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THT ExCYCLoPEDIA oF

MnHoLoGY

THE ExCYCLoPEDIA oF MYTHOLOGY ClassrcAL Cel.rrc GnEex AnrnuR CoTTERELL .

This edition is pubiished by Hermes House Hermes House is an imprint of Anness Publishing Ltd Hermes House.wrthout the prior written permission of the copyright holder A CIP catalogue record is available from the British Library Publisher: Joanna Lorenz Editorial Director: Helen Sudell Project Ediror: Belinda Wilkinson Designer: Nigel Soper. photocopl'rng. mechanical.com @ AnnessPublishlng Ltd 1996. lf a characteris included in a specialfeature spreadit is noted at the end of their indMdual entry. 2006 Al1 nghts reserved No part of this publication may be reproduced. recording or otherwise. 1098765+32 .r. Glenn Steward Printed and bound in China Frontispiece: The ForglngoJthe Sampoby A GallenIGllela This page: TheRape oJGanymede by PeterPaul Rubens Author's Note The entries in this encvcloDedia are all Iisted alphabetically. Nick Beale. Wft. electronic.stored in a retnevalsystem. Special feature spreads examine specific mythological themes in more detail.or transmirted in any way or by any means. more than one name exists for a character the entry is listed under the name used in the original country of origin flor that particular myth. Millions Design lllusrrators: James Alexander. Names in iralic caDitalletters indicate that rhat name has an individual entry. 88-89 Blackfriars Road London SEI BFIA tel 020 7 401 2077 . fax 020 7633 9499 info@anness.

Z e u s 2 0 Heroes 30 Oracles and Prophecies 40 Voyagers 50 Monsters and Fabulous Beasts58 Forcesof Nature 6B G i a nt s 7 6 Founders B4 CeLTIC MyTHoLOGY 9O Introduction 92 Celtic Otherworlds 104 S a g e sa n d S e e r s l l 4 Magic and Enchantment I24 Wondrous Cauldrons 132 Celtic Romance 140 Single Combat L48 Heroic Quests 156 Fabulous Voyages 164 NoRSE MyTHOLOGY L72 Introduction I74 Nature Spirits 186 T r e a s u r e sa n d T a l i s m a n s 1 9 6 Norse Heroes 204 T h e V a l k y ri e s 2I2 Sorcery and Sp eIIs 220 Tragic Lovers 228 Rings of Power 236 Ragnarok 24+ s 52 P r c r u R EA c r x o w L E D G E M E N r2 Ixnnx 2 53 .CONTENTS PneFACE 6 CInSSICAL MYTHOLoGY B Introduction l0 L o v e r s o f .

the conflict between the generarions. Celtic and Germanic myths touch upon the fundamental issues of existence. Celtic and Norse. but later abandoned his helper. it is the pride of the gods or their opponents. But heroes and heroines find themselves in unreiated circumstances facing the same basic problems in Greece. rhe relation between human and divine. As a result of this moment of carelessness. plus the whole issue of fate. They reveal successfu\ confronted the Minotaur on Crete. the crearion of the world and the origins of sociery. For the stories related in Greek. especially on the battlefield or in single combat. Unlike the Greel. the sadness of betrayal and treachery. Theseus' father committed suicide by leaping from the Athenian acropolis when rhe black sail was sighred. the Cretan princess Ariadne. the cycle of fertility in human beings and animals. the incidence of misfortune and luck. They form the core of European mythological thought. ) . the effect of enchantment upon the mind and body.<s NEssuS. which causes disasters ro occur. the frost giants. the personal danger of a contest with a monster. Different myths rackle these great quesrions in distinct ways. plus the growth of plans. The Athenian hero Theseus Aoifa. rhe early ideas and notions which underlie our present-day consciousness.ties to abductHeracles' new bide whileJerryingher the RfuerEvenus GHE across R^pE oFDEhNTM RrN/ By GurDo 1621 .PREFACE PnEFACE H I S C O M B I N E DE N C Y C L O P E D I A of mythology contains the three ourstanding traditions of Europe Greek. between mankind and the gods. even a beheading game. bored by rhe steady pace of everyday events. his own son by the Amazon the old and rhe new. nor least within a family or a group of colleagues. wherher a voyage into uncharted waters or a quest fot a sacred object. with a variety of after-life possibilities including rebirth. last. the nature of the universe. and. the horror of madness with its disruption of human relations. the mischief of the trouble-maker. So in lreiand rhe inability of the power of love.4 wild Greehcentaur. Theseus forgot the agreement made with his father abour changing the sail of his ship from black if he escaped death himself. In Norse myth. but not least. ireland and Scandinavia. Full of his success against the bull-man. the violence of men. with its accompanying anxiery Cuchulainn ro srop and think for a moment led to and jealousy. c^NvAs. his hlling of Conlai. the sadness of illness or accidenral injury. the mystery of dearh. however. rhe challenge of the unknown.

The great hero was Thor.PREFACE sea to Poseidon. Fafnir. And even immonal Zeus. It could almost be described as sacred literature undisturbed by theologians. Odin can do nothing about his future death at Ragnarok. The tangled web of difficulties which besets Theseus can thus be traced to a number of actions.thegreatNorsehero. the one-eyed god of batrle and the inspirer of the dreaded berserkers. the doom of the gods. has a duty to see that fate takes its proper course. The Celtic sun god Lugh cannot save his son Cuchulainn on the battlefield. Attempts may be made to slow down the operation of fate's decrees.l2rH cENruRY) it. The raw and ragged ends of existence are still visible in is tales of both men and gods. the slowwitted but honest champion of the gods. Srgurd sltv the dragon. showingtheir c lN Bc. For Theseus married Phaedra. Fate and destiny in European mythology are almost beyond manipulation. The abiding interest of mythology. supremaq overanirncls (curosrnupcauDRoN. and the Celts. and thus reveakhis awesomepwer. posib! Dogda.Regln. and her mating with it led to the birth of the bull-man known as the Minotaur: hence Theseus and his combat with the strange creature. donglestwo worriors high absvehishead. but one stands out clearly: the refusal of King Minos of Crete to sacrifice the white bull from the .helpshismmtor. who appreciated how his allergy to frost glants naturally led to skullsmashing encounterc in fields and halls. but they never work. Usually myths reveal an interwoven pattem of circumstances ourcide the control of both mortals and gods. Before Theseus Ieamed the truth. ln consequence of this sacrilege Minos' wife Pasiphae was consumed with passion for the beast. while the wariors in tum lift twoboa6. {wuto aavtNc. A CELTIC Drrv. however. She too was cursed with an illicit passion. but for her stepson Hippolytus. He delighted the tough Northmen. is is frankness about such basic human drives. European or otherwise. The Athenian hero's entanglement with Minos' family did not stop with the abandonment of fuiadne and the death of his own father. and then lost his exiled son in a chariot accident. another daughter of Minos. the chief god of the Greeks. Yet those who undertook raids as Vikings had a more suitable patron in Odin.) GiDDsILwR. sometimes to thwart them entirely. he banished honest Hippolytus on Phaedra's denunciation of his evil intendons. is real owner. the German peoples of northern Europe did not develop a heroic tradition of any significance.re-Jorgehiswondroussword With . Srcuto. not for an animal this dme. He cannot control events.

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NL BF Y P 4 r r ry rr R ( ) N E s C NTPTLN l0 .men and animals Around 400 Bc the Arhenian philosopherPlatocoined the word rnythologia rn order to drstinguish b e t w e e n r m a g i n a r i v e z r c c o u n t so l d i v i n e a c t t o n sl n d f e rr u a i i t ' : t r t p t i o n r ( . for i n s t a n c e . thc Ettnol (-rq'. *T rh author. guilt and expiation For that reason another dramatist was able to tackle the same srory later in Athens during the fifth cenrury sC It needs to be remembered that such drama remained very much part of ancient religron Today we cannot expect to appreciate the full meaning of these performances. the supreme god Even worse. who l r r t c r h e c a m . the murderer then served the bocliesof his nephews up to his brorher at a banquet. an aifiomt hr)rsd's h(lmcl. l x t I E N I C R I .anies a seasheil.t h e A t h e n r a n sw a t c h e d t h e g r e a t cyclc of plays that Aeschylusstagedabout the Trojan \Var All this would have been famrliar to the Athcnians beforeAcschylus' treatment of the returning m 1 ' t h b e g a nu r t h . supemamralor othenvlse Although he lived in an age thzrtwas increasingly scrtntrllc in o u t l o o k . ' d resided in myth.'"vas c n d u r e a t e r n b l e p e n o d o [ d o m e s t i cs t n f e Not only had Atreus and hrs brother Thycstes bcen cursed by rherrown father.guarding itr mrhtary und monnmt putLo above Mdrs burs h$ rntcrests At klt.P l r t t o r c c . a n d n o l o n g er i n c l r n e d t o b c l i e v e cvery detail related about gods and godthe powr'r rhat d e s s c s . henres. 't h q 5 1 1 ' r y . Agamemnon'sfather. but we are fortunate in halrng the MAR5 AND NEpruNE.t . . whiic Neptunc's putto . nor the revenge of his son Orcstes. ' l l c ru. afrerwhich he dared to their feet and hands Atreus show Th1'estes paid for the outrage wrth hrs life at the hands of Thyestes' sumving son.INTRODLTCTI()N IxTRODIJCTION fl r r r. a m)'th ah. g n i z .r[eC. two gocls of ancrent Romc. ' t h r l o v e r r ' l A g a m e m n t t ns .a l t h o u g h t h e y h a d s o u g h t sanctuaryin a temple dedicatedto Zeus. Pelops.F K 5 w l : nR rt rgreat I MAcEDoNtA l l m y r h m u k . { g a m e m n ( ) n homc liom the Trojan War Some of the audience doubtlessrecalledan even older curse laid on l'elops himself by the messengergod H e r m e s P e l o p sh a d p r o v o k e d t h e g o d b y relusing a promiscd gift to one of his sons rncludedin hrs plays Nothing that Aeschylus was unexpected.lay in rrs collecrivcnature Unlike a story composed by a partrcular stood on its ou'n. neirher the murder o[ Agamemnon.nor Orestes'punuit by thc Funes for sheddrnga mother's blood What would have fascinatedthe audiencewas the dramatist's approach to these tangled incidents. r * t r l E u r o p cT h t ' ) e r e n tl J i g l r c u s r h c n r m e h 1 'w h r r h u e refer today to the amazrngstonestold about gods. { t \ ' ( n t 5 ."'ays a plot and a set of charactersreadily underE RUs 4E . Likeall active traclitions. his'raew of motive. their half-brother Chrysippus. for kLllrnghis favounte chrld. ricir over m u r d e r o I A g a m em n o n . symbol oJ thr god's dominion ttvar lhd watves {Mq* r:l EA . t h c y r v e r ea l r e a d y a w a r e o f t h c m a i n c h a r a c t e r sa n d t h c i r actlons The audienceknew how the House fated to of Atreus. but a bloody quarrel of their own had also added to the family mrsfbrtune A to Pelops'throne dispute over the succession at Mycenae led Atreus to kill three oI T h y e s t e s ' s o n s .lytemnestra b y t h r ' s r ' w h ol i s r e n c t1 or dramattst making use o[ tt When. Aegisthus. and warned hrs followers tcr beu'areof its seductrve charm The strcngth of Greek myrholog'.ftY \1 ( during hrs abscnceat the slrrtrd l .

but the Romans were more deeply disturbed by his orgiastic rites In 186 nc rhe Roman Senarepassed severe laws against the excesseso[ his worshippers h is likely rhat severalthousand people were executedbefore the cult of the native wine god Bacchus discarded those aspects of Dronysus which mer wrth official disproval This taming of a Greek god. even when told in summary. of the unbeatable champron Achilles. of rhe great voyagerJason.victim of Dionysus' ecsraric worshippers.-'! Venone o <-r{ 0 \t "n tcn&ifii "'*. one of rhe bravesr of the Greek and the inventor of the Wooden Horse. as rhey are in this encyclopedia Because Greek myths were fashioned and refashioned over so many generations. Theseus. slayer of the strange bull-headed man.who sailed acrossrhe Black Sea ro disranr Colchis in order to ferch the Golden Fleece.the epic poem abour Aeneas written by Virgil in the 20s sc. rhe means by which Troy was raken. although rhey chose to impose a rypical restraint on Greek extravagance Roman heroes could never compare wrth Heracles. even adopring others for whom they possessed no real equivalent The unruly Dionysus gave Rome considerable rrouble Thrs god ofvegetation. the doomed leaderof the Greek expedrtion againsrTroy. the myths themselves Myths retain much of rheir power. turned out ro be a balanced celebrarion of Roman aurhoriry rather than an exciting heroic narrative The hero heededthe call ofduty and abandoned the woman he loved. of rhe labours of Heracles. myrhs were fictitious stones rhar illusrrared rruh The Romans were no less impressed by the range and interesr of Greek myrhology Indeed. they acquired their essential form.INTRODUCTION raw materials from which they were made. rhe man who murdered his father and married his morher. Perseus or Bellerophon Something s)'nthetic can be felr in the story of Aeneas. could stand for rhe enrire processby which Greek and Roman myrhologr merged in rhe second century BC There were just too many myths for rhe Romans to resist. but The Aeneid. of the hapless Pentheus. rhe Minotaur. o[cunning Odysseus. and many others As Greek lMng before and afrer Plato evidently understood. IONIAN AFR ICA AFRICAN SEA founder-hero made him of particular concem to the lirst Roman emperor Augustus.. albeir Thracian rn ongin. Zeus' own son and the only hero to be granted immortaliry. Jason. we conrinue to be fascinated by the stories of Oedipus. a shape that had been collectively recognized for longer than anyone could remember Even now. rhe leader of the refugees {rom Troy His adoption as a SIcILIAN SEA TYRRHENIAN SEA . rhey adopred it wholesale and identified many of their own haiian deities wrrh those in rhe Greek panrheon. of the Athenian hero Theseus. . who included his own morher.of Agamemnon. wine and ecstasywas by no means a comfortable deity for the Greeks. as Roman heroes were expected to do rn every myth ll .

le ader of the c.'-s. Odysseusplacedweapons hs tompdnion. the leader o[ the Greeks lt may be that he was our Achilles therr chances of angeredby Agamemnon'suse o[ ro beating the Trojanswere sLtm.a call ( A ( H i l | r ! f u i l r \ r . s A ( . . reluingbnde hrstentwth welcomes hrs Scpos.but his name to bring IPHIGENTA no one could identify the hidden Aulis. although in compansonwith acar'tlllxov and the other Greekhngs who went on r h c e x p e d r t r o na g a i n s tT r o y . h e a p p e a r sr o h a v eb e e n s o m c t h i n g of a barbarian His anger was as legendaryas his prowess The uncerrainnatureof Achilles is apparentin the story of his brrth wanted Both zEL'sand pttsr-iitrt. whereas was sent to discover AchiLles. A M r M ! ( ) N ! N l l s s l \ c t : f . hrlles de.l:NlAt/R.r h e g o d s c a r e f u l l y arranged the mamage of Thetis to a mortal Because she was scr attached to Achilies. TZ . but PROMETIlirt. ' . (centre) arul Aiax Odysseus among some jewellery in the comratles. for she had been told she hero At last. thrs one spot was left vulnerable and at Troy brought about A.Patroclus. b . who also fed him on wild game to increase his f'erocity Chrron's care Achilles Under became renowned as a courageous lrshrcr bur hi' immortal mothcr . cunning oDYssEUs was to marry Achrlles. the world of the dead knew that he was doomed to die at Troy rf he went on the expedition So Thetis arrangedfor him to be disguised as a grrl and hrdden among the women at the palaceof Krng Lycomedeson rhe islandof Sc1'rosThe Greek felt that wrth- Since Thcris had to hold him by the heel.. Agamemnon intended to sacnfice of a tnck which he did by means Haung tracedthe young man to ACHILLES. rhe rrver rhat ran through HADE-S.CLASSICAL MYTHOLOGY ACUtt-leS was rhc son of Krng Peleus of Thessaly and the sea nymph THETISHe was the greatesr of the Greek wamors. Thetis tried to make him immorral by various mcans Thc bcst known wrs drpping the new-born baby in the Sryx. had wamed them that her offspnng would be greaterthan his Iather Anxious ro avord the emergcnceof a powcr qupenorto r h e m s e l v e s . the fire god. I warrior quickly reached for the w e a p o n s .g i v i n g h i m s e l I a w a y Unmasked.s. who irnplorc tht moodyhero to needed w c r r a d m i r i n gr h c retum Lobattle whereht s sorely companions of rhejewels.t to have a son by the beautiful The tis. . palace Whrle Achilles' female (right).rrh lrom a noisoncd anow shot from the bow ol PeRts Achrlles learned the skills of warfare from CHIRON. Achilles had no choice but to sail for Troy There he bitterly quanelled wrth Agamemnon. s crafrsmanship to arms was sounded and the D l / l ' 4 \ A i i i i I l \ L ' 8 t \ L 1 \ t 1 \ l S L i l l P# "F.

Thus it was that An arrow from the bow of Paris. Retuming to Arhens after an incredible adventure in the Labynnth at Knossos. But Achilles was roused to action by the death of Patroclus. AnCeUS was the son of King Pandion ofAthens. aJterhurled wards named the Aegean (lrr/srMr. which had been forged by the smith god HEPHAISTOS. w^ftRconu{. thegod. thevir$ngoddess tumed him into undersrood what had happened.Patroclus had bonowed Achilles' armour.he offended rhe goddess. Backin rhe flght.But bad Iuck continued to dog Aegeus and wentually causedhis death. In brand-new arrnour Achilles sought out Hector.rnrEMISand paid wirh his life. When Aegeus outrage. (Seealso HEROES) suggesrion Theseus was sent to fight the wild bull of Marathon.At the commencementof char Medea did everything she his Asian campaign against rhe could to thwart Theseus. whose magiAchilles was rhe myrhical figure cal powers had given him another most admired by Alexander rhe son. godaims hisarrow shot byParisThesun theonlymortal heel. he was to bring these steed XeivlHUS. Aegeuswent to consult the Delphic Oracle bur received only the ambiguous answer that he should nor untie his wine skin until he reachedhome. APOLLO. FRoM DlcnoNARy oF sandals beneath an enormous C6srclANTreuns.the youthful Alexander pardcipared in funeral games that were held at Troy in memory of Achilles. to ensure a favourable wind for the Greek fleer For a long time Achilles srayed in his rent and refused to fight the Trojans. slew Hector with his spear and draggedrhe Trojan hero round rhe tomb of Patroclus for rwelve days. the latter realizedrhat the oracie had foretold how Aegeuswould father a heroic son. l89l boulder. Medus. a srcgand hewas tornapart byhisovn he placed a sword and a pair of (IuusrunoN hounds. gave Achilles a mortal Meantime. To stop his boasring. To securethe sewices of such ACTAEON wasayoung Greeh hunter a man. ceouus. or annoyed the goddessby seeingher bathing naked. who asked for respect to be shown for his body if he was defeated. He even persuaded his mother to use her influence with Zeus to let the tide of war go against the Greels. Achilles struck fear into the Trojans. For it was agreed that Theseus should travel ro Crete with the seven girls and sevenboys sent as ribute each year to feed the MINOTAUR. a serious obligarion for the living. ry FMNZST ssEN. Theseus forgot the agreement to changehis sail from black to white. which he captured alive. but he cameup againstHectorwho easilydefeatedhim. partoJ thehao'sbody. Aegeus had married wound. 1995) I3 . Ar her Persians.N 8v Nlck 8uLE. lt was for this reason Great. wirh the result rhar. unril Chiron carved a statue of Acaeon so lifelike that they were satisfied. allwithblach sails hoisted thathisson haddied. If Theseus was successfulin his dangerous mission ro kill the Minotaur. the ship bringing him home was to fly a white sail: if unsuccessful. But thesefaithful animals were broken-heaned at the loss of their master. hisson's sees . and farher of tne nero THfslus Ha!1ng twrce manied wirhout begetdng any children. straight Jor Achilles' myths. and entered the fray. of whom he killed hundreds. futemis tumed him into a sug and he was chased and devoured byhis own hounds.Achilles refused. Once Aegeusrecognizedhis son. 1869) ACHILLE daughrer of. (ArcLLo was rhe son of a ACfnfON theanow. Pittheus made Aegeus whounluchily uponthepoolwhae drunk and let him sleep wirh his chanced Artemis woebathing andher nymphs In daughter Aethra. There are several reasons given for his terrible end. He rold the princessthat ) if she bore a son who could move had been wamed about by his the rock.Aegeus the vessel threw himself off the Athenian acropolis to certain dearh AEGEUS outto sea. ln some guided Apollo Pais' bw. which he walk ACHIIJ-E S Jalls bneath theTrojan . A Greek hunter trained by CHIROw. Theseusgew up and was eventuguided by rhe god of prophecy ally reunited with his father. in othm.(. another ruler. ing manhood. before rhe FURIES rokens to him in Athens on reachstruck the divine creature dumb. his squire and lover. When he sought advice from his friend Pittheus. Ioohing ships retuminghome. upon seeing with is black sail. shys shot a seenhere minor royal god and Auronoe. Actaeon may have boasted of his superior skill as a hunrer. But his own life was coming to an end. Heroic yet also arrogant. a black sail would signalhis dearh. Thinhing Aegeus himsef intothesea. the sorceressMEDF-A. at the hands of the Trojan HEcToR. Only Thetis could persuade her son to le! the Trojans recover the corpse and arrange a funeral. a bullheaded man.ClesstcAr- MvrHoLocY her to the goddess ARTEMIS. Medea returned in disgust ro her native Colchis on rhe Black Sea.

the Roman equivalent o[ prepared and. But him to heraotic hingCom welroma and. the Trojan champion. near the city of Cumae. Although Venus wamed him of the impending fall of Troy. so the exploits o[Aeneas conveniently provided a means of reassertingnational pride. Aeneassaw her ghost and leamed from it that he would found a new Troy in distant ltaly. doors Around the walls god. having run herself HERA.the Roman goddess of love He was the favourite of the Romans. saved the fleet from shipwreck At the ciry of Canhage.hs ha blind htsfamily: Jathcr (ANs AND andthar tvtosons. But young Aeneas distinguished himself againsr the Greeks. Dido welcomed the Trojan refugeeswith geat hndness and unlimited hospitaliry. who was a renowned prophetess. who believedthat some of their eminent families were descended from the Trojans who fled westwards with him from Asia Minor. carryrng Anchises on his back. the Roman was a Trojan hero and AfNneS the son ofAnchises and vENUs. its shoreswere both forgotten.pillan.1995 ) ouuiRfloN inrention to leave. the fleet came to Epirus seagod. Aeneas managed to escape Troy with his father and his son Somehow Creusabecame separatedlrom the party and disappeared Later. Anchls. was conthroughout the voyage Only the sumed by the flames When the Trgans finallylanded dmelyhelp of rurm.thequeen. lt was not a coincidence that the first Roman emperor. dispatched urncuRv wirh a oJbronze. During the Trojan WarAnchises was unable to fight. reaching the Iulian mainland itwas diverted to North Afnca dunng a Then the weeping queen mounted sudden storm sent by the goddess a pyre which she had ordered to be . Dido bitterly reproachedAeneas.waitingto them lwrts sheher Prsidc weah ondwovndcl. Venus ensured that Aeneas fell in love with is beauriful queen. but before sense of piety gave him strength enough to launch the fleet again. 161#7) l4 .beams are watchful. the great trading port founded by the Phoenicians (which was located in present-day Tunisia). who harassed Aeneas rhrough with a sword.but his deep on the eastem Adriatic coast From there it made for Sicily.Becauseofher own flrght to Carthage. She took him on a visit to the battlewitha andhiscomrddes A-ENE{S hwerabwe JbchoJraglnghorpieswho canyofl the in thesky. took a personal interest in the myth. who fearedhim second only ro urcron.Nr. Aeneaswent to consult the SIBYL. and a son was born named AscANlus. After sailing through the Aegean Sea.ClnssrcAr- MvrHoLoGY gdzes at the decoratwe became. having been renderedblind or lame for boasdng about his reladonship with Venus. So. and the new sute to be founded on temple In Carthage.uetrrR. Upstart Rome was only too aware of its lack of tradition and history in comparison with Greece(there was a nouble absenceof a glorious past peopled with mythical heroes and gods). Time passed pleasantly for the lovers. after the Greek sack of their city. while made Jabulous messageto Aeneas.where the small fleet Aeneas commanded stopped at a number of islands. wiJe Cmtsa HE CoMpNloNs FlGm frE ll^mEs rv Fwcors I'ERroE crwtr.recalling him to ale oJ aredecorated with the famous his dury and commanding him to anil theTrolans Aenens BY Nrcx resume the voyage Honified by his BuE. rhe chief Roman than. Augustus. and ir seemed as i[ Italy AENFAS in wonder while Drdo. Anchises refused to quit the city until two omens occurred: a small flame rose from rhe top ofAscanius'head and a meteor fell close by. ln gradtude PRIAM gave Aeneas his daughter Creusa to have as his wife. as Aeneas and Dido soon in laly.ulo. the widow DIDO.

Afrer Achilles' BAmsr^.death there was a contest for rhe against Troy The causeo[ the war ter of PRIAM. HEPFIAISTOS. the defeated Trojan armour of this great warrior. rendering him Greek mythology. and hero ACHILLES According ro Conflict with rhe latins. he sent out a summons to ignoring the warning o[ his slave assault on Troy. but accordingto another. like ACHILLES.ealousy He planned a Sicily. on the pretexr rhat she was to be rRoM STORIE FROM HoMER. His daughter IPHTGENIA theTrojans who. powerful aid to the Greeksin their Jromheavat shecarried Iphignia ofl to Tdurus OHE SACruNCE OFIPHIGENN 8YGIOVNNI Argos. who showed him HELEN.she longed But peacewas made when was savedby Artemrs herselfand Aeneas mamed l-avinia. would have to make a human sac. adopred the during the ten-yearsiegeofTroy.. On her it around his body. 1770-) the Greek to join the expedition cAssANDM. but rifice in order to appease ARTEMIS. Aegisthus was rhe son ofThyesres. aims hisbow at instead. from abroad The Tro. long of Spana. Ajax humedly rumed away animais.hopewas suddenly overwhelmed by a Afterwards. was bloody and pro. the local one tradition. He was wzlsto seehim Thanlcng the gods A. in order and she took Aegrsthusfor a lover to appeaseJuno. Aeneassreered for was therefore sent to Aulis under to settheGreeh ships alight 0uusmnoru fear of his evil intentions. which underworld.his into slaughtering a flock of sheep it did not speak to him and the goddess o[ the forest and wild brother.uken ro Taurus to becomea priesrter of King Larinus lt had been ess in the goddess'stemple foretold that for the sake of the Clytemnestra never forgave longdom Laviniamust marryraman Agamerhnon for lphigenia's loss. rhe Greek fleer was Clytemnestra quickly threw a large awarded the armour.or nearby crossed the threshold ofhis palace. was a his citadel at Mycenae. Wical mightandcourage Beside htm. Latins' rraditions and language.Anchiseshad However. the MENEIAUS.but of the future encouraged his son. When ODY55EU5 was the destiny of Rome. and fell che mouth of rhe River Tiber. ro rhar ciry wirh PARI5.ClassIcAr- MyrHoLocY ACnunuNON. Iphignia. descending married ro CLyTEMNESTM. but his enthusiastic ourline Agamemnon then realized that he nighr attack on his comrades.AJAXheads of theTrqan onslaught wth rhe goddesserHrNA deceived him Aeneas also saw Dido's ghost.lans. lphigeniawas sacriinhabirants. i885 ) on his sword and died whose river banks the ciry of Rome married to the Greek champion would be built centuries larer.ficed. Clytemnesrraar an easy targerfor Aegisthus' axe. Ajax became died of old age during the smy in delayed at Auhs by conrary winds net over Agamemnon and twisted mad with. Tatcerthearcher. is ofered a a "sacnfciallamb" to apryase theanger oJ AGAMEMNON I5 . In the light of dawn.withJlamingtorches. according ro Agamemnon's father. of erRrus and the brother of first pretended how pleased she Artem(: but at the last moment. waxha coolly ahis daughtu. king. the daugh. (Seealso VOYAGERS) the brother and enemy of Atreus. in order to change his clothes. Agamemnon Salamisand. the prophetic daugh. There Aeneasmet his was the flight of Menelaus' wife. From for his safe retum.AX -as rhe son of Telamon of goddess henef rebnted and. NEM. was the son husband's retum. He rhen rerired to a barhroom had been forged by the smirh god father's ghost.

a bear) to a chariot. Wirh rhe aid of epoLro. a neighbounng monarch named Admetus succeeded in this seemingly impossible task But at the wedding he forgot to make the necessarysacnfice in gratitude ro ARTEMIS. by making rhe FATES drunk. and always protected Alcmene. So Alcmene became pregnant with rwins: Heracles. Alcescisgaveher life for him prnstpuolr. and lphicles. ALCESTIS hersuitor. I6 .son of pEFsrus.was so impressedby this complete devotion rhar she restoredAlcestis to Admetus. but a trick savedAlcmene and her two sons. She married Amphitryon. Alcmene refused to consummate her marriagero Amphitryon undl he had avenged the murder of her brothers. Hera then put snakes into Heracles'cradle. When Alcmene died naturally of to bring old age. the goddessof the foresr and wrld animals. whileAlcestis' Jather. many suitors appeared and her father set a test to discoverwho would be the most suirable husband. Amphitryon was enrageduntil ALCMENE6ght) wasote oJrheslEgod Zeus' many loers.q. .sslcAL MYTHoLoGY AlCfSftS. and they had two sons who later took part in the Greek expedirion agarnstthe city ofTroy. but was stopped by a sudden downpour. fu no one would volunteer. in some versions.and the morher of urnacrrs. and so found his wedding bed full of snakes Once again Apollo came to the king's assistanceand. Ioohs onin disbelieJ. extracted from rhem a promise that if anyone elsewould die on Admetus' behalf.ro frusrate the delivery.l995) the seer TIRESIAS explained that zEUs had come ro Alcmene disguised as her husband in order to father a monal who would aid the gods in their forthcoming battle against the GIANTS. 1 9 2 0 ) AlCUeNt was rhe daughrerof Electryon. Zeus could not hide hls sarisfaction from his wife HERA who realized what had happened Shesent the goddessof childbirth.but wos punished Jor herinlideliry byherangry husband. Once Amphitryon tried ro bum her for infidelity. according ro Greek mythology. king of Tir. who anives in o chaiotdrawn by Iions andbears.'ns. Admetus was theonly toyohe hero thebeasts. the god of prophecy. below)welcomes Admetus.CI. rhe son of Amphirryon. Alcestis was to be the wife of the firsr man to yoke a lion and a boar (or. Pelias. but the infant hero strangled them ku s never ler H era f. here isportr(lyed setting alight her She was a pyre beneath saved by a heawnly dwnpoursent byZeus (lrLLsruTr)I 8YNtcKBilu. the son o[ Zeus. This the king did. who Amphitryon. was the daughrer of Krng Pelias of Thessaly When she was o[ an age to marry. Eileithyia.Zeus sent HERMES her body to the ElysianFields. rhe undenvorld goddess.a:e.llyinjur e Heracles. he might continue to live. near Mycenae in the Peloponnese. but when he retumed he was amazed to learn from Alcmene rhat she believedshe had alreadyslept with him. sowinning (trrt'srurror thehand oJAlcestis rnov srorur r R o MG R r ( L A N DR o M r .

cnNVAs. forced Numitor's daughter RHEA Andromache was taken off into SILYIA to become a Vestal Mrgin so captlvityby Neoptolemus. Romulusand Remus. rhe was a descendant of the Trojan foremost Trojan warrior Her entire hero AENEAS.eing that thq be drownedin the nver Tiber. herhead bows in captivity One oJthe noblest but most ll-starred ofheroines.parens.which was a new ciry founded by one of her sons. REMUS ANDROMULUS. husband throne of Alba Longa from his and son . c 1890) ANonOveCHE. Minor. and in consequen'ce suffered the hatred of his barren Greek wrfe When Neoptolemusdied. andherson hurled Jrom thecirywalls. Faustulus. Romulus and Remusretumed ro Alba Longa and lalled their uncle Amulius. like her. 1885 ) violent and tempestuous temper urs wrth her.One of Heracles'famous labours was the seizure of a girdle belonging to the Amazon queen Hippolyta.the twin sonsoJ Rhea Silviaand the war god Mars. Andromache bore Neoptolemus three sons. god laas. Amulius imprisoned her and ordered that her rwin sons. After the sack of Troy. a theft that required considerablenerve. in Roman my'thology. tahesthem home (ttlsrurrul rRoM sroRrEs l ROM Ll\a. The adventures of borh rurnecrES and ll-tt5tu) lnvolveo Datlles wltn Arnazons. PRIAM. But thq are eventually who Jound fo a she-wolJ suchles them until a shepherd. ord. was the wlfe of nncton. his father when he rurhlessly killed the Trojan hng. andseven brothers Jather hilledby Arhilles. she sees herhusband. Andromache went on to marry Helenus who. rhe son as to deny her father an heir When of the great Greek hero ACHILLES RheaSihra was raped by the war Neoptolemus had shown rhe same . ANDROMACHE.CLASSIcAL MYinoIocy AMUIJUS (Iet't) casts outhis nephews. while she asa pize oJ Jalls war to Achilles' son (cAf lvr: ANDRi)MAcHli D) L0RDLErcHroN. the daughter of Eetion.was killed during the younger brother Numitor and Trojan War. young Hector's wtJe. brothers. be drowned in the Tiber Bur rhe rwo boys escapeda watery death and grew up in the countryside Once rhey realized their parenrage. He even slew a comrade who mentioned it Fascination with Amazon power affectedother heroesbesidesAchilles. ar rhe altar of zrus'remple. a king of Mysia in Asia AUUIIUS.He usurped the family . was a Trojan captive Her finalyearswere spent in fuia Minor at Pergamum.

plete disaster it was decided to which Perseusruled.The penitent Oedipus was then guided by Antigone in his wanderings round Greece. She retumed to Thebes. 1630) in an uprising against the new ruler cREoN. ha uncle. Oedipus tore out his eyes while Jocastahanged herself.king ofThebes.CLASSICAL MYTHOLOGY ANTIGONE (abwe) sp'inhlesmrth on as a the body oJha brother.sandals carrying the head of the ANDROUEDA and Cepheus. when her distraught father gained some hnd of peacejust before his death. the sea to mamage if he defeatedthe monnymphs. The constelsacriliceAndromeda to the beast Iation of Andromeda lies close to and both Cepheus and she was chained to a rock at that of Pegasus. Perseus and Cepheus'kingdom To avoid com.Andromeda settled in Tirfns. Antigone refusedto accept this impiety and spnnkled earth over the corpse as a token burial For this she was walled up in a cave. buial wasa sacredduty. saw her as he flew past on winged was rhe daughrerof ANilCONE IEDIPUS. This Perseusdid by using seagod PosEIDoN He avengedthis Medusa's head. a bunnl. chainedto a roch os a sacifice m a seamonster.theheroPerseus his way Swoopingdwtn on thewinged hone. Her brother Polyniceshad been killed ANNOPN LOYER5 SCC OFZEUS was the Greek APnnOOtfE goddess o[ Iove. they complained to the ster.can only pray. Pegaw. and his wrfe and motherJocasta On leaming of their unwitting incest. but her troubles were not over. There PERSEUS and Cassiopewere also commemorated in the stars. the foot of a cliff. She was with him at the sancuary of Colonus. Aphrodite was not only a goddess of sexuai love but also of the affection that sustains social life. but they all castAntigone as the heroic victim of a family wrecked by a terrible deed. symbolicat oJbunal For the Greelu.where she hangedhenelflike her mother Jocasta. iolating had daied Polynices NrcK BilrE 1995 diine l. and his body was condemned to rot unburied outside the ciry.king Gorgon Medusa He fell in love ter o[ Cassiope of the Ethiopians When Cassiope with Andromeda. and obtained boasted that Andromeda was more both her and her father's consent beautiful than the Nereids.with whom she was idendfied. although the ancient Greek came to believe it refened to foam Quite possibly this belief arosefrom the story ofAphrodite's l8 . Polynices. beauty and fertiliry Unlike her Roman counterpan yENUs.||n 04usrunoN By ) ANDROMEDA Q$). was the daugh. There are a number of different versionsof the myth. wrthout which a soul couV not rest. The meaningo[ her name is uncertain. s on whilehlgh owrhead. near Athens. the sighr of which tumed all living things to stone.wtr. he cu* Andromedafree and REH$ slaysthe monster (PERSEUS ANDRoMED EyJflcHtMwlflEi.yet Creon. insult by flooding the land and sending a seamonster to devastate After sorne time.

could give answers to any questions that might be asked. ln order to ensure that he would name her zlsthe most beautiful of the goddesses. in war. ln the Roman version o[ this myth Venus herself is deeply attracted ro rhe Trojan. Indeed. where it floated amid white foam Inside the penis Aphrodite grew and was then washed up at Paphos on C1prus. sherose stepping lrom the waveson a seashell. andlbns. the goddessof Iove The rwins. Apollo's interest in healing suSges6 an anclent assoclatlon with the plagueand is conrrol. While the Roman goddess provided. has nothing of Ares' fickleness APOILO (abate).luik the gods into battle. Their birter quarrel was only ended by zrUs. though he had to do penance in Thessalyfor the hlling. ln Greek mythology. Killed by a wild boar. and posenoru. archery and music The origrn of his name is uncenain but it is probably non-European A light with the gigandc earthserpent Python at Delphi gave Apollo rhe sear o[ his famous oracle. insteadoJ horses. who ruled that for a rhird of the year Adonis was to dwell with himself. rather tlnn Helios. (THE BomcEur. he casr rhe immortal member into the sea.This Anchlscs fails to do. which issued revelations through a fissurein the rock so that a priestess. Apollo took its place. infuIl atmour.vs and srna. son of pRraU rhe hng of Troy. was the Greek god of war.t). the spingblow her gently uhore in a showeroJ roses. Phobos. goddess of lwe andbeauty. and for a third part with Aphrodite. He called rhe other gods from Mount Olympus ro see the pair. or annual festivals commemorating Adonis' death.1870) ARES @lov. "[ear". Poseidonand Apolb (cntre) wouV oJtm ad the Trojans. andFlora. her sacred BrRrH oFvENUs By sANDRo flower. Ares is depicted as an instigator of vrolence.PHRODITE. but they only lauglred at his shame. the sun gd. Zeus rwice forced Apollo to be the slave of a mortal man to pay for his crime. but wams him to keep the parentageof their son Aeneasa secret. and Deimos. TEMpEv. His son ASCLEPIUS was also identified with healing and connected with sitesin nonhem Greece Indeed. wife of vrruruqus. kingof Spana. a tempestuous and passionatelover and an unscrupulous fnend The Roman god Mars. Ares. Ztphyus. alwaysaccompanied him on the bardefield. which suggesrsrhar she was a Westfuian goddesswho was brought to Greeceby sea-traders. whilc Hqa anil Athena (ri$t) supporttt the Greek.Aphrodi? Ael). So it was rhar rhe ancient Greels accommodated a West Asian mother goddessand her dying-and-rising husband. Aphrodite promised PARIs.After he slew the eanh-serpent. Once she arrived. a means for some of the Trojans to escape and flourish anew in ltaly. $rthon was an offspring of GAIA. the god of the sea. the west wtnd. (H{oEBUs Arcrc By EMoN RMEtrcANv s. was bom Jrom theJoam ol the su. Indeed the Adonia.ClnssrcAr- MyrHoLocY I. as ider.and the twin brother of the goddess ARTEMIS. the gods were not im4rtial. for a third parr wirh Persephone. (Seealso FORCES OFNATURE) AnrS. l8ll5 ) . persuaded Hephaisros to release Aphrodite and Ares. including DIONYSUS and ARES. orurmroN noM SroruBrcM HoMER. and as a resuk suffers blindness or a disability of the Iimbs. another West Asian deity. and was the god of prophecy. When Hephaisros found out about Aphrodire's passion for rhe war god Ares. however. pull the chaiot. Howarcr. APOILO was rhe son of zEUs and the Timness LETO. the farher of AENEAS. the GreekAphrodite actually helped to causethe Trojan War. "panic". he had three children byAPHROOIr. througlr the leadership of Aeneas. But Aphrodire was not content to be a hithful wife and she bore children by severalorher gods. When rheTiran CRONOS cur off the penis of his farher Ouranos with a sharp sickle. Adonis became the object of admirarion for both Aphrodite and pERsEpHorur. Perhaps Aphrodire's grearesr Iove was for rhe handsome yourh Adonis.the $nhia. urgcs the sun-chaiot ta ise in the slty This unusual wsion oJ themythhas Apollo. and was Iater idenrified with the Roman war god uens. ruallingthe linh fuween lzo anil the sun. were celebrated in many pars of the eastemMediterranean Becauseof her unruly behaviour. the virgin hunrress. Zeus causedAphrodire ro fall in love wirh Anchises. There were in fact sanctuaries dedicared to her on many islands. This fatefully rumed our ro be HELEN. queen of the dead. ashoreon Cyprus At hu sile. c 1482 ) binh. Although Ares had no wife of his own. so accomplished was Asclepius in medicine that Zeus slew him with a thunderbolt for daring to bring a man back to life.c . He was one of the most important deities of both the Greek and Roman religions. the son of zr.mother earth. rhe ourraged smith god made a mesh of gold and caught the lovers in bed togerher. the hand of the most beaudful woman in the world. the ancient Gree}<smarried her in their mythology to the crippled smith god HEPFIAISTOS.

