetic involved. First removed may be comand most common is the from of vertical cross sections at regular intervals. etc.. constant distance between sections. A third method. . the desired An D volume. narrow areas such as channels. Then 7= 2 D = [Ai + An + 2 (A 2 + A. . divides the area into a number of squares of convenient size by ruling the plan with horizontal and vertical lines. The location of the area to be dredged. bank maintenance.PRELIMINARY ENGINEERING 101 mate the yardage to be removed. let A\. . The first best adapted to long. From the average depth of cut in each square. scour. resulting in a series of areas of equidistant horizontal planes from which the volume follows as above. . may involve the considerations of sedimentation.

having first and last to twice the the grand total sections. by one-half the common distance between The same principle is applicable to the deter- mination of the areas of the sections. the weighted mean must be determined. In computing the average depth in each square of the third. whether directly or by interpolation. For volume computation by the prismoidal formula. add the sum of the others and multiply Thus. page 102. Using the same notation as above: of multipliers is The volume of the prism AI to A b z =- (Ai + 4A + 2 A. substituting or din at es for areas. or unit method. FIG. and to A m ~ V 1 The etc. a set used analogous to Simpson's multipliers for finding ship displacements. therefore. Assuming that the soundings are sufficiently close to fix 9 depths in each square. 37. are for AI. 4 for A 2. multipliers. 2 for A s. one in each . 37. The unit method. as shown in Fig.102 DREDGING ENGINEERING listed the areas of all the sections.

It is manifestly impossible for a dredge to excavate precisely to the plane desired. it may be said that. of which. the average depth of water for the area of the square will be A+C+G+J+2 (j^+ F + H + D) + 16 4ff The volume in dredging. the unit of measure of the degree of side slope that the sides will assume is important and will have a cut dredged considerable effect upon the estimated quantity of material of a The question to be removed. from the very nature of their mode of removal. It is essential that the engineer approxi- mate the ultimate a inclination. Correct slope estimates are necessary to the fulfillment of schedules. one in the center of each ide and one in the middle. and in docks. minimum it is Yet basis of amount impossible to classify bottom materials upon the of slope. is often so semi-fluid in character as to assume a slope approaching 1 on oc . however.PRELIMINARY ENGINEERING 103 corner. from 1 on 2 to 1 on 4. depth and stratum relation of the materand current influence. where the piling offers some support to the material. the first being applicable to all dredging and the second to scowed material only. but more particularly with the use of grapples. is never the same. River silt. The actual quantity original is of material in place between the bottom surface and the specified depth to be dredmodified ged by two important factors. it must be expected that the bottom will be . overdepth dredging and the ratio between scow and place measurement. even though he specify as the limit of pay quantities. since the combination of the conof cut trolling factors. his It is advisable to supplement judgment based upon the results of the borings by the knowledge of experience and by available local data. is reduced to cubic yards. If the problem permits a gen-' erality. the side slope of dredged river channels will vary from 1 on 3 to 1 on 5 (excepting in rock excavations). nature ials. The dredged bottom will be more or less irregular no matter what the type of machine used. ordinarily.

the usual overdepth allowance is two (2) feet. S. Engineer Office. only such material as is excavated from below the overdepth plane being deducted from the total yardage penalty is credited to the machine. to secure stable banks for the dredged cut. it is good practice to assume that all the allowed overdepth dredging will be removed. in other words.. since upon the schedules. and for ladder and hydraulic machines. other words. no exacted of the dredge for reasonable overdepth dredging. will be estimated and paid for. it is customary to specify a certain overdepth allowance." For grapple and dipper dredges. It is Conservatism advises full rather than scant estithem are based the appropriations and fact that dredged material occupies more space in the scows than "in place" in the original bottom. cover mechanical inaccuracies of dredging processes. D. with the understanding or. a short distance below the specified depth. the adoption of a second plane. The allowance for overdepth on the specified slopes will be the same as in the channel and will be measured vertically. whether dredged in situ or after having fallen into the cut.104 DREDGING ENGINEERING uneven and pitted to a degree depending upon the kind of material and the skill of the operator. In estimating the yardage to be removed. Washington. material which is actually removed actually "To on order of the contracting officer in quantities sufficient to make side slopes not flatter than one (1) on three (3). in specifications for dredging the Potomac and Eappahannock Rivers. or. mates. in that the yardage unavoidably removed from between the two shall be included in the pay quantities. the necessity arises for converting place into scow measure- . In the language of the U. Thus. For this reason. Frequently. but it is often a moot question as to the amount a well known of expansion for any given material. 1917. material removed to a depth of not more than 1 foot below the required depth will be estimated and paid for at full contract price. C. Material taken from beyond the limits above described will be deducted from the estimates as excessive overdepth dredging and will not be paid for. one (1) foot. to include in the figure representing the total quantity to be dredged all the material lying above the allowed overdepth plane.

other materials and combinations of materials will range according to their "body" or "cohesive stamina. whether the basis of compensation be scow or place measurement. 5 and 25 per cent. occasions are prone to arise for the conversion of one to the other. Material that is bucket dredged into scows is nearly always paid for by the cubic yard scow measure. the proper figure for a fairly heavy equal part mixture of sand and mud appears to be about 16% per cent. rotten and bed rock. depending upon the nature of the material. the quantity of material measured in place must be increased by from 15 to 25 per cent. but. the relation between them is often fixed by the specifications. . the percentage of increase over place quantities will vary from 5 to 25 per cent. and tend to run together in the pocket. Again quoting the U. are increased in volume in the scows only about 5 per cent. other than those involving the removal of loose. Between these two limits. Since the expansion is due to the presence of voids in the contents of the scow in consequence of the breaking or cutting up of the monolithic mass of the original bottom. that material of which the separate bucket loads most nearly retain their shapes as dug will show the greatest volumetric increase. determined from the inside dimensions of the pockets. Such of his place quantities as are to be scowed. such as river silt and find sand.PRELIAtlNARY ENGINEERING 105 ment and vice versa. for that reason. or one-sixth. C. Engineer Office. those dredgings which are almost semi-fluid in character. S. Omitting rock." For instance. In the majority of dredging operations. with a resultant solidity more nearly approaching that of their original "in situ" condition. Going to the other extreme. the engineer increases by a certain percentage to arrive at the total quantity which will result from the number of scows loaded and the capacity of each scow. even in the pay quantities and. to obtain the number of cubic yards scow measurement of the same material. D. Such materials are blue clay and stiff mud and their percentage of increase should be taken as about 25 per cent. Washington.

. but where the material is so soft It is often advisable. is bottom material of a " permit a reasonable nesting" of the vessel to it without injury. however." as " freshet deposit . In ship channels traversed by large steamships under depth of the speed. another factor must be considered. particularly where the hard resistant nature and prone to irregularity. adjacent to piers and wharves. viz. that an additional foot or two be provided as a factor of safety. this may not be necessary. In many instances.106 DREDGING ENGINEERING in the from specifications for dredging hannock Rivers." Here the material was defined composed of sand and mud. there are several pertinent factors to be considered in the determination of that depth. Deck loads of stone or rock are measured either by cross sectioning the pile or by displacement calculations from readings of the light and load draughts of the lighter upon glass tubes set in the four corners of the hold. If the object of the dredging is the creation of a depth sufficient for the flotation of large steamships. . This so" called squatting" of moving vessels has been thoroughly investigated by instrumental observation from the shore. 1917. obviously it is necessary merely that there be sufficient water to float the loaded vessel at times of extreme low water. the increased draft of the vessel due to her motion. The question is how much deeper than the load draft of the vessel at rest must the dredging be carried. The increasing tendency to ships of small bilge radius and dead rise. full the results of which prove conclusively that the amount of "squatting" is of such magnitude as to require consideration. In berths. Potomac and Rappa- "When place necessary for any cause to convert scow measurement into measurement or the reverse. 100 cubic yards of the former will be taken as the equivalent of 80 cubic yards of the latter. the slight grounding of . culminating in the fabricated ships of almost and free of obstruction as to rectangular midships section requires that the dredged slip be practically as great immediately adjacent to the pier or wharf structure as elsewhere.

that. Whether the or is left decision is the responsibility of the engineer to the bidding contractors. under the conditions most favorable to a great a- mount of " squat. that its amount is some A upon a large in at shoal. proximity and same type. calm water. The (a) factors involved are as follows Nature of the soil of a free 0) Proximity (c) dump accessibility of impounding basins. in the majority of cases. The " squatting" aft may be attributed to the hollow under the ship's stern. The study of the problem has lead to the following con" clusions: that the squatting" is apparently greater in shoal water than in deep. of as much as four feet has been observed that. (d) Kind of plant available and the relative efficiency of units of the Cost. or in other words that the amount " of squat" is an inverse function of the depth of water it is greater at high speeds. steamship traveling high speed and it has been shown. and must be discussed in : conjunction therewith. and that it " squat" probably varies with the lines of the hull. and the enhanced value of impounding basin property. . below the keel. it is greater aft than forward. it should be given due consideration by men of ripe experience.PRELIMINARY ENGINEERING moving vessels in the channels of 107 their draft at the pier New York Harbor where than the presumed channel depth has been shown to be due to this squatting action was less instead of to the presence of shoals as at first thought. of course. " large ships may require at least four feet more depth in the channel than indicated by their drafts at the pier. with little fear of contradiction. more particularly at high speed in shoal water. It is. but it is not easy to perceive why the ship should "squat" at the bow. The question of the kind of plant best adapted to a particular piece of work is of the utmost importance and one in which a mistake may entail heavy loss in time and money. or that direct function of the speed. intimately related to the problem of the disposal of the dredgings. Choice of Plant and Method of Disposal of Dredgings.

an Englishman. in fact. its tendency is to pit the surface of the ground with a series of hollows and depressions.108 (e) DREDGING ENGINEERING Space limitations and interference with construction and traffic. while in this country the grab and dipper popularity abroad. it has demonstrated its ability to such an extent that it is looked upon as an essential accompaniment of most dock and harbor undertakings. differ in their preference ladder enjoys considerable dredge dredge types. its best performances are in regard to mud and soft earth. but it is scarcely suitable for general adoption in works on a large scale. It cannot be counted upon to work with the same regularity and evenness as the ladder dredger. But." . Brysson Cunningham. are much more extensively note the foreign and local expressions of opinion on the can and European engineers of The subject. Prelini (American) in his "Dredges and Dredging. " in his while admitting that the ladder Engineering. Let us discuss them in the order named. " expresses American feeling in a nut-shell in the statement." and of the grapple. "The Dipper Dredge is almost exclusively an American type. " " of power because of the inis economical not dredger ordinately high lift necessary to feed the chutes. (/) (g) Depth limitations. nevertheless strongly commends it." Even this may be regarded as quite a concession. when we remember that the usual English grab is simply one or two revolving cranes mounted upon a scow. It is not an economical instrument for the removal of stiff clay. Time limitations. writing that it is the only "Dock machine that can stiff excavating simple statement that satisfactorily dig rock and is excellent in He disposes of the dipper by the clay. in spite of these drawbacks. writes "The grab is an excellent tool and invaluable as follows: in confined situations. "Dippers are an American product. and the marvel is that they do not attain wider recognition abroad in lieu of the expensive ladder dredges. It is interesting to used. (a) The first leads to a comparison of the various types Ameriof dredge as to their relative merit in different soils.

therefore. they ." and yet again: "The ladder dredge. more simple in construction than elevator (ladder) are consequently easier and cheaper to keep in and dredges that and many dippers have "sufficient power to dig again. referring to dippers. however. to Europe for her failure to recognize . Recently. and. Hydraulic machines are used extensively both here and abroad... possible type.. being so much more expensive to operate and keep in repair than clam-shell or dipper machines. the development of the ladder dredge has been fairly rapid." says. the small French elevator machines. Furthermore. Undoubtedly. is seldom used in the United "Such dredges are . when dredging operations assumed larger proportions. and the earlier the recognition of this fact. there are specific purposes and peculiar conditions for which each type is best adapted. later. some engineers have criticised the American for his disregard of the advantages and efficiency of the ladder type. and to America. the manufacturers built the more powerful machines along the lines of the earlier plant. On and have excused this shortcoming by the explanation that.PRELIMINARY ENGINEERING 109 " Fowler (American) in his Practical Treatise on Subaqueous Foundations. Although first employed in France in 1867. States. for our obstinacy in refusing to consider the advantages of the elevator dredge. excited favorable comment by their good work there." the other hand. It would appear. dredging operations were secondary to larger and more important improvements. that the criticism of dredging bigotry justly be applied to both Europe and America. to a less degree of the grapple. consequently. rebuilt and operated by the United States Government on the Panama Canal. both in the gold mining industry of the western States and in the excavation of commercial sand and gravel in the east." hardpan. the better for the dredging world.the merits of the dipper may and. boulders and very soft shale rock. in the development of this new country. the small appropriations and the dearth of available funds resulted in the construction of small dredges of the cheapest and that. repair.