l wus plared among fht stcrs ds tht 5h.Zus. Baar Hrre. Hera rvas notoriously jealous and r. Eros. d w(r\ior((1 hl Zeustn tht lom LtJ ANTIOPE (uhort). as Atlphtotrurcl Zrlhus tlerc.Zeus loved countlesswomen and he as a bull.l ht r m m p h s r o n r / o r t ( a i l r s t o p o s s r b i va f t er h i ' r (n(ount(r wrth th" ovemhclmtng god.ghl) ucrs ir(rrr(/ l^ Zt'ti\ In t h ( ' \ h d 1 l i .CLASSICAL MYTHOLOGY LovERs oF Zr.r/u rrvergrtl. somctimes a s a s a t y r . t n t t t g t d / r r r n rl h t n t l l c s o n t l t a n t L t l h r t r n r l h r st'a trr (. or lry Htru htrvll A\ d btdr rhc was shol hv srrns I ht' r'anous \tug6 rrprr'sr'ntcd htrt on tht klt.l rnlo u bcur erlhcr la ZLus.a s a s w a n . suprcmc power on Olympus One of the most amorous gods in mytholo gy. Hera. s r r m c t i m c sa s a m o r t a l m a n .The antagonism between the two could be viewed as a clashbetween different religious traditions or local cults.engeful. each cult recognizing a different lovcr who was often regarded as the anccs[orof a ruling family d sdtvr. A t i a s FI/ROPA lr.us is thc N4yt-tIt)Lt)GY op GRr.. surrounciccl lrr th.sucl grrd be-side ct vttuthlul sutl'r.(r\l:A-\. Ztus nr()unl5 tLc bull tntouruged ht ls tcrflr'nrss On the nght.rtft whcri'shr bort hun Lhrtt ol th( hdntu drt -Shcw. husband. /r. l t r . ['uropu Arl. 152125J CALLI-S1-O (ahrrr').rlt nrrnph und (()ntfdnl()il()/Atfttnl\ rn t/tr thrlSa trcts l o \ a ( 1h : r r i \ r t n t .l gout-lihc crtaturt 5hc iorl hrn twlr soils. /b o r r h t t t t c t s o n . dtstrtiscc.K ASpEC-T s rRtKtNG maritai conilict between the two chicf and her deities. she ts homr selulrlv Jown to rhr sea. an earth gc-rddess.roil \f\r'u)rf /r r\nr\(.r F( R(n'A B) I)^rrr) 20 . Zcus.gcnliv sfiaJrrAntrrpe /rom thr sunwhilcshcsicrps Oflove td. hun(t r.t. wrshrrrg to hrclL htr lrom I lcra. ltdvrng lo ( l l h N AA \ r ) ( r \ | r \ r ( r t r I ' r r f RP 4 r r R rB t N \ . w'rlh mrlnl Lltlt I:rotcs (Lrr sprnts) horenng rn lhr riry I rnulh shc foats happiy htr moukns away.mrs rn thr /orcsr aar. t(rfhr( \ ry' thr Lhctsc.pursuing without mercy his loversand their offspring. courtcd them in as many forms. and erren in the form of a golden shower. rlrughtir.Arlemrs on. / i r b c a L r t r / r lh u l l r . al\vAs l6J640 ) (Trlr R{n .us lhcn .rr\rr)$1S{r\R8}Atr1)\rr(i)tsRr('(r).

gavc brrth prtmuturdy to Diorrysus. whom Zeussavedlrtnn tht Jirt In thrspowerful veirion oJ the myth.t (1\\1\ ltiq6) . dymg.bloodredhghtnrng bc Dionysus. hut thq ftoattd ushorc wherethqt wert rtt uttl on the Isleol Senphos )rFR )\' )! Bl(rrr )Rc[.l. the stars us to heaven her arnong and placed redwith iw. -Senreic unLl. [ u ( x ) r ) T A l( t 5] 9 2 C 1 Htro. ThyoneThisEtmsrdnmitror is borde )M rn( which was l)tonysus' sutred plant (lrrr \ ru rr()N Ir()\ARY 1895 DR SvI Hs Cliss(il Dr( ) DANAE below) u. thegeat godrodutes 5-ynrbolist chrldhtdrng A winged Itery.s( FRr lry Dictls (llrr \rMrr( T { \ ( .t\r4\'rM()RF. ptrsuudtd SEMELE (klt) encourugtd 14' in all his qlenJour Whenh.M YTTt o childlry Semdt.whilc Apolkt stcrnJ s w r t hu h u yt t r t ( l r t r i i t r ' h raised hts ntothrt Dionystrs becanta goc.lt anclbort hun o son. from thehght coulcl homed godscems to be a fusion oJ Hudrs und Pun (l( filR4NrSl\1lrr r) a. Pcrsrus When htr lttthtr drstoveretl thebaby.usconfinedin a brazt'n tLtwer lry her father whofearedan oracleprtdtctrng thut ht woukl be hilledby o gundson In htr lout'r shs n s/roxd .' Zcrs lo shor hrrnscl/ apptarttl beJorthcr as tht radiunt gil ttl thwtdtr wasconsumed iry thc /icrrnes anrl lightning. wds visiledby Zeusn tfu lonn oJa golc.ht tdsthothoJ thtm out to seain a woodenchest.apptarshtre huggrng his mothcr.whrle thet)arh.

of BoR-EAS ern Georgia It hung from a tree Together they crossed a sea of there.while Athenamahes sails Behindher. he sailedaway with her. rhe seconddaughter 22 .Jasondeterminedto return to Iolcus and reclarm che throne During the joumey. throughthe Itfuyinth AItu hilling the bull-Iihebeast. he was tested by the goddess HERA. guarded by an enormous marvels. but then deserted her on Dia. disguised as an old woman. Jiery credtures (lLLUsrMTpN FRoM TA\GI l.enty oars Hereht carues out thestem. was deposedby his half-brorherPelias. ( 1924 ) which Jason did at the cost of one of his sandals Thus the prophecy was fulfilled: a man weannS only one sandalarrived at lolcus to chalmade lenge Pelias BecauseJason his intentionsknown ar the time of festival. visited strange lands and snake that never slept overcame many obstaclesbefore The DELPHIC OMCLE encoul.helpsHera. her sacred creature. with Medea'shelp.dcross the stredm In the cunent he losesa sandal. who was wamed at the time how he would in tum be overthrown by a man wearing only one sandal In order to protectJasonfrom Pe]ias.the owl.ooDTALES ( lg20 ) ORPHEUS Castor and Polydeuces. iike many other heroes On reaching manhood.where was the nghtful their leader.CrnssrcAL MYTHoLoGy I I I i THE AncoNAUTS were very earlyexplorers.reaching Colchis. who was disguised as an old woman She begged him to carry her safelyacrossa swollen river. a ship with th. k r n g o f I o l c u s A c c o r d i n gt o r h e myrh. Julfilling parl oJ an oracle that ahalJ-shod man would tahe Pehas'throne Thepeacoch beside Hera denoLes her all-seeing vision (ItusrurrcN FROM TANGLEWOOD TALI. possibly believing to marry a god that shewasdestrned (ir l l'srRAnoN FRoM I Alcl s. in the Ltbynnth.perched on a pillar.S.s.she anointshim wtth a salveto protect him Jromlire and steel ploughsthe Jreldswith the bulls oJ Aietes He was the fvst hero to yohe thewlld and. Aeson had secrerlysent his son to CHIRON to educatethe young man.Aeson. c I 920 ) wamors to Join his expedition and they became known as the Argonauts. where Hera used to the goddessof love APHRODITE agedJason ro undertakethe quest Hera inspired a group o[Thessa]ran make MEDEA. however. Pelias a religrous could not krll his nephew wrthout the nsk o[ suffenng divine disfavour So the king toldJason that he could have the throne provided he obtained rhe Golden Fleece. Calaisand Zetes the sons and rhe hero HTMCLES distant land identified wrth mod. a ARIADNE (qbove) hands the vital shetnto whirh allows hrm to trach his way Theseus. rhe poet. THE ARGONAUTS (top) commissioned Argus to build theArgo. symbolizes her wisdom (lLLUsrMroN rRoM DI(TIoNARY oF ChsSIcAI ANTIQUITIEs ]89] ) JASON (abne IeJt).the Minotdur. Jason'sfather.TAsoN. the crew of the ship Argo Among their number were IASON (abne).which was an apparently impossible task This miraculous fleece belonged to a ram which had flown to Colchis.mosr likely rhe first Greek voyagers to the Black Sea They sailed from Thessaly.ooD IAr Es.

This they did. butMedeahlled rhis riral and her own children byJason.ClesslcAI- MvrHoLocY of King Aietes. Aries the ram. plough and sow a field with dragon's teeth. Apsyrtus. AruON VOYAGER5 SEC ARTEMIS. was the daughter of pestprl. the leader of the Greek expedition against Troy. But first Aietes set Jason a challenge that was intended to result in his death. so as ro rcsrorc his youth.4n and King MINos. The Golden Fleece also appear in the heavens as the first constellarion of the Tndiac. and slay the armed men who would at once rise from the gound. and in hlling him avenged rhe disgrace of Jason's htherAeson. With the assistance of Medea's skills in the magic arm. fuiadne gavehim a sword and a skein of thread that allowed him to escapefrom Daedalus'kbynnth after a bloody struggle with the dreaded bull-headed man. Theseus and Ariadne then fled from Crete.bathingwith hu nymphs.and the rwin sisrer of APoLLo. The king hated Greek but he kept his feelings hidden from the Argonaus. When the Athenian hero THESEUS came to Knossos to pay the annual tribute of seven young men and seven girls. or any harm done to her favourite animals. For killing a sug sacred to Artemis. aNvs. according to a different version. although the whole story of the Minotaur was probably no more than a garbled version offar older tales of the spon of bull-leaping. Jason died in Corinrh as a result of a rotten piece of rhe Argo hlling on his head. AnfgUtS was rhe daughter of the Tiraness LETOand ZEUS. Jason and Medea led an unsertled life in Greece. t-ater. Piecesof Apsynus' body were thrown overboard. Bur the hng of Colchis was not prepared to give up the Golden Fleeceso easily. a "bull-homed god" who was full of powerand feniliry.andJasonseized the Golden Fleece The Argonaus quickly rowed away from Colchis with the fleece and Medea. Medea slowed the Ileet of her hther Aietes by hlling and cutring up her own brother. rhe god of ecsmsy and wine. Most of all. Artemis was closely identified with their goddess Diana. He secrerly planned to attack the Argonaus. forcing the Colchians to gather up the remains for a decenr burial. She was in all likelihood averyancient deity whom the Greeks adopted as goddess of the wild Traces of human sacrifice could still be found in her worship. for during the pursuit of rhe Argonauts across the Black Sea. Another monal punished by Anemis was ACTAEON. The desened princess may then have become the wife of DloNysus. He even consented toJason's attempt to capture the Golden Fleece.virgin goddess oJthewild. Afterwards rhe gods raised the ship to the skyand made it into a constellarion. The hero was required to yoke a team of firebreathing bulls. Actaeon actually tried to approach the naked goddess hidden beneath a stag's pelt To the Romans. fall in love with Jason. whom Jason had promised to marry once back in Thessaly The Colchian princessseemsro have been associatedwirh rhe rires of dismemberrnent as well as magic. who was also a goddess of light as well as of the wild. He had the misfonune while hundng to come upon the goddess as she was bathing She changed him into a stag and he was chased and tom apart by his own hundng dogs. She employed her magic once again to deal y"ith the unsleeping snake. ArunONf. Medea also persuaded the daughters of King Pelias ro cur rheir father to pieces and boil him. in Thessaly. King AGAMEMNON of Mycenae. in Greek myrhology. Dionysus himself was known to the Greeks as "the roanng one".although there are differing accounts as to whether the girl was acually hlled. she tumedhimintoa sta&which indignantly (Durrrro wasset upon fo hisownhounds AcAEoN TrruN. Local legend would suggest such a connection. the MINOTAUR. rhe ruler of Knossos on the island of Crete. Jason accomplished Aietes' task within a single day. found his fleet sranded by contrary winds 23 . resisted thelove always or attentions of men Whenthehunter Actaeon sawhoin thenude. now Jason's lover. which dated from the pre-Greekera of Cretan history. After a few years he deserted her for another wonvul. Anemis liked to roam the mountains with a companion band of nymphs Cenainly the virgin goddess resented any kind of inmrsion into her domain.1556-59) By atAulis. who were wamed by Medea. but for some unknown reason the hero abandoned the princess on the nearby island of Dia. However. Only a promise to sacrifice was enough his daughter PHIGENIA to appeasethe goddess.

claimed descent from Aeneas the Romans. Apollo felt sorry for his was fu\ clothed Finally. an awful consequence of losing. brought peace and unity to the god of prophecy. AD 62 AND 79) /orceps(wouxoeo the CentaurCHIRoN. in Greek mythArnreNfn. zls Ophiuchus. the Greek god of princess whose marriageto Aeneas healing. her in a race and any man who lost When Coronis dared to take in would be put to death. It was in nFmph Coronis. Sacred snakes resident there were 24 .in a mantle oJ Close Jatho. the love unbom son and removed him from goddess ernnoorn took piry on a the corpse. fuclepius would seem Ascanius was hng of lavinium fol. the arrival of the Trojan refugeesin Ilium being the old name for Troy Italy.to have been a Thessalianhealer Iowing Aeneas' death. and before whose skills became known he left to take up residence in a throughout Greece: his cult evennew ciry at Alba Longa. Venus. However. but at Apollo's request the god of medicine was placed among the stars. olory. Asclepius was slain by a thunder-bolt. Thus was Asclepius young man named Melanion and bom. None could catch her. and the lake L-arinand Trojan peoples. bur was suckled by a bear and later brought up by hunters. was the daughter of Iasus of Arcadia and was known as a famous hunness. This would mean that major deiry. ANoN. ing power.causejealousies amongst them.He was taught medicine by provided him with a way to delay ASCANIUS was rhe son o[ The family ofJulius Caesar.. She said birth and death were ever well rhat her husband must first beat known to the Greek and Romans.Cr-RssrcAL MYTHoLocY ASO{NIUSweeps baidehLswounded by. Aateas mother. The ancient associadon refused herbecause the presenceof between snakes and medicine is one woman on rhe ship mighr probably due to the snake's appar. who was also AIba Longa thirry-rhree years after called Iulus llus ("made of llium"). as the herspeed. When he did succeed in resurrecdngone of his patients. She even tried to enlist but fiSOw believed to embody the god's heal. In myrhology he her honour that Aeneas founded is a somewhat shadowy figure. mrst. AENW. the serpent-bearer. Aeneas' divine wttha spng of dacends Jromheaven whiletheGreeh surgeo\ healingilittany. This experience may have inclined her to manly pursuits. Despite the secret a monal as a second lover. Early rilalry tually took over the sanctuary at between the two cities probably Epidauros in the Peloponnese explains the removal myth. pullsoutthearow-headwrthhis Iapyx. So impressed were the Romans with Asclepius' cult that during a time of plague they requested aid from Epidauros and a sacredsnake was duly shipped to Rome. there enraged Apollo sent his sister were many who admired Atalana's beauty and paid the price against ARTEMISto kill the lake nymph with a disease. a l-atin ASCrnPtuS. Atalanra's most famous myth enr abiliry to renew its youth each concems the lengths to which she year by sloughing off is own shn.rhe AENEAS and Creusa According to Julii. As an unwanted daughter she was exposed and left to die on a mounainside. whose Imowledge was so great that zEUshimself fearedthat Asclepius mrght leam a way of overcomrng death. An altemadve radirion makes Ascanius' mother l-avinia. was rhe son of epotto. Zeus decided that Asclepius should be punished for threatening the gods' monopoly over immortality. although they ran naked while she flames of the funeral pyre bumed Coronis. he founded the city of through Ascanius.with the ARGONAUTS. Lavinium within three years of which suggess his late arrival as a landing. Only the stories of Asclepius' went to avoid marriage.

POSEIDON.presented ro HERA ar her mamage LozEUs Atlas offered to fetch them for Heracles if the . the Athenians later bndlewith whichto tameand mount tht went on to achievemasteryof the wingedhorse. war and crafts Although a fierce mtraculous oncercune(ling d mortalJrom death His attibutes. JAsON.Pegdsus{tulsrmn. found themselves gazing upon Erichthonius. the island of Ithaca. wds Not only did condemned matncide ORESTES to shouldu theheavms Jorever. hermatch on Athenian coins. rhe daughter ofzrus and rhe Titaness gredtesthealer.AsclepiuswasglJted wrth Metis. which he placed at grew on its acropoiis: the other different points on the course diune nval for worship was rhe god who produced only a Curiosiry gor the better o[Atalanta. This city Atalanta. it was she who eventuallygot ODYSSEUS back to adjust the weight on his shoulder. two of them looked inside. Bur armed from the head of her father in his hasre to make love to her. was the Greek goddess o[ p(Nters. not leastbecausefor the firsr nme even the FURIES acceptedOresres' deliverancefrom guilr ATIAS was a rlTAN. rhe companion of the smith god. . female guardiansof the fruit that morher earrh. she did not shun men but on the contrary setwL sign{ypowerandrnaval oJhJe (IIUsBfloN BYNICK B4E. She gave him three adopted her cult when an olive tree golden apples. i89l ) by the ancient court o[ the Areopagus.thegreat Titanglant. she FRoM TANGLTooD TALB c 1920 ) ASCLEPIUS. and his name means"he who cames" His most famous encounter was wirh one of whose the hero HEMCLES.the ing the Persianinvasion of Greece visits thehero Bellerophon in 480-479 nc.the gtJtedhuntress dnd unusually athletic huoine.the semiserpent who first ruled Athens. GAIA. j.the miraculously disappearedso rhat the semen of the smith god fell to the ground. The Romans Jound in theequally idendfied her wirh MINERvA. 1995 ) delighted in being a city-goddess. Here theheroic which An early myth relares how sW themonstrous wiWboar has ravaglngthe Hephaistos tned to rape Athena been plains oJCalydon (lltusrunoN To avoid losing her virginity.ghting she offer him protection. Although ATHENA.CLASSICAL MYTHOLOGY AfnfNn.r rr.. the ciry fell into enemy hands dur. Greeh god oJhealing tends a man on his sichbedA sonof ApoIIo. stafl and urgin like ARTEMIS.HERACLES askedifAt]as would take the world for a moment so that he could and prRsrus Also.v seaand found their own empire It SToRrEs FRoM GREECE AND RoME. rhe son o[ Iapetus and the Oceanid Cl)'mene He was thought by the ancient Greek to hold up the sky.l930 ) was during this period that the Parthenon was built on the hero took over his job of holding Athenian acropolis up the sky When Atlas returned Athena was alwaysregarded by wrth the appleshe suggestedthat the Greeks as an active goddess. Athena connnued to protect Athens. and went insane However. labours was to obtain the golden apples of the HESPERIDES. resourceJul andarugetic a godMelanion pairhuntand dessofwrsdom and the arts. afrer he had swallowed the Melanion either forgot a vow to pregnant Metis The smith god Aphrodite or consummated their HEPFIAISTOS assistedrhe birrh wirh union in a sacredplace To pay for a blow from his axe Quire likely the sacrilegeboth he and Aralanta this intervention accounts for her were tumed into hons. who stopped three times to pick spnng of brackish water Arhena up the apples So Melanion won sprang into being fully grown and the race and Atalancaas a wife. he should deliverthem himself. were given a box by Athena and told not to look inside it Ignoring this command. as involved in the affairs of men She Heracleswas doing so well The helped several heroes such as hero pretended to agreeand then BELLEROPHON. Zeus. Athena's symbol was the wrse owl. followrng his so tncking Atlas into resuming his epic voyagehome from the Trojan lonely duty (SeealsoGIANTS) War PerhapsAthena's most significant aid was given ro the ATIAS. in Athens The verdict meant an end to the blood-feud. where it grew into the serpent Erichthonius The three daughterso[ Cecrops. goddess oJwisdomarul craJts. but she aspunishment theslEgod Jor also arranged for him to be rried Zeus (Iuvsrunou moM DrcnoNAfr oF cwsrql and acquitted of his terrible crime ANrreurilE.guidedand helpedherJavouites Here she with a g'Jt . somerimesArhene. title of Hephaistia. which featured ATAIr{NTA. most notably at Athens.

tame Pegasus. throughthe smoheandJlamesoJ thefireslew Aerope and exiled Thyestes At a banquet supposedly for breathingChimaera. with a The second nle almost ends in the murder He evidently killed an hero's death when he attempted to fly ro Mount Olympus. whose husband was the eldest son of AGAMEMNON Atreus and his successoras king of Mycenae. sonoJPelops. Aegisthus. thehindpart ol a dragon brother Thyestes with the flesh of and its middleJormedfrom a goot his children When Thyestes had (lrlr. In contrast to Zephynrs. rhe passion of the local BORBS.CLASSICAL MYTHOLOGY was the son o[ prLops. or to have caused him great grief by refusing to make a promised gift Fnctron berween the sons of Pelops. zEUs in anger caused Pegasusto unseat Bellerophon.a monsterwith the reconciliation. Atreus served his t'orepartoJa lion. whistling through his conch He oJtn helped sailorsilth aJiendlJ breeze Alongwtth his brother winds.Srheneboea accused him of attempted rape and the enraged Sea. a golden glJt of the god Hermes ram. where he was supposedto meet his end.the hero was able to overcome the monsuous Chimaera. Not until Clytemnestra and Aegisthus had murdered Agamemnon.then Thyestes seducedAerope.srMroN FROM TANGTTmD TAL6. arose about the ownership of a golden ram. including the Amazons. c i920) Proteusdspatched Bellerophon ro southem Asia Minor. the fatherofAreus He seemseither to have brought about the death of Hermes' son Myrtilus. as his own name indicates. the wrfe of Atreus. His home becausehe steadfastlyrejected her was rhought to be Thrace. in order to gain her help in seizing BELLEROPHON swoopsdownJor the hiII diving the golden ram An enragedAtreus on his wingedhorse. oneoJtheJour wnds. the nonh wind. the goddessofdawn. may have slain Atreus in revengefor this outrage Cenanly he became the lover of cryrrvNrslRa. The By pretending that he really loved she was beheadedby PERSEUS gave Bellerophon her. In the PEGAsus. Bellerophon's problems began. a wondrous animal placed in Atreus' flock by Hermes First. blew Jrom the north. Atreus showed his brother rhe hands and feet of his dead sons and told him what he had consumed ln horror the sun halted in its course Thyesres'only survmng son. winged horse's back in mid-air. i895 ) 26 .in revenge Jor the murder oJ his son. further difficulties. Hipponous to Bellerophon ("hller of Bellerus") Although he was who was lamed for life. or Argos. 1995 ) Family misfortune stemmed from the action of Pelops.defeatneighbouring peoples.Pegasus. which had sprung out of firsr he is credited with a brutal the GoRGoNMedusa's blood when revenge on the false Argive queen. Eurus. and were hlled by Agamemnon's rhemselves son ORESTES. did the curse of Myrtilus come to an end BOREAS. The godgave thecoveted hopingto sowstiJe and discordm the houseoJ Pelops. rhe messenger god A terrible cycie of murder and revengewas ended only by the tnal Ln Arhens of Atreus' grandson oREsTEs on a charge of matricide cherished ATREUS. the finished eating. Lnthe and Notus. was the queen Stheneboeafor him caused son ofEos. and Hippodaemia The house of Atreus was infamous for rhe heredimry curse laid upon it by the son of urRvrs.he wasdepicLed Zephyrus DR SMrrH s oJWinds (llusrunoN FRoM Temple CHSIaL DIOIoNARY. and not least and the Titan Asraeus. but service in the local hng's lorces saved his life Mounted on Pegasus. given refuge in Argos by King Proreus. which is siuated to the nonh of theAegean advances. Thyestesand Chrysippus. Chrysippus was murdered by Atreus and Thyestes. Bellerophon persuaded the goddessATHENA queen to elope with him on a specialbridle in order to help him only to pushher off the Pegasus. the home important Corinthian becausein exile he changed his name from of the gods. He possessed a wonderful winged horse named over Bellerophon's character. a double-edged treasureto Atreus. and even become the champion of Lycia A constelladon BnUnnOPHON was a Greek was named after his fabulous hero from the city of Corinth and winged horse Two mlescast a cenain shadow the son of Glaucus.Myrtilus (ll r usrMroN By NrcK BTAIE. Arreus. ArnruS an early king after whom the Peloponnese in southern Greeceis named.

BRUTUS. wrse\ and duttfuIly. where an annual festival. . ho intoa god&ess she washnavn as Dictynnd. Indeed. who was rhe sister o[ He was the TARQUINIUS sUPERBUs. he was something of a joke in the court of Tarquinius Superbus. he helped the Greek cause by damaging the Persianfleet at the battle of Anemisium in 480 sc Boreas abducted Orithyia. known as the Boreasmi. She bore Boreas twin sons. much to their amusement.but later they sprouted golden wings from their shoulders. at the moment of the new Republic's triumph. Dunng the early part of his life Bnrtus was regarded as a simpleton. was celebratedin his honour BRITOMARTISI ed g Minos JromRin who pursuedho untilat Jorninemonths. The lcng finally gaveup the pursuit when the Cretan goddess sought sanctuary in the sacred grove ofARTEMtS. The now eloquent Brutus was elected consul. The Oracle told the Romans that the first person in the delegation to hss his mother would be the next ruler of Rome. even though in this instance it invojved the sacrifice of two sons. trial and executlon Thus. Boreas was worshipped in the city of Athens. Boreaswas capable of great dessucdon. where she spent her rime as a hunuess l(ng MINos of Knossos tried to make Britomanis his mistress But she fled from him and in her desperation to preserve her virginiry threw herself off a clilf into rhe sea. when a conspiracy to restore Tarquinius Superbus to the throne was found to have the suppon ofTitus and Tiberius.I885 ) Shortly after their return to Rome. the qplcally Roman idea of self-sacrifice appears as part of is foundation myth. a Koman matron. Brutus. r nls act of violation was the lasr srraw for the oppressed Roman aristocracy. Theywere hlled by the geat hero HEMCLES. During the Persian invasion of Greece. shelmpt intothesea Luchily. and becameher close associate The myth is almost certainly an account of the amalgamation of rwo ancient culs. two princes travelled to Delphi to ask the Oracle to explain this event and Bruus accompanied them almost in the role of a jester. Calais andZrtes. 4s his name implies. especiallywhen it was leamed rhat Lucreria had subbed hdrselfto death The outrage was cleverly used by Brutus as a means of overthrowing the monarchy and setting up a republic.in desryir. the youngest prince raped LULRLI tA. the story o[ Lucius Junius Brutus lays emphasison dury to the sute. Coming across Onthyra dancing near a stream. but Brutus tnpped and kissed the earth. a daughter of King Erechtheus of Attica.CLASSIcAL MYTHOLOGY gende west wind. BRUTUS was said to be the son of Tarqurnia. with great digniry.She lived on the island of Crete. he then wrapped her up in a cloud and canied her off to Thrace. 1995 ) ("sweet maid") BruroueRrlS was said to be the daughter of zEUS. 27 .condemns his sonsto deathJor isingagainst the gwemment Brutus. rwo of Brutus'own sons As he was the chiel magistrate. which means "net" (I[UsIMfloN BY NICX BuE. the last Elruscan king to rule Rome When a snake was found in the king's palace. oversaw their arrest.But this fulfilment of the Oracle was soon to cause him grief. Itst. which his name implies. he led the tial againsthis rebelsons (IrLUsrMroN FROM SToruE FROM Llw. founder of the Roman Republic Like most Roman myths.t'agned idioq but was noJool. she became ottangled in some andwhen Artemis changed ftshingnets. The princes drew loa to decide who was to hss their mother on their retum home. one o[ the rwo highest offices of scate. thefirst consuloJthe new republicoJ Rome. who were lcrown as the Boreades At birth these boys were enrirely human in appearance.

Cadmus a wife . the daughter hound.Cadmus then Pentheus. the daughter of Ares (IuusrMfloN BvNrcK BilE. 1995) mythology. and his wife Hecuba. who sping up to attnch CenUUS he condemned her to prophesy the sanctuaryin ATHENA's temple but i<rngof Phoenicia. were said to be the the Oracle at Delphi to forget about and epuRoottr. Jlees (Seealso ORACIESAND to return home without her.krng of Troy.rng immortal was not blessedby parand were given to riotous behavfound the cow and followed it east. eachother OnlyJivesuwived.eSSnNonn of pruaivl. according to Greek ho Jor she Jated tled Cadmus himself was told by Harmonia.suffereda homble fate who was except for wise CHIRON sent some o[ his men for warer so Having insulted DIoNYsus. the true purpose of the many of the Greeks during rheir by zEUs.who loved her.armed acknowledged the importance oI men arose.but wrly Cadmus rhrew Cadmus' reign. 1995 ) Wooden Horse and the murder of voyagehome However.fed on meat chose to lie down and rest Har.CLASSTcAL MYTHoLocY CERBERUS snafuandgrwlsby the oJHodesA threz-headed hound mouth CEICNES SCE OMCLE5 AND witha snahe no for a uil. the god. 28 .where at last it however One of their descendans. awarded as part of his share of the which was said to have been a gift spoils But ultimately Cassandra CECUS SCC GIANT5 CADMUS sowsthe teeth oJa dragon he from APoLLo. hence.v. he was heroes. son of ARE5. butnoone oJtheWoodet places where they eventually set. Among the frenthe war god enrs After Cadmus zred worshippers was Pentheus' was a three-headed CfnngnUS had killed the monster.1995 ) C. they fell upon introduction from Phoenicia of an fetch Cerberus. (IIU5IMIIoN 8Y NICX BAE. Herbeaurywas asremark. These strange creatures had the a moon-shaped mark on its flank the gods themselvesartended the head. a shrine to Aphrodite is known to have been erected based on the goddess'schief temple in Phoemcra. uenrs. but had her revenge on the Greeks.r When ancestos oJthe Thebans. she GiJted princes failed in their task. goddessoflove of xlo. they After a penod of penance for clearly Warandthe see FouNDERs theTrolan cncRops Joresaw seem to have had an impact on the killing Ares' serpent. stones among them so that.which lies off the southem Peloponnese. she had sought was rhe son ofAgenor. armed wantors.trcularly success[ul offspring. the offspringof rwo mondessAthena adnsed him to remove of Cadmus and Harmonia sters./rcn through Agamemnon's wife CLYIEMNESTM nd seer. sus.TYPHON and Echidna He was its teeth and sow half of them in The ancient Greeks always the watchdog of the Greek underworld and stopped anyone trying the ground lmmediately. descendanm Europa and instead find a cowwith Since he was marr.a challengethe god themselves lt was later believed alphabet o[ sixteen letters There of rhe dead. though a Jromthe by wtththehelp ol thegds Hts Ju slipped see Lowks oF zEUs darhdn opened ontotheStyt( alongwhxh CRt-t-sro theikad Qrusrunop CharonJemed w was rhe daughrer GUNN 5w m. Agave. and so the goddess rruth but never ro be believed. sank in exhaustion. to whom she was able as her power of prophecy.and Telephassa. descended from the five wamors bumingTrq. on the island of Cythera. includthe tutor to several (Seealso MONSTERS that they might sacrificethe animal tom to piecesby the god's female ing ACHILLES to ATHENA But rhesemen were worshippers when he spied on ANDFABULOUS BFAsTs) attacked by a serpent sprung from their secret rites.nnga goddess. and the brother of ruRop. Cassandra Cadmus and his four brothers were met her own end at the hands of sent after her. drunken followers of ololysus.own mother. Zeus gave hchery Horse. wrth instructionsnot that the Theban aristocracy was CASSANDM. disguised as a bull.wife He was credited with the One of grRacLES'labours was ro pecting each other. and instantly the soil bnstles wtth becauseshe refusedhis advances When Troy fell.to become was raped. his divrne ro rerum to the land of rhe living.aghast dt thesight olho an PROPHECTES) Although the five Phoenician who survived the mutual slaughter predictions wtthpropheq.AGAMEMNON. allowed him ro are in fact a number o[ ancient accounts o[ Phoenicianactiviryin the Aegean Sea For instance. iour They were usually depicted as wards to Boeotia. arms and chestof a man but He was to follow the animal and wedding and gavewonderful gifts the legs and lower half of a horse build a city on the spot where it The unusual union o[ mortal and They lived in Thessaiy.none other than believed was to beignored CeNfeUnS. has slain. whosecity Cassandraforetold the Trojan punished this sacnlegeby killing Europa was forcibly taken to Crete CadmusJounded on the site War. heallowed PROPHECIES shades to retum dead.

medicine.who Lndulged revelnes. he quietly retumed. 188-5) but only on condition undertake. thc ordinary people. Mount Pelionin and when he died zru-sscr him rn thc slryas the constellation Centaurus 29 . Romc was in danger of berng b . hunting. and the armsand hcad of a rnan His unusualparentagc explains why Chiron was so wrse.".the Senate C i n c i n n a t u sa s d r c t a t o r .. Cerberuswas so dreadful to behold that anyone who looked upon him was turned to stone He was brother to the Hydra and the Chimaera CHTRON was rhe son of PhilJra. aANn-s. and the Titan CRoNoS. feared that ( in.a t e m poraryofficevcstcdrvith unlimired powers A deputationwas senr ro his small farm. unlikc other Centaurs.. r h e A c q u i .LEPlL/-S andTeso. thar he was unarmed Like thc GORGONS. which is why Chiron had the a p p c a r a n co cf a r y p i c a ( l . untingand warfare He was a fnend of 'cPot-t rl and the ruror ro several Greek heroessuch asACHILLES.m e d i c i n e h . who had adopted the form of a horse to hide from his wrfe RHrAhis passion for Phillra. rvhich was the s m a l l e s tl a n d h o l d i n ga l l o w e d t o quah$'for citizenshrpThe senators found Crncrnnatus ar work tending hi< . wlth the body and legsof a horsc. c I/70) CtNctNNerUS wasa Roman hero who was instrumentalin saving the early Republic ln 458 nc.v He lived rn a cave on -fhessaly.". the plebeians.u 5r()Rlr5 rR()MIr\ry. after the dcfeat o[ the Aeqr-ri. r. to hlsJanfl (lrrr.rtqtn. a s saluted as dictaror However. a n ei g h dcstrol'ed bounng lralian tnbe To defeatthis voted to appolnr threat.for he was leamcd i n m u s i c . musrc and propheq Uniihe his in iotous brother Centdurs. A-Sa. rhel""oted Crncinnatus a golden wreath at the end of his sixty days of office He then returned to his fields and was remembered as the perfect example of a r'rnuous and dutilul Roman citizen CINCINATTUS. daughter of ocEANos. oneoJthe mostmodest and a modeloJ Roman oJ Romanheroes integnry AIter 60 daystn ot'fice. Chiron was noted Jor his wisdom (THr Er)uGlloN oFA( Hil l I t 0v and gtntleness PoMPEo BAToNr.CLASSICAL MYTHoLoGY theyouthJul CHIRON (elt) instructs Achilles in the afts oJwar.ENtAtrR. Lnnatusmight abuse his pos-fheir ition fears proved groundless and.rn< Hr u'as rnld 6[ thg S en a r e ' s d e c r s i o n a n d r ' " .

CrassrcAr-

MvrHoLocY

HERoES
HE MYTHS OF ALL CULTUREScontain inspiring individuals who express ideal traits and talens, such as the courage

of Achilles, might of Heracles, wit of Odysseus and endurance of Oedipus. A classic hero is a champion rn every sense, overcomrng trials, ridding the world of troublemakers , blazrng trails and winning through despite all the odds. Yet he is neither inr,ulnerablenor immortal, though often helped, and sometimes hindered, by the gods. Greek mythology is unusually rich in heroes and heroines of every kind. Some, such as Achilles and Hector, are wartime champions; others, such as Odysseus or Theseus, are heroes for peacetime, some are positive and outgoing, such as Heracles or Perseus; still others are heroes of attitude rather than action, such as Oedipus, Antigone, or Hector, who, at the end, remained steadfastin the face of hopeless defeat.
who racedaway wth his HEMCLES (bdow) shoots his poisoned anows at his oldJoe, the Centaur Nessu.s, Deianira the glJtof his wile, Deuntru, whik lerrying her acrosstheiver EvenusThe dying Centaur olJered which Heracles the loveo[ HeraclesThe lovephiltre provedto be a futal tnch Lry bloodus u sulve lor prcseruing tlied manyyears later, tragcally, by the handsoJhis insecure but loting wife, Deiantra, who in her sorrow h i l l e d h e r s t(llll.r R ( L U s ^ N r ) N r \ \ L r \ a i F R A N : \ ( ) N - s r r i . r k , . ^ N v A s l 8 6 J l 9 2 8 )

(above), best hnow Jor his mighry labour:, was aII his hJea helper oJ godsand men, setting theearthJree oJmany monstus and rascak HEMCLES as the herooJ as d saviour; Worshryped as a heroand deity,he was invohed labourand strug,le,he waspatron deity oJthe gmnasium In art he appears and graveocpression This as the ideal oJ manly strength, wrth massivemuscles leantngon his club, draped thehero in repose Greehsculptureshows celebrated Bc) c 200 FANrsri HrRcuL E Bv GLY.oN. wth thefamous lion's shin (THL

CIeSSICAI-

MyTHoLoGY

A C H I L L I . S ( a b o v c ) . y 9 J l i h eh c r r r u n d p c e r l t ' s s u t n r o r w u r l l l l d o r i r u / / y , t / i r g u i s e c r r'rr{rf/ rnhr\rrrrith HiitLrrrrr .l t n o t h r t , f l t r t t r . t r r r / t t r t g1 i r\ d 1 c h r n r / r r ) r i f h ( l f ( ) / d n \ l ' c l , l r r r / l r r r l d r ) ) ( l t ( \ l r l t d r r L r q i r r r r r / l - \ r r , r r r r t L r 1 r 1-1 t, \1111,r f11111 ( ) d _ y s s e t r s L r r n t , d t s t r r r s r J a s d l l r r ' r i h d n t , la n,c l ' c J t h c t r r / s l r w r l sr l r r \ \ r \ . u r J L m r r \ ( ) r r i r , 4 , h r / i r . \ i ' l i a r f / / r (( t r l r j /r r. w eagerlv, suJJcnly n,ulrtrns iris trur rlr and nit, m hlt Hc l/rr rr arconrpanrr i./ Odlsirrr lrr Inl

PI:RSIU.S, guded tnJ nnrdtd hv tfu gods, utii rble ro s1a_t thc nrorla/Crrr-qorr ,\Icdusa, orr ,y'thrri /rrtht/Lrl stslcrs wlrrr lwt:lt rtntfu larLhest sh,,n, 11tht orrut. untl tthosf l()()lis lutned mot lrr\lol1{'lJ}r vicvingMlr.luru rn hrs s h r n r nrq l r r t L iP e r r ' r rn t r s ablc l o , r i tr y ' / h e hrr a , / u s h r rltpt Hrtltitn lry thr rnrrrrbl he/nrt r ,y'Hadcs hr /ior to ':ulayu gilcn hirn,lry on wtnuL:cl sanJrr/s /he n-ynr|hr \lcdusu r /l ctcl rvrts plrrr t J rrnAlhuru r hreasfllrtr rl
parall,stttt' J\rr\ i pttirer rn,lrrtll/c' t r i r i r ! \ i i ) \ I r , r J ' I \ f , ( LI ! , . 1 rli

lr,)rrl

, ; r 1 , 1

l

:

( . L O F , I l A l r r h r l r ' . t ,l i o r r r r r n hLrr,rrr,$trs $lrr1 rt\ d itoildg l() fhf lrllli\(d|, Lrtrs /),rrsLrrnu r,/ r 0 r r r t / r i l r ( | | / t / r ! . r lr(nn hr tttmp unr.l swcrm

rr/ tht .\rrlrrrrrrl: . / A S O N i , r / r r r i ) t / r r ' rr ' / r ' h r c i t r '(r(j/ l ) l ( / i r ) r ' n r b a r / rr . /r ) r i t , q l 1 t / lt r , / i r l f r l l Ik'ct,:.whth lrr hrrrv hut /l tltr (,oltkrt

l i O R A T I t r . S ' i ? h r ) \Ir / r r d 1 r ' R , r r l u r/ r L ro hi l,l rlr, l (r l q . / t i t \ l \ t t b l t ,t r t t t/ J i l r i L tI t l l t l r ! r r( ( ) l ] i l ( t r \ //tr /tlllls(r0) r t r m t , W / r / r ' h t h t l , l o l l l h r ' F l r u s r r r r r s ,l h r i l r r r r r r r r rh sa r h r r / t it c b l , l t r h r ' h r r r Jh r r r r r l l j l ( II,rr rrL,', lr /rrr, l t ( ( ) J L / l ) \J h

(lgdinst ll()nr( But \h( (lup(d

was sus7;rrrr.lcr./fru r rb nr u n t h o l t t n d t h h 1 (

d( rllst lhr / r,b0 lrr lirrrrrr \{rhen l/rt ii()ritdI\ \r,Il }tr'i bd( li t r ) I ) a r A d t i t d ,h a r " d s r , , / ( { h r ' nn L / t r I L ( / l / d r f n , t l r r t l h a \ c l htr lrct'wtlh:ornc ot|rr hoslagi,s rirrri guvc htr t spk'nJitl

11 5 t t t t l t r g r r t l r / , \ r t r r r r( ' r 1 1 J 1 1 l r t s g r r ' u f l r r l t , r r r I i chj r \ t t / r : s l, l r r h r r r q i y ' ( r r l i r r s l V r t / rt l r r h L l p o l 1 p , t 1 7 , 1 1 , ,t ' , , t n lht srrrr i r r ' s s, \ I c d c a ,J t r r r r l r t c r r t l t h L t n g o l ( . r r i ri r r s / a s r r n

l i l \ r ( ) f r i ( i r /\r H ( ) r r / l i r i r \ l , l l l . r j r r r r r r o r t r lt j r , j r r r , l ( , / , l l l l t r ' n / t r ' s r [ 0 n l d \ . ] / r t \ ' ( r (f 1 r \ \ l / r r r r t g r r r gI t l l r , , r r r r r Jr l 0 r r V ,lnrlrr 1 / t , \ f t t t c r , r i l ( ( 1 r\ tl { t l r i rr r ) l | 5 i t ( ) | 1 ) | irl t t / t (

h r r t r e l J r ' r r r h c r r d r r l r r l r r p h a l r l h t , , f r r r J o n r n ' r l i rh L r r()nlptllll{)ll\ i r . r r i \ i , ' .r r ' | \ ' , , , , , . t l i , . rl 5 r ,

, J r r t n r t r l l r , ' L i T r f l r r Lr r r r r u f i h / r r / r / r i r g o n l h r r r r r r r l i i t d l l r ,

CLASSICAL

MYTHOLOGY

CIRCE Q4t), an enchantingnynph, b dnnhJrom ho maglc inites Odysseus cup, containingd potion which tums men has ben into swine But Odysseus forewamed and, immunized with the herb moly, he dnnls wtthout coming to ham
(IIUSIMTION FROM TANGLMOOD TALEs, C I92O)

CLYTEMNESTM

(abwe), the estrangd

wife oJAgamonnon, watchesand waitslor the ships from Troy,binglngho husband home Yet no hero's welcomeawaits the retumingwarior, onlybetrayaland andher lover murder by his wrJe
(IrLUsTMfloN BYNICX BUE,1995 )