decreased by the lifting tendency of the closing wire is often insufficient to obtain the penetration necessary to obtain a full load. reasonably free of obstructions. The grapple dredge is at its best in mud and stiff mud. In other words. as sand. mud. For heavy material. The can handle a greater percentage of solids when working in clay. clay and fine gravel. Swinging a soft-digging bucket of large capacity and fitted with side-boards. it is efficient practically impossible to equal in any other type the enormous capacity of some hydraulic dredges in service. gravel and clay. it can maintain an output in such material and the consequent decrease and ladders of equal expense. such as coarse sand. varies with the nature of the pumpings. moreover. and Mud pump in the percentage of solid matter handled. the closing bucket scrapes over the resistant in excess of dippers bottom making a shallow bite and.only partially filling . of the heavier toward tendency pumpings rapid deposit. sand are regarded as the best hydraulic materials. as a at the maximum capacity. In harder material. however. The cost of the dredge per capacity is less than that of other machines and. gravel and clay.110 DREDGING ENGINEERING have reached a high state of development in this country. the hard-digging bucket of smaller size must be substituted." It is a particularly instrument in that it not only dredges the material but also delivers it to the place and at the elevation desired with one operation. but difficulty is experienced in agitating and cutting it in sufficient quantity to maintain the feed The length of pipe line. such as silt. the maximum economic length of line is less than for light materials easily carried The greater in suspension. factor in controlling dredging economy. it is most efficient in handling homogeneous material that is not excessively hard. sand. causes outputs on long lines smaller than for the light material. While it can be used in all classes of material short of solid rock. the weight of the bucket. such as mud and fine sand. and moreover. coupled with increased pipe friction. and Fowler even goes so far as to claim that "The suction dredge is essentially an American tool.

due to the agitation of the sand and the consequent loading of the buckets with a mixture of sand and water with sand in suspension. The ladder dredge working in free sand experiences some difficulty in maintaining full buckets. piling or subaqueous structures. boulders. The grapple may be equipped to dredge stone and boulders by the use of a special opentined stone grapple in place of the usual clam-shell bucket. because such soil offers insufficient resistance to the penetration of the spuds. A consideration appurtenant to the use of bucket dredges working in clay is the difficulty often experienced in dumpThe clay becomes compacted in the pockets ing the scows. therefore the buckets are run at a low velocity. the dipper is the most efficient machine in use. Jetting may be resorted to in such instances. upon which the machine depends in the pinned-up condition. snags. but the dipper is preferable. but in soft. The dipper is particularly well adapted to hard digging and to the removal of material containing a large amount of It can readily handle stone and boulders obstructions.PRELIMINARY ENGINEERING itself . or the same effect is obtained by spacing them further apart by the interpositon of a link . into a sticky mass arched across the door openings and will at times remain in the scows for hours with the doors open. Especially is the pin-up dipper ill suited to soft digging. 111 In soils of this kind. homogeneous material. In clay or in hard sandy soils. or in the interior of cofferdams and caissons. when the material. In sand and mud. whether the bulk be soft or compact. the dipper and (See Chapter II) the ladder will give better results than the grapple. In fact. and even soft rock. The orange peel bucket is seldom used on large operations but is often employed on small grapples in casting over work and in construction work where there is more or less loose rock or obstruction to pick up. but the American tendency is rather to depend upon the great weight of the bucket. the grapple is better. is full of obstruction such as stone. the efficiency of the grab bucket may be somewhat increased by the addition of teeth or tines to its cutting edges.

The first named dredge under each heading is the type best adapted to that kind of soil. and that the soils are homo112. Mud. Sand and gravel. is The Table page an effort to geneous and free of obstruction. and so on. 4. 2. Hydraulic Grapple Dipper Ladder . the second the next most desirable. Fine sand.112 DREDGING ENGINEERING between each pair of buckets. 1. soils are listed in the order of their difficulty of removal from the dredging standpoint. Coarse sand. assuming that all other conditions are ideal for the operation of each dredge in the material named. It must be borne in mind that this selection is made purely upon the basis of the nature of the material. the various Beginning at the left with "Mud. group the four dredge types in the order of their preference for each of the classes of material usually encountered in dredging opera" tions. In refractory material. the bucket chain is speeded up to get the benefit of impact or else the buckets are spaced more closely. Mud and sand. 5. 3.

The total cost' of the dredging then is the sum of the cost of the actual operation of digging by bucket machines and loading make the scows. or the towing distance be too great. 2. and the cost and other features of this indis- pensable adjunct will very often decide for or against the use of suction machines. a study of the topography of the adjacent terrain and of the hydrography of the abutting shore line is made for the purpose of determining its availability for impounding uses and estimating the expenditures necessary for the acquisition of the property or of the filling rights and for the construction of the basin. have an important bearing and must be discounted. (c) The stationary hydraulic dredge requires a nearby impounding basin or a place to receive and contain the pumpings. The cost of such deposit is reduced to the per cubic yard basis and is a function of the number of yards handled and the cost of the scows. dump be the alternative available. therefore. dredging operations may even be entirely suspended for a time because of the inability of the tugs to the tow. of course. Should no free including. The principal item of expense is that of the enclosing or retaining structure. is the hydraulic rehandling of the scowed material into an impounding basin. crews.capacity be small. the bank or dike. plus the cost of transportation to the dump. Maximum Increase in Property Value Accruing from . located on or near the seaboard. that the material to be dredged is such as to permit of hydraulic removal. and it is obviously an eco. tug boats. nomic advantage that the initial and maintenance banking cost per cubic yard of basin . involving the number of round trips made in one day and the number and size of scows Tidal and seasonal weather conditions may in each tow. In some harbors. In bad weather. The ideal basin will have the following features: 1 A Large Capacity for a Small Construction Cost. the use of the plant. material is towed to sea and dumped.PRELIMINARY ENGINEERING also be 113 maintained by and at the expense of the contractor. Provided. inspection and buoy maintenance for any day.

Should such location of the sluice-box preclude the natural flow of the effluent from sluice to source. comprising acquisition of property and the initial and maintenance cost of banks. In making an economic choice between bucket and hydraulic plant for a dredging operation in so far as the impounding basin is concerned. obviating the necessity of purchase. to the source from which it was pumped. DREDGING ENGINEERING Whether the it filling effects the rehabilitation of swamps and marshes waterfront areas. A Low Final Grade. sluice. an artificial canal or flume becomes necessary. In some cases the positions of creditor and debtor may even be reversed. it is desirable that the waste6. in accompanying the great majority of cases. Should the basin project beyond the shore line. Easy Accessibility. this meant a minimum line to cost of pipe line communication from the pontoon the basin. questions may arise as to riparian rights. a dearth of expensive pipe trestles and of obstruction to laying the line. the slip rights of adjoining owners. the Effluent. 3. the problem may be stated briefly thus: Does the accrued value of the basin property plus the saving effected by direct hydraulic removal in lieu of bucket dredging and scowing away justify the expense of the construction of the empty basin. in High elevations of discharge pipe mean increased head on the pump and reduced output. The great quantity the soilds must be returned. At the same time. or the reclamation of submerged naturally enhances the value of the For this reason. Natural Disposal of of water weir or sluice be remote from the pipe discharge in order to give opportunity for the precipitation or impounding of the solid matter carried in suspension in the water. 5. is 4. drainage canal and pipe lines? . property. the basin privilege may often be obtained from land owners without charge. the location of bulkhead lines established by local or government authorities and the granting of license to build by those same departments. A short pipe line from dredge -By to basin.114 the Fill. other words. or.

or a poor steamer. or a coal glutton. or this dredge is underpowered. The project may clearly be a bucket job and yet. feature of the fourth factor. This or grapple dipper is slow and that one fast. or this pump has a better cutter head and this one has too light a ladder to hold the cutter down in hard stuff. Naturally those units are desired which will give economically the and interference with traffic The size and form of the area to be dredged and the presence of traffic may be an important consideration in the selection of type and even in the choice between dredges of the same type. this machine has a better captain. Those having swinging ladders can work in more confined areas. the rehandling and basin expense are quite of the bucket dredging. Naturally the selection of plant must be made from that which can be brought to The common appurtenant to the cost (d) The first the job without prohibitive transportation expense. etc. Bucket dredges must have enough room for towing scows to and from the machines and for handling the scows at the dredge. viz. etc. the kind of plant available.PRELIMINARY ENGINEERING 115 use of impounding basins for the disposal of bucket-dredged material presents a different problem. because of the impossibility of obtaining enough bucket plant to complete it on time. or this suction dredge is no good on the long pipe lines. in which case. possible pipe trestles. the necessity may arise for the assistance of available hydraulic machines. is self-evident. It will be remem- . due to the narrower width of cut and the absence of swinging wires. Hydraulic dredges with radial feed about : greatest output. Here the contents of the scows are dumped to a pump located at the basin and rehandled hydraulically into it. the great width of cut and the presence of swinging wires on both sides. (e) As to space limitations the stern spud require considerable space for efficient operation because of their pontoon lines.. or better quarters for the men features and therefore is better able to hold her crew. Dredges of the same type often have distinguishing and characteristics peculiar to themselves.

dippers swinging called banking are generally employed for such work and of a The head accessible to a % machines. thus maintaining the dredge upon an even keel in resisting the listing moment of the long boom. long-boom machines. at the commencement of the loading of a scow.e. obviously. Limited space or traffic congestion may give rise to the necessity for the use of bucket dredges having sufficient spud equipment to obviate the necessity for wires and In throwing up banks or in dredging drainage anchors. where the conditions are such that the narrowSmall grapples and est possible cut is all that is required. the before-dredging depth of water must be sufficient to float the loaded scows in order to permit the dredge to work. which is removed later in scows. but must simply be "cast over" to one side. Some such are equipped with bank spuds in Bank spuds are inclined away from lieu of the usual type. on long booms are to buckets 1J^ yd. therefore. narrow slip. or may necessitate the use of a grapple and scows of smaller capacity. for loading " scows at all stages of the tide. less expensive. too shoal. This flotation depth is usually about 10 to 12 feet. but a more efficient method is the use of smaller. therefore. that. may be practically inclam shell dredge and its accompanying scow. cannot be scowed away. and irrigation ditches. forming a spoil bank. A dredge may do its own pilot cutting. it is desirable to have dredges of small beam. (/) Both the existing depth and the depth to be dredged Since the scows are considerations in the plant selection. a channel called a pilot cut" must be dredged for them. being loaded by grapples and dippers extend forward beyond the bow of the dredge and in advance of the dredged cut. almost its entire length extends forward beyond the bow of the dredge and also that dredges are usually rigged for righthanded digging. the dredge and bear upon a small grillage resting on the top of the bank.116 DREDGING ENGINEERING bered. i. Hydraulic dredges require flotation for a sufficient length of their pontoon lines to allow the necessary swinging . The material from such If the is natural water preliminary work. with the scow on the starboard side.

the greater the of the increased lift. The dipper is limited first. The maximum depth of which the hydraulic is capable is a function of the length of ladder and the design of the ladder For all around work. second. " their own hulls is termed Condigging themselves in." siderations of this nature. should be designed to dredge to 38-42 feet below the water surface. The rate of the dredging may be the governor of an entire project. which decreases as the depth increases. by her power choice of plant. The final depth specified and the vertical distance between the original and final depths. may establish a preference for light draught machines. Three or four feet will float the ordinary pontoon for a 20 inch machine. (g) Finally. A dipper will seldom be economical in depths greater than 35 to 40 feet. Dredges must float The process of making flotation depth for to operate. more particularly in ditching and banking operations. which is called the " " depth of cut" or height of bank. and. The depth capabilities of the elevator will be controlled by the length of ladder and the engine power. by the length of dipper stick.PRELIMINARY ENGINEERING 117 freedom and advance motion. time may be a most pertinent element of the problem." or "height of bank" than are grapples and dippers. The draught of the dredge itself may be a factor." may influence the grapple machine is not limited to any the length of the bucket wires and the depth except by wire capacity of the drums. An emergency job of some magnitude may require that the considerations of economy and efficiency be temporarily waived to a certain extent in order that the complete removal of a given yardage be accomplished in a certain time. locality A although the requirements will vary with the and purpose for which the machine is built. . a 20 inch or larger machine hinge. The deeper the water. work done in the same time because Hydraulic and ladder machines are better adapted to small "depths of cut. to develop the necessary forward thrust of the dipper.