CtnCr, daughter of ruruos, the sun god, was a powerful witch who had porsoned her husband, hng of the Sarmatians,before going to rhe fabulous island of Aeaea.Her magmen ical powers tumed ODY55EU5' into swine when they landed on Aeaea on their way home from the mesTroy. Aided by HERMES, senger god, Odysseuswas immune to Circe's magic and restored his crew to human form, and also gained the witch's aid for the next part of his joumey For ayearhe stayed as her lover, before she told him how to navigate through the waters o[ the Sirens and between Scylla, a monster, and Charybdis, a whirlpool. Srylla had been a nval of Circe, who had rumed her into a monster when one of her many lovers had shown an interest in the unfortunate girl ln some accounts, Circe eventuallymanied Odpseus' son Telemachus.

either as sacrificial wars. He said that unless the pledess ARTEMIS, beians, the ordinary people, were victim or as pnestess Like her sister HELEN,whose willing to restore to the nobiliry is was the CLrrnunrsrRn caused the full ancient privileges they should daughter ofrpoe and Tyndareos, elopement with PARIS king ofsparta, and the estranged Trojan War, Clytemnestra felt no expect no charity Hounded from Mfe of eceurMNoN. Sometimes loyalry towards her husband. She Rome for such an opinion, he openly conducted an affair with joined the Volsci and evenrually Ied she is poruayed as a weak woman, easily persuaded by her lover Aegisthus, Agamemnon's cousin, a Volscian army against the ciry. All Aegisthus to assistin the murder of and ruled Mycenae with him. The seemed lost until his mother end of the war required desperate Volumnia spoke to him, asking her husband on his return from the Trojan War Otherwise it is measures.When he rerumed home Coriolanus whether he saw her as Clytemnestra who rs the strong Agamemnon was butchered by his own mother or as a prisoner of character,the insdgator of the mur- Aegisthus, usinga wo-headed axe, war. As a result he quit the battleder, while Aegisrhusis little more while Clytemnestra had him en- field and went into exile. CLOTUASCC HEROES than a weakling Even before the the Greek force departed for Troy, Clytemnesrra already had good reason to hate her husband. In order to gain a fair wind to Troy, he agreed to sacrifice her favourite child tpntcrruin Even though the had promised champion ACHTLES to defend the grrl againstall threats, rhe Greek host had its way and lphigenia was offered to the godungled in a net For this terrible crime, Clytemnestra was herself hlled by her son oREsrEs in Greek mythology, CneON, was the brother o[Jocasta and a reluctant ruler of Thebes He was wasalegendary regent during the uncertain period COruOUNUS Roman traitor o[ the fifth century afrerKing LAIUS, Jocasu'shusband, BC Conscious above all of his had been killed near the ciry Creon noble birth, Coriolanus objected to offered the throne and the hand of the Senate'swish to distribute free Jocastato any man who could solve and thus bread to poorer citizens, who were the nddle of the SPHINX starving becauseof Rome's endless rid Thebes of this bloodthirsty

32

CLASSICAL

MYTHOLOGY

was a com god whom they associated with the Golden Age CUPTU was rhe Roman god of love and son of the love goddess IENUS.He was deprctedas a beautiful but wanlon boy, armed with a qurver fuli o[ "arrowed desires" Some of his arrows, however, would um people awayfrom those who fell rn love wrth them CREON, reluctanthing oJThebes, Iosthis According to one myth, Venus wasjealous ofpsycHE ("the soui") son, wiJeand niecein a traglcqde oJ suicidescausedby his infteible will His and told Cupid to make her love crushingJatewas to endurea hJeof the ugliest man alive But Cupid fell solitary gneJand remorse olrl'srurk)NBr in love wrth Psycheand, inv'rsible, NICK 8arE, I995 ) nsired her everynighr. He told her nor to rry to see hrm, but, overto keep chained up. In gratitude, come by curiosity, she did try and the Cyclopes, the single-eyed he left her Psychesearchedthe giants, fashioned for Zeus his world for him, until the sky god famous hghrning and thunderbolts JUPITER granted her immortality so In a subsequenr struggle for that she could be Cupid's consmnt power, Zeus and hrs brothers companion The couple's daughter successfullydealt wrth all the might was named Voluptas ("pleasure") and power that Cronos could playt'ully thewaves CUPIDJshes amongst direct against them After his portrayed asa cute, defeat, Cronos was either banished Heis usually withwings witha capncious child andoJten to a distant paradise, or he simply to inJlame love slowly faded awayas an unimpor- quiver oJarowsor a torch tant deity The Romansequated in the hearts oJ gods and men (cr prDFrsHrNG WArrs,-sfprA L ]890 ) who B) C;E()RG[ FREDER(( Cronos with their SATURN,

As a result of this act of defiance, Creon hadAnngone walled up in a cave. lne seer llRt5iAStoro Lreon to bury the dead and disinter the living, but he refused The result was personalgnef, when his own son committed suicide on leaming of Antigone's dearh, and hts own wrfe soon followed suit monsrer. jEDIPIIS managed ro Although Creon was well achieve the apparently lmpossible known ro the ancient Greek, his task, then took over the kingdom, own character seemslessimponanr in myth than his role as regent in marriedJocastaand raiseda family Not until a piague threatened the troubled ciry of Thebes. Thebes and the Delphic Oracle was consulted about irs cause,did ir CRONOS, in Greek myrhology, become known thatJocasrawas was the son of Ouranos, the sky Oedipus' mother and that he had god, and GAIA,rhe earth morher. lolled L-aius. Oedipus blinded him- With the help of Gaia, Cronos self,Jocastacommitted suicide and emasculatedOuranos and seized Creon became regent once more. control of the universe He then A quarrel between Oedipus' married his sister nHEAand folsons, Eteocles and Polynices, Iowed the example of Ouranos in caused another penod of dismay, disposing of his children by swalhe had been eventually leaving both of them lowrng them, because dead and Creon on the throne. wamed that he would be displaced Whereas Eteocleswas regardedby byone ofhis sons Rhea,however, Creon as a patriot and properly gavehim a stone wrapped in swadbuned, the body of the rebel dling clorhesinsteadof the infanr Polynices was thrown outside the ZEUS, his youngest son, who was city walls and forbidden burial. taken secretlyto Crete in order to Such a situationwas unaccepmble gow up safelyon the island When a Roman exile. marched CORIOLT{NUS. hisoA cirywithandmy oJ against justoutside Vokcians, encamping Rome There, heignored aIIentreaties Jorpeace (centre), byhismother hiswiJe until visited matrons, whose tears andtheRoman stern heatt(IuusrmroN rRoM softenedhis FROM Llw. 1885 STouEs ) to ANTIGONE, Oedipus' daughter and companion during his wandenngs around Greece,and on her retum to Thebes she sprinkled Poll'nices' corpse with earth, so as to give her brother a token burial Zeus came ofage, he forced Cronos to vomit up hrs brothersand sisters - POSEIDON, HADES, HERA, HESTIA and orl,trrrR - and to releasehis uncles and aunts, especially the Tians, whom Cronos had chosen

Cle,ssrcAr-

MyrHoLoGY

CURTIUS baps into the chasmin the RomanJorum The seersdeclared that the ,hasm could only beJilled by Rome's greatest treasure,and so Curtiusymped in, declanng that therewasno greater treasurethan a gallant Romancltizen
(lra|srMTft)N FRoM 5r()RrEs r,RoM Lrw, 1885.)

DRNen was rhe morher of the breeK nero PtR5tuJ ano Ine daughter ofAcnsius, long of Argos in the Peloponnese lt had been foretold that her son would cause the death ofAcrisius, so he locked her in a bronze tower But ZEUS visited her as a shower of golden see GrANrs Cyct-oPts rain and Perseuswas conceived DngP,qlUS, according to Greek The kingbanished the morher and mytholory, was said by some to be her son, but after many adventures the son of Alcippe, the daughtero[ Perseus did accidentally kill the war god eREs,and by others to Acnsius when throwing a discus. be the son of Merope It is agreed, (Seealso LOv'ERs OFZEUS) though, that he came from Athens He was a gifted craftsman and was employed by khng MINOSar his palace of Knossos in Crete. Daedalus designed and built the Labynnth for the dreaded vtloTAUR This was the offspnng of PASIPFIAE, Minos'wife, and a great bull Daedalus had designed an anificial cow inro which rhe queen could place herself and so be able to mate wrth the bull Thus was the Minotaur conceived Minos later impnsoned Daedalus for revealing the secretof the Labynnth, but he managed to escapeby constructing DAPHNE,a iver nymph, was bvedby heruntll,on thebanlzs Apollowhopursued oJher prayedJor help iver, she and Jather's
was at oncechangedinto a laurel tree Here. herJather, the iver god Penaus, weepstnconsolably, whlle Apollo strohts her Ieafi arms tn wonder CApoLLo AND DApHNL 8y (ANvAs. Nr()ut P(tr,55rN. c 1627)

is the subject of a CURTIUS srrange incident in Roman mythology Around 362 nc a grear chasm appeared in the Forum in Rome, which led straight down to the underworld It had appeared becausethe Romansforgot to make an appropnate sacrificeto the dead Marcus Curtius therelore plunged on horseback into the bottomless pit and was seen no more

wrngs olwax and feathersfor himself and his son lcarus Despite his father's waming, Icarus flew too close to the sun, the wax of his wings melted and he fell into the sea and drowned. Daedalusmanaged ro amve safelyin Sicily, where he amused the daughters of l(ng Cocaloswith his invendons When Minos eventually caught up with the fugitive craftsman, a battle of wits ended in Daedalus' favour: Mrnos was lolled by boilingwater, DANAE (above) was impisoned in a or oil, which Daedaiuspersuaded bronze tower by ho Jather, becatsehe Cocalos'daughters ro pour down a Jeareda propheq that he woull be ktlled by pipe into the king's bath. his grandson Yet even htdden away in her
to the god tower, shewas still accessible Zeus, who came to her as a goWat shower Thq had a son,Perseus(Drrreauour
GoLDEN RAIN BY TITIAN, cANvAs, i554 )

D{ED{[US

(nght) craftedwtngs of

feathus, heWtogetho by wax, to escary t'rom Crete, anl taught hrs son, Iccrus, hon, toJl, waminghim that he must notJty too closeto the sun But lcarus wasdrawn to thelight ol the sun so his wings meltd and heJeII into the sea, now named the lcaian
(DAEDALUS AND IGRU5 By CMU laNmN, 1799)

DePHNn, in Greek myrholory, was the daughter of the river god Peneius.She was similar in many ways to the goddess ARTEMIS, in that she was also a virgrn huntress who happily roamed the wrlderness One day, the love god enos shot a flurry of arrows in response ro taunts from APOLLO, the god of prophecy The first ofEros'anows

was a gold-tipped shaft and when it struck Apollo it made him fall immediately in love with Daphne The second one, however, had a lead tip and caused Daphne to become even more indifferent than she aiready had been to any lover Apollo, however, pursued Daphne relentlesslyuntil, in desperation, she tumed herselfinto a laurel uee

34

ocy .CTASSTcAL MyrHor.

soul endures hertraglc alone Jate OLLUSTMTON 8Y NICK BULE. animals ceased to multiply and people feared lor their future Eventually.Zeus had to intervene and rule that Hadesmust grve up Persephone if she would not consenr to stay with him As she had by then earen something in his realm. was identified as rhe power within the com i6elf. consecrate the theJirst manto sow relieJ was com This at Eleusis. site of theEleusian Jound mystenes which rcntred and onDaneter (MARB:E herworship RELTEF.as well as the resting-placeof the ous powers of growth and even dead (which were known by the resurrection She was the focus of Atheniansas "Demeter'speople") OMCLES ANDPROPHECIES Dnlpntc ORACLE s. south o[Athens. PERSEPHONEDemeter means "mother eanh" . goddess of theeanh. vegetadonand fruitfu]ness. herdaughter. when hr lover traglcally stabbed herselJ to fufilhisdestiny. exotic queer oJCarthage. and Aneasdesmedher heroine lead hispeople to Rome The isportrayedby Virglaso noble and generous who. wrthout even consulting Demeter. in theclassic tradition. while in the world of the lirnngher mother iost all interestin fertiliry. c 490 BC ) dead she pined and refusedto eat any food.Ceres. holding a mystic yung Tiptolemus.so henceforth Persephone would dinde the year equallybetween her mother and her husband DIDO @elow). 36 . agreed to his brother FIADES' request that Persephoneshould be his bride and rule the underworld wuh him Hadeswas impatient and rose from the earth and abducted Persephoneas she plucked flowers in a field Bur in rhe world of the The story of Demeter and is clearlyancient lt has Persephone parallelsin the mythology of Wesr fuia. where ntes were celebrared annually in the autumn DEUETER. her father. torth.CLASSICAL MYTHOLOGY :{.rhe abundant soil with she was especiallyassocrated com Demeter possessedmysteri. which was a natural extersion of her mother the com goddessDemeter. s1 DEMETER." Her myth tums on the disappearanceof Persephone When the girl was a child. rhe Greekgoddess of when. ]995 ) d l7 just an important cult at Eleusis. Persephoneas Kore ("the maidsn"). was the her worshippers recalled the loss and rediscovery of her daughter daughrer of cRolos and RHre Like her Roman equivalent.and QeJt) Persephone.it was deemedthat she had not completelyrejectedHades. where gowth and decaywere with a dyng and closely associated reviving deiry For the Greek.so thar plants languished. through music and dancing. ZeuS.

Agave. CADMUs and Harmonia. became rhe tragic queen of Canhage and rhe abandoned love of AENEA5.particularly for women worshippers who were known as maenads From the beginning. where she purchased enough land to found the ciry of Canhage The local ruler agreed to sell her as much ground as a bull's hide might contain. desdny to found a new Troy in Italy Agave.Her husband had been murdered by her brother. orgrastic ntes were outlawed.known as the "bullhomed god" because he ofren adopted the form of this powerful beast. but the Roman in their ecsraticfrenzy. but only if he disguised himself as a woman. The hng readily took the bait and spied on the maenads from a hidingplace in a tree However. rhe maenadssoon discoveredhim and. The most famous attempt to prohibit his worship was by King Pentheusof Thebes The king even tried to imprison Dionysus. who was a Theban princess. having been blown offcourse on his way to Italy from Troy.In Greek mythology.CLAssrcAL MYTHoLoGY DIONYSUS. After his whelmed by the loss of her lover bunal. together vnth her that she stabbed herself and then parents.wine and ecstasy. the vital and beautifulGreeh god oJunc whirls in a state oJblisslul euphoia inducedW his own Jruit. but the chains fell off him and the prison doors could not be closed Dionysus then told Pentheus that he could observe at lirst hand the secret rituals performed on a mountain close to the city. when the latrer ascended the throne ofTyre. he may have had a mythological role somewhat similar to that of the goddessDEMETER ("mother earth") His cult in later times. In Roman mythology he is representedby the god Bacchus. in Phoenicia. he rs a youthful god o[vegetation. Dido escaped from Phoenicia with a small band of followers and sertled in present-day Tunisia.so Dido cut the skin into strips in order to obtain an adequateplot When the Trojan hero Aeneas arrived in Carthage. a pyre left Thebesand went into exile (Seealso FOUNDERS) (Seealso LovERs oF zEUs) DIOO. soon fell in love.thought that god luetrrn senr MERcuRv wirh a he was a lion and tore him limb messagereminding Aeneasof his from limb. Dido became so over.not a lion but her son. Afterwards his mother. Onginally. and coveinghis shouldersthe shin oJ a lyrw. realized to her voyage at once When Aeneas horror thar they had dismembered sailed away. however. developed into one of personalsalvation. who was also one o[ the and ordenng him to resume his leading maenads.and in some city-stateshis wrld. Dido welcomed him and his fellow refugeeswith great understanding Aeneasand Dido 37 . leapt inro the flames of. one oJ the oeatures sdcredto hifi DtOtttYSUS was rhe son of zEUs and sruELr. the ancient Greeks were well aware o[ rhe strangecharacter oI Dionysus. origrnally a princess of Tyre.the grape Entwined in his hair is a wreath oJ vine.

soldiers . queen of Sparta. ! /l : ltt' 'I.l i v i n g h a l fr h c y c a r beneath the earth with the dead.and even set up a rival to ENOYUTON was rhe king o[ a Theseus on the throne o[Athens in the Peloponnese.tory ( l t r \ r R { I t r ) \L t i r \ r L \ \ s r j r \ \ r r \ r R a \ i l 1 8 .tJomeJ m a goldtn m. t h e r c h r r n p a d e f i n i r r -s e n s c o f diunc parentage. and Clyttmnestra.who hatred ior Clytemnestrathat she were a people hung in AsraMinor participatesin the act of revenge O n a n o t h c r o c c a s i o nt h e t w i n s herself.swore rhrt thc nrrscn.and it may well be chat they were ancrentdeiries whose worship had dechned so that their exploits could be told as the mythological actionsof mortal ("the rulers Castor and Polydeuces heavenly twins whom the cornbearingearth holds") wereregarded as bcing both dead and alive ln one story. thty. . Electra rescuedher young brother Orestes and ensured thar he cstapedAcgrsthuscvrlintcntions Years later.rniry b c t w e e nt h c n r . trayed as berng so consumed by king of the savageBebryces.lESTM.Lttcr she was overwhelmed were ranged against the Athenian by remorse. shes oJten deprcted hoveing tn the slry.tnllc Shcs accompaned hert by her starry daughters ( J rr l \ T M r i r ) \ F R o M 5 r ( ) R l t s I R o M l l ( ) M t R .pY. the twelve-year-oldHelen pnor to her dertieswho wreakedvengeance on mamage to King MENEI.were known to the Greek as Castor and Polydeuces. sht r seenhtre rqoicing in his ri'[um l()Rr . and cttrnv. Greth goddess oJ thedawn. and rnountetl on snow wirrtt sfeels.]ns l() vi. r' of I .rctones was rhe daughter of EUCfne A C A M F M N T Tk N in . truns Castor ant) Pollw.CLASSICAL MYTHoLOGY E {'ffi "\\ i. .h J. her roEJbm .i"e'i T H E D t o s C U R I . Polydeuces versionof thc myth Electra is porhlled with his bare handsAmycus. retumed to ccrrtir to help thc Romon ranhs dgoiist JohldBatle tn I anns Ln tht I \r. t h em y s r e r L -THE ous twin sons of LHI)A. Polydeuceswas the r m m o r r as l o n o f z t u s w h i l eC a s t o r was rhe mortal son of Kng Tlrrdareos At Polydeuccs'request the twins shared the dl. Ihc Drorr un wcrc revcrcd by the Spartansand rhe Romansrn particular Roman . g of Mytcnae. ol h/re RegrilusAdom(durth gltuming urmLtur.' m n e srfa . Orcstes retumed to Mycenaeas a grown man Electra m r t h i m a t t h c t r r m br r ft h c i r m u r sons of Zeus") were ARGONAT/TSdered father and gave hrm advrce D u n n g r h e e x p e d r t i o nr o r e t n c v e and encouragementIn at leastone the Golden Fleece. small ciry-state heroic daughttroJ ELECTRA (ubove).w n o c a m c oo l l t n c brother fled before rhe FURIES.AUS They murderers brought their sister safelyhome to Sparta.lt \r. and ro the Romans as Castor and Pollux They were brothers oI HrLrruand CTYTIMNESTM Around all rhese rhilrlro.strrr and Pollux on a battlefieldsecuredlor agarnst all the odds them r.. n\f\ rLrrflea.-pnr al\/tp . and rhe sister \ L\ ner o l t n e m a ln c l o e ( r R L 1 name (whrchonce may havemeant " f i r c' o r " s n a r k ' ) r e { e r s tn amher When Agamemnon rerumed from the Trojan War and was murdered by his wrfe and her loverAegisrhus.r r \\r) LL | ( | R\ vlRil r ( 1D ]00 I 38 . / .rneets Agamemnon her tibd brothtr Ortstt's outside EOS (bdow). 1 8 8 5 ) Agamtmnon'stomb It was Electruwho her brotherfrom theflii lntentrons rescued lry helpinghim escupt Having o/Aegrsthus htm thoughtthat shewouk) neversee ugain.rr to announ\cthecomrng ol tht sun Shewas the daughteroJ Hypenonund Thcia ttnd sisterto the sun god Helros In worhsoJart. while her distraught n e r o r H L 5 t u 5 . and rhe other half on Mount Olirmpus wrth the gods They are shown togethe r rn the constellation of Gemini In their youth the Droscun("rhe DIOSCURI (aboLe).[ed thL Rom.

the lovers partat dawnIn theslg. Taios. oneanh draws a curtain his bach Sheoentually mamed Asteius. The Romanscalled her Aurora Eos had a repuation for passion and fell in love with a largenumber of young men.which was a group of one hundred and fifty pairs of lovers who were all killed by the Macedonianarmy at the battle of Chaeronia in 338 nc After the battle l(ng Philip of Macedon granted them a specialbunal EUnOPe. oJdarhness about her (SLLENE ANo ENoyMroN the rulerol Crete (luusrur()N FRoM DR sMtrH's By Nrcous PouJSrN. in another version of the myth. in Greek mythology. a city in Phoenicia.for he was rhe patron divrnity of the SacredBand of Thebes. deep sleep However. swam to the island of Cretewrth Europaon his back There she bore the god RFTADAMANTHYS rhree sons. was the daughter ofTelephassaand of King Agenor of Tyre. was rhe son of Erebos and the Night. to defend his realm (Seealso LovERs oF zEU S) 39 .ClessrcAr MvrHoLocY (abne) waslmedby ENDYMION Selne EUROPA (nght) wasa Phoenician whovisited himin hisetenal sleep Here pnncessbome away by Zeus. he appeared to enjoy mahng asmuch mischief as he could by firing his arrows of passion into the hearts of gods and humans alike His connection with homosexuallove may have derived from his supposed relationshipto Ares. had a four-horsechariot to indicate his greaterstatus. Selene put her youthful lover into an everlasting.beforemanying rhe local ruler Astenus By way of compensatlon for Europa's vrrginity. to look for their sister after ZEUS. the sun god riruos. while in others he god of war As was the son of ARES. wrnged goddess of the dawn and the third child of the TITANS Hyperion and Theia Shewasseenasa charioteer riding across the sl<yjusr before sunrise. Zeus gaveAstenus a mighry bronze man. c 1591-1665 ClaslGl DlcroNARY. she locked him in a becamethe cicada(an insectnoted for im complaining sound) EruXYES SCE FURIE5 EROS. he became the lover of the moon goddessSelene (frequentlyidendlied wrth Diana). Agenor's five sons. king of Troy When Eos asked zrus ro make Tithonus immorral. MINOS.pulied by her horsesShiner and Bright Her brother. it is said that zEUs grarrredEnd)rynion his wish that he might be allowed to sleep loreverin a cavewrthout ageing EOS *rs rhe Greek. son of Laomedon. accordingto different versions of the myth. including the particularly handsome Tithonus.the theJom oJa great white bull He swam to goddess spinhles dot beJore thesunthe island. disguisedas a white bull. who assumed . the youngest of the gods and the companion of apHRoottr. who bore him fifty daughters Because she could not endure the thought that Endymion would eventually die. a/NvAs. 1895) ) in all likelihood Elis According ro Greek mythology. and saRprporu. she forgot about etemal youth and ended with a lover made helpless mth age Thereupon. were sent out including CADMUS. according to some Greek rraditions. oJCretewith Europandingon while Nyx chaiot.

A l t h o u g h t h e Romans consulted lorc (or sorres) for personal problems.t r h r ) -Shn c u st ' r r J o n t r irrh h r r tl n i L r L o/ ho Llr \\''hrnshtr broke pnph. if ever. .tl h . . . i r r . . . . prophesied for politicai purposes. t L . l r ' I r l . / . . Prophecieswere also sought from s e e r s . r ( r r l r l i J l d r a l l n r r ' 1 l . lots. r 1t l r . l ' . i r \ i r t \ \ I l r t ItrrLLl. r ! . \ : . h l . t r t r t .ull :r'rrirr irtrL/. r i r l t . sometimes to mrslead. .irr()rnto d b et g r o r .il\ n \Ju K r i r ( . rhc sccr-god. Dreams afforded another type of oracle. usually inspired by the gods. r l l l { ) i r l r\ d / a l } i . i .l 3 8 a ) g j l . r .rl h'. r l ]t r. r r .rItr f\rhdn. r r . .jr. T h e f u [ u r e w a s a l s o r e v e a l e db y oracular signs. J ho hy lccrrcingthat hat prophilk \. t t i r l : .t t ' t .b o t h l i v i n g a n d d e a d . /i r r t r / r . .rrr /'r \ t l r . n . l l t .Kfdr thepronttse \r'r trar. \ ' 1 5 i h i ' k n r ] .I r r ft: ulrrr ) /rrrrrstcluLLghter C-I. h{rw( hdr rrrrrl. l P . r . ht lrrinrsht worll uln'uys . . r i L .CLASSICAL MYTHOLOGY ORACLES AND PnOPHECIES Ar people beheved that the future couid be revealed. or bumt offerings. r t . lr .. The most famous was the Delphic Oracle where Apollo. t t r t l / t .h rqnrrrrJ Ihs powefulpornayulry'(r:rar.S. D R [ . 1 l t .1NDR'1 oJl\tant urtJ lirr tilu wtr' a gr/teJ hr/i. r r . t r i r r i s t / r . r t r i . r r ! /lrr t n n a i l i i n g l / ( l l r . .i llir. t t .spoke through a p n e s t e s s . l r r l J 5 ( . r 1 / . such as the fall of dice.r. r J 4 R B r r . r r . . ' r i r . D r r l l r t \ r . J t i i t/ tl lt t. they rarely. t r l i t . r \ .c d n \ r L r . ir i l s i n r r t r l .S.y' thc sorrowful secr.ij5\i\it'. r t i(ll l. / r r l r i l t u r r J x r r r o f t d r r i r s T r r r i l i ' r t h . j . . /ai I o/ Itrl' i( \!\\\r. r i ' r r . i I I . they frequently consulted oraclesof every kind for personal and politlcal purposes. . 1 .1poi1. g ./ru rtrrals lhc rvhoucruralc/y prrrlitlcd the :ohtai1. i i r .

l {\'dl !i r1rr . r ( . i 1 1 r i j r . 1. 1 r 1 7 r . l .t . r ' .ir t 'n .iil.t+nl.CIeSSICAL MYTHOLOGY '. .i 5l(i\5 tx ()Ifl:N\ r. r 6 i l r r l . .. t . l i t ' t'r / I.'... r l r \ L . . r l r i L t l t r L . .i.. . l / r r l . r r i r i \ . . i ' 1 1. ' . . . i i t i r i j l L ' . 1. r r l r i . L 1i . r r r L\ L i Lr .i' .'.rr ir ') l. i .rr i . 1l i i . I \ L .. t ! l \1 1 . r .rL. j . it..i. 1 ' r 1 i . i r i l .jr. .1 i.. r .. l L .!r\l Lrr. \ t .rr r i! Lji rrL/!\ \ L j r ) i ri i r l \ i. i . i . r ) i r i r . i r . .

cub it of G cornrN THRF DrvJ M SnuDMcK orloNc{N s.weredelightlulbut capicious crmtures. from rhe Roman name. Sometimes Embolizng out to be as tyrannical to his own (tlruirunoN family as Ouranos had been before the*t{tness oJtheirvengeance FRoM DR SMrrH's C6slGLDrcrroNARy. was Gnn. 1895) him. the goddess ATHENA.which on occasion inspired the Romans to renew effons on the battlelield in the face o[ defeat Perhapsrhis is the reason for Faunus sometimes FAUNUS. wblds oJ a ruled the universe. with a spindlespinsout the thftdd o/lf. who insteadof the infant ZEUS. with the shean. he was still subjecr to the decisions of the Fares. however.The verdict the goddessof vegendon.who came out of Chaos and gavebirth to Ouranos the sky god. on Gaia's advice.were three goddesses lmown to the Greeks as the Moerae Their origins are uncertain. Furiae. at the dght. so he swallowed snakes enrwined in their hair.when CRoNos. an ancient seagod PosEtDoN. although some called them daughrers of night. and Atropos. So passionate was their reladonship and so overwhelming Ouranos' embrace that their offspring could not emerge lrom her womb. Jrolics alongwith aJriendly goat Faunus' children. spears oJho RHEA as a wife.c 1890) Tnr FefES. Lachesis ("the apportioner") and Atropos ("the ineviuble") A late idea was that the Fatesspun a lengrh ofyam which represenred rhe allorred span for each mortal Alrhough zEUs was the chief Greek god. Fatae. from rhe Roman. who was avengedhis father AGAMEMNON's secretly taken to Crete in order to murder by killing CLYTEMNESTM. he compelled his father persuaded to abandon their perse.tr tilJolsd dtblfth aod6ide d nrani dattrny O/ten dqictod as spinnm. nasum the lengh of a lp. The Greeks regardvengeo. or the Mdfie. Gaia conceived the FURIES. were the avenging goddeqses of Greek mythology and were known as the Ennyes ("the angry ones") Theywere bom from calmed the anger of the Furies. the earth. He had been wamed by an oracle that he would be displaced were ponrayed as uglywomen$lth by one of his sons. the avenging goddesses who pursued murderers. a spiil oJthe plainsandJields.hnown as Fauni.the god of rhe Athenian council presided over by underworld FIADES and DEMETER. halJgoats. the Fates played little direct parr (Seealso OMCLESAND PROPHECIES) FnUnUS was rhe Roman god of the countryside and identified with the Greek PAN.thetook torch. FLORA SCCFORCESOF NATURE Tnn FUruES. tumed thq were winged. was the king of the Latin people ar rhe time of erNnqs' arrival in Italy after the long voyage from Troy. his son. the blood of Ouranos that fell into whose name was then changed to rhe womb of cete. the by the Areopagus. The Greeks knew them as Clotho ("the spinner"). scourge dnd. and thus the executor of destinyrather than its source Hence the great importance to both gods and humans of oracles which indicared the ineutable drift of events ln mythology. 1895 ) being seen as a descendant of the war god MAR5 His mortal son. CRONOS.ClassrcAr- MyrHoLoGy THE FAIES. gave had wrongly shed blood They him a stone wrapped in swaddling relenrlessly pursued oREsrEs. castratedhim.to disgorge his brothers and sisters. Gaia may have savedZeus hom a fate similar to that of Ouranos and Cronos when she wamed him that a child of his bom by Metis 42 . rr.god of the mounuinside Faunus was said to be rhe grandson ofsarunN and was credited with prophetic powers.rhar at a certain period they ceased to be concemed with death and became instead those powers which decided whar must happen ro individuals. It is clear.nce TheFuiespursued wrthout ed this as the golden age of the merqin l{e andin death all wrong-dom TITANS. Ouranos then faded from the mythological scene and Cronos A FURY. u. Clotho. Gaia conceived a great sickle which Cronos used to cut off his father's penis within the eanh womb The god was emasculatedand the sky separated from the earth From Ouranos' blood. at the $. goddess punishmnt. hall-mn.frile lzchais. grow up there in safery When Zeus his mother The Furies were only was grown. however. the less-threatening Eumenides. One of these buried children. Cronos. however. and his children as soon as they were were pitiless to those mormls who bom Rhea. The Furies ("the soothed ones") in Greek myrhology. cution of Orestes after his acquitul including his future wife HEM. the youngestson. uhng his sister . Latinus.who sometimes plaguedmen's sleepwith nightmares (tLLr/srMr()N FRoM DR SMilH s CrAssrql DrcroNARy. who was her son and husband. decided to overthrow Ouranos.

fa l l u n J l h r r o u n s / t c r o / . hlcl in rherr rnt.1'. borehim uwnyto Mount OrymPui (IHr R A f t o F G A N Y M Tr ) r B l P F r F R P A r l R l 8 t N \ (ANVA5 1577 )640) . J r r t h x h o .io untlabund.s hrm to Mounr Olympus ILrbc hls cupbearer Ganymede lt was believed thar also bccame Zcus' zt-s thc lover.CIaSSICAT MYTHOL-OCY I 1l' "'.r m a r b ib c c l r m c prcgnant wirh tcmble deitres. K r .n the grustol ttn uglt.'ccl \'1etis iln(l latcr tl-ie godclcs: A /l l/ NA sprang frorn hrs heacl 'l'hc srorv r)l fhe separatl()lt l r r ' l \ \ tL ' l tt l < r . l r r L i r .teoe 1 . ' r r f ro-. \r i r\ r . brt off and swallowccl hrs fathtr's pe ttis As a rcsult of hts unr.rhs thc ntost I Lolcnt \ crsron of the sk1's ctnascltlaIltltt Kurnarbr. L r tt//rr ci i l t t f L r l . .l ( l l l onc lt rs ior:nd rn e valieq'ol ftrrnls Ln \\'cst Asian rnythologl' I hc I lumans.'. ' l i 5 h r ' \ t J r r .excitttl GANYMEDE. thl krnA "l of Phrygia. . / t h cr h r t r l t h bu. f / l a i l . a <t h c ' .. h o * ' e v e r . and gained hls immonality thc consrellation water-camer Aquanus. boy. r n r l( .ltl0 h0 r d l l sh a r . olre ol whom at Lastove rthrerv hln'r k mllh nr LJrce GnNYIr.c r rr i l l l r l r . the equivalent of Cronos.r. l 1 r g 1r r . r . who lncd ()n the borclcrs ol nrodem-furkcy nncl lraq. ' r r b r r t s / t r 't r u ' r i r r . d g ( r l d f s \ i .lrr( . r r r t hr t r t h h c r g r f t i . a handsome rhc passionof Zrus whtr. ( / l t i i i \ j')'ra r i l r r l \ i r \ i i L .l t GAIA i h r 5 r .rsr-ral a t t r o n .r16sy 1 .{. l r l l l l i J l l 1 l l . and brother of llus He was such a beautr{ul young man abducted him and tc-rok thar ZFi. r 6 [ \ l i ( " r h o u g h t " ) w o u l d r ep l a c e h i m i r s rht' sr-rpremc gocl So Zeus st:tLLru. r / r Nt)t on! xtts sht Intl.

Dunng the geat batrle berween rhe Medusa ("queen") and Euryale gods and rhe Giants.s ALIAR oFIERGAMIN. from rhe Roman each opponent wirh poisoned The only mortal of rhe three was name. who were rhe old. thq werebuied beneathvolcanoes Herewe seethe hound oJ Artemts hilling a glant at the battle of the Giants and thegods (zEL. small son He wasportrayed as both a raglng warior and a gentle family man who had taughthimself to be valiant out oJdury rather than any natural (LLUsrMrraN COUrAge ByAUNLEE. They were attendants to APHRoDITE and YENUS. Heracles ("wide-leaping"). had human shape. Euphrosyne and Thalia. It is important to realize Medusa. I895 ) HECTOR Aelow). who are gadedby Hermes Hades appedrs with typically darh lools and unntly hair wer which he often worea h e l m e tr l r l u s r M r / r op ^o M maglc DF sMllH' CHSIGL DICTIoNARY.sisrers.Persephone. and were rhe played a decisive pan. 1895 ) killed by divine hands zEUs rherefore fathered rhe great hero HEM. excepr for the snake-like tails thar were attached to their legs They were bom at the same time as rhe FURIES. gentlenessand friendship. Gradae. 1994 ) THE GIANTS (above)weregigantic creatures with snahe-Iihetails After thq were defeated by the gods.CLASSIcAL MYTHoLoGY HADES (abwe) . When the Gianrs tumed to withing snahesby a vengeJul attacked Olympus. +4 . the victim of rhe Greek of zEUs and Eurynome. living man or rhing ro srone myth. the Trojan champion. would not be able to defeatrhem. from rhe Roman name. THg GneCES. the Graces were thought to represent beauty. c 180 8C) THe GnNrS. rhe gods stood goddessThe imageoJhu fnghtfulJace was their ground. Giganres. on wamors' shtelds. the love goddesses of Greece and Rome respectir/ely. charmsand amulets (tuusrMroN because the Gians could nor be FRoil DR SM|TH s CNSIGL DtcTtoNARy. Zeus' farher. finishing off children of Phorcys. lord oJ theundewvorld . snatches with his loving a fioment oJpeoce wtJeand.lihe an etl qe. ^TARBLE. but knew rhar they cawed. with his wiJe. and were that the Giants are quire differenr hero PERSEUS Like her immorul minor goddesses to both the from the TITANS.Tnr GonGoNs were chree CLES through a morral woman sistersnamed Srheno("strengrh").were the daughters arrows. from rhe blood thar [e]l THE GORGON MEDUSA (abwe) was into GAIA'S womb ftom Ouranos' onte a beauttful woman whoseloclu were severed penis. receivesthe souk oJthe dead. son o[ GAIA. city walls.A favourite subject for artiss. in Greek myrhology.she had snakesfor hair and Greela and rhe Romans According est generadonof rhe gods and were one look at her lace could tum any to the most widely accepted led by CROwOS. their names were Aglaia.

the squire and lover ofAcHlttES. by sending Achilles' mother THETIS to stop this humiliadon. and rhe brorher of. POSEIDON. In order to avoid any reference to the nature of the underworld it was usual to call Hades by the drle of Pluto ("the giver of weahh") Hades'chief myth concems the abducdon ofPersephone. bloom and billiance. only those (whose name means "the HeoeS ghosts who could pay the fare unseen") was rhe Greek god of rhe CERBERUS. the place where the At the division of the universe after sun sets. however. or Chaities.ANPTNS SEE MONSTER5 AND FABULOUS BF/5TS was believed by some HfCefe to be descendedfrom the tltexs. JAsoN'srejected Colchian princess. rhe king of Troy during rhe Greek siege. a subtenanean river. but bter on thq woe dqicteil a:snudes $xr messengergod. where her influence was said to be feh.CInSSIcAL MYTHoLoGY Although usually a faithful husband. A Greek goddess with two quite separate aspects. DEMETERand tu in Egrydan mythology. Neither the Greeks nor the ovenhrow of their father.zrus. the lwing chitons. ghosrsand tombs ln many ways similar to the vegeution goddessDEMETER. Achilles had quarrelled with AGAMEMNoN and refused ro fighr. 45 . the realm of the dead. So in exchange for a great treasure. to the boarman THEE GucEs BY RAPMET-W@D. only to be slain by Hector. Hecate uncomfortably combined ferriliry with death as a power of the eanh.Hector's body was retumed and properly buried. veiling their beauty. Persephone was abruptly taken underground by Hades when she beheld a special narcissus planted by the earrh mother GAIAro please the god of death. underworld. He was cenainly a was to be shared among them. wirh the west. In the tudes who had died and come ro earliest worlu of art. When Persephonediscovered this. Hecareis usually portrayed with three faces. the earth in Chrisdaniry. In rhe end zEUs himself intervened. c I50l) Charon who ferried acrossrhe Sryx. she became so jealous that she tumed the nymph into the sweet-smellingherb. Such was Achilles' anger rhat for rwelve days he dragged Hector's corpse round Parroclus' tomb. but during the hours of darknessshe was interested in witchcrafr. HnCfOR was rhe eldesr son of pRmv. the rhree-headed dog. Roused from his lethargy. and Another name for Hades was worshippers always averted rheir THE 6RACES.who gave the husband and the mother equal shareso[ her time As a dyrng-andrising goddess. Polydegmon ("receiver of many wodd with beauty. rhe Greek hero. mint H.and of Hades as an evil force like Satan Hades the underworld. guests") on accounr of rhe muldIiJting the spints oJ godsand men. used to invoke Hecate in her magic arts. graced the eyes when making a sacrifice. however. and once a month they placed offerinp of food at crossroads.HERA. Achilles sought out Hector and compelled him to fight to the death. The bravest of rhe Trojan wamors. but Parroclusborrowed his divine armour in order to nlly the Greek. grim and implacable deiry. He forcibly married Greek associated the undenvorld PERSEPHONE. the Gracesappear in his kingdom. The conflicr berween Hades and Demeter over Persephone's fatewas decided by Zeus. Hades at one time became enamouredof the nymph Minthe. The ghosts of rhe dead were escortedby HERirarS. ever thoughr took the sky. He mistakenly killed Patroclus. he was unbearen on the battlefield. Poseidon the sea. reuming to the world of rhe living. who was the daughter of Demeter and his brorher Zeus. The Athenians were parricularly respectful towards her. in tune with rhe narural rycle of sowing and hawesting. the Hestia. Persephone sank and rose annually from the underworld. The wrrch MEDEA.in the day she was supposed to have a benign influence on farming. Demeter's daughter. guarded the ennance to the underHe was the son of cnoruos and world and prevented anyone from RHEA. Zeus the Romans.