The problem then is to assemble a plant that will do the work in a hurry. by which the contractor is tractor is paid the actual cost of the work.118 DREDGING ENGINEERING Construction progress on piers. 4. by which the contractor is paid a certain price. measured either in the scows or in place in the cut. The cost plus percentage basis. may mean the employment of pilot machines which would be unnecessary if there were sufficient time to permit the dredging to pursue its economic course. because of the ability to work several bucket It machines where but one pump could operate. There are several principal bases is upon any one of which a dredging contract written. fixed by the contract. Direct pumping may be necessary in order to get large output. The completeness and text of the specifications and contract will naturally depend upon the basis adopted. even though scowing away be more economical. shipways. by which the conpaid the actual cost of the work plus a fixed percentage of that cost. It may mean use lic of bucket dredges in lieu of less expensive hydraumachines. The choice usually lies between 1 The unit price basis. The lease or rental basis. It is hardly necessary to enumerate the multifarious ways in which the completion of dredging by a given date can and does acquire great importance. Plans. fixed by the agreement. plus a definite sum of money or fee. in full compensation for the performance of the work specified. . by which the contractor is paid a fixed rental for his plant for the period of its use. even though the cost of the basin be otherwise prohibitive. The cost plus fee basis. the preference depending in great measure upon the definiteness and degree of certainty of the information as to the extent. 2. It may involve the expense of the construction of an impounding basin to receive rehandled material from bucket dredges. 3. for each cubic yard of material dredged. nature and working conditions of the proposed project. dry docks or ship launchings may hinge upon the dredging. wharves. Specifications and Contracts.

by which a sum of money is mutually agreed upon as full compensation for the entire 6. recorded from recent . The first method is the most common and is in general favor with the owners of parties footing the bills. and the owner had done better to accept a basis of payment such as numbers 3 or 5 above. and is usually paid out to the contractor in monthly installments in amounts varying with the esti- mated quantity of material removed during each month. that the information furnished bidding contractors be as complete as it lies within the power of the engineer to provide. because of the discrepancies between estimated and actual yardages. which are thus paid for whether or not they materialize.PRELIMINARY ENGINEERING 5. by which the contractor is paid the actual cost of the work plus a fixed periodical rental in compensation for the use of his plant and services. prescribed both basis is ethics. indigenous to all dredging contracts. An outline of the specific information that should appear in plans and specifications accompanying invitations to bid a unit price follows 1. it manifestly unfair to the contractor to pin him definite is not only to a down yardage price. owner more money than would be required under some other form of contract. The The lump sum basis. Where an abnormal element . Rather is it a branch of contracting. 119 cost plus rental basis. of uncertainty exists. The sixth seldom employed in dredging. to which. They have the satisfaction of knowing in advance within narrow limits the ultimate cost of the work to them. it is but very probable that the work will cost the the contractor will usually bid high to cover possible contingencies. Dredging is no exception to the rule. the existing depths of water over in adjacent reaches. however. because of its inherent uncertainty. as to the extent of the work. by economy and this is particularly applicable. project complete. A map of the waterway showing the area to be dredged : and the places this area and of deposit. It is not necessary to review here the general clauses. the nature of the material or the condition of the labor and supplies markets. Under such conditions.

A clear statement of the basis of acceptance of dredged A definite line of sections. 11. samples of which should be for examination . 3. Limits for starting and completion. some of the above data is superfluous. as to tidal range. A clear exposition of the work to be done: the length. such as inspection. tracts involving a determination of the cost of the work. available . the side slopes and the overdepth allowance. and precisely what lost time is . and the order of work. A definition of the pay quantities. Obviously. the method of disposal and the approximate quantity of material to be removed. if necessary. whether original bottom or sedimentation and a definite limit to the difficulty of the material to be removed without additional compensation. place or scow measurement. the ratio for the conversion of scow to place measurement and vice versa. 2. freshets. if desired. the topography of the places of deposit if in the dry. buoys and work 9. Appurtenant items of expense to the contractor. dump and basin maintenance. etc. and the 5. wages of crews. fuel and supplies. 8. ice. 7. money to be deducted for each yard limits. The limits of amount 6. A description of the principal characteristics of the waterway. the method of measurement and. an understanding is necessary as to the plant leased. etc. the make-up of that cost must be clearly defined. removed as deter- from outside these The character of the material to be dredged mined by borings.120 DREDGING ENGINEERING soundings. of the cross section of the proposed channel. towage charges. sluiceways and pipe lines. demarkation between the duties of field the contractor and the engineer as to ranges. with the other forms of contract. generally. 4. but on the other hand. and finally the locations of borings. cer- In those connecessary. and in tain additional information is those having the rental feature. Responsibility for dikes. width and depth of the proposed channel. 10.

The latter may be protected by a specified guarantee of output For a portion of the original dredging for each dredge. and to coordinate to the fullest extent the project as a whole by intelligent anticipation of the growth of space and depth limitations affecting the relative location of the dredges. the length of time from date to date that each item of plant remains thereon. waived. owing to the material being more difficult than the mud and sand specified. and the total yardage to be removed from each zone. In order to predetermine the size of the plant and the most advantageous disposition of the units thereof. etc. that the project may is time. the yardage assumed to be the daily average output of which each dredge is capable. .PRELIMINARY ENGINEERING 121 chargeable to the contractor and what to the lessee. The fundamental weakness of a dredging schedule is that the output is upon the correctness of each machine. and upon the ability of each dredge to endure through the life of the job without serious accident. was subsequently in rental. It is an effort so to locate each dredge as to provide is best adapted. The schedule is a program of operation. showing the number and names of the machines employed upon each division or zone of the work. The success of the schedule will depend in large measure conditions to which that machine of the assumed daily average output which must be low enough to take care of a reasonable amount of lay time due to repairs. a dredging schedule drawn up. however. dependent upon a small number of units of large capacity. work at the Hog Island Shipyard. yet it is very necessary to the successul prognostication of the results and very useful in the coordination of the units engaged. Scheduling.. be completed within a given Even though the uncertainities of dredging render it impossible that the schedule embody the same degree of precision and expectancy ascribed to those of other classes of work. hydraulic dredges were leased with the understanding that reductions in output below 6000 yards per 24 hour day through a pipe line not longer than 3500 feet would entail proportionate reductions This guarantee.

38. the best method of attack is first to define specifically the ideal schedule and then so to modify it as to incorporate to the best ad- minimum deviation from the ideal all the practical considerations and circumstances of operation that must be taken care of. The entire area to be DREDGING SCHEDULE . problems of this character. A form similar to that of vantage and with Fig. page 122.122 so that a loss of DREDGING ENGINEERING any one of them entails a large percentage of reduction in the As always in working plant. is very helpful.

grub. trestles and pipe laying. estimates r schedules and contracts. office force engaged in making the preliminary sur- veys. If the contract be one of lease. as dump and basin maintenance. 4. The fourth item is the cost of the actual removal of the material and obviously is the largest part of the cost of the job. Cost of maintenance of the dredged depths. shore pipe cost of field office. first The and field parties consists of the salaries of engineers. filling rights for impounding 3. sluice-ways. superintendance and inspection. involving excavation. overhead. Cost of operation of the dredging plant. The complete cost of a dredging project from the time of its inception comprises five principal items. cribbing. His point of view is influenced work is to be paid add to that unit for by the nature of the contract. legal advisory talent. equipment and sup- plies used in making borings and probings. hydrography and overhead. The third includes the cost of construction of dikes. comprising salaries of executives. If the upon a per cubic yard basis. The second is self-explanatory. office rent. : 2. licenses and acquisition of property or basins. labor. repairs. drainage ditches. Only when the engineer is directly operating the dredging plant will he be concerned in detail with all the numerous components making up this item. Cost of preliminary engineering. 5. cost of materials. exploring the site and preparing plans. fuel and such items as are not included in the bare boat rental. insurance and incidentals. after . the crew. Cost of permits. after reducing them also to a yardage basis. the cost of their equip- ment and supplies.PRELIMINARY ENGINEERING 123 Estimating the Cost. Cost of preliminary structures. supplies and transportation. he figures for each plant unit the cost per diem of the bare boat. superintendence and general overhead. lines. depreciation and sinking fund. specifications. he will the cost of operating items not covered thereby. price. the cost of labor. as follows 1. the cost of construction plant.

To this. but may be a factor in the selecfifth The item. of the cost of operation are The components.. maintenance of dredged depths is a subsequent expenditure. as follows: (a) Plant (b) Labor. of course. from an assumed daily output. It involves not only the cost of of redredging. General Overhead. . * Transportation Repairs Depreciation Sinking Fund Insurance Dredge crews Tug crews Miscellaneous plant crews Pipe line men Insurance Fuel. he prognosticates the length of duration of the lease. structures. must again be added the items of dump and basin maintenance. Dike and (e) sluice repairs Superintendence and Inspection. in detail. Buoys Lights Dike patrol . but also the maintenance controlling . both Contractors and Engineers. Equipment and Supplies. etc.124 DREDGING ENGINEERING which. oil and waste Food and miscellaneous supplies Furnishings Tools (c) Supplies (d) Dump and Basin Maintenance . (/) (g) Hydrographer's Force. tion of channel location. as above.

is the prevention of the silting-up and dislocation of dredged channels and areas by the agencies of sedimentation and scour. reaches the river.. the vegetation. The "rainfall. and a third part remains upon the surface. pursuing subterranean courses. of Dredging and the maintenance This. The considerations upon thenceforth are the ability of the river to transport the sediment and to scour its banks and bed. the climatic conditions and the degree of concentration of the precipitation throughout the year.e. the slope. and the study of 125 . scope to be dredged depths is intimately related to the subject of its is the characteristics and regulation of rivers." which. The "run-off" for a to particular water-shed is the rainfall." i. and in order to indicate its bearing merely be summarized with maximum brevity upon our title subject. Since the surest cure is the The problem removal of the cause. constituting the surface drainage and creating the mountain torrent and. part penetrates the earth surface become "ground water. less the evaporation. suffers one of ^three fates: Part of it is evaporated. The quantity of sediment and its rate of progress to the river depends upon the run-off and the factors which the run-off is dependent. however. and thus comprises both surface drainage and ground water. let us go back to the source and review hurriedly the marshalling of the forces of nature for the destruction of the works of man. principal among which are the character of the soil. both rain and melted snow.CHAPTER X PRELIMINARY CONSTRUCTION Dikes for River Control. eventually reaches the river. finally. through brook and creek. The percent of run-off will be influenced by many factors. much too broad and far-reaching in will included within the narrow confines of this small book.

the axial current in resisting the change in direction. Secondary currents in the cross section of a stream. due to obstruction /- FIG. and. Sediment may be transported either in suspension or by being rolled along the bottom. however. and. creates a radial. The heavier the A The deposition of sediment is caused by the checking of the velocity of the soil-bearing current or change in grade or cross section. The two kinds principal water currents existing in a river are of first. Near the banks and the bottom it is slower because of frictional resistance. 39. that in the direction of the river slope due . further. velocity required. to gravity. the greater is the velocity that is just sufficient to carry a particular class of material is unable to pick up that same material from a position of rest on the bottom. and the maximum velocity will obtain somewhat above the mid point of the greatest depth. The velocity of the slope of the river and its cross section. Thus it is the outer bank of a river on a bend that is subjected to scour and it is near the outer bank that the . The velocity of the flow along the outer bank'of a bend is naturally greater than on the inner. By actual observation it has been found that these cross-currents move toward the outer bank near the river surface and toward the inner bank near the bottom or wetted perimeter of the cross section. The sediment-bearing power a func- tion of the velocity of flow. throughout the cross section.126 DREDGING ENGINEERING laws or characteristics the governing such scour and of flowing water is is deposit. dynamic pressure acting toward the outer bank and setting up currents in that direction. second. material. the transverse currents caused by change of direction of the river's course. somewhat as shown in the figure 39. is a function velocity The not uniform.