So angry did Zeus become that he flung his son from the top of Mount olympus and let him fall heavily on the volcanic island of Lrmnos.a crwn oJ laming rays Just 4s th€ sun's rcys ynetrate everylhere. Throughout this long war the sympathies of Helen were mainlywith the Greeks. desirable bnde in Greece. although she was reated as the proper wife. of Pans. ln another version. They even eloped with a part o[ Menelaus' treasury.. There. It was rhought that Helios. His rnarriage to the love goddistance and into the unimaginable dess APHRODIIEmay have somefar lrom anyshore thing to do wrth this eastem conOne myth of Helios concems nection. many sons of King rrueu ofTroy. god nnrs. cav J. an island sacred ro him. Helen and Menelauswere reconciled and they lived undisturbed at Spana. after crossing the slcy. god oJ the svn. Their reladonship steer his father's radiant chariot. At the time of her mamage to Menelaus.sailed during the night around the earth in a golden bowl on the encircling waters of oc&{Nos. among them A Augeas. Helen was the most HEI-EN (abovd pcces thewqlLsoJTroy The nostbeeuttJulwoman of the arcimt woid. onginally from Asia Minor. so Hephaistos was invited to retum permanendy of ttrDt HnffN wasthe daughter and zrus.oDlrr. His Roman equivalent was vULcAN. and so arrived back in the eastjust before dawn. he was persuaded by his friend DIoNYsus to unlock the cunning device and let so Helios saw everything atdwu iwohd DR his mother escape 4s 4 witness oJo4tlu {t*rsrut oNFrcM Hephaistos seems to have come 1895 ) SMIrH's CrAsl(}LDrcloNeY. a thoughtful heroine.CrnssrcAL MYTHoLoGY Horse. only to be thwaned by sea nymphs who took him to a beach. arrdhersister unfaithfuI wasKingAcAMaalvoN's wlfe CLYTEMNESTM. the seagod PoSEIDoN 46 .) HEUOS. To the Romans he was known as Sol.{us. in the nonhem part of the Aegean Sea. A sequel to this rale has the smith god gain his revenge as a fully grown man by making a golden rhrone for his mother which was actually a trap. visited Spana and. Zeusmatedwrth Leda. HEUOS was rhe Greek sun god and son of the ntqN Hyperion. Hera ried to drown her imperfect child. gaixed Helen's a[ec[on.otten. shewas ako. Only rhe dmely acrion of zEus steadied fashioned a trap to catch his its runaway horses and prevented unfaithful wife in bed with the war the earth from catching fire. None of the gods could releaseHera. At first Menelaus and Helen were very one of the happy.. When the Trolars refrrsed to retum Helen and lhe stolen lreasure. The Olympian gods Phaethon fell from the vehicle and merely laughed at Hephaistos'sitonly was drowned. Helios had uation. c 1880. appearsin worhs oJart as a strongardbeautfulyouth wrth gluming cyes.Helen'sbrothers the were Castotand Polydeuces. but was toppled by an earthquake around 226 Bc.wife of in the theSpartan hng Tyndareos. from it and when Helenhatched shebroughtherup asa member of the royalfamily. the wrfeof rhe Spartan o[ hng urrurf. was the son of HfPHetSfOS andwas the Greek zEUs and HERlt.Ledalaid an egg. the younger brother o[ Agamemnon. whose smithy lay beneath the crater of Mount Aetna in Sicily. Both rhe Greeks and the Romans held that the inhabited world was a large many other children. with the help of the love goddessAPHf. accordingto Homei. smith god. However. gpen to seft mochery anl6ygT 4wre oJ themiserycausedbyha BY Lop or rHE W[s oFTRoY bgaul (Hrreu lEcHril. CIRCEand PASIPHAE gigantic statue of the sun god was erectedat the harbour of Rhodes. m)|stenous DIOSCURI.anWar Her immortaliryas thesupreme Greek thedaughterof wasonce deitysuggesF thatHelen and that her incorpora goddess ation into myth as an unfaithful queen only occurred when her q796|ripwaslargelyforg. This socalled Colossus was one of the seven wonders of the ancient world. guiseof a swan. Agamemnon assembled a great army to help his brother Menelaus For ten years the city o[ Troy was besieged and then only captured through the tnck of the Wooden to Mount Olympus. it stretched shore. as she also came to Greece rhe death o[ his son PMETHoN Once thu impetuousyouth med to from West Asia. After the fall of Troy.and the cause the Tro.and. and not merely the mistress. but then PARts. under the influence of dnnk. Hephaistoswas lame as a result of having interfered in a quanel between his parents. Once Hephastos but he quickly lost conuol. where iron rnines date from a very early by an ocean island sunounded period His cultwas strong in Cana Although Oceanos was sometimes and Lycia. was almost as tumultuous as that of Zeus and Hera. along its south-westem descnbed as a nver.

and Hebe. godoJ J'tre. later in his life. Aphrodite. her promised some remedy if he agreed addition to the Greek pantheon to releaseAphrodrte and Ares was not an easy or straightforward A myth about ATHENA's binh matter. andHephaistos to trap theguilty palr (THE FoRCE oF vuLGN By DrEGo VEAseuEz. heleans ononeleg Byhim stands who rewakthathiswtJe. againsrthe Hepharstosfell in love wrth Athena.1885 ) in his cradle However.sacred to her as the messenger oJ sping. (Seealso FORCES OFNATURE) but the infant hero strangledthem HEPIIAISTOS. but in others the offspring of Hera aione Herawas worshipped wrth particular reverence in Crete and at Samos. birth ro the serpent Erichthonius she senr two serpenrs ro kill him. Metis. as the ceaseless conflicts recounts how Hephaistos split benveenher and her husband zrus open Zeus' head wrth an axe in readily bear wrtness Often her fis order to release the fuily grown of jealousy and quarrelsomeness goddess Apparently. heroesand swallowedAthena's mother. rhe goddess of birth Eileithyra. baby HEMCLES. Hera succeededin dnvinq Heracles temporanly mad There are a number of myths about Zeus' courtship of Hera ln one of them he disguisedhimseif as a cuckoo and took shelter inside her clothes during a hear. di'rectsHelios across the slry She is crownedwitha dadem and vetl. children For example. ApoIIo. Ioves resoltes Ares. men.wno ls salo rn some mlths to have been the son of Zeus and Hera. aNvs. which was a major city in the Peloponnese It was claimed rhat she was the daughter ofcRolos and RHEA.16J0 ) HEM. Zeus resumed his normal shape and promised to marD/ Hera Later she bore him the war god eRrs.symbolilngher statusas Zeus' bicle Her sceptreB trpryd with d cuchoo.CLASSICAL MYTHoLoGY means "lady" and was HnRn undoubtedly the title of a powerful mother goddess whom the Greek inhented from the earlier inhabitants of Argos. Jashions gcWen worles exquistte in hls Jiery Jorge Lame. queenoJheaven. Zeus had led to disaster for gods. whom Zeus had but was rejected by her and his fathered in order to help rn the semen fell to earth where it gave coming battle against the GIANTS. when she relentlesslyperonce he realized she was pregnant secutedZeus' mistresses and their wlth a powerful deiry Later. the season in which shemaried Zgus (lrri'srurnrl rR()I1 SroRlrs r R()v Lrw. where a great temple was said to have been built for her by the ARGONAUTS 47 . the cupbearer of the gods Another child was the smith god HtPflAlSlu5. however.ydownpour Once out of the rain.

who then gave birth to the MNOTAUR. he retumed to Tir)ryrs with either its golden antlers or the hind iself. the son otzeus and was the geatest of all the ALCMENE. the Theban queen. I(ng Eurystheus told Heracles to remove the immense piles of dung from the stables. HoaclcsliJshim highaba. It Iived in a swamp at [€ma. Nessus. even going mad at one point during his life. ND crErcum ANTEUS By PrH Amco . he cured the skin and wore it as a trophy.a circumstance that firmly ties the hero to Argos.three bodies and six hands. The problem that the hero encountered when fighting with the Hydra was that for every head he cur off with his sword two new ones grew in its place. His next opponent. It took Heracles to Thrace in pursuit of the man-eating mares of Diomedes. Heraclesburied iu ninth immoftal head undr a huge roch in the swamp. and ctusheshimin mid-air Thisbronze c:'prnses theclassical idealoJhcrot shillandmight. sent by the vengeful goddess Htra. and they added various encounters in ltaly to his already large cycle of adventures. The chosen mother was Alcmene.he fathered Heracles at the court of Thebes. nips at his heek AJter buning away the lTydra's eight morul huds. him to caprure the Erymanthian boar. After overcoming the lion. where he let it go free at the end of this seventh labour. HERACI. Greek heroes. which he subdued after feeding them on their master's flesh The last four labours were quite different in nature. When he retumed ro Eurystheus. BecauseZeus needed a mortal champion in the forthcoming battle berween the gods and the GIANTS. The lasr Iabour that the hero performed in the Peloponnese was the removal of the Stymphalian birds. which plagued the countryside of Arcadia. PASIPFIAE. Another labour reouired HgnnCt rS. (HERCULE ND frE Hmn^ A F vAs. Although they had steel-dpped feathen with which they killed borh men and animals. After this labour Heracles brought back the golden apples of the HESPERIDES. The fifth labourwas the cleansing ofAugeas'stables.etheurth. these birds were frightened away by the noise of a rattle. the bull-headed man slain by the Athenian hero THESEUS Heracles captured Poseidon'sbull alive and brought it back to Tryns. Heracleshad to capture the Ceryneian hind. One of them. Augeashad vast herds of animals. On the island of Crete the hero tracked down the bull that utlos had failed to sacrifice to the seagod PosEIDoN.the king refused to count the exploit as a labour. To atone for this terrible deed he had to become Eufrstheus' dependent and undertook his famous rwelve labours. The name Heracles means "Hera's glory" . Zeus intended Heraclesto be ruler of Mycenae or Tiryns.c strongholds Hera close to Argos. but this plan so well frustrated that the hero became the slave of Eurystheus.. a westem king who had three heads. queen of the frerce AM.ES slays the llydra. which he pastured in the hngdom of EIis in the westem Peloponnese. He rrapped it with a neq and during the hunt Heracles encounrered a band of crxteuns. The next labour was not quire so bloody.was Iater to cause the hero's death. not far from Argos. a feat he achieved by divening rhe course of a nearby river.c 1920) GoRauET. because Heracles had received help from his nephew. The son of the sun god.whlle a crab. To the Romans he was known as Hercules. was a nine-headed serpent sacred to Hera.ClnssrcAL MYTHoLocY with Anaats. the Hydra. rhe wild. which could not be harmed by arrows.4ZONS Then he captured the catde of Geryon. The eighth labour was more gruesome. But with assistance from his nephew lolaus he was able to triumph.Heraclesfetch the girdle of Hippolyta. in the course of which he hlled his wife and their three sons with arrows. She struck Heracleswith a fir of madness. According to different accounts. for Iolaus bumed the srumps of the necks as soon as Heraclesseveredeach head.601528 .. The bull had mated with Minos'wife. king of Tiryns. These labours began with the killing of the Nemean lion. which was a goddessof beasrsacredro ARTEMIS.a glant HEMCLES wra tles whodrawshis strmglhJrom theeanh To wmhenthegiant's might. First of all Eurystheus had. beast-like men who lived in woodlands. which the goddess ATHENAhad specially made for Heracles. the site of the goddess HEM's temple lt remains a mystery that Heracles should have been persecuted so much by Hera. BRoNzE ) Heracles had to fight it with his bare hands and a wooden club. female guardians of the fruit that the eanh goddess GAIAgaveto Hera on her 48 .

h e r a l d ' s s t a f f c r o w n e d w r t h t w o ally cut off his own manhood snakes In ancient Greece this staff assured the messenger safe passage HERMAPHRODIT O S.eath in Hddes (ruusrurrcr FRoM D crroNARy ot. wedding to Zeus The last exploit of Heracles was the mosr testing. rhe underworld This dury helps to explain the later idenrification of the Germanicgod Odin even dunng time of war Hermes' greatest passion was for the love goddess APtIRoDITE The nvo sons that are attnbuted to them were borh renowned their unusual sexualiry for HER. and Cancer. queen of the underworld.inspirerlthe love ol the watr nymph SalmacisHut.vtApH. M E R C U R Y O d i n w a s t h e caLly The result was a femaleboy. though some drstance [arther north at Lampascus. ro bnng bnefly back to Tinns rhe three-headed hound crn-arnus As a result of this labour. rt was Hermeswho wzs alrvayssent to stealsomethingthat was otherwrseunobtarnable Beforethe sea n y m p h t r u rt t 5 p c r s u e d c d hcr son A ( H i L L t St o s t o p m u r i l a r i n gt h c corpseof HECTOR. there was a great flash of lighrning and Zeus took his son to loin rhe immortals Someof the labourso[ Heracles arereflected in rhe namesof certain constellations. was the work o[ the Cenuur Nessus.. the beau uJul son oJAphroditeand Hermes.s l89l ) 49 . and the son o[zrus and Maia He enloyed playrng tncks and games Dunng the TrojanWar. unawart oJ hrsbeautful admirer on tht iver banb ( s A LM A ( r s A N D H E M p H R O T T T ( ) s /58.wrth some help from PERSEPHONE. rhe goddessoilove According to one Greek myth. c h a m p r o n o [ w a r r i o r s a n d t h e hencethe term hermaphrodite But father of the slarn Hermaphroditoswas not emascuHermes is usually depicted as a lated like Attis. hard-working Heracles attainedimmortality for himself No other hero gained this honour Heracles'death on earth.CrnssrcAr MyrHoLoGY when he bathed in some waiers with the Roman equivalent of and she mergedwith him physr. whrch told him to build a funeral ppe rn Thessaly When the dyrng hero climbed on to it.CrAssrcAl ANleutTil. rhis handsome boy excited the passion of Salmacis. R O P I T O Sw a s t h e f i r s r f e m a l e b o y .H e r m e s . such as Leo. the gods consideredrhat the simplesrsolutron m i g h t b e r o l e t H c r m e s s t e a lt h e broken body Hermes was the god wlo most easilycrossed the line betweenthe lir'rngand rhe dead.lvtES leadsEurydice(centre)and Orphns (nght) throughthe undemorld As Hermesconductedsouls psychopomp. 4Ntes.b n m m e d Phrygian morhergoddcssCybele.. carrynng a lor this West Asiangod intention.tR. dr BARrHoloufl ( SPMN(.the crab that was allegedly sent by Hera to help the Hydra (SeealsoHEROES) HEnMAPHRODITOS was rhe bisexualoffspnng of the messenger god urRvrs and APnRootrr. near the Black Sea HER.who gavethe hero's second wife a poisoned galrnent for him to wear Realzing that his death was near.coEs. who was a nymph of a founrain nearto the ciry of Halicamassus in Asia Minor When the young Hermaphrodirosignored her artentions. the goldn boy bathesm a showeroJ sunlryht. Heracles consulted the Delphic Oracle. hat and wrnged sandals. whiLe the gnome-like Pnapus was [amous for his cnormous Like that o[ Hermaphroditus. the realm of the dead From there the hero managed.which representsthe Nemean Lion. Jrom l{e on earth to d. Salmacis prayed to the gods that she might be etemally united wrth him The wish was granted HEnUgS was rhe Greek messenger god.lor it meanr a descent into the underworld. the lover of rhe y o u n g m a n w i t h a w i d e . an event that the Greeksexpected to precede his translarion to Mount Olympus as a god. penis the cult of Priapus originated rn Asia Minor. for the Greeks believed that he guided the dead to the realm of H.

Sir herool he bttamc theuntestrul reachLng Ltlrum n ltalywhere is hlndlywelcomrd amvtngon Deios.oray many heroes.Sir he won On hrsway homcrn a Lonnthian ship.thc AenertJ.yntalpoetund ctharaplqer.he wusrohbcd I andlorril toleap owrboard thc sarlors. Iry song-loving whert' hc was bome uway to safcry tlolphtns Here.AS'Qbove) rn port a Roman eprrtale. or for the sheer joy of discovery and adventure. Owheus lortttr Here whib Htmes (IeJt). lestibed rn Virgrl's OdysseyAlttr fleeingwth hs father dnLlsonlrttnt buming Tnty' Thrar and sarled awuyIrywayLtJ At ncasanl his contraclcs Cunhttgt. Poseidon.lore ily ancJ I)elos to (. perhaps. ( 4208( ) alter tfu lull ofTroYwas s*en yearvoyagt AENF. was th'e fabled Odyssey of the shipwrecked wanderer.lthe uo. F. Odysseus. N / r yK i n g A n i a s( A r N r ir ARION 0rght). A \ 4 9)7 l ) tL ( ) s M . Aeneasand Odysseus. Tossed from shore to shore by the angry sea god. Aeneas and Odysseusboth joumeyed to the underworld in searchof prophetic counsel. Jason set sail with his fearlesscrew of Argonauts in search of the Golden Fleece.CT-eSSICAL MYTHOLOGY VOYAGERS oF THEuNKNowN prompts all restiessheroes to stnke out on a new HE LURE path in search of a fabulous treasureor shining dream.lt1Rrrl. Most famous and appealing.urydice bath ttt the rnusrr. theRomanr Hert.rttt and onwurdsto .while Aeneas' ar voyage after the fall of Tioy led him seven-ye to the site of future Rome. and found his way out again. The lure of the into a monster's den. Atnt'us.a l. Anon playshis rlhara on tht prow oJ leuping o. world oJ shudts lcacJ [urrJiic buh LhroughLhc (lilR\1t\ l:r [\T)t(r lNri()Rfr]rL5. or a f. hr' uas allowcci uppr:rworld as long as he did not knh bach untrl dear s /ust as thty wtre about b stepoul mto tht of Haclt E u r y c lrr ts l l p u n t c Jr o u n do n i yt o s c e h g h t . r j o r r ^ l r \ r1 r. ily b tuhcpdrt in tt magltul conteslwhrch sailcJ trr . be. he found his way home after ten years' wandertng through fabulous lands.rnvohing ovtrbourd llrr'jrMrr)r rR()MTA\(lrlw(x)DT^ll\ ( 1920) 50 .too.t ) r 1 / r e uts bachml<ttht worlclol shades . ORPHET/SQtlt) wtnt down tnlo I lddes. Three intrepid explorersstand out in Classicalmphology: Jason.waits to bils /arcwcii to Euryclrce. such as Theseuswho went into the Labyrinth to slay the Minotaur. attracts underworld.tht' untltrvorltl. beJore tht gods thr shrp.urydue (--hairrrrng wrlh his ttnLl ewn Ptrstphonc thr shadcs to taht F.Lobnngbachhrswilc.

r r r t : r r ' r . g /a ut sl r . q o n u u t s s a r l c J a r r . the Cyt lopcs l3olclrrncl i n q u i s i r r v r .qrl'c]((ll]l)(li]lL'J a g t I h t l u t ' n tr ns c a r r h ry thr (iolltn t h eJ n r g o n ' s r 1 e .only d/lar nrdny vacl\'ilclrc/arlrL Orrtt bath on his islanc/ htnutlon ol ithara.lysscus / tahr' lrr llr \ ii\( Ll 4 c w i l h c rs h a r y c n c cs \ l1 t ] . 4 j t \ . / u s o n a n J h i s A r . i \ \ r \ ( u / u r t r rg e i c t n r ' c d l r t s t d t u a ( ) / A r c s r n l h c s u c r c c i p r t rL tJ 'o t. L \ J(.irr # ffi i. irc haci arorircr baLtk Lo lighL w r l h l h e s u r k r r sr y 'h r i w r / c hrfort hc couk/ rzecin hrs thronc anrl sctlit Jrrrvn n'rlir P e n t l o p t t l t r t \ r R r r r .. ODYSSEUS (obovt). /crrt rrs/tcp. hltrufuclthc trant arrcl sLppeci o u t . ht btttthtd ut -Srt ol one-qed gants. Oc. tralt ancl rrrrosify On hrs wuy horne /rrrnr JA5oNfclru')satlcdacrossthf5('ds()napcrrltlas\1}}'c/g('lt/tts/cttntlls:/rrp. /or hrs unntng. rs Lrrrl ()r lri ()iur roat hy l'hcicacian iai/orr Ar prcJittcc/ hv lfic sctr. \ r\ r ( ) ! r r\ | F ( . ! . hrc r/ '. 1 \ t ) R\l1 frit\t'Ht\1 .CLASSICAL MYTHoLoGY ODYSSEUS (above). / r c l c l c nr n J c r s h c c p r ' b c / l i r s I l t r c and hts r onrarlt s prcrt L thc vrclrl i :rnllt Oc. . / r n u l l y u r r I r lrrrrn '. \ r a l .s dncl silvdr l(rnguc. Trrtsiar. ir f i r r \ . hornr ry' thc luwlcss rar c I roy.y r l o p s J c n w h e r t h e a n t l h r s r o m r a d c s h c r a n r t l r u p p c r /h t i r c hostilc granl To csrrrpc. O d y s s c u sw a n d c r c r Jr n l o a ( . thn. / r ] . ( Ji. r u r r r r r g lr t r r .thrAr.rl ti(d rn . ! I l \ r l r r I l a 8j 5I . rg r . ctltbruted trcl'cllcr. ) Nt lt l .rr rly.ilsscur rrar hcJ irrrnrcu/onc rrn u /ortrgrr shrp. rvas rcnowntd lor hLswil.rn [u ss ltulspd 1s ! lr l ] h r s r r r ! . i . 4 .

held the Sublician Bndge. rANvAs.ClnsstcAr- MyrHoLocy Hnno AND LEANDER were Leander lost his senseof direction one o[ the great pairs of loversin and he drowned in the cold waters Greek mythology Hero was a When his bodywas washed ashore pnestesso[ epnnoorceat Sesros in at Sestos.the evening star Their nameswere nage. they arrangedthat Leander they were the guardians o[ a tree of should swim acrossto Hero each golden applesgrvenby GAIA.1880 ) EDWARD BURNE-JoNE5. he ordered his comrades . mothnight. offenng ro hold up the heavens in his stead HORATIUS (below). to the goddess HERA on placedin her tower Next moming her marriage ro zELls . chief of rhe he would swrm back at dawn One Greek gods This tree stood in the stormy night the light blew out. wtth nuo oJhis comrades. Aegle and Erytheis. while Leander her tower and died lived on the Asianside of the channel at Abydos They met and fell in Tne HTSPERIDES were suplove. a Romanhero. usually swam to heracross theHellespont golden apples in the garden oJthegodsThe guided bya lightin hertwer Butherlight serpent reallsthemyth oj thedragon ltdon blew out in a storm andlttinderwas whoguarded theapples untilhewasslain drowned |Jm.when they tned to restore TARQUINIUS SUPERBUS to the Roman throne by force of arms. The Etruscansmounted a surpnse attack and attempted to capture Rome by crossing a poorly defended bridge over the Rrver Tiber With two comrades.Horatius held the enemy back untrl the Romans had destroyed the wooden bndge As the final supports were sawrr away. and secret. but becauseoI her religious posedly rhe daughtersof Hesperus. 186973) slopes of Mount west Atlas in the far the For one of his labours hero HFMCLES tncked the Titan ATI-{S into getting him the golden apples. Garden of the Hespendes on rhe (nght) HERO(below) Ioohs who THE HESPERIDES guarded the JorherLeander.Hero threw herselffrom the Dardanelles.against the ELruscan amy ''ly'hile other Romanshached down the bidge. lxt wArcH oF HERoByLoRD by Heracles (TH[ cARl)r. calling Hero was barred from mar. ln order to keep their affair Hespera.N or rHr: HrspLRlDEs By LErcH()N cANviS . guided by a light that she er earth. 1885 ) HOnqftUS was a Roman hero who saved the early Republic from the Etruscans. he held o[f the entmy until the last moment whenheleaptinto thestredm and swamto FROM saJety(LrusrvnoN FROM SroRl6 Llw.

Hypnos lived in the underworld. In another myth.and it was time for his birth. and was one of the mortal women who bore children by zEUs. "thewanderer". c 1635) ARGU5 8y PEEn Plur RUBENJ. Then. the night goddess.who was Ino's child and kept him safefrom Hera. she was forgiven by Hera. Zeus's wife. whose power Zeus alwap respected. was his son. dead sister. Morpheus. rhe suggesrionof Hpnvrs. this did not prevent Zeus from having her expelled from Argos so rhar he could make love to herwithout any difficulties According to one version. he appeared to Semeleas lightning her infant son Melicertes leaptinto Whether he was wounded in the and thunderbohs. Because lo had been bovine in shape on her arrival. such a powerful goddess back to the Roman bank. HYPNOS ("sleep"). the son senger god. 53 . though tradition saysrhar an ancienrsarue of a lame. possibly because he had already come close to having a thunderbolt hurled at him He was saved by taking refuge with Nrght. and placed in Zeus'own rhigh unril Greeh shores as a maine deity who aided the Phoenicianhng of Thebes.in his tum. rhe messtorms (ODyssEUs AND THE coDDs INo8y she brought up DIONYSUS. It seemsthat Zeus eventually made love to lo on a cloud over Egypt. the realm of nnors. herself by jumping off a cliff into His full name was Horatius and the unfonunate resultwas that the sea. On severaloccasionsHERA asked Hypnos to lull her husband zEIJs to sleep so rhar she could attack his son HEMCLESHypnos usually refused ro anger Zeus. Hera prayer saved the hero as he dodged ity of her lover by relling him to made Ino kill her own children the Etruscan arrows and struggled come to her in his rrue form This After she had done this Ino killed across the waters of the Tiber Zeus was also tricked into doing. however. but Horatius was obhged jealous and vengeful wrfe of Zeus. sent Hermes to lull Argus n sleep by theilreamynota o! his AND lute (Mt:rcuRy gNv s. rhe could nor be thwarted wirhour made it. he tumed Io into a beautiful heifer. she became identified with the Egptian cow goddess Hathor. great personal cost. was the son of Np<."as the daughter of the river god Inachus. Semele had been However. When she to swim back in full armour Only who advised her to resr rhe divindiscovered the deceprion. wulwed byZeus who changeilho intoahaJo in ordo toavod jealous his w{e Hera Heraordered allseang Argus to wakh Io. one-eyed man was erected near the bridge in his honour He was also given as much land as he could drive a plough over in a day (Seealso HERoES) thrauinghimher veil which saves himJrom INO rescues shipwuhed Odysseus by ILUS SCC FOUNDERS IO . and would have mated with her at once had not Hera guessed his intentions and sent a gadfly to prevent the animal from standing still. in Greek mphology. and she was the sea and became marine deities eye remains uncertain. she and Cocles ("Horatius the one-eyed"). Theyjust tricked by the goddessHERA. where she was retumed to her human form Surprisingly. F6co. lno suckled the divine AEsNDRoArcfl.butZfus. and never saw the sun. The unbom Dionysus. was uken from her womb drowning Shewas honoured along the INO was rhe daughrerof cADMUs. Although Io was a virgin priestess of nrRe. ar sailors in distressand guided ships through Harmonia ln Greek myrhology. 1580) of zrus and Semele. at her tempie in Argos.and the brother of Thanaros ("Death").CInSSIcAL MYTHoLoGY killed. the god of dreams. IO.

as he sat in the shade of the Argo.M DR SMrrHs CKslqL DrcTroNARy. his double. in hJeHisimage allthatisdouble-edged which looh both was on cirygates. whomJasonmade of the his wrfe wrrh the assistance goddessATHENA On retuming to lolcus. (Seealso HERoES. while the hrghpriest Calchasraiseshis difficulties arosewhen Aeson. the Thessalian educated elsewhere. When he desertedMedeafor her. Clytemnestra never forgave her husband. either by Agamemnon himself or by an action committed by his father ATREUS ln any event.srhr(rN fR(.srmrrcr brother Pelias Either because PhilyradisrrustedPelias' intentions 5 r ( ) r i L r . the son o[ Aeson and Phili'ra. was deposedby his halfarms in prayer. Alone and depressed.Agamemnonpretended that lphigenra was to be married there to the Greek hero After she and champron ACHILLES discovered his true intention." his headsorowJuliy {tur. defeateda guardianserpent and retumed vvith the magrcfleece Part of his successwas due to the aid of the Colchian princess and mtch.people hissins in Tartarus. hrs old ship. was a Greek hero and as o "sacnJicial lamb" to appease Artemts voyager. where for some ten yearsthey lived happily together and had three sons.it was in lady across in disguise lact the goddess HERA Unable to harm the unwelcome guest becausehe had arrivedat the time of a religious festival. the Argonauts found that Peliashad assumedthat they had died in a shiprweck and murdered Jason's father Aeson Two versions of the myth exist from this point onwards In one of them Peliasis destroyed by means of Medea's magic. vrtre.. when Zeus the throne of lolcus by a man wearmade an exactcopy of Hera from a ing only one sandal So rhe usurping king was amazed and fnghtcloud and enticed the unwary hng to rapeit The punishmentfor such ened when a matureJasonarrived IPHIGENIA. sacrilegious cnme was to spend eremiry in Tartarus. Thessalian Magnesra However.a time for Tantalus to endless thirsl (tlu. although his exrra eyesdid on one occasion enable him to catch the nymph Carna. including medifor lxion At first lxion was grateful cine.1895 ) wards . lxion prepareda trap for his . and may have given the boy to the god. sr R ( ) M H ( ) M F R 1 8 8 5 ) it towardsJason. a piece of rotten dmber fell and crushed his skull.a dual-Jaced. seeingthat Peliaswrll not honour his promise to Jason. Jason brought down on his own head the full fury and magical powers of the Colchian princess For Medea not only killed Glauce but she also destroyed her sons by Jason.CressrcAL MYTHoLocY was rhe eldest IPHtCgNfR and Qaughterof l(ngAGAMEMNON of Mycenae Queen CLYTEMNESTRA When Agamemnon and the Greek fleet were about to sail for Troy.who becameknown and crosseda as the ARGONAUTS. but it was not long the nameJason ("healer") The Delnhic Oracle wamed beforehe took an interestin HERA. Zeus' wife lt was thereforeIxron's Peliasthat he would be rumed off turn to be trapped. sail off to Connth after failing to capture Iolcus Jason seemsto have accepred exile in Connth with Medea. overcamedifficult task. and looh bothbackwards a hell Hades beginnings ln Rome. pisoners Sisyphus Jellow thetr always kept open in time o[ war DrcroNARY1895) snd Tontalus endure ownordeols to endless and closed in time of peace. theyoung daughteroJ wasolt'ered Agamemnonand Clytemnestra. a town in who wasangry wrth Agamemnon Here.she placed king could not properly rule his him in the care of the weseCentaur land Perhapsa secret passion for CHiRoN.Pelias decidedto rid himselfof the threat he represented by sendrngJasonon an impossible quest He offered to proname Jason as his successor uded he should bring home from belongColchis the Golden FIeece ing ro a wonderful ram which had flown there from lolcus Jason gathered together his companions. prestdal over JANUS.chained to a rollingwheel.who hved in the ThessaDia prompred zEUs himself to lian woodlands Chiron was skilled devrsespecial rites of punfication in many things. seaof mawels.bom in Iolcus. Artemis demanded that Iphigenia should be sacnficed To bnng the sacrificial victim all the way from Mycenae to the port of Aulis in Boeotia. people to look backwards and for.Agamemnon(nght) bows rn. the pnson beneath the underworld JANUS was a very old ltalian god with exprates whom the Romansassociated IXION.wrthout his wife Clytemnestra'sbecoming suspicious. In another the Argonaum. and years later on his retum from the Trqan War helped her loverAegrsthusto murder him IXION was a Thessalianking of Lanssaand supposedly the son of Phlegyas. or simply because Becausehe was polluted by this would berter for the boy if he were unprecedentedact. who liked to tease her lovers with sexual advances before suddenly running away Their son became a king of the important ciry of Alba Longa god.the hero lingered at Corinth until one day. voYAGERS) 54 . ruler of Iolcus. and lxion thus became the first man to shed the blood of a krnsman JASON. contrary winds caused by ARTEMIS kept the ships at Aulis The goddessof the forestand wild animals had been offended.a pit unsuspecting[ather-in-law filled wrth fire Eioneus fell into it on a visrr ro Lanssaand died. andhe mwards new yearwhen dayand at thestartoJeach in the city wrth only one of his sandals The hero had lost it while carrynng what seemedto be an old a smft stream.The toiland Sisyphus condemed month of January . Then rhe hero was offered the hand of a princessnamed Glauce.god of war ln order to avoid payrng a bride-price to Eioneus for his beautiful daughrer Dia. though some say his father was ARES.was sacredtoJanus There are few myrhs conceming him. Jound was invohed andourwards. heneath Jomards DR SMITH s Ct^sslGl gated temple in the Forum was in time (ItLustutto N FRoM Alongside him.

ruron I March lou). anri t r o n q u l l . she protected hm Jrom harm b1Jtre. E i l e i t h y a .ClnssrcAL MYTHoLoGY herooJthe IASON Aeft).which w.fwomanhood. rrth a regdl diadtnt.rsthe gdrment favouredby RomansoLdiers on campaign In Rome she was worshipped on the Capitol hilL along wirh Jupirer and vtNrRlA.whosemaglc at:'shelpedhim slay thedragonguarding the GoldenFleece With salves and invoottons.a n d w a s c a l l e db y t h e Romans"the one who makesthe child see the light of day" Ar the touch of a magicalherb specially grown by Flora. thecelebrated Argonauts.a. rhe chief god of the Greeks Juno was the queen of the sky and the wife of assoclateo JUPllt:R>ne wasalways wrth the Greek goddessof birth. Juno became pregnant wlth the war god MARSJuno's own warlike aspectis apparentin her attire She often appearsarmed anclweannga goatskincloak.td rn ciassrral srylc. 1 8 6 .was lovedby tht darh sorceress Medea.5) JUNO was rhe Roman equivalenr of HER. a A N v A s . r l r ( l L N o\ \ ' f r D r 4 r )N !l \ 1 A R 8 ]c E 2 0 CB a ) 55 . m d J e s t i c . rhe wrfe of zEUS. theRornan rquetn of huten JUNO (be oncl o. sat'rc hairsry/e. dmon or sword UAsoN By G{'sr^Vr MoRetr. goddessof wisdom and the arrs The festivalof Matronaliawas held in her hon. atcompautd woman through life Jrotn brth wo1 to autn She ts here portrat. the goddess of f l o w e n n ga n d b l o s s o m r n g planrs.

who aloneamongmortals in welcomed the godsas thq wandered ANr) humanJorm throughPhryga guprrER MERcuRy wrH PHII FMON AND BAUCls. who is weaing meal his trawllinghat. but he later became ghost from walking freely But the Anchises. whether I-etUS. especiallystorrns.but it is wrth the ele. of a lion and wlngs. then Troy would fall. By PETERPA(rL RUBENS. because l-aius tered laius. Philemon and Baucis. fulfilled As for the two serpents. where as the man who warned the IAOCOONandhts The g](mt sea-setpents bya pairoJ Rome were dedicated ro him the childless l(ng Polybus adopted Trojans not to acceptthe so-called death poets dfereddstotheserpents' him and gave him the name o[ Greek gift of the Wooden Horse andent thq were sent byAthena or He even drove a spearinto its side oign.In the event the cunning plot worked *as the Roman s}<y god. Jocasta did not share the marriage and breastsof a woman. conceived a son So as to overcome tryside Oedipus refused to stand for the benefir of the Greek. towards the north and approached amved and crushed them to death There was no agreement.ClessrcAr MyrHoLocY JUPITER and Mucury. but they had no children. enjoyawholesome with the hindly rustics. then the Wooden Horse was a guaranteeof Troy's safery. D( ItoNARy destroyed his family was due to a that he would be reunitedwith his like rhe prophetess CASSANDM.once from Rome around 507 nc At first.thunder concemed to prevent the child's by some to be the brorher of sons to dearh. for no himself for shame incorrecrly that Corinth was his Trolan lifted a hand to heip when In Thebes. was the father of orolpus and one of the most tragic figures hood he went to Delphr to ask inside the hollow belly could lurk a or guilry and ofwh. curse uttered by PELOPS in revenge parens in a temble manner. who was on his way to ever. the baby was left to aside for the king. /891l in Greek mythology The fate rhat about his parentageHe was told terrible danger to Troy However.us The cult of the prophecy. Oedipus travelled two great sea-serpentssuddenly his wrfe. said they had crushed Laocoonand his Jupiter was associated ments.to show his fellow country.ClnssrcAr ANreuilfii. son of Labdacus. intended to hastendeath. the body serpents One opinion was that bed Then one night.lt sin (lll'srur()N FRoM (n. full of wine. who later hanged marry his mother Concluding Laocoon and his two sons. 1620 25 ) all The god ofprophecy. cANvAs.connected wrth the Trojan War at 56 .howwhich rhe Delphic Oracle rold Thebes On the road he encounthem was fortunate. but if they draggedit inside the ciry walls. who were expelled a spike This action may havebeen his son's. was simply punishing the priest for disobeying a divine command An altemative view was that the death o[ Laocoon and his sons was the work of ATHENA or Poseidon for causingdamageto the dedicatory horse A Greek named Sinon had informed the Trojans that it was an offenng to the goddessAthena: if they destroyed it.not impossible that Laiuswas also I-IOCOON was a Trojan. a fight ensued those warriors hidden wrthin the Jupiter Optimus Maximus ("the die on a distant mountainside. and the first part of the eventual overthrow and best and greatest")beganunder the feet havrng been cut through wrth L-aius' destructionof the besieged ciry Etruscan kings.king of Oedipus ("swell-foot") that Apollo.for he Laocoon was ignored Worse than off Pelops'young was desrined to kill his father and the fate of Cassandrawas that o[ for L^aius carrynng son Chrysippus. l-aius tookJocasu as place of birth. and a pnest of the sea in either the temple of Apollo or the temple of Athena the protector o[ the Roman people effect was quite rhe opposite A god tosrtooN Borh the Greek him and was their powerful ally in war shepherd heard the baby's screams and the Romansremembered were to sons mtshed The games held in the crrcus rn and took him to Connrh.APoLLo. as JUllteR the equivalent of zr. and whether ltocoon wds innocent When Oedipus reached man. which was Laocoon's punishment was not Laius slept with her and Jocasta causing havoc in the Theban coun.his and Laius was killed Thus was horse began a slaughter that led to destiny. they hid themselves and lightning. among rhe Greeks or the was destined to be killed by his consult the Delphic Oracle about Romans about why Laocoon and a monster with the face his sons were killed by the seaown son For a time Larus and the SPHINX.'rnen Thebes.

the twinsdre Polydeuces depictedwi|h eg-shdpedhelmats. the twrn sonsCastorand Polydeuces Vanous accountsare given of the fathersof her children. lor Leda was loveo oy lLU5 wno came to her disguisedas a swan Some say that as a result of therr union Leda produced two e8gs. herhusband's pIoprcd his as a cithara. but that Helen'sand Polydeuces' father was Zeus while Tyrrdareos was the father of the mortals Clytemnestra and Castor In the caseof Helen there rs little doubt that the myth of the Trojan War tumed a goddessinto a Queen She clearly has a connection wrth who were older Aegeangoddesses wrth birds and eggs. oJ herrole asgoddess oJ tinybow. her cult was commonly with those of her more associated famous son and daughter APoLLo and eRtrnzls.qurMNoN. c1Nf3\.Castorand Asyoung men.and the otherthe Dioscun.and she was one of the few Titanessesto be worshipped in ancient Greece However. and one containedClytemnesrra Helen. Agamemnon's MENEI-AU5. and the causeof the Trojan War Leda was also the mother of the DIOSCURI. oJten ntrrR recolling their unusual parentage Lr'r). who was the unfaithful wife of brother. and HELEN. associated .I 99-5 LnnR was rhe daughter of l(ng Thestius of Aetolia. which was a statein north-westemGreece Her husband was Krng Tlmdareos of Sparu Two o[ Leda'schildren were the murderous CLYTEMNESTM. which a helpful PosEtDoNis sard to have fastenedpermanentlyto the bottom of the seawith a huge pillar Later. wife of ec.n From their union.LE. a clutches whrle Artemis godol thearts.rne children on the sacred island of Delos. seryent sent a gJant oJZeus.) ttttL \ r&4r()\ a) N( { BF.CInSSICAL MYTHOLOGY LEDA was lovedby Zns in the shapeoJa two swl.\ LL()N/RD0 D^ VtN( r. ( l5l5 l6 ) was the daughter of the LnfO TITANS Coeus and Phoebe.whose fatherwas the god zEUs Leto may havegiven stcy birth to her dir. rymbol the wild . clutthmghtr LETO(below). attibute pluchs Apollo. Ledaproduced eW.one of Apollo's most important temples was built on the island Even the invading Persians respectedthis sanctuary. one contdrningthetwins. children Jlees whorelentlessly Hera bythewngeJul lowrs Thebq.when in 490 BCtheir fleet passedby on its way to punish the Eretrians and Athenians for provrdrngaid to the Greek rebels who were fightrng Persrain Asia Minor trnytwins.

Monsters generally symbolize the dark and unresolved forces in life and in human narure.Still others were raised by u curse. and some. hauntedthe caves of Pamassus until slainby Apollo with his frst anows Apollot'oundedthe to rcmmemorate his ffthnn gamcs tictory and wasaJtmuards named Apollo PhysiusThe monster's deJeat wascelebrated evay ninelears at the oJSteptenaat Delphi and Jestival invofued an enactmottoJthe whole event lLLUsrMrpN By CLENN STryAD. while the Sphinx guardedthe passro the city of Thebes. sea-clogs and sailors from her cayem m the Strait oJ Messina According Loone myth.a s*-headed sea monster. Not all monsrerswere cruel. instinctive nature.a monstrous serpent. represent man's unruly.RtF(F A\D RoMrr l9J0) THE SIRENS (ight) werebeauttfuI sea nymphswho charmed sailorsby tlrcir alluing songsAlthough iniially depicted as brrd-maids.SroRlF:sFROM(. she was oiglnally a beuutful seanymph. until changed by the rculoug of Cru mto a snapping. as when Poseidon sent a sea monster in response to Theseus' r a g e . Iowd b1 Zus and Poserdon in tum.Sphinx and Scylla. fshed Jor dolphins. part human and part animal. she snatches up thecreruoJ Odysseus as his ship sail. but sometimes bewitchitgly fair. PYTHON (above). S a v a g eb e a s t s .symbolizingcomplex evil. s u c h a s s a t y r s a n d Centaurs. they still harassedand haunted humans. AND THI STRENs By aANv"s 1505-70 ) FMNcE-so . having advisedhis men to stop Lheir earswith war.s past her cavem 1Lr{rsrMroN rRo!. 1995 ) SCYLLTI (above).other monsrers ravagedthe land. sometimes hallhuman and somerimes entirely demonic. sometimes hideous. Greek mythologl is full of composirecrearures. he hadhimself b o u n dt o t h em a s ts o t h a t h ec o u l d h e a r the srrensmaglcsongvnthout being Iured oway (ol)yssfLis PRrM^rrcdo. such as the Hydra and Chimaera. such as the Chimaera. Odysseus sailspast with hts crtw. Although less awesome than demons. thq later became Jair temptresses Here.qSTS TASSICAL MONSTERS come in all shapes and colours.MONSTERS AND EABI-]LoIJS Be.guardeda precioustreasure.barhing monster Here.such as Ladon.sonof Gaia.

ssrcAt- MvrHoLoGY .Cle.

CLASSICAL

MYTHoLOGY

ARES, was more widelyworshipped than any of the other Roman gods, probably because his sons REMUS ANDROMULIJS were said to have founded the ciry Menfn was rhe daughrer of Aietes, king of Colchis, a country adjoining the Black Sea, and the first wrfe o[ the voyager JAsoN Medea means"the cunning one" -

a suitable name for a princess skilled in the magic ans ln fact, to rhe Greek she hovered somewhere between witch and goddess. Medea fell in love with the Thessalian heroJason as soon as he was rhe wife of landed in Colchis with the ARGOLUCRgffA and she used magic to help Tarquinius Collatinus and repre- NAI/TS, him gain the Golden Fleece, the sented the ideal of Roman womanhood. When Sextus, youngest son objecr of rheir expedirion On the of the Etruscan king TARQUINIUS hasty voyage back, when the SUPERBUS, raped her at dagger Colchian fleet gavepursuit, Medea point around 507 Bc,she made her sacnficed her brother to slow the pursuers. On their retum to lolcus, father and her husband promise to avenge her honour before she Jason's birthplace, she managed to stabbed herself to death. According to Roman legend, Lucretia's funeral roused the people and their anger was channelled by rhe inspiring eloquence of Lucius Junius BRUTUS into a desire for the overthrow of the monarchy. MARS, rhe son of ;ulo and a magical flower, was originally the Roman god of fenility and vegetation but later became associated with battle. As the god of spring, when his major fesdvalswere held, he presided over agriculture in general ln his warlike aspect he was offered sacrifices before combar and was said to appear on the battlefield accompaniedby Bellona, a warrior goddess variously identified as his wife, sister or daughter. Mars, unlike his Greekcounrerpan, MAFS,godoJwar, ongentle forceshrmself Paxand Abundonti, spints oJpeace and plenty,whileMinemashifullysteers him anage-old away Thealleguydramat4es waringRoman conJlict, henly Jdt in the
heart (MrNERv^ DRrvrNG MAs BrJ^coR) RoB{,sfl TrNroREfio. c/NVAs,c lJ76 )

retumed. to LUCRETIA, aJterho suxide, "Jalse Tarquinius, hauntSexns Sextus", Etruscan thehigh-handed who hadraped her,incensing thewhole oJPameShe phantom who aryeasasa pale, shrouded through thewatches oJ sings asshe spins the night (llrusrmfloN FRoM LAys oF ANclENr

rejuvenate an old ram by boiling him rn a magic pot whereupon he tumed into a lamb. She also disposed ofJason'senemy, King Pehas of lolcus, by persuadinghis daughters to give him a similar course of beauty treatment, but which hlled him As a result, Jason and Medea were banished to Corinth The relarions betweenJason and Medea went badly wrong Jason put his firsr wife aside in order to marry Glauce, a Theban pnncess Medea, feelingvery insulted, took a terribie revengeonJason Glauce was bumed alive in a poisoned wedding dress, and Medea saw to it that her own children byJason were also hlled She then escaped to Athens in a magrc chariot, which was said to belong to her grandfather Hruos, the sun god In Athens, Medea married its krng, AEGEUS, and bore him a son named Medus. At this timeAegeus believed he was childless,although

he already had a son in the hero rHEsEUs.Through her wily skills, Medea prevailed upon Aegeus to reject Theseuswhen he came co Athens to claim his inheritance, and she may also have persuaded him to send Theseusto subdue the bull of Marathon. When Theseus succeededin this dangeroustask and at last Aegeusrecognizedhim Medea fled as his own successor, with Medus to Colchis, where they avenged the recent overthrow and death of Aietes Medus became a ruler of Colchis, but nothing elseis known of Medea kingof Sparta,was MTNEUUS, It was rhe younger son ofATREUS. to recover Menelaus' wrfe HELEN that his older brotherAGAMEMNON, king of Mycenae, led the Greek expedition againstTroy. ln spite of being wamed, Menelausnot only enrenained PAruS, the eldest son of King PRIAMof Troy, but he also

60

CLASSICAL

MYTHOLOGY

MERCURY (above),as the messenger god oJ the Romans, was closelyidnttJted with the Greehgod Hermes In worlu oJart, he typicallywearsa wingedhelmet, hat, and or wide-bimmed traveller's canies a herald'sstaft',the emblemof
Pedce (MFRCURy AND ARcus I6J5.) By PErIR PAUL

RU8EN5, DEIAII, GNV^s,

MEDEA, a ruthlesssorceress, Jlees Jrom Co\chiswith lason and the Colden Fleece the seas to Greece across , with herIather, in pursuit To slowhim down, she Aietes, cut up her brotho and cast thc parts into to pichup thepieces thesea,JorcingAietes By H ./ Jor a piousbunal (lxr 6<rorr FLLTcE
DMPER, cANvAs, (: 1880)

by the intervention of the love godShewas rndebted dessAPHRODITE to Parisfor.;udgrngher more beauand tiful than the goddessesHER,+ in gatitude shehad grven ATHENA; him the love of Helen, the most

prosperity. He was apparently imported from Greece around the fifth century BC Mercuryis usually depicted in the same way as his with a Greek counterpart HERMES, wrnged hat and staff MIO.CS was sard to be the son of Gordius and Cybele, or to have been adopted by Gordius. He was the kmg of Phrygia and renowned for his wealth According to the Greeks, his fabulous riches were the result of a hndness he showed rhe old goar-like tutor ro 5ILENU5, of otoMsus, rhe god of vegetation, wlne and ecstasy So pleasedwas Dionysus wrth this behaviour that he offered Midas whatever he wished The king asked for everyrhing he touched to be tumed into gold At first Midas was overjoyed wrth the gift, but once he realized that even his food and drink were being transformed on touching his lips, he was homfied Out of pity

Dionysus told him how to wash away his golden touch, which Midas did in the fuver Pactolus, thereafter famous for the goid dust ro be lound on im bed Another my'th told about Midas concerns a musical competition berween rhe gods APoLLoand PAN, the divrne inventors of the lge and pipes respectively When the prize was awarded to Apollo, Midas incaudously expressedhis surprise at the outcome and received from Apollo a set of ass's ears for his foolish presumption was htng of Phryga. MIDAS. rhe Jabled granted a when ich, yetchose, Jabulously ncher still, to become by wish bythegods, to tum to touched everythinghe ashingJor joyquichly wasganted,but gold Hiswish neither eat when hecould to gneJ tumed
nor dinh (llrrlsrMfloN ByNrcx B^LE, l9g5)

beautiful woman alive After the fall of Troy, Menelaus could not bnng hrmself to kill went off to Crete and left Helen Helen because of her ourctanding alone at Spanawlth the handsome beauty Once again the goddess visiror. Pansand Helen eloped, tak- Aphrodite cast her spell and they were reconciled and rerumed ro ingmany of the reasures forwhich Sparta,where rhey lived happily for Menelauswas famous During the ten-year strugSle many years When Menelausdied against Troy, Menelaus played a he went to hve ln the ElysianFields secondaryrole to Agamemnon and wrrh his immortal Helen the other Greek lcngs, ahhough he was no coward In single combat MeRCURY*as rhe Romanmeswlth Pans, Menelaus tried to settle sengergod, and was alsothe deiry rhe dispure berween the Greeks who watched over trade and comand the Trojans He won and was merce, as his name suggesm He only preventedfrom killing hs nval was associated wrth peace and

a gentle, MENEI-AUSAeJ)wasusually man, buthere heftghts even-tenpered body oJPatroclus over the JaIIen firercely olJhis nahed, hadstruch wholies JorApoIIo ondbrohet speor helmeq splintered his ash sothathe bare htscorselet, shppinghLm byHector would olrusrurft)N bemsilyhilled
FR()M SroRrfs r R()M HOMER, 1885 )

6l

CIeSSICAL

MYTHoLoGY

(whose name may MINgRve have originally meanr "rhoughr") was the Roman goddessof wrsdom and the arts, rhe equivalenr of the Greek goddess ATHEN, . She was worshipped rhroughout ltaly, though only in Rome did she rake on a wariike character Minerva is usually depicted wearing a coar of mail and a helmet, and carryring a spear The Romans dedicared the spoils of war to her. MtnOS was rhe son of zEUsand EUROPA and became the king of Crete, wrth his palace siruated at I(nossos The Greek regardedhim both as a jusr lawgiver and as a cruel oppressor To build his wonderful palace, Minos employed rhe Athenian craftsman DAEDALUS, whose creatronswere thought ro be almosr divine 5o lifelike were his sutues, for instance, rhat they had to be chained down in order ro stop them running away Minos was lesspleased, however,with the hollow cow thar Daedalusmade for his queen, PASIPHAE, so thar she might satisfy her desire for rhe whire bull which possooN had sent from the wavesas a sign that MINERVA (abne), the Romangoddess of Minos should ascend rhe Cretan wisdom, is depictedhere tamingd wiW throne. The MINOTAUR, a man wirh Centaur, who symbolizesthe darh unruIy a bull's head, was the outcome o[ sideoJhuman nature HtsJeaming Pasiphae's unnarural union This expression suggestsman's longlngJor monstrous creature was housed in divinity, despitehimsef {Mrnrnve ero rne the Labynnth, a special maze built CENTAUR By SANDRo BofttcEu, C/.NAS, c 1482) by Daedalusar Minos' request. Minos was known to the Greek Minos carried a shell and promised as an ancient ruler of the seas His to reward anyone who could passa naval strengrh could well have thread through ir Daedalusalone owed somerhing ro Daedalus' could soive the problem, which inventiveness Cenainly he was not eventuallyhe was unable to resist. prepared for anorher ruler ro enjoy When l(ng Cocalos,on Daedalus' rhe remarkable services of the behalf, claimed rhe prize, Minos craftsman. When Daedalusand his demanded that the craftsman be son Icarus Ieft Crere wirhour per- surrendered to him. But rhe daughmissron, Minos sailed ro Sicily in ters of Cocalos were unwilling to hot pursuit. There, in the ciry of Iose the inventive man who made IGmikos, Minos mer his death. rhem beautiful toys, and with his Daedalus had arrived in Sicily as a help they plotred Minos' dearh. refugee He quicklywent ro ground When rhey rook rheir royal guesr to and was hidden by King Cocalosof the bathroom, Daedalus led a pipe Kamikos ln order ro find our through the roof and boiling water, where rhe craftsman was hiding, or oil, was poured down upon rhe

unsuspeccing Creran king. After his death Minos became a srem judge in the realm of.Hlors, rhe uriderworld, the land of the dead. THe MINoTAUR was rhe monsrrous son of a whire bull, which was senr by the sea god POSETDON, and pASrpI.IAE. rhe wife of King MINoS of Crete When the child was bom it had rhe head of a bull and the body of a man, and was given the name Minomur ("Minos'bull"). The creature was fed on seven boys and seven girls sent annually as uibute by rhe Athenians. To free his counr)rmen of this tenible burden rhe hero tHrsrus came ro Knossos, entered rhe maze-like Labynnth where rhe Minotaur lived and killed it. He was assistedby Krng Minos' daughter ARIADNE, who gave him a ball of rhread, insructing him ro unravel it on his wayinto the mazeso thar he could find his way our again She also gaveTheseusa sword. In the srrange srory of rhe Minotaur the Greelcs recalledin a garbled form the glones of rhe older THE MINOTAUR (below) wrestles inhabitants of Crete It is now with Theseusin the labyrtnth, which is known that rhe bull games of rhe rtpresentedbythe meander pattem at the ancient Cretans involved young sides Thebull-baiters above illwtrate the athletes leaping over bulls, even sport oJbull-leaping, part oJ the mystoious attempring somersauls holding the bull-cult oJancient Crete GHE BULL-BArrEK By homs Although some of them DUNGN, w rERcoLouR, c ]880 doubtless sustained seriousinjury, ) JoHN or may wen have been hlled, rhere is nothing to suggesrrhar a maneating creature was involved MoenRg see FArEs

Tne MUSTS, from rhe Roman name, Musae, were rhe daughters of zfuS and Mnemosyre, a TITAN, whose name means "memory" They used to dance and sing ar parties held by the gods and heroes. For the Greek, cheMuseswere the inspiration of poetry, music and dance. Later, other intellectual activities were added ro rherr care. Although accounts of rheir number differ, it is generally accepted that

62

CLASSICAL

MYTHOLOGY

the echo of her votce Narcissus was then condemnedby Nemesis, goddess of retnbution, to spend the rest of his days adminng his own reflecdon in a pool At last he died and was tumed into rhe flower that bears his name was an ancrent NnPruNr Iralian water god whom the Romans identified wrth PoSEIDON Compared to Poseidon,however, Neptune plays a minor role in Roman mythology FORCES OFNATURE NOTUS SCC was a TrrAN,the son ocrnNos of Ouranos and Gete,but never an enemy of zEUs On the contrary, he prorected Zeus' wrle HEnA and when the gods fought mother RHEA rhe Titans As ruler of the encircling sea, which rhe Greek believed surrounded the world, Oceanos married his sister Tethys and they produced three thousandnvers. of thenver OCEANUS 1eJr). Jather witha rypically gods, isdepictedhere tempestuous face,unrulylocluand the homed browAbwehim,Selene, andon moon, a mildlight; sheds crescent sidelash thesars,Phosphorus AeJt) either (ight) (tununox o^uu andHespmts
DroloNAfr oF CLASSTGL ANTIQUlrl6, l89l )

THE MusEs, guidingspiritsoJthe arts, inspired aII $t'ted artists, though thq resentedany smots competition dnd oJtheirJeathosJor depnvedthe Sircns daing to be better than than in song The nine Musesappear hereamid the lsPiing Gxr Rsrv or lHr anistsoJ theRenaiss4nce CO5TA, uw6, c 1506) LouNzo Mus6Bv there were nine Muses altogether CIio, Euterpe, Thalia, MelPomene, Terpsichore, Erato, PolYhYmnia,

Urania and Calliope.

NNTNOS

SCCFORCESOFNATURE

NARCSSUS, myhology,

according

to Greek son of

was the beautiful

the River Cephissus in Boeotia and the nymph many who immortals Linope Among the

loved him, including and monals, was Echo,

who slowly pined away, leavingjust NARCISSUS (nght), a beaut{ul youth, wasknenfo thenymph&ho who,Joiling to attrdct him, dted of gtef He, in hs tum, Jelltn lne wrth ttts wn reiection and pned by the goik inn the away until changed jower that bearshis nanc (Ecrono Nficsus sYJ WlY^roousE,w#, IW )

63

ClesstcAL

MyrHoLoGy

ODYSSEUS ahghts ontheisland oJ Aeau wherehe iswamedby Hermes oJthe honors oJCirce's enchantingwine, which tumsmenintoswineThis already Jatehas beJallen one andsoO$tsseus comrade must heep hu guard(clRcE wrHrHE coMMDr oF ByA[ssANDRo ODssEUs A[oe,rtrsco, 1580 ) Greek warriors under his own command The Trojans dragged the Wooden Horse inside their walls when they leamed from a Greek, deliberately left behind when the rest put to sea, thar rhe offering would bring their ciry a guaranteeof divine protection. Bur during the night the Greeks emerged from it, and surprised the Trojans. Hence, the ancient saying "Never trust the Greeks bearing grfa" Although Troy fell, the wildness of the looting and the slaughter deeply offended the gods. [n particular, the goddessAIHENAwas enraged ar rhe rape of cesseruoRn within the sanctuary of her own temple. Odysseustried to appease Athena, and he escapeddrowning in the geat storm which the angry goddesssent to shatter the vicrorious Greek fleet on its homeward was hidden. Again, arAulis, where year struggle againsr rhe Trojans, joumey. But he could not entirely the Greek fleet was stranded by Odysseus was importanr not so avoid blame, and PoSEIDoN saw ro contrary winds, it was Odysseus much as a fighter but as a counsel- it that he was the last Greek leader who tricked Agamemnon's wife lor and a schemer. His eloquence to reach home, after a voyage lastCLYTEMNESTM into sending her was renowned, and ir was probably rn8,some ten years. daughter IPHIGENIA from Mycenae, Odysseus who thought of rhe The long period of wanderirrg supposedly ro marry Achilles. Wooden Horse, which gave rhe that Odysseus suffered was a lnstead, however, lphigeniawas to Greeksvictory. favourite story of both the Greek be sacrificedroARllMIs, goddessof Odysseus deceived the Trojans and the Romans. who knew the Ihe wild, in order ro obtain a fair wirh this horse built of wood voyager by the name of Ulysses. wind to Troy. Throughout rhe ren- whose hollow beN was filled with The exact route that he followed remains a mystery, not leasr because his travels took him beyond known territory and inro strange and dangerous lands. From Troy Odysseus sailed first ro raises hisgreatban ODYSSEUS ond,with nifltt, stretches thebowst'ing effonbss which thesuitorshad struggJed invainto thesuianwhohne funil. He thrn slays hk wealth andplagued,hk wrle denured home(tuustunon dunnghis bng voyage
FRoM SToRE FRoM HoMER 1885 )

OOYSSEUS, king of tthaca, was one of the Greek leaderswho took part in the Trojan War. He was celebrared for both his parr in rhis conflict and his remarkable voyage home to his island kingdom in the lonian Sea. A brave and clever man, Odysseus was sometimes rhoughr ro have been rhe son ofslsypHus, the trickster of Greek myrhology But his real farher was probably Laertes, whom he succeeded as king of lthaca. His morher was named Anricleia and his fairhful wife Penelope was rhe sister of King TyndareosofSparta. From the starr of the campaign againsr Troy it is clear rhat King AGAMEMNaN,the Greek leader, placed geat store upon Odysseus' cunning. He was sentwirh Nesror, the aged king of $os, to discover where the great warrior ACHILLES

64

also wamed him about his Athena's aid as a beggar Penelope had been patientiy homecoming. Odysseus one of her many noble suitors.he sailedto the . and Irhaca He rold him that if the cat. Helioshe will retum homealoneon a Joreignship only at'termatryyears' oDYssFUs 81 coL:Nsn-s wandeing (TrRr. I 885 ) filled his men's earswith wax and had himself bound urth strong cords to the mast Odysseusthen in a helpful direction A tragedy overcame the passedrhrough the strairsberween squadron of ships that Odysseus Sicily and ltaly. the resistedher spells. and severalcows when Odysseuswas made the enchantressrestore to asleep.Later they desertedhim.which he entered disguised with arms. where six of his a race crew were seizedby the six-headed led among the Laestrygones. After this bloody incident the places he touched upon are less easy to identify. the island of the the voyagers were tempted by laier considered hunger ro slay some o[ Helios' enchantress CIRCE. his old comrade-in. who shade ol rhe blrnd seer TIRESIAS cared for him and eventually progave Odysseus a special waming posed mamage But not even abour his homeward joumey to immortaiiry would tempt him. human shape his men who had but were drowned in a storm sent been tumed to swine Afterwards. swallowed by the great whirlpool rhe realm of ocEaruos. Penelope agreed to marry the suitor who could bend and string Odysseus' great bow. on his way throughthe undenvorld.tonsultsthe shadeoJ ghostly who wams hrm that rJhe olJends Tiresras.it was of little use on the voyagebecausethe cunosity of Odysseus'men got the beuer of them and they opened the sack and the winds no ionger blew westem edge of the encrrcling sea.where he lost many of his men in battle. This challenge was proposed on the advice of the goddessAthena fhe only suitor who succeededat the challenge was a beggar.srAs Al EsitNDR() Ari ()R/. Odysseusand his companbecoming ions managedto escape his dinner They then amved on the floating island of Aeolus. undl one ofher maids betrayed the tnck Finally. of giant cannibals Only his own monster Scylla On the island of ship survrved the attack and Thrinacia.she sailed back towards Greece and had put rhem off for a while by was the only man who dared to pretending that she could not listen to the allunng song of the marry until she had finished Sirens. But Penelope unraveiled it each night. where Charybdis In an exhausted state he dnfted to the wondrous island ghosts came from the underworld realm of riAprs ro meet him The of the sea nymph Calypso. by zEUsat Helios' request Alone. the s. it was later believed.he was home The ghost of Odysseus' welcomed as an honoured guest mother also spoke of the dilliculdes and offered a passage back to being faced by Penelopein Ithaca Ithaca So it was that he was secretat the time The ghost of ly ianded near his own palace. to be situated off ltaly Odysseus catrle Despite his warning. reached Aeaea. after ten years. a sack full of wrnds The idea appears in many different mythologies. when he retumed home he had been murdered by awaicingOdysseus'rerum from the war. Storms drove him to the land of the Lotophagi ("rhe Iotus-eaters"). who was the ruler of the winds There Odysseusreceiveda rarepresent. whose father Cyclops P)LWHEMU was Poseidon By putting out Polyphemus'single eye when the gigantic man was befuddled with wlne. Assistedby hrs son Telemachus and two loyal retainers.after seven years the gods forced on the Calypso to let Odysseus set off tle of the sun god HELIoS isle of Thrinacia were harmed by again Shipwreckedonce more in him he would never reach his the land of the Phaeacians.wrth the aid of desperaremen killed and cooked the messengergod nrRvls. Odysseus then defeatedan attack by the relations of the suitors and rerurned Ithaca to peace Zeus himself threw down a thunderboit to signalan end to the fighring. Agamemnon. (Seealso VOYAGERS) retums home thewanderer ODYSSEUS andembraces Penelope twenty years aJter her hadrejused to achnowledge at last She herof the untilhehadremincled husband which was curued outof of theirbed. but according to the Greeks.Odysseus dispatchedthe suitors and hanged the rreacherous maids Reunited wrth his family at last. FREs(tr.CLASSICAL MYTHOLOGY ODYSSEUS.her [ather-in-law. as Tiresias had foretold. Akhough pressed to marry his wrfe and lover in the bathroom Turning eastwards. whose diet made visitors forget their homelands and wish to suy on forever Then he encounteredin Sicily. 1580 ) Thrace. who rhen threw off his disguise and revealedhrmself as Odysseus. serret grown in thecourtyard a greaL olive tree (ll-LL rsTMTrL)N |RoM 5l r)Rll 5 l ROM Hrwl R.including his father Laertes. Odysseus was almost on Circe's advice.bird-women of storm He weaving a shroud for Laertes.

wA. ANTIGONEand Ismene. a curse was laid on rhe ruling house of Thebes Indeed.eil art. an ugly monster causing havoc in the countryside.Alrhough rhe famous seer TIRESIA5 announced the Delphic Oracle about his parentage. By ourwirdng rhe Sphinx and causingics dearh. who. QueenJocasta as a guest at the court of prLops. so he went ro ask OEDIPUS. En route he encountered l-aius. Polynices and Ereocles. Oedipus outwits the Sphiw.fnd rest In time. c 200 BC) 66 . asleep on thealtar. as a calm and pensivehrro (oorpusND rBE SPHIM ByJilN AU6USTE lN6E. 1995) OEDIPUS pudes ner the Sphinx s Adilb.ClessrcAL MyrHoLocy OEOIPUS ("swell-foot")was rhe unluciy son of King L{IUS and of Thebes Because. Oedipus discoveredits people were greatly distressed at the news of Laius' dearh and rernfied of the spnirux. The dMne command he brought back to the city was to dnve our the murderer of Laius. a shepherd lound the baby and took it ro King Polybus of Corinrh. Oedipus unwittingly fulfilled his own destiny: he had killed his father. except one of his father's servantswho ran away Arrivrng in Thebes. l@) Jocasu.ellcrsn Thebesto solve Wha. Laius had taken sexualadvanrage of Pelops' young son Chrysippus. pursued hismother. whose charioreerdeliberareiy ran over Oedipus' foot The result was rhat Oedipus killed everyone there. Oedipus was taunted that he was not Polybus'son. Orestes isocquittedfo the Armpags (ORL5E. and two daughrers. andewn theFuiae. thq travelto Colonus where it is destined thatOedipus willJinally anddeathin a sacred grove find peace (lLrusrMrfoN BY Ntcx BilE. bur dnnk one night caused Laius to rhrow caurion to rhewnds and a son was duly conceived At birth. M^$LE. sheJlingshetulf ina the cham below and datroys hmelf . the infant was pierced in rhe feet and left ro die on a distanr mountainside. At Delphi. Then a dreadful plague settled on Thebes. ispartly Orestes punJied byApollo. having a famiiy of two sons. years aJto ol wanderingsince hs exrle Ieans on hLs loyal JromThebes. now he married his morher For a dme Oedipus andJocasm lived happily rogerher. adopted rhe boy and chose the name of Oedipus because of his damaged feet When he grew up. daughter Antigone. having no children. and Creon was sent to ask the Oracle at Delphi for a remedy. Oedipus decided ro rry or die in the attempt. When the regent CREONannounced thar whoever nd the ciry o[ rhe Sphinx would be offered the throne and the hand of ORESTES peace at the 6ght) fnds some shnne oJApollo in Delphiwhcreheha by theFuries. and in horror he fled north. an oracle wamed Laius that any sonJocasra bore him would hll him For a long time the king and queen abandoned the marriagebed. He was told thar he was desrined ro kill his farherand marry his mother. aJter murdering led. ashe s in anc. whbh she chalbngesall trq'. Ocdipus is portraydhere.a fairly common practice for unwanred children in ancient Greece However.

so they were renamed the Eumenides ("the soorhed goddesses"). Jocasta. 1895) throughout Greece When finally he went to Delphi for help. Orpheus was able to charm rhe boarman.MUSE of epic poerry His chief myth concems the dearh of his wife. His mother and wife. there was a hut used by Oresres. Oedipus blinded himself and left Thebes. and the rhree-headed CERBERUS so rhat he could enrer the underworld Even rhe ghoss of the dead were greatly moved by his song.CINSSICAL MyTHoLoGY that Oedipus was the guiity one.became an oracle. but the rulers of the underworld. "the angry ones" OruON SEC GIANT5 d^y she died of a snake bite Orpheus was so saddened and grief-stricken by this sudden loss that he no longer sang or played Then he decided to risk his own life joumey ro the land in a desperate of the dead in the forlom hope of bringing Eurydice home. Orestes was told to go to Arhens and srand tnal by the fueopagus. The verdict in his favour calmed the Furies. his wife Clyremnesrrarook a lover. ecstary. rhe early burial chambers of Christians in haly (Seealso yOYAGERS) ORPHEUS was pursued andtornapartby the who maenads. Wild-eyed and distraught. were thewtld Jrenzed devotees oJDionysus Thq were usually depicted. orcr musical. aJtuhts death.an ancienrcouncil presided over byATHENA.tssrocr DtcrloNARy. Orestes wandered as an outcast ORPHEUS. Charon. the rwo lovers murdered him. and dishev elled. snalubound hair. and it was to avenge rhis crime that Oresteshlled his mother The grear horror feh by the Greeks over Orestes' actions runs deep in his myth Correcr though he was ro seekvengeance for his father's murder. whirlingin withswirlingrobes.eporto in Troezen. rhar the Greeks called them by this euphemism because rhey were afraid to use their real name. HADES and his wife prnsrPHONE. they tore the singer to pieces excepr for his head.( uusr vruw rnov Dn SvrrH'sCr. By using his miraculous music. he could not resist a quick glance in the half-light The result was rhar Eurydice tumed inro a ghost again and sank back to Hades' kingdom forever Orpheus' own fate was to be dismemberedby Thracian maenads.the god of vegetation. ceruyes. as the Delphic Oracle had advised him ro. 1865 ) departed wife thar just before rhey reachedthe surfaceof the ground. andispictured huebangconsulted byaThracian maid Hishead rests ona lyrethatis encrusted withseaweedbecause.lt is likely. a broken Oedipus evenually found spiritual peacein a sacredgrove at Colonus near Athens His death there was considered to be a good omen by the Athenians. the new hngwould not believe rhis was true until he rraced rhose involved in his own exposure as a child Convinced ar lasc of his excepdonalcrime.becausein graritude for the sancuary he was given. Oedipus had foretold rhat his bones would save rhem from any future attack by the Thebans OnfSfgS was the son of King AGAMEMNON of Mycenae and CLYTEMNESTM and is renowned for having commitred matricide In ancient Greece there were many placesassociated with his purification after such a tenible crime For example. granted Orpheus his only desireon one condition: under no circumstances was Orpheus to look back at Eurydiceuntil borh of them were complerely rerumed to the land of rhe living But so overcome was the singer by love for his OnPHEUS was a Thracian singer much reveredin ancient Greece. the Erinyes. He was said ro be the son of Calliope. the killing of a mother by her son could not be expected to bring anyrhing orher than dire misfonune. asthq arehere. Aegisthus When Agamemnon returned. the female worshippers of DIoNYsus.in front of the sancruary of. had akeady commirred suicide In the company of his daughter Andgone. since Apollo had advisedhim to slay his father's murderers. The FURIES were avenging deities who tracked down all rhosewith blood on rheir hands. however. wine and ecstasyApparently. the nymph Eurydice One . even in deathhis decapitated head had downstream calling floated Jor (ATnrecnN Eurydice wtrH MAID rHE HFID otOnpHrus syGusreve MoREAU. who femed him across the Styx. and they now relenrlessly pursued Oresres. some ten yearslater. which was rhen casr inro a river and went floating downstreamcalling out "Eurydicel" Ancient fascinarion with this romantic story was probably connected wirh religious ceremonies and rituals rhat were aimed ar securing personal salvation after death The worshippers of both Orpheus and Dionysus believed in some form of afterlife Painringsof Orpheus have even been found in the catacombs.which was said to have been buik ro avoid receiving the pollured murderer as a guest in a normal house When Agamemnon left ro lead the Greek expedition againstTroy.

or soothe the waves. storrns and tidal waves. goddessof corn. drawn by sea-horses. thunder andlightning By strilcinghis clouds.god oJ light. the chiefdary. c 1197 ) . POSEIDON (above). the sea nymph Amphitite.and rode the wavesin his sea-chaiot. part fsh) t'nsharoundhis chaiot which thq used to raise or blowngtheir conches.the turbulentgod oJthe seas. while mighty Zeus could strike from afar with a bolt of lighmirg or brighten the sly with rainbows. could stir up sea-storrns.who symboltzed the seed-com. summer and winter unfold as part of a divine drama.but alsothebngnt. god oJprophecy and god of the arts He withdrew in winter to sunny Lycius and returnedin spingto dispel winter Here. land and sea. Sp.hegwemed the An awesome butbenigngod. preceded by Eos who sprinkled moming dew from her vase. The tempestuousseagod.he is changingseasons in frry light. seenhereresplendant of rymbol oJhissamagn pruer ovu allJorces ^ND SEMELE By natureand all other go& guprrER Gusttvt MOREAU. Demerer. healinglight oJ divtnity Apollo's light underlies his other rolesas god oJhealing. perxt1896 ) wife.Jor ongnally Helios (the sun) radiateddaylightand wasonly Iater identifed with Apollo . AND Hrs CHARIoT ByMtR^BEuo calm the wdves (PosErDoN Cavaroru. rose from the underworld to live in the light of day with her mother.but stormsand tempests caused oeglshe and brighten the equally.ingtime came when Persephone.he dnves the sunchaiot on its courseacross the heavens (IrLusrn crroN rnovSronrEs nnou Lrw 1885 ) ZEUS QeJt). Poseidor. nature spints o nymphs infused the forests.he could calm the elemants slE k theJatherof thehours. For the ancient Gree}<s. Sunrise and sunset.I{e-g:ing pure. In addition to the great gods of stry. gwemed thewinds and rain.FORCES OF NATTJRE H E W O N D E R SA N D M Y S T E R I E S OF NATURE ATC explained in mythology through the will and actions of the gods. rymbolized not only sunlight. c^NvAs.fields and nvers. beannghis aeg1s.while a schoolof titons (part men. to rage. the might of the sea-stormHe dwelt in a symbolized goldenpalacein the depthsof the ocean. rhe sun rose and set because Phoebus Apollo drove the glittering sun-chariot on a fiery course across the stry. Samothrace to speeding so Jastthathe passedJrom him bashshis Aegaein threegreat stndes Beside APOLL0 (above).

the smith god.pHArsros av Dtrc<. is typrcallydepicted as a grave . Boreas. was honoured year at every the time oJthe Floralia.orNrur. dweltbeside runntn g water Lihe thar cousins.s. intenseman weanng a worhman's cap and immersedrn hisf.FLOM (nght).goddess the rmmortalhorses. VELAseuEz.peaceand war (Apor r.thq were usually sweet. FoRGr. c 1890 ) NOTUS (below). a theaticalfestivalwhenthe people deched themselves in a great flowers and enjoyed feast lastingJorsk days Flora. werehelpJul and healing nurturing fruits. dwelt with his brotherwrnd. 1891) .Notuspours ruin from a of dawn.embossed with a dramatic sceneoJ liJeand death. oF Hr.joy and gneJ. onett. muchas hrsmother. in a palacein Thrace He was father oJ vase. the Nereidsand Oceanids of the oceans.blooming Romangoddess of spnng. c s PoussfN.rrrn's CLAssr( L DrcnoNARY.as a wingeddeity. such as Achtlles'shield. he craJtedworhs of wonder. 1627 ) HEPIIAISTOS (below). Achilles'battle steeds who gallopedwtththe speed oJwind (lt-t-us rnzcrtolJ FRoM D RSr'ltrn's C r-rssr ca I DrcrroNARY.is herehonoured tn alavish parade Poussin's atmo sphenc v:idly scene raives the pagan splendour of the early Greehpostoral TruuupH or Jestivak (THe FLORA By Nrcol cANVAs. Xanthus and Balius.ery craft He hadforges beneathvolcanoes but olsoon Olympus where20 bellowsworhed athis bidding Famedfor hts artistry. l89l ) ZEPLIYRUS(below).serene andbenign. thewestwind.. the southwind. cANVA-s. the OreadsoJthe hills and the Dryads of Jorests and trees. c NvAs. broughtwrthit fog and rain Here. especially. spinhlesdov Jrom a vase before thesun-chanot in the early morrung (l[usrnerroru FRoM DR Sr.Eos.benrgn spirits Naiad. orwater nymphs. 1630 ) THE NAIADS (above).flowers and mortak Yet theyouth Hylas who went to draw waterJroma poolwasluredby the nymphsinto thewaterand never seen agatn (HYtAs AND rHE WArER NyrilpHS ByJ W WArERHousE.

on ZEIIS'orders in as the good. which was known as a syrinx after a nymph of that name who tumed herself into a reed-bed to avoid his advances. His conch deeply worried kus' opponents. For Pan could also be a frightening god when he blew on his conch Our " all-g1fs". releasing solrow. He was playful and energedc. she was given a grft from the gods which was a sealed jar that contained all the misfortunes of existence. His unusual attracdveness 70 . goat's horns and hocves. He liked to play on a pipe. means "all gifts" .she Inepressibly couW notresist jar. the mountainous smte in cenral Peloponnese.but very irritable. but also untold woes. and fled with her lover to Troy.t andgneJ. dancing or playing a synnx (tLLUsrMrroN nnov TnNclrwooD TALES. the men who originally comprised the human race gained a monal. But soon Pandora's great curiosity overcamea natural fear of what might be inside. Greekgod of fire and friend of men. female companion. of life: stnJe sorrov. the bringer of all sorrows for manhnd.wAS. sheoflredhim the woril'sJairest because woman Behind her. As a result. PnruS was one of the fifry sons of of Troy.the bad as well the smith god. the judgeoJa diinebeauty chose Aphroditeas thewinnq contest. 1945) word "panic" derives from this aspect of his diviniry His worship spread from Arcadia to Athens immediately after the Athenian and Plataeanvictory over the Persiansat Marathon in '180 BC. diseaseand conflict. because he made the Persiansflee in panic.arousingsuddenawe and panic He is usuallydepictedwith shagt head. C/. the pastures of sheep and goats. (luusrncttou sv NrcxBEA!f. PANDORA(below). hng of Sparta. 1820 ) PnNOORA was the Greek Eve. the name Pandora and was created by HEPHAISTOS. wse Athena had promtsed hirn Jame.I. Paris was a very handsome young man and wooed HELENso well thar she left her husband trlrrunutus. wasthe taappear onearth. createdby firstwoman thegods toworh mischieJJor men cuious. When she went to live zrmongmen. containingthe opainga sealed horors andsichness.CTeSSIcAL MyrHoLoGY PAt'l (abarc) playshs pipesat dush '4sa spint oJthe darhforest.'upset PROMETHEUS.he was himself goat-homed and goat-legged. and she broke the seal. PARIS (abwe). fu the Greek god of the mountainside. the order t6. She was the first woman Appropriately. (TueJuoceueur or PARrs BYJE{N REGN ULT.Pan was gspecially associated with Arcadia. especiallyif disturbed during his aftemoon nap. c 1920 ) PAN was the son of the messenger god HERIvfEs. According to King PRTAM the Greeks.he oJtenstartled solitary trav ellers. He rendered a similar service for ZEUS during the battle against CRONOS and the TITANS. whib quenly Hua had offeredhim pwr. he was responsible for causing the Trojan War.

feast. to remove the linchpins from his master'schariot. Instead it revealedParis as a coward. but when he won Pelops refused to acknowledge this assistance ln different versions of the story. his heel Parishimself was hlled by an arrow. rhe ruler of a kingdom in fuia Minor Pelops'nameis still recalledin the Peloponnese("rhe isle of Pelops"). treated him very badiy [t was an irony of fare thar a poisoned arrow shot from Paris' bow should have found the one vulnerable spot on the mighty Greek champion ACHILLES. Tanulus cut up. by thegodsafterhe had Jashioned beenpartly eatenby Demeter (Iuu-srR. As a resuh. In order to gratify her from divine favour and suffered lust. in Greek mythology. the goddessof vegetation. saw thar a curse afflicted the descendanrsof Pelops The consequences of this curse on the house of AIREUS.Pelops acceptedthe challenge But he had to agree that Oenomaus could shoot an arrow at him if he caught up with his chariot Thirteen contestantshad aireadyperished It was said that Pelopsbribed a certain Mptilus. in the winnrngchanot. a magnificentwingedhorse. boiled and bull Later.partook of the PECnSUS.and from hu wtththecreature union she bore a dreadJul theMinotaur.or he spurned him As a consequence. offered Paris the most beautiful woman in the world. dips and divesthrough theJlamesof the By favour of Poseidon the restoredPelopsbecamefamousas a champion charioteer. rhe Trojan champion HECTOR. During the long siege of Troy Pariscut a poor figure as a warrior. pnor to the fall of Troy PeStPHeE. rhe king's chanoteer. Pelops'eldestson and the fatherof AGAMEMNON. the father of Myrtilus. who was the messenger god HERMES. is the basis for thar family's tragic story PELOPS.repiacedby ivory ered head of the GORGON Medusa. races along theGreeh. he either rhrew Myrtilus into the sea. Tantalus goldenbidlegvn tohimby Athena was honoured by the gods as no (lrrusrncrro^J FRoM TANGLEwooD TALEs. rhe sun god. the greatcrafsman DAEDALUS etemal torrnent as a result made a cow.the immortal shown to himself Pasiphae was to food servedto the deities on their be stncken with a passionate desire mountain home But Tantalus fell for the bull.the Chimaera On his bach.anor avGLrrux . whose chanotswewes and white shoulder crashesPelops' was madeof ivory.cno.when the the Connthian hero BELLEROPHONgods retumed the youth to life. but the king refused to sacnfice the animal when it emergedfrom the waves. bull-man.which was an accomplishmenr thar the ancient Greek regardedas one of the greatest So when Oenomaus. who was alreadypregnanr by rhe sea god PoSEIDoN(a deiry always associated with bulls and horses) Bellerophon was given a magic bridle byATHENA ro help him tame PegasusWhen the hero tried ro fly to Mount Olympus. king of Elis. inro which Pasiphae Accordrng [o one version of the fitted and so could mate with the myth. Helen's husband. was the daughter of Hruos. Helen.1995 Srrw. was drawn irresistibly toa mystmous white bullwhich waves emrged She dorcloped a fromthe passion strange Jorthebull. queen oJCrete. who was hept hidden in anunderground maze (lrrusrRertorusv NrcxBEArr 1995) The seagod eosuDoN so loved Pelopsthat he sezed rhe youth and carried hlm off ro Mounr Olympus ftre-breathingmonster. c 1920 ) other morral He was allowed to ear nectar and ambrosia. who only escaped with his life through the intervention of Aphrodite.which is rhe large peninsulaof southem Greece .his eidest brother. and Poseidonpronounced a curse in anger at the lack of respecr PASIPHAE. outstipprnghts Jast ival Oenomaus. which MINOTAUR gods in order to test their omwas kept in rhe Labynnth niscience Only DEMETER.CInSSICAL MYTHoLoGY was believed to have been a gift from APHRODITE. the The winged steed was born from missing piece of his body was blood which spilled from the sev. the goddess of love.Bellerophon urgeshim on The Possibly because of this divine hero had successJully tamed Pegasus with a favour shown to his son. was supposed to have settled the outcome of the whole war.inadvertentlyeatinga piece of was the flytrg horse belonging to Pelops'shoulder Later. trach. Pegasus threw him on rhe instrucrion of zrus PEGASUS. she gave birth to rhe served his own son Pelops to the ("Minos' Bull"). offered his daughter Hippodameia in marriageand also his lands to anyone who could defeathim in a chariotrace. ) PEIOPS was rhe son of Kirg TANTALI/S. In retum for choosing her as Aphrodire the fairestof goddesses. hng of Crete The seagod rosrlDoN sent a white bull as a sign of Minos' right to rule the island. His singlecombar with Menelaus. and wife of MINos. in Greek mythology.

reJlected the Medusarecalls thewater Bume-Jones' oJthe beau4t tranquil an and death-lthe cawedon amuletsand GreehMedusas charms. nsesandJalls seed-corn .v s tt.s peer PERSEUS and Andromeda (above) rn glngerlyat theJaceoJMedusa. ter of zp.a agarnin a q.c +90 BC) 72 . n o vH o u t . caNves. Zeus promised his beautiful daughter to Hadeswithour consuldngher mother When Hades rose from rhe underworld and took his bride by force. carved in part from a tree trunk still rooted in the ground PenSePHONE was the daughthe eanh and DEMETER.cleof constantrenewal mysteies themecentralto the Eleusian ( P t ' R S t .rrto^/Fno. the the goddess oJcorn Shesymbolizes that is buned.Lts goddess. M A R B L E . p H o N l .and becamequeen of the underworld as the abductedwrfe of HADESAccording to the Greeks. Demeter was beside herself wrth grief The goddesswandered the earth searchingfor her daugh[er.rrtt. king of Sparta. hept hermany absence. Penelopekepr them at bay for a long time by prerendingto weave a shroud for her father-rnlaw Laertes Each night she would secretly unravel the day's work Eventually. she Duinghislong to matryunttlshe at baybyrefusrng suitors whtch secretly she a shroud hadcompleted night.spentthe winter rn the underworld. 1 8 8 5 ) (luusrn. two burning torches in her hands As a result the land was no longer ferrile Plans wrlted. goddess death. nsing eachspnng to live with her mother.ClnssrcAL MvrHoLoGY PENEIOPE was the daughrerof Icarius.but she remained cold towards her saviour until she was absolutelycertain of his identity Peneloperefused to be convinced that the new arrival really was Odysseusuntil he describedtheir bed. the ruler of for her Ithaca. of pattentwtJe PENELOPE emess herhusband' s clev shared Ody sseus. n .she was celebrated patience in waiting almost twenty yearsfor his retum from Troy Beset by suitors.untilthesuitors each unravelled discovered her ploy r .rhe retum of Odysseus savedher from an enforcedsecond marriage.whichremrndus that shewasonce BtiRNEBy EDMUND beauttful (THrBartrut HI:AD Jorurs.188/) of PERSEPHONE (Jar ngh).D E T A I L . and a nymph Peribaea As the faithful wife of ooYssrus. animals (nght). .