Often. moves sand.25 feet per second Velocity of 0. the natural agencies of scour and sedimentation can be so regulated by artificial means as to reduce the cost of the maintenance of the dredged cuts by such an amount as to warrant the cost of those means.PRELIMINARY CONSTRUCTION 127 deepest water will be found. The fact that rivers of the least slope have the most bends is due in part to the greater relative influence of these crosscurrents born of the radial pressure. and the the sixth as power vary diameters of the bodies as the square of the velocity.0 Velocity of 2.0 feet per second feet per second feet per second feet per second feet per second feet per second Velocity of 4.5 Velocity of 1. moves large stones. moves spalls and stones. sand bags. Minimum first cost and maintenance expense involve a coordination of the factors. moved by the pressure of the velocity. involving the construction of training and spur dikes and bank protecting structures. Such regulation takes the form of velocity control both in amount and . it may be necessary to prevent further undulation of course by protecting the outside bank of a bend against further recession. concrete bags. mattresses. in his Treaton Hydraulics.0 Velocity of 6. To stabilize the course of the river and therefore the channel location. or by a sheet pile .0 moves fine clay. gives the following table of approximate : values Velocity of 0. brush fascines.0 Velocity of 3. ise Mansfield Merriman. moves loam and earth. an increase in velocity causes far greater increase in The weights of bodies that can be of a current transporting capacity. Rivers are opened to navigation either by the dredging of a deep water channel in their beds or by canalization. moves pebbles 1" in size. and the river. riprap or an apron of timber or concrete. direction by artificial changes in cross section and water course. of This may be accomplished by some sort pavement upon the exposed slope such as vegetation. by simultaneously building up by deposit the inner bank of the bends. Hence. minimum initial excavation and redredging. tends ever to an increasingly winding course. moves gravel.

dikes are of several principal types as follows : Earth Embankment. . the submerged portion usu- ally a rip-rap heap. and i. may be either solid or permeable. deposited upon a brush mattress. Man-made 1. is employed. which is nearly parallel to the water course. Embankment. it may be desired so to reduce the effective width of the river as to cause an increase of velocity sufficient to create scour where sedimentation had previously occurred and caused expensive redredging. Spur dikes act in this manner to a certain extent. Composite Dike of rip-rap substructure surmounted by a gravity wall of masonry or concrete or by a timber 3. as any desired percentage of permeability may be obtained by varying the width of aperture between successive sheet piles. but more often a training dike. Single row of sheet piling. This type is well adapted to the permeable spur duke. Again. The training" dike is generally of much greater length than the spur dike. Or the bank may be retained by a series of dikes or jetties proSuch dikes jecting out from the shore into the waterway.e. All-Stone 2.. crib. with or without protective paving.128 DREDGING ENGINEERING revetment. are called spur dikes. and the superstructure either rip-rap of larger dimensions or coursed rubble. impinges upon the spur dikes and expends its energy in the creation of secondary currents and eddies until its velocity is so reduced in the area between dikes as to cause it to unload its suspended material. round piles and braced by batter piles. driven between wales attached to plumb. and the resultant narrowing of the stream causes higher than original velocities for the same discharge. 4. they may be an impervious current stop or they may have openings to permit the passage of the water at a reduced velocity. The current instead of attacking the bank. Sometimes an island is so situated in the stream that it becomes in effect a training dike upon the connection of its upper end with the main land. or by a timber or concrete bulkhead.

whether the section be rough rip-rap or squared stone rubble. 6. or practically the run of the quarry. the loading" of the wire rope. 3. i.e. Since we built in the river and not are treating only of such dikes as are " of the levee" which confines the river itself. current scour. In choosing a typical section. in localities For training purposes. 2. Timber Crib with good heavy filling. enclosing a fill and tied together through the fill with Additional lateral stability may be provided by spur piles in both directions transversely in the fill.. chain or rods. Internal pressures due to the imparting of impulses to the water and air contained within the interstices of the dike. Ice may create a very considerable thrust against the dike. The upward force parallel to the face of the dike 1. wave action and ice. the stone dike probably gives the most complete all-round satisfaction. the hydrostatic head due to differences of elevation upon the two sides will be negligible. tending to sheer off protruding members. the stone my range in size from one man stone to about four ton derrick stone. the designer should have " in mind the forces to be resisted. dike. for the superstructure facing and coping. 4. but. and the only loads to be considered are the weight of the structure An analysis itself. 129 of suitable material Parallel rows of sheet piling. as above. The back suctions as the wave recedes. because the separate units must . A brush mattress is first built somewhat wider than the asssumed base of the stone pile and is sunk between guide piles by loading it with stone. 5. of wave action reveals five components: The normal impact due to the waves' momentum. only large sizes should be used. For the substructure and the core of the superstructure. by the ultimate crushing where the quarries are available. limitied in intensity only strength of the ice. Hydrostatic head due to the increased elevation of the water surface.PRELIMINARY CONSTRUCTION 5.

Dry Dikes. stone per cubic yard of dike for granite. The enclosing structure or "dike. Most commonly the Dry Dike is an earth embankment. The occasionally necessary ditch. by steam shovels or by The nature of the soil will influence in a drag-scrapers. the "dry land" dike it is less the simpler and less expensive general type. the top width should be not . generally." Obviously.130 DREDGING ENGINEERING sufficient have tion weight to resist by ice is and waves. for feet. The derrick stone is placed by the use of chains and stone hooks. For estimating purposes.e. dislodgment and transportaFor the same reason. but." " " 2. involving depth of fill. The maximum slope of the underwater portion or substructure will be 1 to 1. but the superstructure wall may be laid up more steeply. i. 3. whether be upon the land or in the water. thrown up by hand. canal or flume for the conveyance of the effluent from the sluice to its source. The type of dike best adapted to a particular case and the most economical design and method of construction will depend primarily upon the location of the proposed basin with respect to the normal beach line. to economize through the saving in width of base for a given height. the body of the dike so built will run about 1J^ tons of bond. measure the dimensions a height of more than 6 of the bank. if desired. the super- structure laid with frequent headers to give the necessary is deposited by stone pans or which are simply rectangular trays open at one end and handled by a derrick. and less potent destructive forces to resist. "dry" or submerged. DIKES FOR IMPOUNDING BASINS The principal component structures : of the complete impounding basin are 1. gniess or rock of a similar weight. The sluice" or waste-weir" for the discharge of the pumped water. This type we shall first consider. and the facing and topping stone about 2 tons to the cubic yard. The small stone scale boxes. or in other words.

for some time after the thaw and cause trouble when not expected. Aside from the direct hydrostatic and earth pressure exerted by the pumpings. 2. he excavates tubular tunnels in all directions until the dike is so honeycombed as to be unsafe. Again. Any green embankment receiving pumpings should be vigilantly patrolled until such time as it is known to be secure. Wave Action. is either the diversion of the flow by shifting the pipe line or by the use of baffle boards. or the protection of the bank with brush mattresses. Land dikes may also be built of timber sheeting either a single fence preferably of two layers of plank with lapping joints and banked with earth on one side to lend stability for longer : . broken through. spring thawing of the frost in an old as to decrease the stability The Muskrat. 3. the banks may be reduced by wave forces unless protected as above. which small rodent is the sworn enemy of the mud bank. Vegetation should be encouraged. The soil comprising an embankment built during the winter may be so frozen as to cause subsequent settlement and even the destruction of the bank after the The internal portion may remain frozen spring thaw. As soon " " as the mud is of sufficient consistency to stand up over his operations. Frost. of course. bank may cause such softening of the structure. it may become necesto sary guard against the ravages of the muskrat. The remedy. 4. A pipe along a side bank may concentration of flow from the discharge so scour and disintegrate the in- Once having slope as to endanger the structure. Scour.PRELIMINARY CONSTRUCTION less 1 131 than 5 feet. sand bags or sheeting. If the area of the basin be such as to expose a considerable expanse of water to the winds. Should an embankment be in service than one dredging season. the most common detructive agents threatening the stability of such a dike are as follows : 1. the escaping water widens the gap and " " melts the embankment quite rapidly. and the side slopes not more steep than on 1%.

Here we may have extensive wave action with which to contend. it is employed varying degrees of doubtful and frequently permanence. it is easily scoured and melted away by wave and tide The depth of water in which it is to be built is an action. supported at in- . The Timber Crib. due to the addition of the submerged portion and must resist pressures of greater pose may be 1. the dike is of greater total height. 3. cast up by a long- Although with of success. as previously suggested.132 DREDGING ENGINEERING and prevent leakage or two parallel lines of sheeting about as far apart as their height. 5. 4. often increased in intensity by the obstructive nature of the basin and causing rapid scow of the original bottom at the toe of the dike. driven between guide wales. Mud Fence or Rows Single Row of Sheeting. Moreover. either by hand made embankments of small size or by plank retainers. together with the tides. 6. The Stone Dike. Enclosing the "wet" or "submerged" impounding basin presents rather more of a problem. Parallel of Sheeting. and tidal and other currents. To such an extent has this happened as to establish a considerable flow under the dike structure be- tween the contained water and that outside. incapable of "standing It may be easily so soft as to be up" above the water surface. Unless protected upon its slopes by more resistant material. The The Mud Bank. resulting in a stepped dike. It is sometimes possible to economize on the banking expense by raising a fill a few feet at a time. The mud-fence is simply a tight vertical wall of continuous sheet piling. classified magnitude. tied together with wire or rods. The mastability soil. Wet Dikes. important factor. and filled with earth. The Bulkhead or Marginal Wharf The first is simply a mound of earth . Dikes for this purunder one of the six following captions : 2. boom grapple dredge from the bottom often terial of which it is built is saturated and suffers there- from in angle of repose. filled with Earth.

The dimensions of section and the length of the sheeting will depend upon the nature of the bottom. is effected by machine bolts. or Wakefield piling. the depth of water. by which an initial stress is set up in them fence. consisting of 3 planks fastened together as in Fig. by The fastening wire spikes driven through -7- D Shiplapped Wakefield Tongue * Groove Bplined Dovetailed FIG. or two layers. by methods which will be outlined subseThe tie rods should be upset and provided with turnbuckles. depending upon the degree of tightness necessary to prevent leakage. and clinched or by a combination method employs so-called splines. 40. . The mud-fence. the height of the structure and the filling conditions. The sheeting may be a single thickness. spacing of round piles and anchorages or spur piles are determined from a study of the pressures acting upon the quently. The size of the wales. Wakefield is a built up tongue and groove piling. of the two. shiplapped. A fourth set in grooves in the sheet pile proper or nailed to the edge thereof.PRELIMINARY CONSTRUCTION tervals 133 by round piles and stabilized against the thrust of the pumpings by spur or batter piles or by tie rods and anchorages. 40. as determined by the nature of the backing and pumpings.

the sheet pile structure. The timber crib affords a useful expedient where the tied across is either of rock. almost as far apart as their height above the mud. The tioned to tie-rod washers are theoretically propordistribute the bearing sufficiently to obviate local failure. Long boom banking machine (Delaware Dredging crib dike. 41. Co. form a substantial retainer which may prove best adapted to a particular problem. of pump into the basin.) filling a timber Conditions of greater depth and softer bottom may require the construction of a heavier and more expensive Parallel mud fences. if practicable. A description of it is hardly bottom . prohibiting the penetration of or of soft mud.134 to DREDGING ENGINEERING overcome the inaccuracies of framing the spur pile connection and to bring the surfaces into full bearing so that the resistance of the anchorage may be developed in the beginning before distortion takes place. affording scant lateral resistance for piles. and braced by spur piles between them and filled with earth. mud fence with a bank suitable material. tions. facing in opposite direcstructure. more FIG. it is Before commencing to often advisable to back the or. of mud. This is very necessary to the preservation of the alignment of the retainer.

entailing the expenditure of a large sum of money for a structure. flitched or of round timbers. the enclosing of an impounding basin by such a structure. the It may filling. under certain conditions. the sole function of which is to serve as a dike. is meant a retaining face for vessel is its but mentioned here for the reason that. and the front face battered. The stone dike. forming a cellular box which is sub- sequently filled with earth or preferably heavier material. but also to make the property available for wharfage purposes. be constructed in the dry in sections and sunk by or built up floating in the water. The rear face may be stepped. and guided to the bed by guide The width of the crib at the base is generally piles. or the floor may be omitted and the lining planks driven crib. the province of which is not only to serve as a dike. It is 135 simply a basket of squared. notched and spiked at the intersections. almost as great as the height. Little It is and working facilities will rarely more need be said about it in generally quite pervious to the mud or other suitable pumpings. such as the the economical solution. If the basin is ultimately to be used as a wharf property. timber crib or the parallel rows of sheeting will often involve considerable cost.PRELIMINARY CONSTRUCTION necessary. own weight as the walls rise. so that the enhanced value of the bulkheaded property may warrant the greater initial outlay. It is not essentially a dike. It may be floored and lined with plank to secure greater fill-tightness. may prove to be The foregoing dikes. down as sheeting into the mud below the The bottom having been levelled as much as possible crib is built to fit the prepared surface. requiring. By the bulkhead or marginal wharf structure permitting deep water at flotation. this connection. successive layers which are laid hori- zontally at right angles to each other. it is obviously in the interest of economy to accomplish this end in one operation rather than subsequently to sup- . for tightness a backing. except under the most favorable conditions of market prove economical. sinking under its by dredging.

400 pounds. this downward In bulkheads of the resistance to the upthrust of the spur furnished wholly or in part by . Of the above six types of wet dikes. is further excused by the tendency among some contractors and even engineers to give inadequate attention to the spur pile details both in design and Not only is this true of the dike. It would appear. Spur Piles. An inclination of 30 degrees to the vertical is entirely practicable in the great majority of cases and should be insisted upon. Fig. wherever the spur pile is employed. 4 and 5. special inclined ways for they are frequently driven by pile tilting driving the batter up the leads of vertical drivers. pile. that the subject of spur piles is of sufficient importance to merit discussion here. and Number 3 partially. Let us discuss for the moment the spur pile in general. pile is driven on a batter of 1 to 2 to such penetration as to develop a safe axial bearing value of 12 Assume that a The vertical component. is .700 pounds if the head of the pile is held vertical and herein lies the difficulty down by a force equal to the component. the diversion. or through the desire to economize in framing and hardware costs. is relieving platform type. if it be such. resulting in insufficient batter to develop the horizontal resistance required. therefore. providing piles. whether through failure to realize fully the nature of the forces acting. employ the spur or batter the overturning tendency. 42. thrust of 10. bulkheading structures generally. because of the expense of fact alone. Again.700 pounds. the head of the spur pile is often inadequately retained to develop the full and extent horizontal resistance. and to some extent Number pile to resist and that Numbers 2 and 3. are gravity retainers. The pile then is capable safely of resisting a horizontal tons or 24. 21. 6. Moreover. but of construction. about 21.000 pounds. it will readily be seen that Numbers 1. unless there be attenuating circumstances. and many failures may be attributed to this In the first place.136 DREDGING ENGINEERING plement a dike with a wharf structure.400 pounds and the horizontal 10.