Hippolyta. daughrer of ocnnlsos He drove his father's four-horse chariot so fast that he lost control and threatened the world with a terrible heat ZEIJS stopped him with a thunderbolt. when Perseus was earliermarriageto the queen of the winged shoes and a bag for invited to compete in the gamesar AMAZ. He also received l-arissaon hearing of his grandson's mal this time. disappearance and retum parallels the fertiliry myths of West Asia. was enough to bring them safelyto the shoresof the island of Seriphos. Merope. Bur Zeus visited her as a golden shower and Perseus was bom A tenifred Acrisius placed mother and son in a wooden chest and cast it on the sea. the giant hunter Their in the nighr s\y in May appearance coincides with rhe beginning of summer.however. Most important of all.deathsAthena placed both Perseus son. and the constellation of Orion then appears to be in perpetualpursuir of them First he visited the Grarae. three old hags who shared a single eye Perseusseized the eye and obliged 73 . the charioteer THe PI-HADES were the seven daughrersof the Tiun ATl. Medusa'shead and stowedit in his srellations (Seealso HERoEs) Theseuscursed his son and asked bag. was the unfortunate daughter of KingMinos and Pasiphae of CreteShe Queen Jellin love Uthherstepson Hippolytus which oatually prarcd tobeher downJall Cfnrsrus wtrH ARTADNE AND PHAEDM By BENEDETTO Gr. king of Argos Danaehad been shur up in a bronze tower in order to thwart a prophecy that if she had a son he would kill Acrisius. Celeno. their three retumed safely to Danae Having creature kept in the Labynnth at dreadful sisters. Perseusflew awayunseen by POSEIDON to destroy Hippolytus. to fetch the head of the GORGON Medusa.vluenr rHE youNGER. who were originally a non-Greek speaking people. have abandonedher sisterARIADNE but severalpeople had to be tumed not long after she helped him kill the Graiae to tell him about the to stone before he and his bride the MINOTAUR. who gave birth to the Minotaur. sorrow.Zeus. where Perseusgrew up among fishermen On reaching manhood Perseus was sent by the local ruier. Asterope and Alcyone They may have become stars. Zeus was obliged to intervene and ruled that Persephone should spend rime each year with both her husband and her mother. Phaedra shoes and flew to the Gorgon's Because of the accident the hero hanged herself and left a message cavein the far west. then killed herself Perseuson his way home Having the Arhenian hero THEsEUS made was the son of rhe PUegfUON sun god HELIoS and Clymene. referred to the dead as "Demeter'speople" PfnSnUS was the son of. he married her.As. Theseusexiled his approached by watching her reflec. 1702 ) saved the beauriful erupRoMEDA her his second wife He seems to from a seamonster. who was later killed in a chartion in his shield Having cut off and Andromeda in the sky as con. Hippolytus.The protection of. Her association with the dead may have a similar origrn. the son of Theseus' ly nymphs: a cap of invisibility. nevertheless. Polydectes. they HERMES. Persephonecould never return entirely to the living world because she had eaten in Hades' realm: avery old idea that snicdy divided the food of the dead from that of the living The story of Persephone's abduction.arrival The prophecy was lulfilled. filled with were used to good purpose by of Crete According to the Greeks. the messenger god. PHAEORA was the daughter of which he did by sending a seaThe chilling powers of rhe head Kirg MINOSand Queen PASIPHAE monster Phaedra.ONS. Taygete. Careful not to chose to be king of Tiryns rather to Theseussaying that his son had look at Medusa directly. Luckily for the hero the goddess ATHENAhated Medusa and insrructed him how ro proceed PHAEDRA. which sent Phaerhon crashing to the eanh The great god may have also flooded the earth in an attempt to reduce rhe temperature Ir was believed rhat Phaethon's mad exploit could be rraced in the shape of the Milky Way. but for her srepson.ClnssrcAL MvrHoLocY bore no offspringand death sulked mankind. daughrer of Acrisius. the bull-headed nature of the Gorgons. The Athenians. her rwo sisters. She may well have been a pre-Greek goddess. he than Argos On hearing of their ried to rape her.avery dangerous task. and were named Maia. Elecra.zrus and oaruer.iot accident In another version. three useful gifts from some friend. retumed his magrcalequipmenr ro Knossos Like her mother Pasiphae. in order to escape from rhe passionateintentions of Orion. When she Medusa's head Ready for the Lanssaand his discus hit rhe old saw how Hippolytus was homfied exploit at last. cet'tves.It was not for an anihim to stone. seen withhersister here Aiadneandhusband Theseus.a deity worshipped by earlier setrlers of the counuywho was later incorporated into Greek religion. Perseus put on the man on the head by her passion for him.or doves. informed him how a direcr glance Perseusvisited Argos only to find Phaedrawas soon overcomeby an from Medusa's eyes would turn that Acrisius had already fled to illicit desire. while he was reflectedin the constelladonof Auriga. In rhe end.

considering him drunk or mad ln the morning Polyphemusopened the entrance to the cave to let out his flock and feit the back of each animal as it passed to ensure no men escaped But Odysseus and his men tied themselvesto the undersides of the sheep and managed to leave undetected For this crime againsthis son. POSEIDON.qt.) ANNTBALE CARMCCT. and was thoughr ro have lived on the island of Sicily during his longjoumey ODYSSEUS. wife. One of Poseidon's children by Poseidon flooded the countryside undl Zeusbrought about an underAmphitrite bore this name However. c AND Hls HORSES By E K BIRCE. King MINoS.NvvpH G. came to the island and asked for hospitality. a oneeyed giant. stood on the acropolis in Athens He even mated with the GoRGoN and Poseidon'sown sanctuarywas of conspicuously sited on Cape Medusa. but in responsero the other Cyclopes' questionshe cried our that he was being attacked by Nobody. c POI-YPHEMUS was rhe son of POSEIDONand the sea nymph Thoosa He was a Cyclops. 1880) 74 . Athena as the deity of their ciry. home. his three sons divided the world between them: rode the oJtheoceans. the sea god had many standing The temple of Athena other offspring by other partners. rnrsc<1. while the land was ruled by all three It was agreedthat Zeus was the senior deiry.he rymbol andshooh theearth calledJorth storms (Nr. and Hades was often afraid that the roof of the underworld would cavein becauseof the shaking Poseidongave the earth Poseidon was pictured riding rhe deep in a chanot pulled by golden seahorsesIn his handswas sa\tours a PRIAM. Earthquakeswere attributed to his anger. shutting them up in his cave and earing them one by one for his evening meal Odysseus dared not kill the Cyclops during the night becausehis men lacked the strength ro move the boulder blocking rhe entrance to the cave So Odysseus thought of a cunning plan to enable their escape He got Polyphemus drunk on wine and then put out his single eye with a smke The rnjured grant roared wrrh pain. and the equivalent of the Roman NEPTUNE He was panicularly associatedwith horses and bulls After the overthrow of Cronos.theglant crushed Aciswith a roch. so they went away.CIASSICAL MYTHOLOGY the ZEUS took the slqy.lovinginstead Acrs In a jealousrage.pruNe cANvAs.although the maritime seanymph whose name recallsthat state of Athens did not always of the seamonster Triton This fear. though Poseidon frequently assertedhis independence Once he even chained up Zeus' Zeus. withHelen onthe moment ofrarepeace descibes thehings and citywalk. much to the annoyance the goddessArhena From the sev. 1930 oF GREECF ) of stirring the waters to fury. but called himseif Nobody Polyphemus indeed proved to be a dangerous hosr and treated rhe Greeksas part of his flock. FTADES underworld and Poseidon the sea. and his daughter ATHENA Possibly becausehis element was was the tempestuoussea. a weapon capable city eruo Ror'ar. thehingoJTroy.but she thehandsome scorned him. Wtthhisthree-pr onged horses therochs. like SroRrES the sudden violence of an Aegean storrn His wife was Amphitrite.but Galateatumedher into a Srcilian iver beannghrs beloved ntme (PotypHr:MUS AND tHt. favourite of Poseidon Worship of the seagod was wrdespreadamong out into the AegeanSea Another naval power that offended Poseidon was Crete When its ruler.qrl-n av 1595.Poseidon thought of as an unruly god. Poseidonpromised revengeon Odysseus was the son of POSgtoON CRoNos and Rnra He was the Greek god of the sea. which majesticallyjuts ered head of Medusa sprang the surely a winged horse PEGASUS. (IrtusrwroN FRoM on theplains below a mighry trident.asked was in POLYPHEMUS. a the Greeks.Sunium. shattered ofhispower.enjoy the best reladonswith him Because the Athenians chose ful pre-Greek creature was tumed by the Greeks into the merman. with the aid of HERA. god goldm seain a chaiotdrawnby waves tident. a one-qedg1ant. love with the nymph Galatea.as she who the circle chieJtains of theGreehhost.

J f ^ . lathcr ol'fift1 sons. s r n r l r er t h a t h e d r o p p e r l a n u n o l \ ( ) n h r s / ( ) ( ) t . .rflclforgor his mother's commancl Thcl' became lovers. L r. b u t o t h e r g r f t s* e r c p c r h a p s iess hclpful O ut of the fl am r ng forgecameweaponsof rvarr.s tt. r. ..1 ..c he could lincl Brrt rvhcn Eros sar.t .{L MrrHOroGY PSYCHE r\. /. an essenria] of cnrhzed nor this drew Prometheus into confhct wrrh Zeus. t h .'rth the result that his o\\'n \\'rfe P A .r r) -u ^h c l L .r p t . an inr..rirt r.. rhe krng . lr r tt .\ lgrccd that the cncl to thrs s ac r i l egc . . would give birth to a son PSYCHE in Greekrehgrous bche I e v e r t o l o o k r .. rr ryr rh r rrl tl l l ri Lr n h r / L cmcrged from thc \\ a\ es Rclrgrous ( llslom rpallired MtnOSt() s.er 2 n o en n i { ) n n r r r d r ... rhor-rgh Eros ftrrbadc Ps.fo r nsr eadof a puR c tptr u put an hor. the newly 'urctonous gods protected themselves because her son turned out to be the warrior ACHILLES.1. the leader of the new and stronger gods.rncrble bur immorral fighter Zeus' anger wrth mankrnd was on occasron explained by poor sacnfices Bur Prometheus himself was not a strarghtforward helper errher He gave [ire.. r' f rPll Jr..qssrc. . .ays krnd to H E It \ throughout the l()ng5icge Shc had eloped to Troy wrth his son PARIS Pnam was killed in the courtyard of hrs palace whe n the Greeks sacked Tro1. but Prometheus stole it and brought lt to earth wrh hrm But mrghtrer rhan his farher 81'mai<rng sure that Thetis married a morral ruler. l t .'ther \\'omen Although hc disapproved of the confllct urth the Greeks and lts callse.. .'. dtu B of the Rrver Scamander 81.r' hcr hc fcll rn ltrrt' .vche fast as the bird could consume rr by day Prometheus was oniy released when he gave Zeus the informarron that the sea nymph rHEris. \\.lttt tttrlscttf hd s.S OF\A f L. . rL ' . a J<r 5 j to t L . ' . whom both Zeus and posrtDoN were pursuing. Pnam rvas alu.. h c f l c c l i n f c a r o I n ' h a t she was r ep r es ented as a pnnc c s s A p h r o d i t c r i o u r L d c l o t o h r m n o u ' so beautrful that peopleadorccl hcr t h e s e c r et \ \ ' l i s ( ) u t l n t h e e n d .lan War Pnam..c .rllu\'. .l . n l i k cP s v c h c l r r l l r n l o v c r i i t h t h e r r g l r t ' s lt r .. r -h i rm \\'hen at was the "sou1" .softll tn love wrth hu hinr.r . the trme of the Tro.( d t t t ( 5 L . who chained the rebellious Titan to a rock and senr an eagle to ear his liver As rhis organ was immortal. pltrs ali the mr sene s that l ol l or vr hc di s m ption of'a simple wa1'of hfc s en t h e r s o n L I I ( ) \ t o r . to whom he gave fire Zeus.f].A.br .n J ... r *.t \ (Se e alsoFORCE. d c t l o u -rs irr.r hr oc l r tc I r l r ' c r sr ' t ' u l J h t ' r r n i t r ' d l ( ) r e t e r n i t ) ' 75 .\./ l l ( l sl:1ln n\' *\f nPnl2fl I f-|[fqt lHl\l. . >t)mc hy his qllcen Hecuba. IllNOlALrR. 1r h c f h c i r q r.r t r n m ) 'thol og) ' l a s r s h e d i c l . u -^.tenficL' the anrmal.CL. .t^'-. had hrdden fire away.".l 1 .sprrt Pstche rrrrh rt |crssr0rr /()r rllr r{th r i r r l r h L r t l t e u a s s o e r r t r ? n c c r lr r h t ' r r h . .R!) PruenA was rhe son of Laomedon (. but he chose not tcldo so. I t u l . s ob e a t t t r l u l t l r r t r A p / t i r r r l i t t lri'tr:. S I P H Ab E ecame the bull's lor.r rrh . thc rcst b. and . PROUETHEUS was a son of rhe IITAN Iapetus and one o[ the older Greek gods who sided wlth zEU-sin his fight against hrs father cRONoS His fame was due to his affection for mankind.vever. the bull-headed man . \ \ ' a s a l r c a d y a n t r l d m a n . r fT r o ) ' .rr Irr.srl/ Lr L n. it grew at nrght as lrfe .

Atlcs. the"bearer"or "endurer" . neither good nor bad.namedafter htm Perseus shelter. and the Giants. Equally. who was in his turn dethroned by his son Zeus. preying on unwary travellers. who were beings with mighry torsos and snake-like legs.the gigantic bro nze man who defended the island of Crete. the Cyclopes were orginally creative beings. bore theheavens Zeus with the o shoulders. us puntshment for havingfought agatnst thatgr arose dwrne Titans Themythprobably Jrom thermpressron reJ story. reflecting their primal nalure. such as Geryon. becausehe In another mountainsbear theheavens was tumed to a stonymountatn. the heavens constellattons (THE FARNESE ATLAS. e s p e c ia I I y t h e o l d e r g o d s . c AD 200 ) . While Greek grants could be "g. M^RBLE. rebellious shepherds who igtored divine laws and preyed on monals. on his ATIAS (nght). were predators. making armour and omaments in the forge of Hephaistos. such as TaloS. Later on they were also portrayed as moody. such as the Titans. the globe showing are depicted as a celestral Here.CIeSSICAL MYTHOLOGY GIANTS IANTS SYMBOLIZE IMMENSE PR1MAL forces. and building the rnassive city walls of Tiryns . but Iarger than life. The gods themselves are g i g a n r i c . others. The Titans overthrew their father Ouranos.ntle" guardians. replacing him with Cronos. Such a cosmic struggle between older primal gods and a younger generation is a common feature in world mythology.

special arrnour.but his Ees werehealedby the radianceof the sungod Hehos There are many diffenngstones concerninghis death.rcus av GLluaerrtstt leNcErrt. who wasoneof Posadon'sunruly sons.w4s a glganticand handsome hunter.and hid them in his Jrom Heracles cave Howater.retnevrngthe cattle that he had onglnally stolen t'rom Geryon (Hr.ClassrcAr- MyrHoLoGy THE CYCLOPES raceof AeJt). prryedon human berngs who strayedLtyhtscavenear Rome Cucusstole Geryon's redcattle whrlehe slept.thelwe that Eos.felt for Oion was suchthat it causeddivine lealouryuntil Artemtswaspersuaded to shoothim with an arrov/ on behalfoJthe gods He wasthen raisedto the starstoJorm a constellation(IttusrwrrctN 0yNrcK BEALE. who couldwalh through the oceanswithhis feet on the seabed and hrsheadabwe the waves Lrhehtsglant brother. Jabulous one-qed glants. and a goat-hhe g1ant. GL.the goddess oJ the dawn.rr r C.but accordingtoone myth. Oion wasblindedin a quarrel. Polyphemus. such as Hades' rnvrstble helmer Zeus'thunderbolt and Poseidon's tndent Yet thq were alsoportrayed aslawless. the one-eyed Polyphemus.naclt-s SLcys r r-1. man-eattng shepherds One such. sonoJ Hepharstos. were initrally regarded as creative who craJtsmen helpedHephaistos in his volcantc crat'ttng t'orge.1885 ) ORION (abwe lef). c 1670 ) . herelooms over Odysseus andhts comrades who have rashlystrayed tnto his den QtrusrurtoN FRIM SroRrrsrnov Hovr-n. .thecattlebeganto bellowand Heracles cameand slayedCacus. tg95 ) CACUS (above).

an even more unsatisfactory fate than he had prevrously suffered Becauseof his obviously genuine disappointment. but the god oJ the nver. 188] ) were Rruus AND ROtr. RHEA SILYIA (below). Insread.1476) 78 . and Rhea Silvia gave binh to Romulus and Remus Amulius ordered his servans to hll the new-bom nvins.a vestalvirgn. carnes thehingto drwn the wins who counselled (li-rusrnerrorus FROM [AYs oF ANCIENT ROME. the wolf Later Romulus and Remus were discoveredin the wolf s lair by who a shepherd named Faustulus. Romulusand Remus For violating the laws oJher holy order. he also forced Rhea Silvia to become a Vestal Virgrn. and to fight. however.CInSSICAL MYTHOLOGY was a king of PYCN4ALION Cyprus According to rhe Greeks. Pygmalion fell hopelesslyin love with rhe statue.4SILVIAand MARS. eventually became widely known. but they were not content to live quietly in Alba Longa.but the andwasJoundby a shecradlecameashore wolf.tut-uS rhe rwrn sons of nnr. waslovedbyMars. Remus a piest thewildhead of Camers. shewasthrown into the Ttber.and rhe two founders of Rome Rhea Silvia had been the only child of King Numitor of Alba Longa When Numitor's brother AMULIUSdeposed him. wrrnRnre SIrwe sayedand mamed her (t'lens BYFMNcEsco DEL CossA FREsco. took rhe foundlings home So they were raised as shepherds. the love goddess APHRODITT brought the statue to life and made it love him Some vaditions tell how the couple had a daughter named Paphos. Romulus bearsaloft theheod oJ their treachrous uncle. but instead they cast them on the Tiber Their cradle was carried swrftly away and evenrually came to rest on a mudbank To look after his children Mars sent his sacred animal. thereby ensuring rhat rherewould be no other claimant to the throne But the war god Mars raped her in his sacredgrove. The nvins Qef) march tnumphantly from Alba Longa On theleft. One day Numiror met Remusand guessed who he was and so the lost grandchildren were reunited with him.andborehim twin sons.who gave her name to the town AND SCC MON5TER5 PYTHON BEASTS FABULOUS were REMUS nNn ROMULUS (obove) setadift on the Tiber by Amulius. Amulius On the nght.Rome A quanel.although the ability of the brothers to lead others.they went off and founded a ciry of their own . he commissioned an ivory statueof his ideal woman. Tibernus. sinceno real one measured up to his expectations Nor surpnsingly..

swallowed all of them. relectingthe Roman thathewas who belieJ aJoreigner jed to Latium to escape Zeus guNo nlro Serunn ByPAoLoyERoNEsE. the she-wolf became the symbol of Roman nationhood. the Roman equivalent of the Greekgod cnoruos. wasalso regarded asanearly hing oJIntiumdunnga lost AgeHere. around 507 gc.wine and ecstasy. and the brother of tvrlos and seRpEDoN. king of Crete. Rnnn Rouurus see REMU5 SnnPfOONwas zrus thesonof. Golden withhisdaughter Juno. the war god Quirinus. rhe heanh goddessHesria. having leamed chat one of his children would depose him.qruv. The Romulus and Remus mFh was as popular as rhar of erruras.1553-55) c. she bore six children. Rhea substiuted rhe babyZeus with a stone wrapped in swaddling clothes. where she may have been drowned eruued and Romulus hlled Remus. bur suffered from a shortage of women.qs 79 . possiblywith a blow from a spade. the new king forced Rhea Silvia to become a Vestal Virgin. though he had more in cornmon with the goddessDEMETER He was believed ro have ruled the eanh during a losr Golden Age.(Seealso MONSTERS ANDFABULOUS BEASTS) "the SATURN. According ro one radition he marriedarcuENE after the dearh of her husband Amphitryon. Cronos.ClessrcAL MyrHoLoGY SARPEDON is lifted by Thamtos (Death) andllypnos (Slap) from thebattlfield of Troy This Lyatn rulq. where the worship of Rhea was norable. It was a haven for runaway slavesand other fugitives. the goddess of vegetation DEMETER. the earth goddessHEM. However. the underworld god FtADEs. Her by MARS twin sons were rhen cast into the swollen Tiber. rhe Greek god of vegerarion. except for Zeus. (Seealso FoUNDERS) RPtnaI. He was rhen mken to the island of Crete. sower". waslater confusedwithZats' son of the samename lu:usrtAnoN FRoM sroRrEs FRoM HoMER.1885) Rnnn SLVIA*as rhemotherof ROMULUS REMUSAND She was the only child of Numitor. They were mainly associated wirh DIoNYsus. . heisweaingexotic robes. where he founded the Greek ciry of Miletus It is said that Zeus allowed him to live to a great age S. an ally of the Trqans. Others say rhat he was one of the rhreeJudges of the Dead and lived in the paradise of Elpium. which Romulus overcame by arranging for the caprure of Sabinewomen at anearby fesdval. His fesrival. and was secredyraised.lANTHyS was rhe son of ruRopa and zEUs. and played a crucial role in his festivals. From the beginning of republican times. Amulius could not guaranteeRhea Silvra'sprotection from the attentions of the gods and she was raped in his sacred grove. the Satumalia. . Sarpedon quanelled with ond of his brothers. in the far wesr was the daughter of Ouranos and cen. When he was deposed by his younger brother AMIJLIUS. Romulus ruled Rome wirh a srong hand and rhe ciry flourished. MINOS. After a reign of forty years he disappearedto become. He was adopred by Asterius. some of his subjecs believed. the skygod. rhe seagod rosaDoN and zEus.was celebratedin Rome over sevendays and was held at the end of December Tnf S. fu the wife of CRONOS. Though he showed remorse at rhe funeral.qfYnS were the wild spirirs of Greek and Roman woodlands Their bestial nature was shown in their horse-like or goatlike appearance. and ruRoPA. as they were bom. the king of Alba Longa.qfUnN was an ancient Italian com god.over the throne of Crete and fled to Asia Minor.

S bt'rrr{ h /1 r r r h r S.he Romans closed Pr rLL rl l Ila)Lt L were offered fbr saic ro Rome durrng the rule of thr Erruscan krngs the deal before all the rrreplaceable oracles were totalll' destroved 80 . u hrch \\'hcn the offer rv:is refused. rn southem italy' ()t-r. 'r nt \tr A Ill. r t u l s ( ) r 1 1 e o/ religrous Sruelg SI .\' S scnu see \.C lessr (.stur\ FAI]t/l ()Lr5BEA-S l -5 r r f R r r r i r t t t sp r e d r r t t ' r 1 i n t h t . shc became rmmortal b r . ' .qpttl i rt. .Ar My I H or-oc. S h t ' . Srby. s r r r .. r r r R LL r .-. was d r .st'o /orctold rhr (ie. r ' \ i r r \ r ' ' r . rn Roman myrhology.(rrrir nttfr/ frrrn'r'r tir f ri. . s 1 ) l lfili( ) n t t n r i g r r r i L r t t .10\-\ rER..L^-.l bun-rcd three books and offered rhe other srx at the samc pnce.I. 'le t ncar . prophecl-.S r l i r r h r \ 1 r / n t / t r a f u r ts t r r / rit('n tr( l i .rt. \| L r n t .s of . so rhree more \\'ere burnt and thcn she famous were a collection of oracles thar detailed Rome's destiny These offered the last three at rhe ongrnal ^.\h rt nrarhlt' hlor h np tt hrll oniy to . br-tt rhe offer was strll refr-rsed.s Ar\r) SIBl'I- tht' gftttl.S i h . ' StnYl.^ . explarns hou. 7 E L ' .set it rrri/ down agtnn /l I i \ lli \ ll.S see Lc)\'rrRO r n .1l / l')')i rhc prophcrcss nho Cumac.r ts t i l l s r e w o l d c) She refused tfrc rhe gocl ol favour.l l r n eB o o h s r y h r rh h t t u m e a t . . so he condemned her rcr an endless old agc -Shevu'asalready ancient when AENFASconsulted her about hrs visit to the underworld Another story concems rhe Srbyllinc Books.S f S l ? H { I .

Jeline Sphinxpaws her victims (TurTnruurpHRur Spnrrux nv GustrvE M1RFAU. wermcotoun. (l[rrsrnarro. the goatJike god of the pastures He was usually portrayed as the elderly companion of oiolysus. to take Sisyphus to the underworld Somehow the ingenious hng temporarily made Thanaros his own prisoner. o Romanherorne. the Greek god of vegetation. bald man with the tail and earsof a horse Because of the hndness shown to Silenus by King MIDAS of Phrygia.butwhen asleep.Dionysusgranted the king his famous and shorrsighted wish for a golden touch STNENS SCC MONSTER5 AND FABULOUS BM5T5 STSYPHUS was rhe son of King Aelus of Thessalyand Enarete He was known to the Greeks as the craftiest of men. hebecame aninspired andmuch (Iuusrnenoru sought-aJter prophet rnov DrlnoNnnv oF ANleurrEs. the Sphinx hurled herself over a cliff and died As a reward for destroying rhe monster. Sisyphussaid that his bodywas unburied and the customary offerings to the dead had not been made He must THE SPHINX. he was made king of Thebes and mamed 8l . and is weakhad to roll a block of stone to the est when ir walks on four?" The top of a hill only to seeit roll back correct answer was Man. Zeus therefore sent Thanatos. Jat andround hewas more ashiswine-bag.ln appearanceSilenus was a fat. she l{efor Rome soglvingher trapthem. she was sent as a curse on the ciry of Thebes by the goddess HERA The Sphinx guarded a pass ro rhe therefore see to the arrangemenrc city and asked all who wished to himself before he could be said to passa riddle Those who failed to be truly dead Finally. According ro one tradition. oJtheSabines as todeath bytheshields thegates oJthe through thrystormed toone According Capitohne Jortress to insrde. a place of punishment beneath the underworld.ouing all whoJailedthe test In Moreau's chtllingscene. When the gods again claimed him. a people of central ltaly. Zeus lost give the correct answerwere eaten patience and condemned Sisyphus The riddle was: "What rhingwalks to Tanarus ro pay for his lifelong on four legs in the morning.wine and ecstasy. Sisyphus is credited wirh the foundation of Corinth. A monsterwrth the face and breasts of a woman. fulfilled his tragic desriny because the queen was his mother The Greek Sphinx should not be confused with the Egyptian Sphinx.god of death.CInSSICAL MyTHOLOGY THE SPHINX. 1888 ) was much glven to SILENUS ajwial satyr. than or often drunh drunh sober. i89i) CrAssrcAL SU-ENUS was variously described as the son either of the Greek messenger god HERMES. was the daughter of Echidna. or of PAN. and suffered for his rickery by endless labour in Tarurus. Having told his wife to do and so the widowed queenJocasta. The Grear Sphinx at Grza was the protector of the pyramids and scourge of the sun god Ra TAnPgfn was a Roman heroine. according ro Greek mythologlr. Sisyphus tricked HADES into letting him retum to earth. their shields Another mentions only rheir braceierc ln the first version the Sabinesrealued thar they had been tricked and threw their shields at her and killed her The Romans could not agreehow Tarpeiadied but.perched on a rochat a passto the cil oJThebes and challenged all travellerswith a nddle. either by rrrHoru or by Onhus. he angered zEUs by revealing that the god had abducred the daughter of a river god. whateverher motive was. or throttler. the daughter of Spurius Tarpeius. the body OEDIPUS gave the correct answer. theSabines hadlured legend. on impiety. da. For the rest of etemiry he three in the evening. sleep andas anddnnh Baldbuthairy.r' t nov FRoM STORTF-s Ltr r J885 ] of a lion and the wings of a bird.the queenly. had been abduction provoked by ROMULUS' of Sabinewomen to provrde wives for Rome's men One radirion says thar Tarpeialet the Sabinesinto her father's fortress afrer making them promise to give her what they wore on rheir lefr arms. because again as it reached the crest he walks on four as a baby and Ieans on a stick in old age When nothing if he died. real traitors were always thrown from the Tarpeian Rock wss crushed TARPEIA. the commander of the Capiroline fortress at Rome She may have played a role in savrngthe city A war berween Romans and Sabines.

was an uprisingand Tarquinius oFLucRErA rL ByPALI werthrown (TnrRape the king recognizedhis sword as the hero carved the meat. Aegeushad fallenunder the spell of unDEA.lihe a worm beneath the wheel " (lur'. and Aegeus named Theseusashis successor The next cycle of Theseus' explois was designed to securethe saferyof Athens First. should she have a son. l88i ) THESEUS was the son either of POSEIDON or AEGEIIS the king of Athens His mother was Aethra The childlessAegeusconsulted the Delphic Oracle and was told not to untie his wine skin undl he retumed home He did not understand what the oraclemeant and so visited his friend Ki. Medea fled from Athens with her son. Cercyon The aggressive ruler died as a result of rhe conresr.earsome son of HEPHAtsros.ClessrcAL MvrHoLocY TAnqurNtus Supennus was rhe sevenrhand last Etruscan king of Rome.r. The plot was revealed. Medea knew who he was and persuaded Aegeus to let her poison the mighty stranger at a banquet Theseuswas savedwhen TARQUINfUS SUPERBUS." rno. who reigned in the sixrh century ec His youngestson. Then he killed a wild bull that was ravagingMarathon. Theseus leamed that his father Aegeuswas hardly able to hold on to the throne Not only was the apparently heirless hng challenged by the fifry sons of his half-brother Pallas. Aethra explained that he was heir to the Arhenian rhrone and he retrieved the sword and sandals On his joumey to Athens he slew several desperatebandits.rysor. ANL[.qstpHnE. worse sdll. An annual ribute of youngAthenians was fed to the Minotaur.u L.in Theoutrageprw ohed shame. so Theseusbecameking of Eleusis. which lived in the Labyrinth rhat had been designed by oAEDALUS. Theseuswas forced to acceprthe challenge of a wrestling match with its king. and so Theseuswas conceived Beflorehe left for home. No one had ever managed to find their way through this maze.the former wife of. which he later added to the Athenian kingdom On his amval in Athens.hilled herselJ. the wife of Kirg MINos of Crete. Tarquinius Sextus. a f. [o the north-east of the city.who raped the Roman matron.NTR()Mr:. and a dreadful sow. she must wait until he was strong enough to raise the boulder before she senr him ro his farher's court After Aegeus'departurethe wily Pitrheus said his daughrer's lover was really Poseidon When Theseus came of age.causedthe end of rhe monarchy by raping the Roman matron LUCRETIA.srncl. Lucretia She.the srrange offspring of p. Pittheusmade his guestdrunk and put him to bed with his daughter Aethra. He also overcame the MINOTAUR.but.g Pittheus of Troezen Realizingthat Aegeuswas going to beget a powerful son immediately after the celebration feast for his saferetum to Athens. he deahwith Pallas' sons.then a kingdom separatefrom Arhens.ling in thedust hedied. Tarquinius Sextus. Aegeustook the pregnantAethra to a great boulder undemeath which he placed his sword and sandals He told her that. the daughter of the monster ITPHONAt Eleusis. so when Theseus volunteered to confront . which caused BRUrus to lead a rebellion Tarquinius was defeated and the Roman republic was established TARQUINIUS the SE)ffUS. ashe JIed battleJield Regrllus. wasstruch oJLahe death was from behindHisingloious "Andin the recounted rn Macaulay's lcys: bach Sextus steel / And Jalse felt theRoman wng.asoN and a powerful witch She hoped that her own son Medus would succeedAegeus Although Theseus hid his rrue identity.a crueland crueland ryrannicalhing sireda no less ignoble son.

by some miracle.Phaedra was so humiliated by his rejection that she hanged herself and left Theseus a letrer in which she accusedHippolytus of artempted rape He was exiled and died in a chanot accident before his father discovered the truth In another version. when its ki. Hippolytus. near Athens But discord enrered his own house when his second wife PFiAEDM. suwive. threw himself off the Athenian acropolis The suicide meanr thar Theseus was now king of Athens. another daughter of Minos. thinking his son dead. daughterof zELls. who bore him a son. and her rwo brorhers. and he joined all the communidesof Attica into one scate Apart from enlargrng Athens' territory. thereby (TurseusANr)SrNrs.filled with remorse. Anadne gave him a ball of rhread and a sword The hero entered the Labynnrh. 83 . came to desireher stepson Hippolytus.Theseus sets theunfortunate ashore.the DIOSCURI. rhe Athenian admiral Cimon wenr ro Scy'ros and brought the hero's bones back to Athens. pushed him over a cliff as he admired the view k was believed that in the fifrh cenrury BC./RE. ( 490 BC ) RED-Frcr. Theseus also undertook a number of heroic exploits On one expedirion he captured Hippolyta. Anadne pledge while Aiadne at thetop. tyirg hts victim between two bent pine trees and then letting them sping teaing the man apart upnght. the queen of TheAMAZONS. fearingthe presenceof such a man.on thenght trHrE)clorrs oF MosArc 200 c AD ) the Minotaur his farher despaired It was agreed that if Theseus should. desming matden THEsEUs. Theseus forgot to changethe sail ro indicate to his farher that he was alive Aegeussaw a black sail and. slew rhe Minotaur and rhen set sail for Athens with Ariadne and the rest of the Athenian parry He rhen lefr the princess on the nearby island of Dia h is thought rhat he was in love with another woman. on Dia. Hippolytus was hlled by a sea monster rhar was raised by Theseus'anger. Theseus and tharlweat thealtar.g.killed herself Theseuslater seizedthe twelveyear-oldHELEN. defeatedthe Athenians and drove Theseusabroad He died on the island of Scpos. a daughter of the Cretan king who fell in love wrth the hero Princess Ariadne knew that the Labynnrh was so complex that the only way out was to follow back a rhread fastened to the entrance After Theseus had promised to marry her. where they were kept in a shrine THESEUS aruoSINIScircle each other in a battle of witsandwills Sinis. possibly becauseof her divine father But she had powerful hnsmen. he was to change the sail of the tribute ship from black to white on the homeward voyage At Minos' palacein Knossosthe goddessAPHRODITE gaveTheseus an invaluable ally in ARIADNE. the pinewas a robber who hilledby bender.and Phaedra. as a future wrfe He ciaimed that only she was worthy enough to be his wrfe.ClessrcAL MyrHoLoGy THESEUS' uploitsareillustrated onan inticateRoman mosaic At thecentre of thelabynnthTheseus withthe battles MinotaurOntheleJt. to lhe young man's horror Ahhough he promised ro keep her passiona secre[. bur she died shorriy afrerwards Theseus gave rhe accursed oEDtPUs and his daughrer ANTIGONE sancruaryat Coionus. but whatever the reasonhe was soon repaid for his heardessness fu the ship approachedAthens.

Cecrops bloodsocifce. and buildirg a strong citadel. to cre ate a varLety of dynamic founders who built such celebrated cities as Athens. politicsond mariage (l[usrnenoru FROM DrcfloNARY i89l ) oF CrASslcAL ANTrqunrs. ArHErus (ngh). Sparta and Thebes. and made Athenstheir capital The ci1 divided rnto the upper town. guided by destiny and deiry to createa fresh. the Ttojans after Tios. Mycenae. Mythic founders were innovative. and Rome after Romulus. In Classical mythology. such as llium.and to Theseus who united Attica's twelve statesinto one. on a steeproch.seenhere. while Cadmus of Thebes introduced an alphabet of L6 Phoenician letters. ind. whoJounded the ancientAcropolis. the heroic ethic \ combined with the Greek ideal of polis. Athena. godlike heroes.the arttstic centreoJ the ancientworld. Each ciry honoured its own hero who was also often its legend ary founder.whosehelmetand spearwere seen from the sea Athens. vibrant culture.rs sv ClnL HaeG. Apart from leading a ribe to a bright new land. A city or ribe sometimes honoured irc founder hero by sharing his name.built oJPentelicmarble in pure Doic style and adomedwithinandwithout with gllded and painted sculpture North oJ the Parthenonrosea great statuteoJthe ciry's goddess. for instance. named after llus. such as Perseusof Mycenae and Lacedaemon of Sparta. . or city-state.penden[ community of citizens. ceNves. c 1890 ) Cncnops (above). encourabolished agedtheworshipof Zzus and laws Athenaand introducedbasic of property.such as Cadmus of Thebesand Dido of I Carth age. owed its oiglnboth to Cecrops. slaves and foreigners who gathered within and around a fortified ciry.and the first hing of Attica. the splendid capital oJ Attica. its summit oncecrownedwith sparhlingtemples Mostfamous oJ all was the Parthenon. / a The Greek polis was an autonomous. as well as threeharbour rises towns TheAcropolis. founders often developed helpful new ways and customs: Cecrops of Athens.FOIJNDERS HEANCIENTs BELIEVED that many of their fabulous cities were founded by the pioneering heroes and heroines of legend. or Acropohs. and the lowerwalledtown. whichwas alsonamed Cecropia aftu him An innovator.one oJthe mythicJoundersoJ Athens. is depicted with d serpent'stail. encouraged religious worship. reached its greatest splendourin the time oJPmcles(160-429 sc) (THE AcRopol. recallinghis oigln as an aboiglne of Attica He dividedthe nativesinto twelve andJoundedthe communities the stronghold oJAthenl Acropolis.

suchled atbtrth by a she-wolf .Rernus The tvvrns had beencastinto the RiverTrberIry therrg'eatthe throneof Alba Longa. R N I : R l.Tttus. Poserdon and Apollo. Drdo managed to se(ure enough land to hurld a cttadel. sl.s Tttus' vtctonous avLrpr tn eo 81.. named Byrsa. r .) vva.ewtse. overloohing rr KERIFL. rymbolizes the nsrng power oJ Tnol. son ol Tros. or "hrde" Around thts fort.thewolf Mars. wtfe of the Greeh chteJtatn.s be. ) srnlrror l f{{)()r)norrr.r:i Honsr B) Nrr r r ri t r nri l belly an army oJ Greelzs (THr.SSICAL MyTH OLOGY the mythic was Rovurus (above). wasdesrgned to accommodate 87. rM cANvA. .ses a tedm of architects and masons on the leJt banh of the bay Dido Tyre in Phoeniciu wherc her husband. B } / w f i . Iarbus. thebnghtnrwcity ( l ) r n o B r r r r D r N c ( . theyleftAlba LongatoJound Rorne. the local king. The glrls und boys playrng on the traglc Trolan War. Inomedon The nextktng. c . around crrculartrers spectators .{ R r H ' \ ( . Iegendary founder of Curthage .supervr. 1846 whorarsed themas lus own Once shepherd Faustulus gowt1.rn B0 . theworld-ruItng . Sychaeus. to savehis sons lLtter thetwinswere rescued Lrythe good Roiur (above) caprtalof Italy on the RiverTrber.mboh2rn g the growth oJ Carthage banh represent the future power und gentrattons of Cunhage. Pnam. sent . c 1920 toneof thefuture ctty (lLLr D)P4{ Tnov (above) or llium arose on the grassy plain oJ Troas lry the Joot of Mount Ida Founded lry the mythrc hero.l l5 . the lubuktus ctry oJ Carthuge flouished from 853 nc On the nght bank.i560) . future clqy. sold Dtdo as much land as she might contain rn a bull's htde By artt'ully cutting the hrde into nen'ow stnps. \gmalion. the sttll.r erected ) . the Greehs dreamt up the Trolan Horse. 8 r . Ilus.wusoneol the{eatest monuments ci\.qn Theggantrc amphttheatre a centralarena In Jront of the amphttheatre nse s the tnumphalArch of Titus. tmtiated by theEmperor seen ol theancrent RomulusTheColosseum. rn the rergn of IIus' son.chacus nsc. Jounderof Ron1e. but the belhgerent overthe stteand nune ol the brothers btckered settrngthewarlike and Romulussbw Remus.s lih. A|3BArr. a massNe wooden modelhrdingwrthtn tts hollow crlm tomb of $. C()Lossr. who walls oJ Troy were butlt'by the gods. the anctent ctty was named lltum and Trola after both Jather and son The famous Dtoo (above). wtth his twtn brother. while the nstngsun. hud been murdered by her brother.srdca ncw . hrssacred animul. ruled danng the had fled to Afnca from coveted the throne oJ Tyre On the coast of North AJntu.000 Vespastan and inaugtratedby his son. Menelaus At a cntical stage rn the ten-year siege. TEMPERA. provohedby Pans' abduction of Helen.sapling. situatetl here.but uncle Amuhuswho coveted theird:ine Jather.wasfoundedtn c AD 753 W the mythrchero. to celebrate campatgn tn Judaea (\lru or rHr.