. and it is this attachment which merits emphasis. Spur pile resistances. If framed as in Fig. in. or in marginal wharves of the above. 42..water pile and platform upon the platform.700 21. the safe end-grain bearing sq. in which position. but design. It is not always practicable. however. the batter pile must be placed alongside a bent of vertical piles. within the allowable limit. the area required for the above case is 21. it becomes necessary to depend upon the resistance to pulling of a vertical pile to which the spur pile is attached. which. point. Moreover.4 sq. the problem of . the length If value is 1000 pounds per pile above the notch must be great enough to failure preclude by shearing with the grain. 40. will obtain at a depth of about 3 inches. in. the depth of "gain" in the pile must be sufficient to give a horizontal surface of such area as to keep the unit bearing bearing plumb 10. In many instances. to drive spur and plumb pile in such of plumb relative position as to permit a fastening of this kind.400 FIG. in a 14 inch pile.PRELIMINARY CONSTRUCTION the weight of the fill 137 in other types in cases the as such of retaining structure. page 133.

43. In the first place. 43. Even here. the fastening will fail through the bending of the bolt and the crushing of the wood fibres in the bolt hole at the point of contact of the two piles. is the capping of the spur piles with a timber running across " which transmits the bent cap and called the "spur cap. if the reaction is to be transmitted to the plumb pile through the tension in two is bolts.138 sustaining its DREDGING ENGINEERING upward reaction often presents difficulties. one on each side of the pile (as generally required).b FIG. bulkheads. Spur pile detail. in so far as the vertical forces are concerned. a Fifj. the upthrust to one of the plumb bearing piles of the bent. enough simply to bolt the spur and plumb pile together horizontally at their intersection. because. through a pair of strap bolts. It is manifestly not even though the bolt be of sufficient size to take the shear. it frequently happens that the strap bolts themselves and their fastening to the bearing pile is not given sufficient attention. Fig. The most convenient and efficacious arrangement of this detail in high timber platform Fly. the spur cap must .

Referring to the assumed problem. about \y in.700 pounds. bolts through the pile from strap to strap. requiring 10.PRELIMINARY CONSTRUCTION 139 be continuous over spur pile and bent cap. k t easily installed. 43. breaking joint somewhere between bents. to bore three holes through a 14 in. auger to the depth^required. Lag screws may be substituted. and two cast iron spools to furnish the required bearing surface. They Case are as follows: I. The pile surface under the straps must be freed of bark before placing them. in diameter. not in all portions of the length of one specific dike. It is next to impossible.7 sq. having dropped its suspended . but are not wholly A scheme devised by the author employs satisfactory. In the design of dikes for enclosing a submerged basin. This makes a positive and inexpensive fastening. a single heavy bolt. in. which. however. the stress in each and timber. there are three conditions of loading to be considered. Case II. Fig. the attachment to the bearing pile must be adequate in shear and bearing both in the metal It is the latter. a slight taper and driven snugly into holes bored by a 3}i in. finally. the bolts must be everywhere of sufficient net section to take the tension. is 10. although all three may not necessarily obtain in all dikes. The hydrostatic pressure of a head of contained water alone. material.000 pounds per sq. since it is hardly safe to assume that a length of hole more than four times the diameter of the bolt is effective in taking the bearing this means that three would be because of the bending of the bolt. the bearing of the bolts in the holes through the pile. in. Using strap bolt % required. of end for a unit value of 1. bearing grain in. page 138. Pressures on Wet Dikes. that proves most troublesome. The pressure exerted by the dredged semi-fluid condition. and. pile such that they will be opposite the bolt holes in each strap on each side. when in a saturated or while the hydraulic filling is still in progress. one The spools are cast with at each side. In the second place.

where simply a head of water exists from the original bottom of the basin is basin to the elevation of the height of the crest at the sluice. so that only . permitting a smaller basin. if If the will be sharper. the controlling factors are the nature of the material dredged. after a time. this surface slope will its be very flat and a material be of impounding area required. Usually. three cases. the sand being deposited quickly near the mouth of the discharge pipe. the size and shape of the basin and the manner and rate of filling.weir. the slope large Finally. having drained and dried out. from which the surface of the fill slopes gently down beneath the contained water to the original bottom in the remoter portions of the basin. If the dredgings consist entirely of alluvial silt or river mud. As the pumping continues.140 DREDGING ENGINEERING matter. when the completely filled basin. The pressure of the ultimate loading. tending constantly to decrease the surface area of the contained water and thus necessitating raising the elevation of the water by the placing of additional weir boards in the sluice-box in order that the submerged or impounding area large to fulfill may remain sufficiently function of precipitation necessary to a reasonably clear effluent. uniformly heavy material. in the process of filling the basin. resulting. the critical loading obtaining when the latter is a minimum at the time of extreme low water. the inclined surface of the fill progresses toward the sluice. the discharge pipe-line is lengthened by the addition of pipe sections only as the fill at its mouth brought up to final grade. the effect of the hydraulic handling will be to segregate the two. all In acted by the In the first case. the internal pressure is partly counterexternal hydrostatic pressure. is subject to the weight of surcharge or of extraneous dead or live loads. ings be a mixture of mud or silt and the p ampsome heavier material such as coarse sand. Case III. is still retained within the basin up to the elevation of the crest of the waste. in a filled to grade and dry in the vicinity of the point of initial discharge.

so that it exerts a fluid pressure which is much greater than that of water because of the greater weight of the liquid. final elevation. of Case III presupposes the for subsequent commercial purposes.. the mud emulsion on one side weighing 100 Ibs. ft. the area of the basin may be so great and the rate of filling so slow that. of different weights and heads. subjected to a loading of then have a retainer separating two fluids liquid mud. head. River mud submerged or completely saturated has an angle of repose of zero. . per cu. ft. drained at frequent intervals. quiet or the dike. Whether or not the dike will be subjected to a total head of liquid mud. The pressure of Case II can be the critical loading only when the pumped material is of such heavy nature as to deposit rapidly and exert a horizontal thrust less than that mum head of contained water. with an 18 ft. and We water on the outside weighing 60 of 8 ft. of the dike will receive the greater be the sole element of Even if mud the pumpings. moving loads upon its surface close to The pressures resulting from the three conditions of loading will now be investigated. The greatest possible pressure of the first condition of loading is that resulting from a filling of what is virtually liquid mud. acquiring an appreciable angle of repose and lessening the More especially will this be true if the basin be pressure. 44. Case I. per cu. entailing the placing of heavy. with a head Fig.PRELIMINARY CONSTRUCTION the 141 more remote portions thrust of mud alone. Let us assume a dike built in 8 feet of water and rising 10 feet above the surface. before the fill attains its the earlier pumpings near the bottom will have had opportunity to compact or set to a certain extent. the engineer must predetermine from a study of the foregoing elements. the maxihead will obtain when the basin is in an advanced stage of completion and the weir has been raised to or of the its full nearly to use of the The loading fill height. In such case. Ibs.

r (8 X60) FIG.. of Pm = Pw = o % M X 100 X 18 -~ I8 2 or 6 = 16..e. sand and clay and that the live load surcharge equals 600 Ibs. suppose that the critical loading of the of the second condition. ft. Now same dike be that H Ibs.200 Ibs. X60 X 82 = 1. 44. i.720 pressure per foot of dike becomes Case II. The resultant internal X 60 X 18 2 = 9. assuming that the filling be a mixture of gravel. Dike loading Case I. Finally..142 in DREDGING ENGINEERING which Pm = the resultant internal dike. ft. let us apply the third or ultimate condition of loading to the dike. mud pressure per ft. of Pw = Then the resultant external water pressure per dike. . above the bottom. acting at a distance ft.. hydrostatic pressure on both sides. per sq.920 acting at a distance - = 2' -8" above the bottom. page 143. the external pressure and the point of application of each remaining the same as in Case I. Ibs. The table. Case III..

slope and angle of repose of various materials both as loose earth in air and as excavated material dumped into water. gives the weight.PRELIMINARY CONSTRUCTION 143 taken from the American Civil Engineers' Hand Book (Merriman). Using the following notation : .

and is the horizontal component of a force paralleling the plane of rupture. of the sliding wedge the angle of rupture.144 DREDGING ENGINEERING is caused by the tendency of the wedge abc to upon ac. Fig. For one horizontal foot of wall. P. P. the quantities involved the dike slide the plane are: Area of sliding wedge abc = abc ~ mt X h tan (45 Weight. TF. = Y^W tan (45 = %whHan (45 = W tan (45 (45 - FIG. W y of sliding wedge Horizontal thrust. 45 (1826') v 45 3547'. P may scale be found graphically. the vertical component of which is the weight of the sliding wedge abc. The sliding wedge. 45&. = 2634 and 45 / 45 - = The conditions then are as shown in Fig. by laying off to and vertical line the weight. 46. the length of thrust. . 45. which equals the ' In the problem assumed. 45 K0> then closing the on a triangle by a horizontal line.

as before. the solution yields the net thrust. X the area bdefc in sq.290 Ibs.W. ft. Total Then. the figure is tractor.. total weight of the composite sliding wedge and the angle of rupture of the lowest stratum determine the magni- The tude of the horizontal thrust. X 600. M. The total weight is Submerged stratum abc Dry stratum Live load bdefc df X 600 =1510 Ibs. Fig. 46. 16.PRELIMINARY CONSTRUCTION The weight (1) (2) (3) 145 of three parts : of the sliding wedge is made up the area abc in sq. as the water pressure has already in effect been deducted 10 by .b FIG. P = 11. Fi ' a Dike loading CASE III. In this instance. ft. the areas may drawn accurately with scale and probe found from scaled dimensions. graphically. X the length df in if Ww W a ft. and. = 8300 Ibs. = 6480 Ibs.700 Ibs.L.

from which the unit pressure at any point of the height may will be scaled and the stresses in the structure analyzed. sheet-pile bulkhead. knowing this rebending moment in the sheet piling maybe found. whence. of the so-called equivain 7 or 21 feet. In our problem. however. . point application may be safely assumed at 0. we find that a fluid weighing 53 pounds per cubic foot will exert an equivalent thrust. it now remains to ascertain the stresses in the sheet piling and the proportion of the thrust transmitted thereby to the above water structure. act at one-third of the height. 46. the determination of the weight of a hypothetical fluid which will produce the same thrust P both in magnitude and point of Resultant earth pressures act at a point application. agh. Fig. 47. In the case of the ried fence. As a more complete illustration of the problem subsequent to the evolution of the pressure triangle of the equi- by the action. Where the live load surcharge is the of considerable. this case. The unit pressure at the base of the wall = wh = 53 X 21 = 1110 Ibs. and the lent fluid will.146 DREDGING ENGINEERING reason of the fact that the quantities used for the submerged stratum were submerged quantities. somewhere between one-third and one-half the height of the wall from the bottom. therefore.4 the height.700 Ibs.2 feet from the bottom. Hydrostatic resultant pressures. the first step from this point be the determination of the proportion of the thrust car- mud tie rods and spur piles. therefore. in the Fig. Design. the valent fluid. The most convenient treatment is by the method of equivalent fluid pressure. 11. 5w. In those dikes not of the gravity type. Call it 7 feet even.e. this point will be 0. lay this off to scale and draw the triangle of fluid pressures. The head. The pressure to be resisted by the wall is. let us discuss the case of the relieving-platform. be 3 X X resultant pressure this to w = -^- ---~ = w = 220. i.4 X 18 or 7. The formulae will of course yield the same answer without graphical aid. Again. Equating the above value of P and solving for w.

FIG. The beam AB is resisting the . will be at or a short distance below the mud line. Shear and moment in sheet piling. Platform bulkhead. depending upon the resistant qualities of the material comprising the t . we assume a value of 2 feet. at the top. 48.070 Wl- ff 5$ W Moment Elastic Curve Loading Shear 060 Wl FIG. 47. will For the mixture of gravel. sand and clay. A.PRELIMINARY CONSTRUCTION The sheeting is 147 A and supported a vertical beam fixed at the lower end at The point of fixture. B. bottom.

= #1 ^ % Integrating (^Ely dy ~ = Ri ~+ . and.447 I Substituting (8) in (7). To this end. positive moment occurs when x = max. and the problem is to find the reactions at A and B and the bending moment in the sheeting. wl. 48a. and 1 Fig. when y = 7 0. M The equation . . the constant C.^f o ot -p. If Ri = the reaction at the left or supported end. 1st. wl -~ Ril 2 C\ = o~ y^ 2 3 vj _ ~G~ 60 Ely In (5) ~ wx* 4 60Z "~12~ ~2~ = lO^i (x 3 Z. the end reactions. the bending moment. and ascertain. independently. the moments and shear in the beam due to each load. the uniformly varying load to fc pictured by the triangle def. consider the beam loading in two parts. def. abdf. x at any section. the uniform load. pos. 6" ~T wx 2 _ n Max. fixed at one end and supported at the other.5l 3 x\ (5) 0. bdfa. the constant I. x = R lX . = . w) at the fixed end.'. 486. negative moment Point of inflection = Jin 2 wl M= ^ 2 (M = in (7)) distant 0. carrying a total load. is M . Fig.-~ (1) of the elastic curve. for the variable load. of length I.x + C C2 = 0.Wx) - when x y = w(j . = 0. ^+C (1) = and when x = Since x . M (x is (8) = + 0. gives the diagrams for the uniform load. Then by combining the two. is */g-" RiX _.775Z from RI . (7) dM _ ~ wl dx~ . using the conventional notation.148 DREDGING ENGINEERING trapezoid of pressures abde.0596 wl 2 (7)) Max. varying uniformly from zero at the supported end to 2w (twice the average load per foot.*. the critical stresses in the sheeting may be found. 1 Mechanics of a Beam. distant x from Ri. whence El * _ Integrating (3) * - / 1 (2) (3) El ^ A 0. wl whence Ri = -=o (6) Substituting (6) in (1) M = ^ . 2nd.

for the larger sea walls.4 of the height from the base is sufficiently accurate for the design of the structures cited. called TF 2 . sum of the reaction at B Whereas the assumption that the point as above. plus the triangle of application of the resultant pressure. for the usual average live load surcharge. in the Proceedings of the Municipal Engineers of the City of New York. that the which we will call TFi. The more recent of the two reduces the several component substances of the sliding wedge to a single homogeneous material. is not coincident in the two cases. is 0. W of the = a first af. B. an investigation of the location of that point becomes necessary. nor apropos of our subject title. = TFiZ 2 + 0. whose plane of rupture determines the direction of the pressure. . pos. neg. The total pressure resisted by the bulkhead structure is the bed. M.06 W. 2l Max. it is sufficiently accurate to be consistent with the other assumptions. describes in detail the two methods of pressure calculation used by the Department of Docks in New York. pos. and the error is on the side of safety. is neither commensurate with the scope of this book. 149 condition. The true centre of gravity of the sliding wedge then is the centre of gravity of this reduced polygonal figure.PRELIMINARY CONSTRUCTION Bearing in mind. B. however.P the last being not absolutely true. or the combined quantities for the total load abdef are: Reaction at Reaction at B A = 3 5 -WJ + + 1 ^ 4 5 WJ. and the W of the equals the average unit load. However. W. 1905. that at the base of the wall. B. due to the fact that the point of max. Mr. Such a discussion. M. and the point at which a line drawn through it parallel to the plane of rupture interprets the perpendicular at the back of the wall is the point of application of the horizontal thrust. equals bd second. then. M = \ Wtf + ^ W o 1O =3^ 2 . *1 w Max. Hoag. S.

Revetment work pends upon the number and capacity of the dredges discharging into the basin. While the details of design vary materially with the various types of dike in which the sluice is built. The elevation of the floor of the sluice will be such that the basin can be drained to the minimum desired level. it for the determination of pressure In very applicable also to the sluice. a walkway across the sluice for the convenience of the bank patrol and to facilitate the addition or removal of weir boards. freshets. The requisite width of the box. or length of the weir. page 151. 49. sluicebox. fourth. or lowered to drain the basin. It is desirable that the head of water on the weir crest be not greater than about 6 to 8 inches. consisting of floor and sides to retain the dike material. built up be raised from time to time by placing additional weir boards as the filling progresses. opening in the direction of the effluent and pre- venting the back flow into the basin of outside water under heads created by tides. second. the box proper. be necessary to found the structure of sand bags or rip rap upon the adjacent slopes may be required in some instances. The principal parts of a complete sluice are. Fig. set loosely in vertical grooves so that the elevation of the crest of the weir may itself. sluice or waste-weir. the above features must all be taken care of. the weir of a series of planks. is The argument used against the dike soft material. large flap valves. de- may upon piles. shows the type of sluice used for earth embankments in connection with the dredging appurtenant to the construction of the Hog Island Shipyard. in order that the disturbing influences of high . which are. one or more sheet pile cut-off walls to prevent the percolation of water (and resultant scour) through the dike under and alongside the sluice-box proper. first.150 DREDGING ENGINEERING Sluiceways. fifth. A sluiceway built through a crib or mud-fence dike may require an outboard apron to prevent back scour. the tide gates. third. in effect. The structure through which the pumped water escapes from the impounding basin is called variously the sluiceway. or other causes.


where the discharge in second feet = 22. ~ Q 3.0 H = length of crest = = head above the back from the width of sluice crest measured some crest. as the usual pipe will stand up under the load if at least 9 inches below the base of the two adjacent ties are spread to distribute the load to either side. distance' Then.0 cu. Pipe trestles over water are generally built by driving two-pile bents about 12 feet rail if and on centres. 8 feet apart in the bents. The shore pipe is most conveniently laid upon the surface of the ground. b = 12 ft. or submerged flats on which the water is too shallow to float pontoons. ft.152 velocity DREDGING ENGINEERING Thus. Francis' weir formula Q = Q = b 3. customary width of sluices is about as follows: 12 to 16 feet for one 20 inch dredge or equivalent 30 feet for two 20 inch dredges or equivalent 40 feet for three 20 inch dredges or equivalent Let us investigate a sluice designed to take the output of one 20 inch machine with an average discharge through the length of line used of 22. which support the pipe. with the piles from 6 to. for the maximum fc condition of H = 8 in. the and scour be reduced to a minimum. (approx.33 bH* gives results sufficiently close for our purpose.33 X (0.33 X H* 22.0 _ = 3. Such depression generally requires no special structure.) Pipe Lines. per second.67)* from which. but the necessity often arises for the depression of the pipe under roadway and track crossings and for the elevation of the line upon trestles in crossing swamp land. . and clamping the two with one or two horizontal members As a rule of 3 X 12 or 4 X 12.

Machines. the land pipe line should be with minimum curvature. a short stretch of the shore line at the point of connection of shore and pontoon lines is tied to- gether with chain or cable. horizontally and verti- and. 50. For the same reason. unless built for a special purpose. For cally. . FIG. should abrupt changes in direction be avoided. The location and length of pipe trestles must generally be such as to permit the dredge to reach all parts ofjthe zone ascribed to her without an impracticable length or curvature of the pontoon lines. are seldom equipped with more than 1200 feet of pontoon line.PRELIMINARY CONSTRUCTION no transverse or longitudinal bracing in the last 3 to 6 bents is 153 necessary except and in the ball joint platform. especially. Pipe lines on pile trestle. where the pull exerted by the pontoon line must be taken care of. laid out maximum efficiency.

The force to take care of accounts. the contract is such that the contractor's responsibility terminates with his pontoon line. On machines working If the payment for dredgings is based upon place measurement.CHAPTER XI OPERATING Organization. let it be borne in key to successful and efficient organization mind that the is clear defini- tion of duty and responsibility. The usual method of performing a dredging project involves a dual organization. a gang of men is needed to handle the shore pipe lines. They will depend upon the size of his plant. in numbers If sufficient to take care of ordinary dike maintenance. 154 . Whatever the magnitude shifts two or three of so-called of the operation justifies. The and by owners upon exceptions are the operation of dredges by governments their own work. comprising one or more survey parties. Direct pumping into impounding basins may require 24 hours of bank patrol in dike-men. corporation or department for whom the work is being done. a superintendent and a small field office statistics. Their duties will include all surveys and all the field engineering appurtenant to the dredging. We will not attempt a discussion of the organization requirements of the contractor. its distribution and the extent of his yard facilities for plant construction and repair. organization necessary to handle the job for the party having the work done consists of inspectors. records and 24 hours per day. a small office for recording and plotting and an engineer in charge. the full or partial services of a hydrographer's force will be required. one taking the day and the other the night shift. the dredging contractor's and that governmental of the individual. stationed upon the dredges. it will be to two generally necessary place inspectors.

but are objectionable in their variation of position within the radius of their mooring cables. A plan of the cut layout is therefore very useful both to The information shown on it field and office forces." denned by ranges marked by flags or targets set up on shore or on stakes or piles in the water. to the best advantage 155 In order that dredges may work it is and make a uniform bottom. in Fig. should embody not merely the lines and widths of the cuts. in with the targets. by lining himself Cots A" "2J" Cuts for Buckets Dredges " " Hydraulic FIG. where practicable. page 155. but also the range targets. the specified cross section and the Such a plan is shown relative position of the cuts thereto. numbers or letters or a combination A record of the area dredged can then readily be kept by having the inspector report the cut in which he is working and the distance advanced in that cut daily. 51. Every of the two.OPERATING Cut and Range Layout. maintains his position in the cut ber tween a pair of ranges. customary. The dredge operator. It is not necessary for grapples and dippers to have a range for each side of each cut. . Buoys are sometimes used for range markings. The cuts are designated by some convenient notation. 51. called "cuts. Cut and range layout. to divide the area to be dredged into a series of parallel bands or belts.

In the first place. for the reason that the distance which they step ahead by alternating the spuds is determined by the length of the arc traversed. because the distance advanced at each step must be greater in the former to maintain the pump feed at its maximum side capacity. Thus a dredge of 40 ft.156 other cut DREDGING ENGINEERING is enough. they can swing on the other somewhat beyond the line of the hull produced. to dredge always on the edge of the bank . where the depth of cut is small) the minimum width of cut is greater than in heavy cutting. the side reach of the dipper is decreased. because. Grapple dredges. so that the width of cut may be limited even to the width of the hull. beam. while they are limited on one side by the scow. In light digging. loading scows. but when dredging to more than medium depths. i. the width of cut adopted must be suitable to the machine used. or "cross tide/' involves inconvenience Secondly. There are several practical considerations that are pertinent factors in drawing up a workabe cut layout. When the original depth of water is too little to float scows. preferable that the direction of the cuts be parallel to the current. therefore (i.e. Dredging at an angle with the direction of flow. The same is true of dipper machines in shoal digging. Hydraulic machines that swing about a stern spud must work in a cut about 150 to 200 feet wide. Hydraulic dredges of the swinging-ladder type will usually cut a swath approximately equal to or perhaps slightly greater than the width of their hulls. it becomes necessary.e. if the expense of pilot machines is to be avoided. it is and at times real difficulty in overcoming the resistance of the current to holding and advancing the dredge in the cut. due to the increased length of dipper stick required to reach the bottom. about 40 to 50 feet. can make a cut from 10 to 20 feet wider than their beam. as the runner can line in with his port on one and his starboard on the other. can dredge a width of about 50 to 60 feet without lateral movement. swinging a bucket of from 6 to 10 yards capacity on a boom of the usual length for loading scows.

the locations of pipe trestles and the cuts for bank hydraulic machines shall be coordinated to give pontoon lines of workable and economic curvature and length. elevated Flags of different colors are sometimes used. are located by sound" ing or sweeping" and charted for the information of the . and plotted in the office upon one tracing. the material is removed hydraulically. Hydrography. The marginal cut must be so placed relative to the side slope that the resulting bottom width of channel from toe to In other words. Tide gauges must be set and maintained at points from which they can be read by the dredge operators. To avoid and maintain field. will extend part way up on the slope so that. datum elevation. distinguishing between the two surveys by underlining each individual sounding of one set. it is the duty of the hydrographer to compute the position of the range stations. possible targets with respect to known the set them it is desirable to targets. soundings are taken over the area If before and after dredging.OPERATING and always in that direction 157 deep water side of planned accordingly. zero at the 3. poles. built in employ distinguishing symbols for the A convenient method is the use of timber frames various forms. up. after it has been dredged to the full depth and width. that exist after dredging. involving periodical estimates of the amount dredged by measurement in place in the cut. to locate them in them. or by some similar notation. Finally. 49. The volume is then computed as de" scribed under Preliminary Engineering/' 4. They are simply vertical planks graduated in feet with the upon 2. Shoals. The field engineering appurtenant to the operation of a dredging project comprises the following: 1. the sloughing in of the which places the scow on the the dredge. and the cut layout must be to its natural angle of repose will place the toe of the slope in the location specified. such as shown in Fig. where number of confusion the ranges is large. the cut toe of banks shall be as specified. The cut layout having been planned.