CINSSICAL

MYTHOLOGY

THnffS was a seanymph and the daughter of Nereus and Doris She was the mother of ecutt-t-rS, the great Greek hero Becauseit was known that she was fated to bear a son mightier than his father, both zEtJSand PoselDoN gave up all who thoughts of possessingThetis, was much admired on Mount Olympus, the home of the gods lnstead, Zeus ensured that she became the wife of a mortal king, Peleusof Phthia Thetis bore him sevensons,but she was dissatisfied with the mortaliry of her children She tested them wrth fire and boiling water, but none could withsmnd such treatment, not even the youngest boy Achilles until Thetis dipped him in the Sryx, the nver of the dead Even then, she forgot to wet the heel she held him by, with the result that he was not totaily immortal About this time Thetis left Peleusand retumed to the sea, although she continued to assist Achilles as far as she could during his evendul life TtnnSfRS, in Greek mythology, was the son of a nymph, Chanclo, and Everes,descendantof one of CADMUi'own men The blind seer of Thebes, he was so wise that even his ghost had kept its wits, and not been overcome by forgetfulness Iike the other inhabitants of the underworld At the edge of the

blind seer, TIRESIAS, thelegendary advisedmany heroesSomelistenedto him, such to thar cost,ignoredhim, but others, Creon,or short-sighted as hard-headed Pentheus His goldat stofJwas a gJt Jrom tofndhis way Athenaand enabledhim FRoM man (ILLUsrMroN lihe a sighted
DrcfloNARy oF CtAsslc,{L ANTIQUITIES, .1891 )

the seerwitnessedthe same sight and became a man again His unique experienceled to Tiresias the and HERa, being askedby LEUS chief Greek deities, to settle a dispure berween rhem as to which sex got most pleasureout of love When he said that it was the female,Herablinded him, but Zrus awarded him a long life and the power of prophecy THf and Titanesses, TtfeNS according to Greek mythology, were the children of Ouranos, the sky, and GAIA, the earth These grgantic beings were the older gods who ruled before the Olympian gods, who were the brothers, sisrersand children of zEUs The Titans included cRoNoS, RHn.e, Coeus, Metis, Mnemoslme and Hyperion They came to power after Cronos emasculated his father Ouranos with a sickle provided by Gaia, his long-suffering mother The eventual battle between the older generarionof gods, the Titans led by Cronos, and the younger generation, the Olympians led by his son Zeus,lasted ten years and shook the universe like no other conflict. Afterwards Zeus threw those deities who had opposed him down to Tartarus, which was a land beneath the underworld. The battle against the Titans should not be confused with the Olympian gods' Iater struggle with In order to win this the GIANTS. terrible confrontadon, Zeus knew that he would require the help of a mighry, mortal champion, and the so he fathered by 'LLCMEwE greatest of the Greek heroes HEMCLES.

came in disguise to Thebes As a result of Pentheus'refusalto listen to the seer, he gravely offended Dionysus and was tom to pieces bY worshippers, the the god's frerLaed maenads Tiresiasalso confirmed rhe pronouncement of the Delphic Oracle that it was indeed King

world Tiresias advised oDYSSEUs OEDIPIJS who was personally rhat he would never retum home responsible for the plague which ro lthaca if he harmed the catde of roubled the Thebans HELIos,rhe sun god During his lifetime Tiresias played a pan in severalmyths For rnstance,he wamed King Pentheus in vain about the identity of when that powerful god DIOI{YSUS, seo an immortal THEIIS, although with son, Achilles, mortal nymph,lovedher ofahuman care andtendemess all the andrushed sorrows, motherShe sharedhis o/hismoftllity to hisaid,wer conscious aftnour splendid some Hereshebingshim
as he mourns Patroclus' death rnov Sronrrsrnou Hovrn, i885 ) (Ittusru.qnou

The blindness of Tiresias was explained by two tales One account states that the affliction was a punishment for seeing the goddess ATHENA bathing The other story is a somewhat lesstraditional explanarion Tiresiasone day saw snakesmating and struck them with a staff, whereupon he turned into a woman. After living as a woman for a period of time,

86

CInSSICAL

MYTHOLOGY

THE TITANS wereglganticbangswho the Olympian gods ruled the earthbeJore Thq overthro,rtheir tyrannicalJather, Ouranus,and put Cronosinhis place Cronos, inhis turn, swallowedallhis children, exceptZeus,who was raisedin presentsCronoswith a secreE Here, Rhea stonewrapped in swaddling clothesinstead hiddenaway of thebaby Zeuswhois saJely
(RHrrc nr.ro Cnouos, RELTEF, c 400 BC )

supreme deity, but the recently victorious ZEUS destroyed him with a mighty thunderbolt The volcanic activity of Mounr Aetna in Sicily was believed to be caused imprisonment Typhon's by beneath the crater. The struggle berween Typhon and Zeus was an evenly balanced fight, however At one point 7:uswas left helpless in a cave,weaponlessand without his sinews Fortunately rhe messengergod HrnvEs came to his aid on this occasion Before his final defeat,Typhon sired the Chimaera, the huge seamonster killed by the hero PERSEUS VENUS was rhe Roman equivalent of apHRopirE, the Greek love goddess Venus was onginally a goddess connected with agriculture. but when she was identified wrth Aphrodite she took on a more active and differenr role in mythology One of her most crucial acdonswls to retumAENMS'spear after it had stuck in a tree stump during his fight with the Iralian champion Tumus Indeed, in some versionsAeneasis her son

TyPHON (left), a fire-breathing serpent, was impisonedbeneaththe crqterwhen the volcanoat Mount Aetna mtpted Symbolinng the darhJorcesoJearth, he as hideousas himself:the sired monsters flaming Chimaeraand snarlingCerberus (GnrcxVxr.. c 600 BC )

TYPHON

was a terrible, serpenr-

Iike monster whose eyes shot out flames. He was conceived by GAIA, mother ished earth, when she was banto Tartarus along with the

orher defeated TITANS According endeavoured as the ruler to the Greeks, Typhon to establish himself of the world, the

oJlwe, is VENUS, the Romangoddess rarely portrayed withouther capnciousand chmtbic son,Cupid This gracefulportrait oJher by the French artist Boucher, Jull oJ much to Venusof light and charm, owes FRoM or CL,tsstcel Dtcttoxeny Arles QrtusrnerroN 189] Arurreurrrs, )

CInSSICAL

MyTHOLOGY

VnSfn was the Roman equivalenr of the Greek goddessHestia,who was the goddess of the hearth Vesta, however, was worshipped both as the guardian of the domestic heanh and also as the personification of the ceremonial flame. Ceremonies in her honour were conducted by the Vestal Virgins, who were young girls from noble families who took vows of chastity for the thirty years during which they served her Vesra's chief festival, the Vestalia, was held on TJune VtnCtNLA was the daughrer of a WRGINIA (abwe) dies in the arms oJher Roman centurion named Virginius father who hilledher to releaseher from she was a bondageto the comtpt Appius Clnudius and, as with LUCRETIA, Roman connected with a major He then cursedthe Claudionline, who were constitutional change Whereas overthrown by the outragedRomans FRoM SroRrFs rnov Ltw, 1885 ) Lucretia's rape and suicide led to (Ir-r-usrnerroru
WTCAN (below), Roman god oJfve,

the dethronement and exile of the Eruscan monarchy, the death of Virginia was a major factor in the ending of an aristocratic tyranny in 449 sc. The lust of a comrpt official, Appius Claudius, for Virginia lcnew no bounds. He even dared to claim that the girl was his slave and used the law to have her handed over to him. At the last moment her father subbedVirginia through the heart, declaring that her death was less painful to suffer than her dishonour. The Roman arrny rose to support him, along with the poorer citizens not then bearing arrns, and checks were placed thereafter on magistrates' powers. was the Roman smith VUICAN god and the equivalent of the Greek HEPtiAIsros. He was widely associatedwith Maia and YEsrA, who were both goddessesof the hearth. His smithywas believed to be situated undemeath Mount Aetna in Sicily. At the Vulcanalia festival, which was held on 23 August, fish and small animals were thrown into a fire. XnNTHUS was said to be the offPodarge and spring of the HARPY the west wind. He was ZEPHYRIIS, one of wo immonal hones belonging to the great Greek champion and had the power of ACHILLES human speech. Achilles inherited the horses from his father, King Peleusof Phthia, who had received them as a present from the gods on his wedding to the sea nymph Achilles tookXanthus and THETIS. Balius, the other wonderful steed, to Troy with him They performed extremely well on the battlefield, although theyseemed unnerved by the slaughter. When Achilles quesdoned them, Xanthus wamed the champion that his own death was near, at which point the horse was struck dumb by the FURIES ZTPHYNUS NATURE SCC FORCE5OF

Venus with gloious armsforher presents son,Aeneas The goldar swordwas descibed in the Aeneid as loaded wtth
doom FMNcors NENus tN rHE FoRGE oF vuLCAN cenve,s, 1757 ) BY

BoucHER,

88

CIASSICAL

MYTHOLOGY

ZEUS, all-powufuIfathu oJ the gods, enthronedon Olympus,isbegedby Thetis she tugshis beard to help her son, Achilles; way, and claspshis hneein her affectionate as descnbedin thelliad, and thegreat god TnrnsrvJr,rlnNo nodshis assent (Zrus
A]GUSTE lNGREs, c,qruvas, 18.11)

After the overthrow of Cronos, Zeus divided up the world between himself and his two brothers, and PoselDoN Zeus chose HADES to rule the sky, Hades the underworld, and Poseidon the sea: the earth and Mount OlYmPus,which was the home of the gods, were regarded as common territory A rare visitor to either of them was Hades, who preferred to be among the dead Trus'influence, however, was felt e,rery*h.re, although he had no control over destiny itself Rather he was the god who saw that fate took is proper course The many lovers taken byZeus, both mortal and immortal, form the very stuff of mytholory It is hghly likely that they describe the coming together of severalreligious incorporated the radinons , as7-eus attributes of rival deities and gained credit for all important even6 The continual antagonism between who was Zeus and his wife HERA, definitely an ancient, pre-Greek mother-goddess in origin, often broke out into major conflict. So jealous was Hera that she sPenr most of her dme persecuting ktJs' lovers and their children Once Zeus became so angry about Hera's his cruelty to the hero HEMCLES, greatest son by a mortal woman, that he suspended the goddess from a pinnacle by her wrists and hung weights on her ankles (See OFNATURE) also FORCES XANTHUSeNn BALIUS , immortal wind, of thewest andchildren horses "torewiththespeed wtnd" Thq were oJ duing theTrojan Achtlles' battlesteeds onthe War,andwept fallenheroes Jor them asa glt oJ Zzusleads feld Here, onhisweddingday to Peleus thegods
(IrruSrnenOruBy GLENN Srrtvnw, 1995)

ZBUS was the supreme deity in Greek mythology and the son of the Titans cRoNos and nHr,q The Romans identified Zeus wrth their an all-powerful slcy god J7PITER, The ryrannical Cronos insisted on swallowin g alI Trus' older bro thers and sisters as soon as they were bom, but Zeus escapedthis fate when his mother Rhea offered Cronos a stone wrapped up in swaddling clothes to swallow instead.In secrecy,kuswas raised on the island of Crete. He grew ro manhood determined to topple his father. The wise Metis, an earlylove and daughter of ocEANos, gave Zeus the idea of a potion that would make his fathervomit up all the children he had swallowed.

.

INTRODUCTION INTRoDL]CTIoN ODAYPEOPLE OF CELNC DESCENT IN Europe are concentrated on its wesrem shores They live chiefly in Brittany. and in 278 BC one roving band even penetrated as far east as Asia Minor. an island thar was never under Roman control. cANVAs. For excepr in Wales. Irish myths nearly always include fighring. however. however. Nor even the intewention of his father Lugh. the troublesome King Suibhne Geilt was cursed by St Ronan for his violence towards the fairh. Oisin was immediately changed from a handsome yourh into a blind.she was to sufierunjustly. the Isle of Man and lreland At one dme. Scotland. grey-haired. Even in distant lreland. nothing else was ever commirred to writing. where a small group of stories was recorded. sealed his fate. because these tales were seen as entertainment. Then their rehgion and mytholory waned in importance. lrish folklore insisrs. his refusal to rerum the affecrions of Monigan. Bran the Blessed (BnaNweNryG SarRrurucneM. the Cels condnued to worship their own gods and goddesses right up ro the dme of the official adopdon by rhe Romans of the Christian faith. the goddess of slaughter. spent three hundred years there before reuming to Ireland. the influence of Christianiry was soon felt. Rather ir was a paradise in which souls rested prior ro rheir rebinh in the world. rhe lone defender of Ulster during the invasion of forces raised by Queen Medb of Connacht. son of the Fenian leader Finn MacCool. indeed in the explois of many other heroes of old. the Celts were a force to be reckoned with. where rhey gave rheir name ro Galatia. and 92 . Oisin was warned that he would never be able to go back to the underworld if he dismounted from amagScsreed. since rhe Devil could never enter a house where rhe exploits of the heroes were being sung. enjoyed but a brief life. is obviously a later embellishmenr. is very much the ideal. withered old man Only St Patrick is said to have bothered to listen to his fantasdc story as it was being written down. a historical fact not forgotten by the legronaries who gave Julius Caesar vrcrory berween 59 and 49 sc over the Celdc tribes living in Gaul. The Cels always distrusted script and preferred to rely on speech and properly trained memories. The interest of St Parrick in the advenrures of Oisin and. Yet saints in lreland could curse as well as anyone else when the occasion demanded For instance. unlike the Greek or Roman underworld. could save him The apparently endless conflicr appears less tenible when it is recalled how the Cels believed in reincamation. was not a dismal abode of the dead. c Ig20 ) of paganism It seems that poets wenr on reciting the sagaslong after St Parrick converted the Irish and cleared the country of snakes. Wales. rhar they kept something of their magic. Bur here conversion did nor mean rhe wholesale desrrucdon of rhe Celtic heitage. In lreland the poet was held in particular esteem. Comwall. Their otherworld. The fearless warrior Cuchulainn. When rhe saddle slipped and he fell to rhe ground. Rome itself had been sacked by rhem in 385 BC. "the Hound of Culann". but it does indicate a degree of tolerance not readily found elsewhere in Christian Europe. presenrday France Although largely incorporated into the Roman Empire. Possibly because there was a clear distinction there berween druid and poet in preChristian times. untilrescued Jorced b hn brother. though the combat is undenaken more often by heroes than by gods. Yet Cuchalainn. for monks rook great care from the fifth cenrury onwards to write down the ancienr sagas To this remarkable effort of preservarion we owe almost our enrire knowledge of Celtic mythology. the Cels were spread over a large parr of the Continenr. the sun god. Until the rise of Roman power. The newly-founded monasteries could therefore undertake the work of recording rhe ancient rexts without any fear Bnarvrvrx was a classic Celticheroinewho remained calm anddigniJied underpressure A Jakely slandered wtfe. He was chosen as the Irish champion afrer a beheading conresr with the watergiant Uath No other man had courage enough to receive rhe giant's retum blow. except where people remembered tales about the Celtic gods and heroes of the past. The warrior-poer Oisin.

i I i r :i . r : .(l . l i l t ' t t ' i \ t .t r+Ih. t r l . l l i r .l brrcl lt'll1-111 a t r t l n g i r t l l l g h t . :pt'rlt thc rc-:t trl hL. . / i t .. i ' ( L . l . l t r Lc \ltir. t : I rrtrl i trt'tir ttcts t't'tl llt> h.trr]1i. t t t ' t Srn o Rour THRAcq ' a SperN . l l l .. . . 1 ' r r r r ' i 1 1 l i r .illtl ll\ (lLl('\t \ n n r r i t l t c a l t L t ru : t . . .ltltt'tl \ r > r r ) nr r t t h t ' ( i r l r r l u i t t t i l h e r r r r r k. . -4" :f-'rDEr-pur .i ir.rl. . \\ht'tltct trt Il()[ \rtlltll \\. 1 r i i ( l l i r ] r . qq- ' I<trt{ht. c t l.t\tR()l)t(ll()\ I . fr . ' . . l lIlr \ t h > ( h t t ..rl-iac \ \l. t i i f l .llI() il ( L'lrttntitqtt t.r cir.J *fu.t:. f r i r i . i t .. t i { i t l i . ' r b . t r c ( c l t r t r p \ I h r r l . r fL r l l (. i i l l . l . b e .ri r 1 .t)tlLr \tr [ ) r r ' ( ) r r L t l ) t cK cr l ng \ttirrrr . t L . lLtc ri rlh tht' t Il. . r i t ' i l1 t r ' . fi 1 1 1 1 1 . r r l 1 . 1. l \ 1 r . { )c : 1 . \ 1 1 1 .P r ' .* . i l t l l r t t : l t l l ( i . l .l(ir))(l\ )t i r / . t > t \ t l [ ) ] l t ' t . ( ) l l l ( ' 1 1 t c l r t r l t l ( ' l c n l ( ' l l t I h t ' i l r L t ' . t lI ll l t ' . . .r il l . : I l t r t h r r l t l l L r t \ \ .c \ : I p l . . 1 5I ) L t r ( f ' Ilrrtl{h Itr frt'rll. 1 i 1 .tt-:t l r1 O { t r l t t c e t ( ) I I C Ci t l l ( i tr'nstlrs ()t . t l t h r ' ( f L l rl t l \ l ( ) l l t l l t ' r r l l t t l l . i t . ' 'I'Ef B LAC K r i i r r t h f l .tl t r t t h t ' ( i r .itght lrr I]tltilllli)\ Jtr-r'1lh lo:t . r . ) li i \ i r i l i t 1 . i r l l iI ATLANTIC OCERN -. ' . i t r i i . i .tLtltlttrtltht> ilt'l\ rc''t'l rill: t h r ' t L t l tL t . i ) . l l l l t \ h l t .t flt.'/ltr ( i t .. i / t r .lL ( )ttt 9l .: *j Ilfnrltf \1it:. t l t ' l . . i l l r r h e ' \ r t h L r r l i .tl ' l ( . i t r t l ' t ) r i \\ t ( . l t l t : t h c l r\ l r ) t P l t ' n l ( r : l . .'trgh sllllll. .rrll.ttttl. .' ffi td .t l t : t: irl :ttlc lt rilts Itt'. t t t l l r ' i . ' r l . l l l . l .ilti)r . . L . t illt llltrtrcl R Dn.

ir was believed. cAwAs.tNo Nnrun representopposite polesoJthe CelticothemvorW Malin. awaiting reincamadon as a national saviour. Thus British chivalry came ro an end with Kirg Arthur's disastrous bartle againsr his nephew Modred near Salisbury. ARrnunandhisChristian Fellowship of l{nights probabty deived Welsh warlord Arthur. (MeruuscrurrmusrurroN. Hardly a knighr survived and the Kirg himselfwas badlywounded His depar- ture to Avalon. c i8l0-14 ) figure is still uncerrain. In an otherworld. common foe. theKnights oftheRoundTable erpenence theGrailvision amiddivine for thefirsttime. so deep-rooted were their own birrer quarrels. who fromtheearlier journqed to the othenvorldwthhiswarband in search oJ a wondrous cauldron Here. guided his hing Arthur. Kirg Arthur lingered. in the tradition of Celtic druids. It is quire likely rhat he may have been a successful warlord in the confused and violent period following the withdrawal of the Roman legions from Britain around 4I0 eo That his myth blames the ultimate vicrory won by rhe Anglo-Saxon invaders on civil strife perhaps reflects a kemel of truth. c 1470 ) 9+ . gave rise ro rhe idea of his undeath. with wrsdomand while Nimue. light and splendour.(THr BrcuruNc on MERLTN By E BURNEJoNES. The Celtic peoples were norGrious for only rarely combining against an extemal. symbolked the Jorestght.his enchantress. threateningpwm oJthe othenvorld.INTRODUCTION Mrnuru . accompanied by three mysterious ladies.

INTRODUCTION B .

and rhen it refused to move even one hoof AINE. which probably means who was unable ro ler go of rhe "doer of deeds". Fuamnach When High Kirg Eochaidh was looking for a bride himself. was. As a sarisfied. who was actually a goddess. reason for his appearanceon earth who ruled lreland undl rhey were. rhe capital There Eochaidh and Etain enjoyed a happy married life Ailill. or mortals rhan gods.tion There Abana was compelled tary leader of the FmNNA Abarn to releasethe prisoners aswell as to tried ro serveFinn MacCool short.who lived under a mound in the middle of Ireland She had been rebom as a human as punishment for her great jealousy of Midir's first wife.Ailill never came because he fell into an enchantedsleep Atut-t.rhe Fenians agreed ro a gesture of goodwill. he heard reporrs that described Etain as rhe fairest maiden in Ireland So he broughr the beautiful former goddessback to his palace atTara. rricky Abarta peacewirh Abarta presented the Fianna wirh a wrld. whorefused to help hard-pressed Culhwch toplough. Aine stir at all Once Abana had appeared amongthem andra. was the hng of Connacht and husband of the warrior-queen MEDB. however.warlike by the Celts to be the home of the invaders from Spain Driyen under.who was the foster son of the Manx sea god MANANNAN MAC LIR HeT main responsibilty was to encourage human love. which were only immediarely inro a gallop.Ailill finally met his death at the hands of coNALt.The riors there remains a srong trace of best tracker among rhem was Finn his original dMniry MacCool'sassismntFoltor He sucAbana offered himself as a ser. in Irish horse's tail Abarta took them to mythology. Abana and his kin appear where souls briefly resred before in the Irish sagasmore like heroic rebirth The rest of the Fianna. although one mortal Iover of hers. sow andreapahill in a dq . E7AIN. though theJruitful rustic godoJ agnculture. one of the TUATHADE DANANN Etain had been the second wife of the proud and handsome god MIDIR. Irish goddess oJlove andJertility. thereby prwohing theBattle of Trees. but she also AI\4AETHON. He is genera\ ponrayed as a ratherweak characterwho was entirely under the influence of Medb It was due ro her taundng that he agreedro go to war with Ulster over the Brown Bull of Cuailgne. 1995) fell in love wirh his brother's wife.run back to Ireland himself holding ly after the hero had succeededhis on to the horse'stail Honour being father as leader of rhe band. even visible throughher magc"ing pulling along a fifteenrh warrior (lLrusrnerroruByNtcK Brew.and heredi. bridle on the animal.ceededin navrgadnga course to the vanr ro FINNMACCOOL.give chase to Abarra's sreed.gods and goddesses. it broke tobealive wrthfaines. rvho was the brother of did the warriors manage to ger a Eochaidh. ond. wasnotalwayshelpful ItwasAmaethon thatrobbed Arawn. gradually succumbed to a terrible wasring diseasebecauseof his unrequited passion for rhe new queen Etain was steadfast in her love for Eochaidh. although in the Fenians. grey horse Only afrer great effort AILILL. a mischievous god He the otherworld. according to some versions of the myth..Celrrc MyrHoLocy Annnfn. acquired a magic ship to tale of his trick on the Fenian war. paid for his passionate audacity with his life When he . 1995) felt sorry/ for ailing Ailill and eventuallypromised ro sadsfyhis desire as the only means of saving his life It was arranged thar rhey should meet secretly in a house outside Tara However. a High Kirg of lreland.o tashinhis quest to win Olwat (lr-r-usrRqnoru ByNrcK Buu. for that was rhe was one of the TUATTIADEDANANN. Kirg Arllil OIom of Munster. when mounted It was not until was worshipped onMidsummer Eveby the fourteen warriors had climbed local people wholit up herhiII withtorches on its powerful back rhat it would When some glrls stayedlate onenight.ealed thehill mounted behind rhem. who killed him in revenge for the death of rrRcus MACRITH AINE was rhe Irish goddess of love and ferdlity She was the daughter of Eogabail.and the place ground.This wonderful land was rhoughr overcome by the Milesians. one of the otherworld for the rescue expediforemosr Irish heroes.MnC MAIA.

An inspiredshamanand seer. was a landoJJruitfulness filled Annwn's maglcal wtththe songoJbirds healed maidens.trqADE DANANN. Even as late as the last with the Milesians Thesechildren century. Amairgen then installed Eremon as High King of Ireland atTara Even then conflicts still occurred becauseof the ceaseIessrivalnes between lesserrulers. the other in the south. stolen fromAMWN. a hound. AueerHoN the Milesians could not agreeon means "labourer" or "ploughman") was the god of agnculture and the which of their leaders should be hng Two sons of Mil. ARTHUR warriors in a disastrous attempt to seize this magic cauldron. WONDROUS CAULDRONS) attempted to force himself upon magically transformed rrees inro Aine and rape her. The lord of Annwn was the grey-cladAMwN. ciated in lreland with agriculture. and renewed fighting Amaethon's brother. it would seem.decidingwho firsthing. magic recurrent motifin Celtic oJBranand in thetales cauldrons Jeature Dagda (IllusrnlloN By NIcK BxLE. which.AUAInCEN. wirh whom the Dyfed chieftain PWYLLagreed to exchange shapes and responsibilities for ayear Arawn had a pack of hounds. aWelsh ANNWN (below). the lord of the the sake of peace the island was orherworld euruwru. the ru. or "Aine's hill". to lfe A thedead thesich andrestored myth. 1995 ) 97 . GWYDION. as Amergin. was one of the first because. and as a result the north. the ancient priests in she had command over crops and Celtic lands He came to Ireland animals. was the basis of the medieval Grail myth ln one Welsh lost most of his tradition.as a goddessof fertility. Irish druids. one in deer and a bird. a divided into rwo kingdoms. peacewas not to surive of Trees It was in this battle rhat for long. andrest. causedthe Cad Goddeu or Battle However. between the followers of the two (above)was one oJthe Jirst AJVTAIRGEN druidsin lreland He possessedboth spiitual and political authoity. who was a in her honour on Midsummer Eve leader of the Celts who lived in at l(nockainy. Eremon and son of the Welsh goddess ool contested the throne and for Amaethon was said to have EBER. were believed to be the ancestorsof the present-dayIrish County Ketry Having defeated the divine rulers of (whose name lreland.heis credited with a mysticalpoem in the Book of crtox A^roN' Invasions (ILLusrn ) otherworld. which were believed to fly at night in pursuit of human souls (See AISOCELTICOTHERWORLDS. celebrationswere still held of ulrrsluS. or Mil. she slew him warriors to fight in the battle with her magic. ln Annwn there was a fountain of sweet wine and a cauldron of rebirth. the Celtic "hounds of hell". sometimes known Aine's worship was alwaysasso. guarded bynine cauldron.CeITIC MYTHOLOGY brothers plunged the country once again into dreadful srife The fighting came to an end only with the death of Eber. AUNONTNS PELLES SCC was a Welsh otherANNWN world that was an idyllic land of peace and plenty. in Spain. and pronouncedthe first judgement in the wouldbe the land.

spars son. Birds also feature in his courtship of CAER. the princess who had been promised by the High King of lreland to his Fenian commander FINNMACCOOL Aonghus savedthe Iovers from the great warrior's wrath. on the bank of the RiverBoyne.cNorn. no woman could everseeDiarmuid without loving him.Aonghus Dana. hingof Annwn. washnown asthe"lasting told him that above ali else she DANANN He seems to have been one" andalso asDana. Cuchulainn askedScarhach AMWN. but Cuchuiainn distracted Ethal his prisoner lt was finally (tuusrRarroru thq rymbolized herbreasts ny her attention at a critical moment agreed that Aonghus could marryt Grrruli SrEwanD. a place where warriors seem most at home The cult of Anu was especiallyassociated with Munster. that he should be killed by a magic boar Nevertheless.killed by his own father swans He instantly recognizedher dess Dana") were her divine chiland she agreed to marry him dren and the gods and goddesses AONCHUS was the Insh love An interesting tale rhat has who ruled Ireland prior to the god His father was DAGDA. somerimes known as Aoife. Aoifa and she was willing to be his bride ANU. a girl of divine descentwho came from Connacht and lived as a swan Her father.received a magic love spot on his original role o[ goddessesin rheir band and lay with her The monks forehead from a mysterious grrl one compilations Certainly. This included GMINNE. mother oJthe treasured her chanot At first the reluctant about the marriageuntil Tuatha DeDanann In Munster there are combat went as expectedin Aoifa's Aonghus' father.the attached imelf to Aonghus conamval of the Milesians h is quite father of the gods and the protector cerns his foster-son DIARMIIID LtA possibie that the monks who wrote of druids. was the mother goddess of bore him a son named cotvl. Cuchulainn challenged her ro single combat. so he drove them off and ser AOIFA. an otherworld kingdom Her sisrer SCATHACH instrucred rhe Ulster hero CIJCHUIAINNin the arts of war But when the sisterswent ro war Scathach was frightened ro take the hero with her into battle in case Aoifa killed him Undeterred by Aoifa's repurarion as a fighter.ql It found Caer swimming on a lake Irish myrhology The TUATHA DE was. the srories they recorded show us a man's world.Crr-Trc MyrHoLocy who wrote down the trish sagas tried to legidmize rhe binh by making Boann the wife of Dagda. a tohen oJthe othenvorld (luusrnenor. which was a paradiseof peaceand plenty The Dyfed chiefrain PuvLLbecame friends with Arawn and was allowed to claim in his title some authority over the otherworld The two rulers met by chance While out hunting.a wanior-pnncess theInnd Jrom withher young oJShadows. Jlyinghounds. 1995 ) by calling out that her chanot horse Caer provrded he could identi$r her was in trouble Afterwards. instructinghim in themartial arts The tradition ofwamor-womenwds strongin where Celtic sociery. and his mother was the DUIBHNE. or "Diarmuid of the Love down the lnsh sagasfrom the fifth water goddess BOANN Rarherlike Spot" This attractiveyoung man century onwards underplayed the 7-eus. ANU. Dugdr deceivedBoann's hus. the boy's fate to be wich a hundred and fifty other DANANN("the people of the god. Conlai. 1995 ) 98 . was oneof whose duties to escort souk on tharjoumey to the othaworldLihe some other thq appear white fairy creatures. andwhere the gods were women oJten fiercest (Itrusraanov ByJAMEI ALExANorn. Beforethe fighr rook place.r ByJAMEs Alrx. was one of the TUATHADE all theheroes. 1995 ) night dunng a hunt. was the daughter of ArdGreimne and an lrish warriorprincess in the Land of Shadows. From rhen on. stidesthrough hisenchanted accompaniedby his Jorest "hounds theCeltic oJhell". but it is obvrous that Aonghus wzls a divine love-child Aonghus was handsome and fourbirds alwap hovered abovehis head which were said ro represenr kisses. Dagda. sometrmescalled Danu or became Cuchulainn's lover and On the feastof Samhain. withredears. made twohillshnown asthePaps of Anubecause favour. and two hrils in County Kerry are still known as Da Chich Anann ("The Papsof Anu") AOIFA. Aonghus brought Diarmuid's body back to his own palace at New Grange.where he breathed a new soul into it so that he could talk to his foster-son was rhe ruler of the AnAWN Welsh otherworld aNruwru. but he could not protect Diarmuid from the fate given to him at birth by the gods. however. a great earth goddess andmother oJ what Aoifa loved best and Scathach Ethal. women bore arrns aslate asAD700. Pwyll encounrereda strange pack of hounds chasinga stag.

it was suggestedthat Ananrhod should mke her place. in Irish mythology.he managed to find and rescue Delbchaem Art's son by another woman was ART Arr was hlled by C)PJ\LACMAC the rebel Lugaide Mac Con in the battle of Moy Muchruinne his own hounds on to the prey Just as the stag was about to fall.CEI-TIC MYTHOLOGY AONGHUS AeJ).oppearsin thisJoncijul portrayal as a charming. Pwyll accepted a proposal that he should exchange forms with him for ayear and then tlayArao*'s enemy. the Welsh chieftain dealt him a fatal blow and ignored Havgan'splea to finish him offwith another strike. When Pwyll and Havgan fought.In one myth. for if struck a second time he instantly revived. ) than she gave birth to DYI4N Arianrhod's and rtrtL GwYDION. It was Arawn. theLand laidon the A taboo of Delbchaun search Becuma.rcnus. ON 1908 ) an armyoJsavage conJronts ART(above) glanttoads onhispeilous andvenomous journq through in ofWonder. To test her purity fuianrhod had to step over Math's wand No sooner had she done so 99 . a grey-clad figure appeared and rebuked h^ryll for rhis discourtesy in the field. the virgin who usually acted this part for him was raped by his nephew Gilvaethwy. Marh could sleep only if his feet wereheld in avirgin's lap. goddess younghero bythejealous tofind andwinthelovely forcedhim parents byherwiched glrlimpnsoned (luusrnerroru c 1900 Bv ARTHUR R 4cKHAM. PUTTING A SPELL OF SUN. cANVAs. As a result of this service. iJ somewhatwhimsical character. including the stricture that he was to have no wrfe in the human race ART. Havgan. Arawn and Pwyll became closeallies and Dyfed prospered. CAIU COURTESY.contrived to send Art off on a perilous journey through the Land of Wonder in search of Delbchaem ("Fair Shape") After facing untold dangers. Conn's jealous mistress. brother. andwhen Goewin. an engagtnggodoJ a Celtic equivalatt oJ Iwe and courtesy.IMER THE SEA ByJoHN DUNCAN. king of Gwynedd. the goddess Becuma Cneisgel. orrntl. Eros. was the son of Conn of the Hundred Battles. was the daughter ArueNnnOD of the Welsh goddess DoN and niece of MArH. but without making love to her Arawn wamed Pwyll that he must hll Havgan by a single blow. In order to placate Arawn and to gain his friendship.ltwas also agreed that hryll would share the bed of Arawn's queen for the same period of time. immediately took charge of Lleu and brought him up.who calms thefoamy seawith his AND coD oFLovE Jairy maglc (Aor. but this did not prevent Arianrhod placing a seriesof raboos upon him.

wrtches and monsters. Arthur had much in common with Finn MacCool But according to the ninth-century monk Nennius. Fxcalibur Roman legions had gone Nennius Theyoung hing mawelledat theshining credir Anhur with rwelvevicrories. killer of giants. but finding he was wirhour a sword. one of which describes how he stole the hounds of rhe Fenian leader FINNMACCOOL on one of his daring raids Indeed. aslu the Anglo-Saxon invaders after the Lady oJ the LaheJor thesword.Arthur pulled it out and gave it ro the amazedknight. C 1910 ) have a connectionwith Josephof Anmathea. at rest in anenchantedforest. there were knights who would nor accept Arthur as ARTHUR. since its miraculous propenies were clearly derived from the Celtic cauldron.l I . hunter of magic boars. gazes in wonder at theamazng Questing Beast at thewell lt was aferlieor bewitching otheruv orldly wonder.was guarded and guided by spintual forcesfrom birth Smugg. which had mysreriously appearedin London Many knighs tried ro pull the sword from the stone. or 5AN6REAI.This unusual piece of furniture may AnfnUR is undoubredly the best I<nownof rhe Celdc heroes He was mosr popular during rhe Middle Ages.when the exploirs of his followers.r AND ARTHUR By W HATHERELL.ented bss of blood in banle (tuusnenoru in a history of Wales.) that Arthur and his swom enemy M?DREDboth fell in 537 ar rhe bartle o[Camluan Anhur was the son of rhe Brirish king UTHER PENDMGON and Igraine. at which one hundred and fifty knights could be seated. sword but Merlin insistedthat the scabbard but does not mention the account wasworth ten of the swordsbecause it of his death recorded slighdy later pra. not leastbecauseit had a special place resewed for rhe Graii WhileJoseph of Anmarhea was imprisoned in Paiesdne. but none could move it After a number of yearsArrhur joumeyed ro London to watch his first toumament A knight who had been appointed by Merlin ro act as the boy's guardianwas tahng part.unawareof his destiny untilhis nghtfuI time to draw the swordfrom the stone. the mage.the Grail is said ro have kept him alive Later he broughr it ro Brirain. wife of rhe Cornish duke Gorlois He was conceived out of wedlock and brought up away from his parens by rhe wizard MERLIN The resourceful Merlin had already designed for Uther Pendragona wonderful stronghold and placed in ir the famous Round Table. he sent Arthur to get one Wi thou t r ealizrngrhe signific ance of the sword in rhe stone. the Ifuights of the Round Table. Thus was the heir of Uther Pendragonrevealed Even rhen. rhere can be little doubr that the warlike hngbelongs to rhe heroic traditions of borh lreland and Wales He appearsin several ARTHUR. where it disappeared due ro people's sinfulness Thus the recovery of the Grail became the grearquesr of Arthur's knights When Urher fendragon died. which srares BYAUBREY BERosuv.Ied out oJTintagelCastlebyMerlin.impressedthe gearer part of westem Europe It was wirh some misgivrngs thar the Church permitted a Chrisriamzed version of theseCeltic myrhs ro occupy such an importanr placein rhe medieval imagination It was never quire at easewith the story of rhe Grail. c 1870. and as leader of a band of heroeswhose adventuresled them into untold mysteriesand marvels. the ltuighrs of the Round Table were at a loss ro know who should be the nexr hng They decidedrhar Merlin should guide them The wlzard told them that rhey would know who Uther's successor was when he drew a magrc sword from a srone.thusprovinghisbirthnght (urnur. Arthur was a historical leader who rallied the people of Bntain against ARTHU& promptedby Merlin. CANVA5.CTITIC MyTHoLoGY Irish sagas. which JOSEPH OF ARIMATHMwas believed ro have brought to Britain.he wasfosteredin safety and secrery. which deJied captureSirPellinore andlater years SirPalomides spent infutilepursuit of thetantalizng chimaera (lrrusrnarrou ByAUBREy BEARDSLEy. a child oJdestiny. c 1870 ) . a vesselof plenry aswell as of rebinh The strength of popular feeling for the Arthurian myth can be appreciated by a riot thar occurred in l l l 3 a r th e ro wn o f B o d m in in Comwall becausethe French servants of visiring nobiliry denied Arthur's undeath Although some of the earliest storiesconcemingfuthur are found in Welsh poems of the sevenrh century. as a warrior.

holding another magrcsword. each ordered his forces to attack if they saw anyone draw a sword When a knight unsheathed his weapon to kill a snake. King Arthur had to be carried away by these of the Anhunan myth tums on rhe I<rr€hs. king that carryingthe t'. Becauseneither one trusted the other. consults Fay.quvas. Arthur was dismayed to see the blade sharter. but which was finally near. in which the flower of British chivalry fell Only two of Arthur's knights were left alive on a batdefield that his weakened kingdom from the was coveredby the dead and dyttg. with the Grail at the centre (Knc Tesre Anrnur. tn despair the king wandered along the shore of a lake when. since he knew of Guinevere'slove for Sir IANCELOT.gaveAnhur the Round Table as a wedding grft Nevenheless. king Only with Merlin's aid was the young ruler able to defeat his opponents and bring peace to Britain How much he depended on magic became obvrous to Arthur early in his reign Having drawn his own sword wrthout cause against one of his knights. rApEsrRy. Arthur was betrothed to his daughter At first Merlin objectGUINEVERT. for futhur was otherwise unalrned. tci his amazement. rymbolQe d wh olan commemorated the TableoJthe l-ast Suppo. His last also MAGICAND ENCHANTMENT. who handed it to him Rearmedand reassured. ln rerum for the aid given to Lrodegraunce. because news reached the king that his nephew Sir Modred had seized Camelot and even forced Guinevere to consent to marriage. and pr eceden es ce. the most handsome of the lfuights of the Round Table But he later blessed the married couple and. king that shall be " Such an Juturepromise undeath was not enough to save D'ARTHUR BYJAME5 ARCHER. he saw a hand and arm rise out of the water.however The whole Although he had won. according to one version of the myth. 1860) . his sure support.after spreadingstories of the king's death on campaign Returning ro Brimin. ed ro the match. rests in peoce so that he might retum one day to ARTHUR le queens Morgan guardedby lead his people once more fourt'airy oJ herbooh in blach. rND THE l(t. HEROTC words were that he was going to QUEsrs) to be cured of his wounds AVALON in Avalon.tonr reign (t-e oJArthur's was.CEr-TIC MvrHoLoGY ARTHUR S RoundTablesewedmany purposes: it pruented quarels aver s. Anglo-Saxons.ttcHTs oF THE RouND To rHE QuEsr By A SrnnNcr 1898-99 ) SuUMoNED DAMSEL By E BURNE-JoNEs. he had Excalibur rhrown into a lake. it was agreedthat the hng and his nephew would meet between the rwo armies to discuss the possibility of peace. however. aided King Leodegraunceof Scotland in his wars against the Irish and even campaigned as far away from his kingdom asRome. according to the l-:ldy of the Lake. and when futhur found out about his wife's unfaithfulness Lancelot fled to Brittany Anhur pursued Sir l^ancelotand besiegedhim in his Breton stronghold The siege had to be lifted. This was the famous Excalibur. tomb at Glastonbury picks up this "undead" appantion htngThewinged Celtic idea of reincamation It and thehope Grailrymbolizes reads: "Here lies Arrhur. where a hand swiftly seized destroyedby the implacablehatred it Then Anhur boarded a magic berweenArthur and Modred (See boat and disappeared. cowled The inscription on Arthur's of the to heal thewounds maglc craJts. such was the severiryof his disintegation of the chivalnc uniry wound Knowing his own end was that was establishedby the Round Table.the queen and Lancelot were soon Iovers. Arthur summoned his knights to do battle with the rebels Prior to the conflict. c.Arthur went on to be a great king.Merlin savedhim by putting the knight to sleep. a terrible battie was fought. He defeated the Anglo-Saxons.

ANNwN.Joiryheavens hidden beneath gassy eyeball backward through Balor's mounds on Inshhilkides kgendhas it head. (llr-L. single eyelid of Balor was slowly closing through weariness Lugh crept near to him with a magic sling-shot in hand The momenr BANSHEE.e. . ctuves. and its name suggess that itwas an island of apples The mortally woundedARTHURwas ferried there by three mysterious women in a black boat. mystery and peace lts nine guardian queensrecall an actual.he hurled lived underground in sparlzling sidhe the stone so hard rhat ir forced the faines. It was believed thar the wailing of a banshee foretold the approach of a human death. To avoid rhis fate he 1014. when the High Kirg Brian locked his only daughter ETHLINN defeated the Viking invaders and in a crystal tower on Tory Island. castsaJatal stoneinto member of the Tuatha De Danann Balor's deadlyq. women oJ the the eyelid opened again.srn cloN By MTn. or beansidhe. when Lugh noriced that the AVALON. a lesser grandson. Even so. the supposedsite of Arthur's tomb. or alternatively MANANNAN MACUn. Arthur's last restingplace. ln either event.forcing it bach through With the assistance of a female his head where its lethal gazedestroyshis druid.qNDA Gnev. Balor was killed in barrle with a sling-shot by the sun god BALOR. 1894 ) 102 . 1995 ) When Balor leamed that his daughter had given binh to three sons. who were driven from Ireland for ever. not even the Tuatha De Danann leaderNUADA. and over the centuries they were slowly transformed in the popularimagination into fairies. was an otherworldlyretreat of wonder. Excalibur was forged there Tradidonally. aJormidable one-qed god of LIIGH.Myth connec$ Badb with that he would be slain by his own the historical bartle of Clonrarf in grandson. he ordered that rhey be drowned in a whirlpool nearTory Island Balor's servants duly rolled them up in a sheet. as well as the nine mythical maidensguarding Annwn's maglccauldron (Kruc AnrHun rN AvALoN By E BURNE-JoNIs. NEMAINand by four servans It was prophesied MACHA. a fiercecontest berween the Fomorii and the Tuatha De Danann Nobody could stand Balor's lethal gaze. Lugh was saved and set on the road to his desriny as rhe slayerof Balor. following the terrible batrle againsrSir MODRED's army The undead king was expected to retum from Avalon and lead the oppressed Celtic population of Britain to victory over rheirAngloSaxon and. Avalon has been idendfied with Glastonbury.led the misshapenFomoni against pion of the Tuatha De Danann theyoungerTuatha De Danann Herehis Lugh's father was Cian. BRIOR was rhe Irish Cyclops (Seealso CELTIC OTHERWORLDS) This one-eyedgod of death was rhe most formidable of the FoMoRII. decided to foster him. off Badb was said ro have appeared the north-west coasr of Ireland over rhe warriors' heads. but on rhe way ro the whirlpool one of the boys fell out unnoticed Either rhe druid rhen handed the fortunate baby to the smith god cotnHNIU. i902 ) stare The Tuatha De Danann were able to defeat the Fomorii.rByH I FIRD. with the result that it was rhe thatabanshee attaches itself toaJamily Fomoni who now sufferedfrom the andwams ofimpendingdeathwith an destrucdve effect of its paralysing eeie wail (tu-usrnerror.Ethlinn's son and the chamdeath. Lugh. the traditional fairy of the Irish countryside After the arrival of the Milesians from what is now Spain (the ancestorsof the presenrday Irish) the gods and goddesses known as rhe TUATHADE DANANN disappeared underground and dwelt in mounds. Iater.rhe owner of a sword which previously none could escape The battle was just tuming into a Tuatha De Danann rout. Cian had enrered the crystal warriors marching behind him tower and slepr wirh Ethlinn. BAOB (meaning "crow") was an the violent and monstrous seagods Irish goddess of battle She was one who ruled Ireland before the arrival of a group of war deitieswho could of the TIJATHADE DANANN So influence rhe outcome of conflict dreadful was his one eye thar he by inspiring the combarants wirh destroyedwhoever he looked upon fear or courage The others were and his eyelid had to be levered up Known as MORRIGAN.Cnlrrc MyrHoLoGy AVnI-ON was another name for the Welsh otherworld. Norman conquerors According to one version of the myth. the god of the sea. The fateful meeting between Lugh and Balor occurred at the second battle of Magh Tuireadh. histoncalordu oJnine nuns who lived olJthe coastoJRomanBittany. (Seealso CELTIC OTHERWORLDS) BRNSHEE is the modern name for the beansidhe ("woman of the fairies").