and the float propelled by a motor boat. which can then be plotted on the chart as a point or small circle. line or diver or both as the necessity requires and are located by instrument or range intersection and charted for removal. Upon him. 7. and drawn to scale equal in length to the dredge from spud to cutter head. more especially in the case of hydraulic machines working for place measurement compensation. hung in rails or structural shapes are such a way that the men on the float above are immediately aware of any interruption to smooth progress. which are constantly changing position. The 5. 6. with an arrow pointing from it in the direction of the advance. survey establishing the shoals may serve this purpose also. the office depends for all in- . Contracts for hydraulic plant sometimes provide that payment is in some way dependent upon the length of pipe 7 which case it is advisable that the inspectors reported lengths be checked occasionally by actual tapeline measurement. suspended horizontally at the specified depth. used for the purpose. to detect the presence Steel of shoals or lumps protruding above that depth. dating the successive positions on the map. a considerable area can be covered in a short The obstructions so found are investigated by lead time. Where a great many dredges are working in a confined space in close proximity to one another. In locating swinging hydraulic machines. in material clerk. The inspector is the dredge time keeper and line in use. helpful to plot the dredge locations at intervals of one or two days. "Sweeping" may be defined as the operation of passing over the dredged area a submerged straight edge. The quantity of overdepth dredging in excess of the allowance is computed from after dredging soundings. as found by angular intersection with it is sextant or transit. which is then termed a "lumping" machine. With a sweep as long as 60 feet. it is enough simply to locate the pivotal spud. the difficulty of isolating the area covered by each machine becomes acute. Inspection.158 DREDGING ENGINEERING Captain and inspector of the dredge assigned to their removal. Under these condi- tions.

upon which the inspector designates the loading condition of each pocket. Let us the first consider g E -o duties of an inH. To and standard- JH c Z. is The inspector furnished . or the amount of cut for pockets for "E" partially loaded.OPERATING formation necessary for 159 complete statistics and determination of amount of compensation. empty. 52. bound in books of about 100 each. One form is the bill of lading. he is provided with three sets of blank forms and a log book. A bill of lading is made out by the inspector for each the ill! I I i I 0) o <u "ro 3 scow of material shipped fl'U 25118? 5 3 e E ! 1 2 U Z 1 < O ISOXOflJStfl Name by the dredge and numbered order. so that the stubs may be retained therein for record in their proper sequence. O | 75 . whether "F" for full._ Q) ^ ^ 0) data furnished by him. in chronological typical bill is To A in shown bill is On Fig. the reverse side of each a diagram of the plan of the scow. | O o JZ spector on a grapple or go o O l ^ >> dipper facilitate ize dredge.

At the end of each month the bills and stubs afford a complete record of the yardage shipped and where of transit. The nature of the material he ascertains by periodical visits different class of work. deducting any material that is lost then signs and returns the bill to his If the material is to be pumped ashore.160 DREDGING ENGINEERING with data as to the capacity of each scow. then. He dumped. containing. whether a full or partial load. A study of it clearly defines his duties. intended as a convenience to the inspector in recording and tabulating the results of his before and after dredging soundings. the pay quantities being based on engineers' surveys. simply a duplicate record of the information submitted on the daily report. but the daily report is quite different Fig. there are no scows. all as shown on the specimen blank. leaving little for opportunity paucity of evidence in the event of dispute. Fig. from which he is able to estimate the amount shipped. too. of each pocket and the deduction for one-tenth foot of coaming for each pocket. His yardage reports are merely approximations. to the impounding basin. keeps his records. so that there is an abundance of checking data available. the inspector on the tug fills in the amount dumped and place in dumping. former. in addition to the numbers and contents of the scows is The second printed form loaded. The what stationary hydraulic dredge inspector has a some- He has no bills of lading since His sounding sheet is the same. whether free dump or rehandling basin. The bill of lading goes with the scow to the place of disIf the charge. a detailed log of the events of the day as well as a summary of the depth information. because they are computed from his own soundings without instrument location. 53. The third sheet is page 161. on the spector rehandling machine performs the same function since. log is The book The contractor. the daily report. . the inemployer. 54. there is no necessity for an inspector on the tow. page 162.


) Dredge Captain Inspector FIG. where deposited and note aty iuformttion necessary to a clear understanding of the work.C.ut feet Total advance in cut to-day Approximate_a. 54a.u_n_t feet.162 DREDGING ENGINEERING JLI. 68-C-U65 American International Shipbuilding Corporation Daily Report of Hydraulic Dredge Contract with dated . Daily report hydraulic dredge. ee t dredged cubic yards.fi.f_c. JWidth_o.on 191 191 Dredging at Cat No Station So. Depth of cut. REMARKS ( Describe kind of material. .S.nn.

____Min. 54a. Mm* Mini _ _ Hrs Hrs. Weather Coaling Hr.s JMin.in.s. Hr.s.Min.at Full Bate I. Min. Hr_s____Min. Min. Average Length Line In Use During Day Fia. Hrs Repairs to Floating Pipe Line B.urs Time Accounted For of Pipe HQUJS Feet Min.tB _M in> A. 8. Min. Hrs. Cat Hall Bate For to Min.M. 546. .Min. Min. Moving Dredge Min.s. NOTE: 24 hours per^day must be accounted PIPE LINES Floating Pipe Line Feet In Use 12. Hrs.01 A.Hr. Ho. Min.M. Hrs Hrs flrs Banks or Sluice Min.n. Mi.epairs to Hrs Hrs. for.Min. Min.Min. Min. Total Total Turi.C. Hrs. JELrs.OPERATING Distribution of Effective Working Time 163 Distribution of Time Lost Pumping Handling Pipe Line Handling Lines and Anchors Hrs Min.e Worked Hre Time Lost Hrs M.S. Min.~_ _. Min. Min. .01 A. Hours Hours . . Hrs Hrs. Min. Min. Repairs to Dredge Hrs . _. Min.Hours Min. Reverse side of report 'of Fia. Time Lost Chargeable lotal Contractor . Hrs_ JIrs Hrs . Land Pipe Line Feet In Use 12.I. Hr. Time Lost Chargeable Time to be Paid to A. Min. MISCELLANEOUS INFORMATION Weather Coal Used Tons ( Space belo\v this line not to be filled in by inspector ) Time Worked Time Lost Chargeable to Hx>u.

elevation the fill rises. but is is uniform distribution of the deposit and the addition of As the pipe without causing the dredge to stop pumping. sloping a fill in such a way It is impossible to make that the finished surface will be a level practicable to approximate this condition if desired by frequent changes in the location of the point of discharge through the extension of the line by adding The pipe sections or through shifting the line laterally. comprise reporting promptly to the office the absence of range targets and tide gauges and any deviations from the specifications or contract. it becomes necessary to increase . use of a Y and gate valves on the fill facilitates both the plane. A rapidly near the mouth away toward the dikes and sluice. as the time element then determines the amount of compensation. It is apparent that the reported information must be particularly accurate and in greater detail for machines working under contracts of lease.) Basin Regulation. 55. Spoil bank 20 inch dredge. (Courtesy of Morris Machine Works. whether he be a bucket or hydraulic man. FIG.164 DREDGING ENGINEERING The inspector's further duties. hydraulic fill builds up most of the discharge pipe.

Samples of the sluice water are taken in jars from time to time and allowed to stand until they clarify and the percentage of solids noted. It is often helpful to drain the basin occasionally when approaching repletion. Dike maintenance is. thus rendering the effluent more lean and relieving to some extent the pressure on the dikes. of course. the depends upon no disadvantage from outflowing maon the other hand. It* is is not that such loss lute authority to restrict the amount of solid effluent.OPERATING of the crest of the sluice 165 by placing additional weir boards. in order that the quantity of water retained within the basin or in other words that the impounding area shall be great enough to allow such quantity of sedimentation therein as to preclude the loss of a large percentage of solid matter by being carried away in suspension in the effluent. disadvantageous to the party making the fill (rather is it a benefit as an inexpensive method of disposal of dredgings). in effect." The quantity of pumpings entering a basin may be . by the interposition of baffles between the pipe discharge and the sluice. the impounding may be increased. effluent has become too rich for acceptance. The addition of a little alum will The allowable percentage accelerate the precipitation. Should it become necessary to continue pumping into the basin after the sluice weir has attained its full height and the as to cause little or terial or. the War Department has absochannels. a feature of " operating. to the detriment of adjoining property owners and the maintenance of nearby For this reason. The sluice may be so located conditions. allowing the mud to compact or set. but that a rich weir discharge will result in shoaling outside of the sluice or in adjacent waterways and channels. its location relative to dredged channel may result in serious shoaling therein.' 7 destructive agencies to be guarded against and the methods of protection have been outlined under the heading The " Dikes for Impounding Basins. causing the water to pursue a more devious course to the weir area and thereby increasing the opportunity for sedimentation.

Referring to Fig. 56. With the pipe running full and the end section horizontal. 56. per Sec. A photograph will facilitate the measurement.166 DREDGING ENGINEERING approximated by measurements of the rectangular coordinates of the curve of the pipe discharge with respect to the end of the pipe. . page 166.08 * Q = av (y) from the coordinates. first fixing the point to be measured by placing a batten horizontally in the plane of and a short distance below the pipe. 16. o X = Vt y = l/ 2 2 gt t Eliminating v =~2^~y V2 = and FIG. measure the vertical and horizontal 15 10 5 10 15 Velocity in Ft. Curve for determining discharge distance from any point on the centre of the curve to the centre of the end of the pipe.

area covered and time distribution. velocity about 18 ft. compiled and presented in some concise form from . follows AV plotted from the above formula. ft. per'second. = 32. per sec. A powerful discharge. 56. 57. Progress Keeping. ft. after which the quantity Q in cu. and G = acceleration of gravity X = VT then and F = GT* eliminating T. page 166. from the formula Q = here A = the sectional area of the pipe in sq.16 V = 2 ~ ( -^ = ) FIG. be the coordinates of the point P referred to the origin If y = velocity in feet per sec. yardage removed. each of which is collected. Complete progress information embodies records of three distinct elements. Morris Machine Works. in feet per sec. The curve of Fig.OPERATING let 167 X and Y 0.) (Courtesy of Solve for V. T = time in sees. gives the velocity directly for any value of the ratio /X f 2 \ y~j.

Different colors are used for different depths. is drawn to the same axes. showing the yardage to date at any time. etc. The area included below the curve must be at least equal to that below the straight line if the dredge is up to the schedule. be graduated to give the percentage of completion at any time. a are to very helpful adhering dredging graphs The record of area covered is best kept on a map showing the cut layout. or. plotted vertically with respect to working days on the horizontal axis. in schedule. weather. lack of supplies (coal. or Such of all the bucket. if desired. graphical method is easily the most legible and may be employed in all three cases.168 DREDGING ENGINEERING which the important facts may quickly be assimilated. the out- The put of a group of dredges working in one zone as scheduled. or all the hydraulic machines. On a second set of axes. One method divides a rectangle into areas of tide. etc. and the distinction between areas reported dredged and those shown by final survey to be down to depth may conveniently be indicated by cross hatching the former 7 and is of value in bringing out for each dredge the percentages of lost time due to various causes.). repairs. graphical distribution of time . Additional "bogies" and curves may be drawn for the summarized output of all the dredges on the job. By comparing this curve with a line drawn from the same origin on the same sheet representing the total scheduled yardage to date of " any day (which line is called the bogie' ) the number of days or cubic yards by which the dredge is 'behind schedule The vertical axis of the same sheet may also is obvious. and the resulting curve will show at a glance is the fluctuations in performance. or group of dredges. The daily output of each dredge. each indicative of one class of lost time or The solidly coloring the latter. A straight horizontal assumed daily average yield of the dredge. such as lack of plant (waiting for scows or tug-boats). different colors. by coloring the area dredged each day by each machine. the accumulated yardline representing the age is total plotted with reference to working days.

or week. Thus it is of paramount importance that all the units be kept busy all of the time and. . its cause and remedy is imperative. a thorough study of the lost time. chine is idle. This question of distribution of time and the percentage of lost time due to various causes is obviously of vital interest to the contractor. When one ma- a big percentage of the work is at a standstill and a large investment becomes unproductive. to this end.OPERATING 169 of working time and representing by its relative length the percentage of the total time for the day. Dredging operations are char- acterized by few units of large capacity.

or by smaller. in method this popular country. over a shorter period (because of increased output) to offset the added The question apparently cost of drilling and blasting. by undermining and blasting. less expensive dredges after first breaking up the rock by blasting or by rock breaking machines. The problem then arises as to whether the softer rocks. soft limestones and tufas. the saving effected by the use of lighter dredging equipment in less destructive material. we have the large. The method of rock removal by undermining and blasting consists in the sinking 170 . the other having been are : : used to a limited extent only. be influenced by conditions peculiar to each project. however. there are two general methods of using explosives first.CHAPTER XII REMOVAL OF SUB-AQUEOUS ROCK As has been said. Again. by the use of explosives and. the rock is harder than lies within the capabilities of these machines. When. some means must are able to be used to prepare the rock for dredging. There two general methods first. comprising the reduction of the strata to relatively smaller pieces. On the one hand. by the use of rock-breaking machines. removed by saving effected offset the increased cost of drilling and blasting to and rapid depreciation of the larger dredging plant over a longer period of time and. the high-powered ladder dredges remove by direct dredging the softer rock formations. such as corals. is still an open one and will. second. Undermining and Blasting. on the by the omission other. second. are more economically powerful dredges from in situ without previous blasting. by drilling and This last is by far the more blasting from the surface. of course. and.

in which position it is maintained by the automatic regulation of the steam pressure in each spud The drills are usually of the steam-driven perengine. upon which it is set up on the rock. usually from the deck of a charging pipe. and then fired. In order to prevent the transmission of the barge motion as many to the drill in waters of wide and feed mechanism are mounted upon a tidal range. dredging. of Flood Rock. which the holes are loaded. The loaded and simultaneously The total cost was $5. These spuds. one at each corner of the hull. cussion type and are carried on traveling steel towers from which vertical leads extend down over the edge of the hull. free from wave motion. This method comprises the drilling of a series of vertical holes into the rock after down by means of drills mounted on floating hulls. The holes are drilled at the corners of squares. General John Newton sank two shafts. of which $3. Drilling and Blasting from the Surface. the holes are drilled to several feet below that grade. New York Harbor. guides steel column in- . The drill feed and the tower travel are generally power-operated. 171 which a series of horizontal galleries are driven.. the by means drill boat has developed into the modern steel hull mounting as five or more traveling drill frames. yd.19 was the cost of the subsequent roof and columns were drilled. the drill. per cu. forming guides for the drill cylinders.88 fired after admitting the water. From the original humble raft carrying one drill. after which charges are placed in drill holes in the remaining supporting and overIn the removal lying rock and exploded in one operation. the sides of which vary with the character of the rock from about 4 to 8 In order that the rock may break to the specified feet. and equipped with spuds or columns. from which he drove a series of galleries of from the bottom 10 feet square at right angles to each other.REMOVAL OF SUB-AQUEOUS HOCK of vertical shafts. leaving a roof supported by square columns of rock 15 feet on a side. depth. are being forced down while the drills are working and the boat is raised above the elevation of normal flotation.

The base of the column rests on the rock and is so attached as to permit the vertical motion of the boat independently of the drill. . held in position by cables from winches on deck. strength and durability.. comprising an "A" frame and hoisting engine with friction clutch. manner permitting a limited amount Greater efficiency is claimed because works in air. The surface of the rock is attacked with the breaker at intervals of about four feet each way. the water being excluded by com- pressed Breakers of the Lobnitz type appear to be the most economical means of preparing hard rock for dredging. quick action. limit of penetration (usually about 3 feet) is obtained at each point before going to the next.is mounted on a barge. when the rock to be removed is less than two feet in depth. of New York. The essential requirements of a submarine rock drill are great striking power. of several feet. hammer air. In this method. strikes a short chisel resting on the rock and attached to the lower end the of the cylinder in a of vertical motion. it is removed by dredging and a second layer The action of the machine is partly to pulverize and partly break the rock. Scotland. manufacture a rock breaker in which a heavy hammer. The Submarine Company. The ram weighs years.172 DREDGING ENGINEERING stead of the tower. Rock-Breaking Machines. The machinery for operating the rani. Lobnitz & manu- from 6 and has a projectile shaped cutter-head. working inside of a long cylinder suspended from the "A" frame. They are raised from 6 to 15 feet and dropped about four times per minute. Others are equipped with pipes for enclosing the drill in passing through drills the overlying soft strata to keep it free of obstruction. have factured machines of this kind.. the rock is broken up by the impact of a fulling ram. of Renfrew. Some drill barges have been constructed in which the operate through a central well in the hull. For many Co. The attacked. The concentrated impact is capable of breakto 15 tons After one layer is broken to a depth ing the hardest rock.

In rock that is thinly stratified or that shatters readily. The larger pieces are ejected. requiring subsequent removal by a grapple machine or other means. The ability of the ladder type to dig uniformly to grade. lies between the dipper and the ladder types. however. its handle great masses by virtue of economy through the permission of wider spacing of drill holes. The choice of a dredge for the removal of the rock. renders it particularly adaptable to the removal of rock prepared by the Lobnitz machine. the limit of two feet for the economic use of the Lobnitz cutter may be somewhat increased. 173 feet. . Dredging the Broken Rock. the dipper dredge is to be preferred. of the buckets of the elevator dredge require the rock to be broken into smaller fragments. The cost of Its ability to larger bucket effects a considerable the drilling and blasting is usually the largest part of the The smaller dimensions total cost of the rock removal. broken or blasted as above.REMOVAL OF SUB-AQUEOUS ROCK but. Except where the rock is broken by crushers of the Lobnitz type to a depth of only two or three feet. drilling where the depth of cut is greater than two and blasting by the American method is the most rapid and economical.


dipper dredge grapple dredge hydraulic dredge log -. swinging by bucket wires Booster pump Borings. 31-37 16-19 66-67 22. 29 83-86 99-100 13 2." The "Alpha. 115 159 22 82 29." The. impounding regulation rehandling Bill of lading Boilers. grapple dredge hydraulic dredge Boom. dipper dredge grapple dredge hydraulic dredge Backing chain "Baltic. Arnold clam-shell closing 6 power common grab dipper dredge dorsey wire grab details .'. 127-128 116 116 134 1. dipper dredge grapple dredge hydraulic dredge "Admiral. height of patrol protection spoil spuds Banking machine Basin. 113-114 164-167 57. Bank (see also Dike).INDEX PAGE "'A" frame. Hunt." The Agitation method "Alfred E. 31 16 15-16 175 . : 10-11 6-11 29." The Angle of repose of materials Back-guys. 31-37 16-19 66-67 23 93 47 87 143 31-37 16-19 66-67 29 24 117 154 . . . 27 27. Bucket.

16 16 13 12-13 6. 35 91. Contracts . definition 2 1 Bucyrus dipper dredge Bulkhead relieving platform 29-30 132." The Clam-shell dredge (see Grapple dredge).176 INDEX PAOE 6. location maintenance side slopes 127 91 44-45 . advance in 54 24 23 118-121 123-124 129. 1 1 Bucket. 59. Current. 98. 134-135 101-102 33. 82 61 head shaft. drift in rivers transporting power Cut. 156 59." The Channel. 63 . 103 90 Coaming "Columbia." The "Cascadas. .. 101 124. 41 Bull-wheel "Camden. 93 98-99 126-127 126-127 28." The. 127 "Charleston.. 1 1 soft-digging Stockton teeth 13 16 Williams 13-14 classification Bucket dredges. hard-digging ladder dredge orange-peel poles side boards single wire sliding cross-head 6. 50 2.." The Canalization 6 "Caribbean. "Culebra." The Condenser. 132. 61-63 59. Costs. 135 146-149 29. estimating Crib dikes Cross sectioning Crowding engine . 65-66 - depth of layout pilot 117 width Cutter engine of 155-157 116 115. 6 13.

64-66 depth limitations Dredging. . 95 103. plans and specifications Dredgings. 158 118-121 107. measurement of loads by of scows i Disposal of Dredgings Dorsey wire 130 130-131 128 139 128-129 127-128 128-130. machinery operation pin-up purchase-rigged spuds Dipper-stick Displacement. 31-37 2 29 29.. . 29. 112.. . 107. Dike crib design 134-135 146-149 dry earth permeable pressures on sheet-pile spur stone training wet Dipper dredge. application "A" frame back-guys bucket Bucyrus boom definition description dipper stick high powered hull . 31-35 44 40 39 41 37 37 37 29. . 112. contracts costs definition 108-112 1-3 117 118-121 113 1 objects overdepth. 16 Dredge wires Dredges.INDEX "Delaware. 57. 135 127-128 132 31 42 31 29." The Depth gauge Differential drum 177 PAGE 93 28 39 101 129. adaptability to classification soils. 115 95 . 115 . 31 29-30 . 28. 31-35 106 54 57. disposal of use of . 132. . 20-21. . -.

of quantities site value of . boom bucket.-. "A" frame 19. 22 24 24-26 22 26 20 20 Hogging Hull. classification 22 44-45 48-49 16-19 16-19 16-19 6-16 2.. . rock Dumps. definition description gallows-frame house hull. . dredges pontoons scows ... 20..'.178 INDEX PAGE' Drilling. fluid pressure Estimating. back-guys . Earth. free 171-172 112 130-132 143 146 123-124 101-103 100-107 97-100 114 24 117 116-117 116 114 21. Flume Friction head. back legs boom classification cutter-head definition 59. "A" frame. 55 40-41 24-26 66 66 66 3 61-63 1 . table Frictions 75-76 23 4. 26. machinery operation spuds spud-wells 2 4 4 20." The Flotation. . dikes pressure Elevator dredge (see Ladder dredge). costs Equivalent methods Exploring the Fill." The Gold dredging Grapple dredge. "Finn MacCool. Gallows-frame "Gamboa.. dipper dredge grapple dredge Hydraulic dredge.

dipper dredge grapple dredge hydraulic dredge Mechanics. 71-81 58-88 58-86 89-93 83 64-66 71. beam with varying load Mud-fence design " 39 22 81 148 132-134 146 Natomas Consolidated. 152-153 78-79 60. Hydrochronograph Hydrography Ice thrust 79-81 64-66 61. buckets classification definition 2 50 46 52 52 172-173 160 157-158 description historical sea-going stationary Lobnitz machine Log book Lumping Machinery." The "New Jersey. 82 97 157-158 . 129 Inspection 159-164 Keelsons 26 50 2 Ladder dredge." The "Newburgh.INDEX Hydraulic dredge. design feeding ladder 179 PAGE machinery Mississippi River type operation pipe line power pump river type radial feeding sea-going solid output spuds thrust bearing '. 63-64 81 86-88 83 67-71." The Organization 49 34 82 Overdepth dredging 44-45 154 103-104 ." The "Onondaga.

choice of 157 105-106 48-49 143 101 18-121 1 Pontoon. The "Paraiso." The . 71-81 157. 24 44-45 59-60 116 Pilot cut. . ball-joint capacity table discharge fittings hydraulic dredge line 70 75-76 67-68 70 68 67-71. Pipe. 48.180 INDEX PAGE . currents : . grapple dredge hydraulic dredge Pumpings." The Pressure on dikes and bulkheads Prismoidal formula Probings Progress keeping Pump. 52 121-122 101. layout Rehandling Reports. 115 160-164 126 126-1 27 170-173 42-44. 40 146-149 102 99 167-169 83-86 79-81 81 23 60. 173 125 Sand and gravel dredging Scheduling Scoop dredge (see Dipper dredge) Scour earth dikes. removal dredging Run-off 125 155-157 57. Place measurements ratio to scow Placer dredge Plane of rupture Planimeter method of estimating quantities Plans. 20-22 38. sediment transportation Rock. hydraulic dredge line Position control "President. 165-167 83 Range. measurements percentage of solids Rainfall of 107-118 70-71 67 4. 125-126 131 . dredging Plant. daily Rivers. 152-153 103." The "Pacific.." " Pennsylvania. booster design drive .

66 28 20-21 136-139 106-107 62-63 26 Suction dredge (see Hydraulic dredge). trailing . 113 157-158 60 40 71 32 28. Suction hopper dredge (see Sea-going hydraulic dredge). ' Topping Towing fall ? m . 31. 35 113 . 87 37. 181 PAGE deck handling measure. 27-28 103.' "Tellico." The The . 59. transportation of Sedimentation Shear legs Sheaves. 39. 105-106 57 89-93 126 101. . bottom-dump concrete .INDEX Scow. 157 44 17 18. ratio to place side-dump Sea-going hydraulic dredge Sediment. 165 Soundings Specifications Spud. 97." The. bank definition dipper dredge grapple dredge hydraulic dredge. 29 . bucket 54-57 57 57 6. 126 . Thrust bearing Tide-gauge "Toledo. 39 37. Sluiceways effluent 150-152 from 114.- types design shear and moment 146-148 147-149 16 Side boards Sleeves Sliding wedge Sluice (see Sluiceways) 70 144-145 . grapple dredge 8 17-19 21 133 spud Sheet piles. walking walking on wells Spur piles Squatting of moving vessels Strainers Strakes 97-98 118-121 116 4 37 20-22 64-66. ." "Tampa. Surveys Sweeping 97-99.

27. i bucket dredge hydraulic dredge scow handling 143 164-165 7-10. 131 Wave action. Water jet agitator 87 129. . 29 20-21. use of Wires. bucket. Weight of materials Weir boards.182 INDEX PAGE . . Unit method of estimating quantities 101-103 Waste-weir (see Sluiceways). 28 64-66 27-28 .