Cuchuiainn was able to follow its course. according to welsh mythology. threw the sword Excalibur into the lake on the king's insrucdons and bore his body to the boat which camed him to AVALON BEL seeBELENUS also known as Bel. thefaines. however. was a one-handed warrior who. Fer Cherdne took the opportunity to avengehis former master's death by grabbing hold of Blathnat and jumping over the edge with her in his arrns. a Celtic sungod. srDHE oFrHE to celebrateBeltaine (THrRrorps BYJOHN DUNCAN.little elseis showing the hero how he could known about him enter her husband's apparentlY impregnable fortress A stream BRAN flowed through rhe fort and when BTN DTCTTPFRAN SCE Blathnat poured milk into the THEBLESSED water. They were both members court. and his name survives in a number of BELENU5 BTLE SCC BELENUS. at theendoJhis Arthur guarded BEDWYR theship alaheJor hJe. together with his played friend and companion I<AI.CnITIC MVTHOLOGY BEDW}R BTOTVERE SCC BEOWYR. In the fiercebattle that followed Cu Roi was killed and Cuchulainn was able to ride off with Blathnar He also took with him Cu Roi's bard.was celebratedon the first of May in his honour. 1862) r03 . of the one of the important fesdvals Celdc calendar. was a Celtic sun god known to the Romans Julius Caesarcompared Belenus to Apollo.ctNvts. asthq waitedby thatwould ferrythehingtoAvalonThis realism photographic blends evocativ e scene 4n to create witha ghostly bachdrop oJ representation and convincing elfective an otheweorldly realm (Monr D'AnrHun nv JoHw Genntcx. the god of prophecy He appears in various forms across the Celtic world. symbolizng the raysoJthe sunand the promiseof summer fruitfulness Here. and betrayed her husband's people by in London) Although his worship was clearly widespread. In later of King ARTHUR's Anhurian romance Bedwyr became Sir Bedivere. the faithful knight who remained with King Arthur after he was mortally wounded. with cucHut AINN. the "firesof Bel". Bile to the lrish and Belenusto the Gauls Beltaine. Fer Cherdne When the party halted on a cliff top.the geat Ulster "Bile's gate" (formerly a fish market hero and enemy of Cu Roi. once ide outJrom their hollow hills Celtic gods. cANVAs. BEUNUS.was honoured on the eveof Beltaine when Celts litbonfires. l9ll ) the wife of King BUqfHNATwas CU RoI of Munster She fell in love place names such as Billingsgate. an important pail in helping to procure the prizes he CULHWCH required to win the hand of otwEN. as Beli to the Welsh.

CEr-Trc MyrHoLoGy .

poisonedtn with rtsdeadly youth.he Arawn.Arawn may possibly symbolize heJoughtan annual a Lord oJWinter. 1984 ) :IO5 .they deJeat the Insh with crushingtnbutesand cruelry oppressed Pwytt. Can-soxnx (above). 1984 ) While the Tuatha De Danann livedunderground rn lahes and glittenngsidhe. ashedPwyll to swapplaceswrth him Jor a year. the darht'orces of the otherworld Beforetheir symboltze at thehandsof the TuathaDe Danann. idingthrough alush. suddenly Jound realm of Annwn AJterdnving himselfin the othemvorldly off someshtningwhitehounds Jrom a t'allen stag. at the end oJwhich Pwyll duel Joughtand won theseasonal (lrrusrRerroN sy Ar. whtch sard to be the Cup oJthe Inst Supper.ngle seas rye. Beron (above) andhis mtsshapen people.the Grail CastleoJArthunan legend. wasferned healing Lancelot contained sptntualsustenance to Carboneh on a ghostly shtpwtthout captatnor crewand chahce because oJ permitteda dtstantvisionof the sacred his courogeous sprnt Hts loveof Guinevere forbade a ALAN vision (lui'sruroN Bv Lrr. and was an otherworldly heaven guardedbyangels wondrousspintswhose unearthlysongwasbeautful theGratl. the Fomoii roamedbeneath rn bleahpurgatones Balor'ss. thegrry-cladlordof Annwn Lthethe encountered Greehgod oJthe underworldHades. 1984 complete ) the Fomont.4N LEE. wooded idyll.aholy bqond imagnrng Thecastlehoused vessel. because he battlewith Havgan("SummerSong") On oneoccasion. paralysedhrs gaze enemtes (lr-r-usrnaloru BYALAN Let.

was conjuredout oJ blossoms Gwydionand Math. Gathering his kinsmen together. such as the home of gods and goddesses. 1984 life (tttustwrroN ) and the BOANN below). and he was known only as a legendary r06 . Bran displayed the magic bough. taking the magic bough with her Bran had been unable to hold on to it. together happily. was the lot of all Iiving in these wonderful lands Then the strangewoman stopped singing and vanished. c 1910 ) when he found a silver branch that was covered with white flowers. and then in the evening they reached the Isle of Women. broom and meadowsweet to be the wife of LLEIJ. Goronwy. even though the pair finally succeededin meeting all the conditions and attackedhrm. (Iuusrnenoru ByARTHUR RActclrru. the bird of the night BOANN was a warer goddessand the mother of AONGHUs. magical woman Shewas conjured by MATH andGwyoioN from the blossoms of oak.here husbandJor . ARIANRHOP. she was mamed eirher ro NECHTAN or ro Elcmar DAGDA. only to be surprised by the sudden appearanceof a woman dressed in veryunusual cloth She sang to the assembledcompany of the great wonders to be found in the lands beyond the sea.who sea god MANANNAN was dnving his chariot across the waves Once again the lrish heroes were informed by the seagod of the marvels that awaited them Even then the seaappearedto be a plain of flowers. including those of orherworlds. sicknessor death Happiness. which is namedafterher In its current seenhere swam the Salmonof Knowledge.with blossoming shrubs and an orchard of fruitful trees That day Bran's boat came to the Isle of Merriment. where his crew could hardlystand up for laughing.When they came ashore the Irish heroes found soft beds and delicious food ready for them The delightful stay seemed to them to last for only ayear. watches as his beautiful creation comesto By ALAN LEE. anotherman Gwydion. had declared that he should marry/ no mortal woman For a time rhe young couple livec. so she threw a ball of rhread that stuck to Bran's hand. awater goddess violated the sanctil oJ mother of Aonghus. was her lover and the father of Aonghus He was able ro seduce Boann by sending her husband on a nine-month joumey that seemedbut one day BRAN. Arriving off the lrish coas[. the lord of Penllyn Blodeuedd and Goronwy fell in love and began to plot the murder of LIeu This was no easy task. but one day Lleu went to visit Math and while he was awayBlodeuedd hndly offered hospitaliry to a passinghuntsman. he was wamed by the chief woman not [o set foot on soil again. the otherworld islands. but he was afraid to land. son of Febal. the Insh god of love According to the different versions of her myth. and only by u spear which it had taken a full year to make However. so by the maglcians couldbe thewtfe of Gwydion's that she Lleu But shebetrayedher nephew. a sacredwell oJ inspiration In outragethe wqters bubbledand swelled. and by magic drew the boat from the waves. is the hero of the most famous of the Insh voyage myths Seavoyages fascinated the Irish storytellers.Gwydion's nephew. The beautiful women's leader called to Bran to step ashore. he did not die buc flew into the air in the shape of an eagle Math and Gwydion set out ro avenge LIeu When they found Blodeuedd. formin g a torrent which became the River Boyne.the chief god of rhe TUeTHADEDANANN.as well as the place where souls briefly rested before rebirth Bran's greatjourn ey began BLODEUEDD (above). Bran discovered that nobody recognizedhim. Gwydion turned her into an owl. each larger than lreland. she sang to them. for Lleu could be kilied only while standing wrth one foot on a goat's back and rhe other on the edge of a bath tub.thefairest woman in the world. even with both his hands The next day Bran sailed westwards with t'wenty-seven kinsmen Their first encounter was with the MACLIR. but in fact many yearshad passed When one of the crew grew homesick and persuaded Bran that it was time rhat they sailed home.who would tell of strange adventures on remote islands. and inhabited by beautiful women who had no knowledge of sorrow. because Lleu's mother.CeITIC MyTHoLoGY (whose name BlooruEDD means "bom of flowers" or "flower face") was a beautiful.

Crlrtc

MYTHoLoGY

figure who had long ago embarked on a great voyage to the otherworlds, so he set sail again; but not before one desp erate hero forgot the waming and jumPed ashore, and immediately tumed into a Pile of ash, as though he had been dead for centuries The voyage of Bran is certainlY an ancient myth, although it was not written down until the eighth century by monks Even though the monla added cenain Christian elements such as references to JesusChrist and Adam's sin, theY did not obscure the tale's original magical atmosphere. (See also FABULOUSVOYAGES) visited voyage, onhisepic BRANbelow), woman the chieJ where oJWomen, theIsIe maglc shipto shorewith broughthis a cupofplenty, sheholds Here, thread of theisland idyllicdelights symbolizngthe thq thought stayed voyagers The for what thq,leJt was ayearbefore Jorhome
(Irrusrnnnot'r BvDervur,qMr"tR, 1993)

BnnN THE BLESSED, rhe son of the seagod Llp, played a different role to BMN, son of Febal ln Welsh mythology, he was called Bendigeidfran and seems to have been an otherworld god, although he was also active as a British king in mortal affairs He allowed his sister BMNWENto marry the Irish wrthout the king tvtATHOLwCH, consentof her hallbrother EFNISIEN. of this slight, Efnisien Because cut off the lips, ears and tails of Matholwch's horses during the wedding feast in Wales. Not unnaturally, hosdlities almost broke out between the Irish and the Britons as a result, but Bran (ngh),themighry BRANTHEBLESSTo to rescue to lreland rulu oJBitain, sailed In the Branwen sister, hisbeauttful was mortallY Bran ensuingbattle, cut wounded, buthishead, fromhisbody, is ofrebirth cauldron lived on Hismaglcal withhishead along here, restored, seen
(luusrnerrorv BY AL4NLer, 1984 )

managed to avoid a war bY Presendng Matholwch with a magic cauldron This otherworld vessel could bring men back to life, but without restoring their speech Back in Ireland, Matholwch was unable ro convince his warriors that Bran's gift was adequatecomPensadon for the damage done to the horses So Branwen ceased to be the Irish queen and was made to work in the palacekitchens, even though she had alreadY given Matholwch a son and heir, GwERN When Bran leamed of how she was being treated, he raised a great army and sailed to lreland In the ensuing battle the Britons slew every Irish man there was, but onlY

seven of their own alrny survived Even Bran was killed, bY a wound caused by a poisoned arrow On his deathbed he told his followers to cut off his head, which aqqarently was still able to eat and talk during the voyage home A later addidon to the myth saYsthat the head was brought to London and buried facing EuroPe, to ward off foreign invaders KingAnhur is said to have used the head for its Power The Celts believed that heads were the seat of the soul, which may partly explain their pracdce of head-hunting Even more curious, was the medieval Chnstian claim that Bran was the first British man (SeeaISO CAULDRONS) WONDROUS

r07

Crr-Ttc

MyrHoLoGy

BMNGAINE

(above)and lseult peer

euizzcally at the shyyoungstrangerin the palace garden, pur4ling w r his idntity But as soonas the dogleapt fondly onto his lap, thq recognized the strangeras Tnstan, who had been wsumed dead Thq wue confusedatfrstbecausehe was much changed afterhiswandeings in the wildwood (luusrncrton pAUrByEvELw c 1g2O )

BnnNCnINE was rhe maid of ISEULT, princess of lreland and lover of rRtsraN. tseuk had been promised in maniage ro King MARK of Comwall. Trismn, his nephew, came to lreland to escort her across the sea. Before rhe ship sailed, Iseult's mother gave Brangaine a love potion for Iseult and Mark on their wedding night, as ir caused those who drank ir to love only each other for the rest of their lives However, during rhe voyage,Trisran became thirsty and unwittingly drank the potion, and then offered some to Iseult. Through all rhe ensuing difficulties Brangaine was always loyal, sharing their secrets,such as when Trismn was brought ro Mark's castle mistaken for a wild man. even tahng Iseuh's place in Mark's bed on rhe wedding nighr. BRANWEN(righ? releases a starling bearing a plea the sea to for help,across her giant brother,Bran When hereads of her plght in lreland, he sets sail immediately witha Welsh Jleet
(Ir-rrrsrnenoruByAI.AN LEE,Iggq )

r08

CTITIC

MYTHOLOGY

was the daughter of BnnUWnN Llyr, the Welsh equivalent of the Irish seagod tm, and sister to BRAN ANd UEruAWYDAN THE BLESSED, of When High Kitg MATHOLWCH Ireland came to Bran's court at Harlech itwas ageed rhat Branwen should be given to him in marriage was But her half-brother EFNISIEN not consulted and, feeling insulted, he cut off the lips, earsand tails of Matholwch's horses To restore peace Bran offered the lrish king replacement horses and a magic cauldron Matholwch retumed to Ireland with Branwen, who was at first receivedwith geat rqoicing for she was generouswith gifts, and before long she gavebirth to a son, GWERN But after a few Years Matholwch's fnends and family began to complain that the compensation he had received from Bran was not enough To satisfY Ihem, Matholwch insisted that Branwen relinquish her Position as queen and become a cook for the court. During the next three Years,as Branwen worked in the Palace htchens, she reared a starling and taught it to recognizeher brorher Bran Then she sent it acrossthe sea with a letter tied to its leg, telling of her reatment. When Bran and the Britons leamed of her fate they brought an army to lreland.

BRES, in Irish mythology, was DE briefly the leader of the TUATHA the implacable enemies DANANN, of the F)MORII, the sea gods who ruled treland long before rhem Breswas an unusual leader of the Tuatha De Danann because his father was EIATHA, who was a Fomoni king of a land that IaY under the sea. Elatha had met a Tuatha De Danann goddessnamed En on the sea-shoreand made love to her on the sand Bres was bom as a result, although En was careful to say nothing to her husband andnavigator, thelish saint BRENDAN, voyage afterhtswondrous retums to lrelnnd Histour in search of theLandoJPromise includdaland rslnnds mysteious oJtwelve the waspossibly of birdlilu spiits, which about the boy's real father When Bres grew up, he fought againstthe existing inhabitans of Ireland, the ntRnoLG,at the first battle of Magh Tuireadh In this engagementNUADA,the leader of

leadership, the De Danann were under the command of Bres But Breshad no gift for leadershiPand becamesomethingof a tyrant On the restoradon of Nuada, Bres and his mother En fled to Elatha in order ro seek Fomoni assistance This caused the second battle of Magh Tuireadh, in which Nuada was killed Through the bravery of the sun god tucu, however, the Fomoni were routed and Breswas taken prisoner One version of the myth explains how, in return for his life, Bres promised to instruct the Tuarha De Danann in the arts of planting and sowing croPs It is possiblethat Bres,like his wife, the was a deiry fertiliry goddessBRIGID, connected with agriculture BrunN was one of the three sons of tutREaNN, whose family were engagedin a feud with the family of Cian, father of the god LUGH When Lugh sent Cian to summon the warriors of rhe TUATHADE DANANNto battle, Bnan and his brothers, Iuchar and lucharba, killed him during his journey To atone for this act of murder theY were given by Lugh eight tasks to perform. Among the objecm theY had to retrieve were three aPPles from the Gardens of the Sun, a healing pigskin from the king of a poisoned spear from the Gr.eece, king of Persia, a cooking-sPit belonging to the nymphs of an underseakingdom and the seven pigs of Kitg Asal of the Golden Pillars.which could be cooked and eaten one day and found alive the next Finally, they were to shout rhreetimes on the Hill of Mochaen Having successfullybrought back to Lugh all the magical objects he required, they then set out to perform their last dutY However, they were mortally wounded bY Mochaen and his sons. Tuireann therefore asked Lugh if he might borrow the magical pigskin and so heal his sons, but the god refused and Dnan and his brothers died. (SeC S VOYAGES) FABULOU AISO

seems Hisamazngtnle LandoJhomise (Iuusrnenoru the invading Tuatha De Danann, tobeablafi oJ earliervoyages Iost a hand and in consequencehe c: 1920 BY Srrpsrrus, ) IAMES retired for a time Nuada tried to second in a boat made of wood. use a silver replacement without Miraculous events took place due success,until Miach, son of the to the saint's faith. One Easter a healinggod oreru;ECHT,made him whale appearedso that St Brendan ^ hand of flesh and blood and his followers could hold a ser- However, until Nuada was fully vice on its broad back After the ser- recoveredand able to resume his

vice, the whale plunged under the outona set waves and swam away.This great BRIANandhisbrothers world toJufil the across animal was made docile by St pmbusvoyage thesungodLughWith sethy aghttasls, Brendan, as were numerous whirlandfound resource thq sought daringand pools. Even the Devilwas unable to such asan inincible treasures, disurb the saint's serenirywhenhe wondrous which helped pigshin, andhealing showed him the pain of Hell St sword the in tharbattlewtth theDeDanann Brendan also restored to life one of Rno, 1912) the Navigatorwas rhe the monks who were his compan- Fomoni (Iu-usrnqnorvBvSTEPHEN BnfUOnN ions after he had insisted on seeing dtle given to a sixth-century lrish sainr. Indeed, the account of the this forbidden sight for himself On the voyageshe also encounrwo voyages undenaken bY St Brendan was just as PoPular in rhe tered a heathen giant, whom he Middle Ages as the stories told bapdzed, terrifying mice and an about the l(nights of the Round enorrnous sea cat. Finally, they Table. This wonder tale is in the reached the island in St Brendan's {N, son vision. Inhabited by a hermit sameradition as that of BR of Febal, although its direct insPi- clothed in feathers,it was probably ration was the voyageof the Aran the Land of Promise, a place of Having nken holY Chrisdan resunection similar to the hero MAELDUN. orders, Brendan prayed to go on a Celtic otherworlds On his return to Ireland, St Brendan refused to pilgrimage into unknown lands. An angel then showed him an island in smy in his old monastery but moved instead to a retreat near a vision. ln search of this beautiful land, St Brendan set sail twice, first Limerick, where he died. (Seealso in a craft made from shns, and FABULOUSVOYAGES)

r09

Crlrtc

MyrHoLocy

BruCtU was one of the troublemakers of Irish myrh An Ulsrer lord, he arranged a great feast to which he invired all rhe Ulsrer heroes,and ordered thar the hero's portion be given to rhe grearesr among them. Ar which point rhe three great warriors, CUCHUIIINN, CONALL and Laoghaire, sprang up at once and began'fighting each other for the honour In order to settle the argument ir was agreed that a monster should be summoned ro tesr the courage of the three heroes. Briciu did this by challengrng each one ro cut off rhe demon's head, on the understanding that the following day rhar man should then lay his own head on the block. Cuchulainn stepped up

first and beheaded rhe monsrer, whereupon the creaturerose, took up its head and departed.The next day Cuchulainn offered his own head and the monsrer pronounced him the bravestman in lreland. Bntpg seeBRTGTD

BruceNrm ("Highone" or
"Queen") was the chief goddessof the Brigantes,rhe dominant rribe in the north of England before rhe invasiron of the Romans. She was associated with water, war and healing, and also with prosperiry. A widely revered goddess, she was worshipped throughour rhe Celdc world. In Ireland she was known as BRIGID and in France as Brigindo.

BruCtn, somerimes known as Brigit, was a goddessof healing and fertiliry who was believed to assist women in labour. She seems ro have been widely worshipped in Ireland and Britain, where she was mosr likely known as BRIGANTIA. In Irish mythology, she was the wife of BREs, the half-roMout god who briefly led the TUATHADE DANANN after the first batde of Magh Tuireadh against the FIRBOLG. Bres was handsome but also oppressive, like all Fomorii, so his reign was short. Brigid, however, bore him three sons. She often appearsirsan alternative for her mother ANU, which suggesrc rhat rhey were probably different aspects of the same mother goddess.

ST BRIDEisJemedhy angek Jromlonato Bethlehem on theweof Chnst'sbirth to and fostertheinfantChnstCeltic Christian motifs merge in thisscene, while theangek'soanng bq ondthe Jlight Jrame enhances thepwafully spintual efect (Sr Bnroe ByJoHN Dur.rct'r, crNVAs, c 1913 ) St Brigit, or Sr Bride, one of Ireland's patron sainm, may have been a priestess of the goddess Brigid prior to her conversion ro Chrisdaniry. It was said thar she was able to feed animals without reducing the available food for the people, and this also linla herwith Brigid, who was celebraredat rhe Celtic fesdval of Imbolc on the first of February, at the same dme as the ewes came into milk.

rr0

Crlrrc

MvrHoLoGY

son of Row,+w,was a C-runf, Fenian warrior and poet, and a pan oJher hfe. What the sryans gathud cousin of nruruMACC))L, Ieader of on the Lalu oJ the Dragon's Mouth, the FIANNA, the wariorbodyguard Aonghuswmt toJind Caer and win her of the High King of lreland. Cailte, Iwe. ,4s he reachedout to hqhe was also though exceptionally thin, was a tuned into a s'tttan, and thq flan away formidable fighter and is credited togethq. (luusrnenor rvGrrur Srrw,cRD, I995) with killing LIR, the sea god who was rhe father of ueN,qruNAN MAC Bructr seeBRTGTD uR. But it was as a poet that he was most admired, and his most C-AER*as afairymaiden lovedby famous audience was St Patrick. AONGHUS, the Irish love god. Her Possibly after retuming from an father Ethal was one of the TTJATIIA otherworld, Cailte was said to have DE DANANN. Aonghus became uavelled through Ireland recountaware of Caer in a dream and so ing to the saint the legends of the atracted was he to her beaury that hills, woods and lakes that they he fell into a deep sickness.When encountered, and also the great the identity of Caerwas discovered, exploits and batdes of the Fianna. Aonghus immediately asked her father for her hand, but Ethal said itwas not in his power to granr rhis becausehis daughter had taken the form of a swan. It was agreed,however, that Aonghus could ask Caer to mary him but only if he was able to recognize her from among the large flock of swans with whom she lived. When the swans arrived at the Lake of the Dragon's Mouth, Aonghus went to the shore and, recognizing Caer, called out her name. Afterwards Aonghus and Caerwere married.
CAER wu afairy maiilatwho walwd by Aonghus Shechose nlweas a ntanfor

in Irish mytholory, CelqnN, was a misshapen druid of novoRtt origin who was said to have studied sorcery for seventeen years. Queen MEDB of Connachr dispatched Calatin along with his numerous sons to fight the Ulster hero CUCHUIATNN'. All of them had their Ieft hands and right feer missing, but they never missed with their poisoned spears, and Cuchulainn only succeeded in beadng rhem with the assistanceof a Connacht warriorwho disapproved of such a one-sidedcontest. The destruction of the male Caladns did not spell the end of Cuchulainn's troubles, however, for not long afterwards Calatin's wife gave birth to three daughters, who were blinded in one eye, like the Germanic god Odin, so as to leam the magic ars. Soon the three Calatin sisters becamepowerful wirches, and rhey deceived Cuchulainn wrth their spells, and so assisted Queen Medb's invasion of Ulster. When Cuchulainn rode out in his chariot against the invaders, he came acrossthese hideous women cooking a dog next to the road Either

was warnor a Fanian andbard, CAILTE, Bards renowned andlegends Jorhissongs played rolein Celtic a central or tyic poets praising perpetuating themysteies, society, theirleaders and satinzngthar enemies in lreland nghtup Bardic schools flouished av R to thesnenteanth century(Aeu,crr^rr H,+veu c 1890) becausethe dog was his namesake, or becauseit would have been discourteous to refuse a piece of the cooked meat, Cuchulainn stopped and took hold of the dog's shoulder fu a result, his own hand and shoulder withered. Gravely weakened, he sdll advanced with his faithful charioteerIAEG C,tueloT seeHEROTC QUEST5

was rhe god of the C-nUUIOS Remi, a Celtic ribe living in what is now Belgium, although there is evidence that he was also worshipped as a divinity of war in nonhem Brimin and at the town of Camulodunum ("The Fort of Camulos"), modem Colchester,in Essex. The name of the town formed the basis for the mythical city of Camelot. The Romans associated Camulos with their god Mars. He was said to wield an invincible sword. in welsh myrhC-nnnnewC, (son of ology, was the son of BR.aN the sea god, Llp). When Bran sailed with his army to Ireland to avengethe ill-ueatment of his sister BMNWEN by the High Kirg he left Caradawc as MATHOLWCH, chief steward. When news of Bran's death arrived, Caradawcwas overthrown by Caswallon, son of the death god Beli. see cELrrc CennoNEK OTHERWORLDS

castle-city CA IELOT,a mythical named l4,as aftr Camulos, theheart oJArthur's hingdom, theseat of hispou,er, symbol of hisgolden age andhismost belnedhome Itsshining hnightsJrom towers drevr all wer theworfl Partof themystique of yet is its elusivelocation whichhas Camelot
to be found (tlrusrncflor'r BvATAN LEE,lg}q)

tll

thq reached the shoresof lreland. although her husband. at Camlan. which suggests that he was a god of wild animals and the foresr. 1995 ) J^MES CATHBAD (abwe). son of Noah and one of the earliest arrivals in lreland. to escarythe Flood. They sailed for sevenyearsand eventually reached CESAIR. reputedly the ugliest man in the world. He has an impressive pair of antlers. Ceridwen had another equally ugly son. At firsr none of Sir MoDRED's men would fighr Morfan because they thought he was ugly enough to be a devil. CEnNUNNOS was a Celdc god worshipped in both France and Britain. the mother of Cuchulainn.predicted Dardre's traglc destiny ather birth Druids. escapedbychan$nginto a vrlmon. In medieval Ireland the anders of Cemunnos were transferred ro the Devil. He fought with King 112 . DECHTIRE. rhe messenger god and the guide of the dead to the underworld. and Findchaem. mother of CONALL Ceamach. he was fortunate to be advisedby a god to build his own boat. Fintan. in Irish mythology. BY Attxfivpen.judges. To compensarefor his Iooks Ceridwen boiled a cauldron of knowledge for ayear and a day so thatAfagddu could become wise and respected. He is usually depicted sitting cross-leggedand wearing a sleeveless unic and bead necklace. IggS ) CnfHnnD. tecichm and ambassadors Evena htgh hing could not speahat an assanblybeJorehis druid (luusrnenoru By NtcK BE{LE. Cathbad cursed the king and his srronghold at Emain Macha. to watch over the por. set sail withhcrJathq. only later to reincarnate him as TALIESIN.and she set Gwion Bach. After a serar-yearvoyage. thebrothwouWfuA justthree precious drops oJinspiration. Bur Afagddu was denied the prophedc gift when a drop fell on Gwion Bach's finger and he unthinkingly sucked it ln fury. Morfan. whobecame all-hnwing. who was the greatest of all rhe Welsh bards. granddaughta oJNoah. Ceridwen chased and are Gwion Bach. the second son. Carhbad had three children. At the and oJ ayear. Bith. Cesair appears to have guided him to rhis decision as well. the inspireddruid and seer. CfSrun was the daughter of Bith. wasa seer anddruid. the hng of Ulsrer Cathbad prophesied that though ortnoRE would have great beauty she would bring destruction ro Ulsrer He also foretold that the hero CUCHULqINN would have a glorious bur shorr life When King Conchobhar Mac Nessa became cruel rowards rhe end of his reign.favoured son withwidom. In her myrh. Yet neither Cesairnorhq fatho surnvedthe Floodwhenit ngu@ the land. Elbha. Although Bith was denied a place in rhe fuk.agical brarthoprng to endow herill.Crlrrc MyrHoLocy CERIDWEN boika n. CfnlnWEN was a welsh goddess of fertility and the mother of Afagddu. (Iuusrntnol ByJAMEs ALDc{NDEI.bothmaleandfemale. who was also a fearsome warrior. heldhigh ranh in Celtic societyThq were counwllors. Celtic and Hebrew radidons were brough t somewhar u ncomfo rtably together by the monks who wrore down the sagas and who suggested that the first setrlers had reached lreland before the Flood. 1995 ) ARTHUR in his lasr barrle.andadvisor to CONCHOBHAR MACNESSA. rhe morher of NAOISE.ahhough he has also been seenas a god of plenry The Romansidenrified him wirh their god Mercury. and the name Cemunnos means "the Homed One". but these splashed onto thelundoJGvrwn (tuusrnrnoN Bach.

According to the myth. at which Conaire Mor's decapitated head praised him for his senseof dury rl3 .+ru. herbeautywas so remarkposition The"horned one"was alordof able that Eterscel. But hispwr. Buachallapassedoff as the son of Fintan saved himself by changing Eterscel The one instrucrion rhat into a salmon. Cliodhna was put into a magic sleep by the sea god ivt. which said that an obscurewoman a strpent. would bring about his own downSince ConaireMorwas reluctant to fall. the man. he sent one of his companionsto fetch some water On retuming. Etersceldied and the right of FoMoNr and ruente DE DANANN. he came punish severely those who rook to a roadsidehostel where he was greetedby three strangehorsemen. [t was said that her rhree walhng along the road to Tara with magical birds could sing the sick ro a sling in his hand sleepand cure them. the baby girl was savedby rwo hnd-hearted servants. CLIODHNA to livewith whose clothes. who then sent a wave to pull her back ro rhe [^andof Promise. but all the water had now been used When a druid accompanying the rebels laid a spell of thirst on the High King. the god. der gradually drew the trish back to Conaire Mor soon realizedrhar this their old habit of cartle-raiding. 1910 ) in peace.When she beasts. while Ciabhan went hundng inland. successionwas raised in Tara.one of the court would MIIESIUS. who had magnificenr Ireland. who camefrom Spainand have a spell of truth sung over him brought human rule to the island as he slept The man rhe courtier dreamed abour would then be the in Irish mythology. Mor was luredby hisenemies into. bodies fledto Glandore hermortallwer. weapons. is typically depicted in alotus grew up. The birds shed their fearhersand artacked rhe charioteer as warriors But one of the birdlike fighters. shednfts bach toJairyland The Wave oJCliodhna is escapefrom the place to which you still one oJ the threegreat waves oJlreland have come. GTLDED on the night before the wedding.demonstrating in theother would bear him a famousson. Conaire Mor would be made High Itng part in the growing disorder. He inrroduced himself as his father Nemglan and CONAIRE MORwas burdenedby more (taboos) reminded the young man rhar he geis than anyother l'ishwarlord must never cast stones ar birds for Violation oJgeisled to misJortune or death they were his own kin As a andmarhed turning-point a traglc in the penance. CONrunf MOn was a High King of Ireland He was the son of a cowherd's foster-daughter named Mess Buachallaand the bird god NEMGIANHis motherwas acrually At this time Conaire Mor was some distance from Tara As he headed back ro rhe palace in his chariot. but the rest of Bith's Nemglan told Mess Buachalla to famrly drowned This myth is lqrown give to their child was rhar he was as the first invasion of lreland.Nemglan told his son to hero's hfe Despite hiswisdom.but sea Manannan Mac Lir. the So it was that Conaire Mor was country soon slid back into clan received atTaraas the High Kirg.CeITIc MyrHoLoGY the daughter of Etain Oig and CORMAC king of Ulsrer. warfare Evenually. (Gurvorsnup ccuLDRoN. never to hll a bird. decided to manryher He creatures such a thestagboar andlion was also persuadedby a prophecy In onehandhe closps awarior'storc. 1995 take in rheir claws " The same ) night a rebel force surrounded the hostel and attacked Three dmes the building caught fire and three times the flames were brought under control. beauty. and horseswere all red A hideous Ciabhan.a yourh with wonderful curling lock One day on the shore near Cork. Conaire walk naked along the road to Tara. the who were all more or less super. can)nng only his sling If he did hisgeis breahing one byone this. where Cesairwas married plumage. While on campaign. of the Flood engulfed the land. From this union was When the rising warers bom Conaire Mor. whom Mess ro FINTAN. sent a great wave to old woman told Conaire Mor rhar scoopher up and bnngher home Here. next High King In rhe succession CltOnHNA. protected Conaire Mor.eNNAN MACLIR. during his stay in the hostel "neither skin nor flesh of you wrll lulled to sleepbyJairy music. Subsequentinvasionswere by the When Conaire Morwas a young PARTHOLONand Nemed. was an otherworld goddess of dream a naked man was revealed. who was more handsome than the rest. srLVE& c 1008C) Mess Buachallaslept with the god Nemglan.Irish capital It was agreedto follow natural in nature The final invasion the ancient custom of the dream of lreland was by the sons of After a feast. the High Kirg Peaceand prosperity ar first marked had to forgo the ways of peaceand his reign. who could not bring themselvesto carry out the king's order lnstead they gave Mess CERI\TUNNOS.the High King of sunoundedw animak andishere wild Ireland. and promised ro rule lreland (luusrnrnoru ny SrrpHrru Rao. savewhat rhe birds will (Irrusrnenor ByJAMES Ar-H( rvorn. However. Cormac wztsso disappointed not to have a son that he ordered Mess Buachallato be thrown into a pit. the warrior saw that the fight was over and Conaire Mor's severedhead lay on the floor So he poured the warer into the king's head. although the lure of plunbreak his promise to his farher. a Celtichunter godoJ Buachallato a cowherd. a flock of birds descended upon him Theyhad such wonderful plumage rhat Conaire Mor forgot the raboo about hlling birds and got out his sling. Cliodhna was passionatelyin love with a mortal named Ciabhan.

c i300 ) . Some lived as hermits in the wilderness.opposingArthur.CTITIC MYTHoLoGY SAGES AND SEERS HE SPIRITUAL SEERS and shamans of Celtic myth were endowed wirh extraordinary gifts of proph ecy. the plan for Camelot and the stone'ing at Stonehenge He leamt his craft from a master. and acted as intermediaries between the realms of the living and the dead. she is a winter goddess of darhness and death.portrayedhere as anhistonan recordingthedeedsoJ Arthur's ragn. such as Morgan. but other inspired druids Amairgen. Bleise. wisdom and healing. as reportedby Merlin (MeruuscRrpr rllusrunoN. MoRcaru Ln Fev (abovenght). theLord of summer Sherorcals the redeemingaspectof her characterin her role as sovereign healeroJ Avalon and guardian of Arthur's body in death (Iuusrnarroru rv srueRr Lrntqoun. Taliesin and Cathbad feature in Celtic myths as prophetic bards and counsellors [o clan chiefs and kings. used their supernatural gifts ro bewitch and rnanipulate mortals for their own ends. crediteduth the design of the Round Table. the celtic symboloJpeaceand plenty A glfted sorceress. while remaining powerful in Cekic society. berween rhe visible world of men and the invisible otherworld. sheis oJten portrayed as a darh soul. but always with wisdom Merlin was alsoa peerless sage.bears an apple bough. a realm of wondrous spints. Most famous of all was Arrhur's wise counsellor. QueenoJ Avalon. some dark sorceresses. Although on the whole helpful to rnortals. thwartingArthur and manipulatingheroes At a deeperlevel.Merltn counselledthe younghing sometimes sternlyand sometimes gently.the otherworldlyIsleof Apples. Merlin. Nimue or the Calatihs.1994 ) Mrnrtru (ngh) is best rememberedas the fatherly and spiitual guardian of Arthur A wise seer.They enjoyed a profound rapport with narural and supernatural forces.

seven she managed to lurehtm tnto her Chapel Penlous and there shetned all the methods she hnewto inspire hts love Jor her But tt was to no avatlbecause the steadJa st and loyal hnight loved onewomanonly. druids on a snowyhill celebrate the wintu sokticeby gathmngabough oJ mistletoe.learningthe mystmesand lnws by heart Hqe.he was completely untouched lry Hellawes'loveand evenher magcal craJt Thesorceress that he Jinallyreahzed would ne.theJair Guinnere .cwEs helow) was a sorceress in theArthunan mythswho had sether heart on the noblehnight Sv I-ancelot. Arthur'squeen.whtchwas to collectheahngtalismans Str Jor thewoundedlzntght Meliot When l-ancelot left wrththetahsmans. SruARr 1991) lI5 . a propheticpoet and shamanistic seer. and he had come to thechapel with but one missron tn mtnd. whom shehad loved Jor some from aJar years Eventually.CTITIC MyTHoLoGY Hrrr.c 1870) Dnurps (abwe) heldbothpoliticaland sptntual power in Celtrc society and wereglfted not only as shamans and seers but alsoas legaland moral advisors Druids underwenta long apprenticeshtp oJat leasttwaty years.rs.was$Jtedwrth all-seeingwisdom aftu consuming a "geal" oJ inspiration from Ceidwen's cauAron Wales'sgreatestbard.thebird oJtenchosenbyshamans on their spirirJlighu or trance )ournqs to the othenrorld The goW nimbus symbolkes eagJe's Taliesin'sradiant btOttt (tuusrntnoN By Lrnt4onN.ter lwe her and she dtedoJabrohenheart (lr-r-usrnarroru BY AuBREY BFARDSLEY. 1890 ) Tnueslru QeJt).qNv. cutwtth the sacred goWatsichlebornebythe DRUTDS BRTNGTNG lNrHEMrsrLEroE By Joranost druid Ctae C HENRY AND E A HoRNED. heJoretold the comingoJthe Saxons and the oppression oJthe Cy^ry as well as his own death He appearshereas an eagle. c.

Fergus Mac Roth. The ball lodged in the hng's skull. gave up his passion. Kitg Conchobhar fell deeply in love with DEIRDRE. but when the boy grasped his a thq splinteredin his hand.but he was doomed becausehe had offended After the war goddess MoRRIGAN. She was the daughter of an Ulster chieftain. Too proud to announce his own identity when challenged by Cuchulainn. of Connacht When Queen MEDB invaded Ulster. Connla. Some yearslater Conchobhar Mac Nessagot into arageand the "brain ball" causedhis death. to Ukterto Whenhewent hisJather hemet thelocalheroes. the people of Ulster simply refused to let N'Inc Nnssn. and his doctors advised him to avoid any strenous exerciseand excitement. theill-starcdson to a stranger grm up in Slye. the warriors of Ulster were stined by Conall to wreak bloody revenge. and his head and sword-hand cut offby the enemy. Caemach ("of the Victories"). avenged Cuchulainn's one. When her husband died shonly after the wedding. not resist fighting the young stranger himself. offered his servicesto Ulster's enemiesand a long war ensued. was the doomed son of the great Ulster hero CUCHUL{INN. Fromthe oneby slayinghishillm MacDa Tho. on the eve conceived Conchobhar CONCHOBHAR 1\4ACNESSA.I. CoNcnoBHAR in Irish mythology. Conall went on to ravage the whole of Ireland as he punished Queen Medb's allies one by one. was the foster-brother of the Ulster hero CUCHUI-. CONnlL. Just like his father. It was the famous "brain ball" made by Conall out of the brains of a slain Leinster king. When he left. his iswelcomedby weapon Conallhere dun in MacDa Tho's at aJeast lJlsterman (lrrusrn 1910 Pen. By the time Deirdre grew up. An ambitious and Nessa woman. somerimesknown as CONU. spears.grantedaffns to theyoung Cuchulainn.whO WAS SOMCTiMES called Derdriu ("of the Sorrows"). according to one tradition. 1995) ALH< By IAMES aveteran CONALLoJtheVictones. The terrible combat only of Aorfa and CONI-AI. though CATHBAD Deirdre would be the most beautiful woman in lreland and would marry a king. Cuchulainn faced her army single-handed. refused his advances and eloped with a handsome young warrior But the hng never named NAolSE. and at herbinh the druid had wamed that.{INNAs children. ahigh hingof lreland. But she would onlY agree to become his wife on the condidon that he would first let her son Conchobhar rule as king of Ulster for a year. challarye combat andwa in single Cuchulainn toolate. Later. a local beaury who. son hilled Recogntanghis wrthgnef . brainof oneoJhis alethal hemade a maglcbrainball. was an Ulster He was the son of Fachtna Fathach and rurssa. king. wu wemvhelmed Cuchulainn (luusrnerolr rvorn. and so evenually he had Naoise hlled and was married to Deirdre. she would be the cause of death and destruction throughout the land. Cuchulainn had been killed. his stcmp No chanotshatteredbeneath weaponswithstoodthehero's mighty grasp untilhewas glventhehing's own arrns (Iu-usrnrnoru fulo. Conchobhar was himself hlled by a magrcslingshot. Although Cuchulainn was impressed by sword-play that matched his own. death by warlord. Nessa was courted by his half-brother and successor. Conlai was quick to anger and soon overCuchulainn's fostercame CONALL. and she in disgust t16 .FERGUS MAC R?TH. nrarct. which the hero just managed to win by the use of cunning. According to one Irish tradition. Cuchulainn hadvisited the l-and of Shadows in order to challenge the warrior woman AOIFAto single combat. appalled by Conchobhar's behaviour. Cuchulainn. She found her situation so intolerable that she committed suicide by throwing herself from a speeding chariot.CTITIC MYTHOLOGY in Irish mythology. tnorBY STEPHEN ) of her royal marriage through a secret aflairwith a druid. Conlai accepted the possibility of death and drew his sword.l9l0) avSrrpnrru Conchobhar step down. Although he was maried. In doing so he eamed his title. they became lovers and Conlai was conceived. where he challenged the local heroes to combat. After the fight. victims. Cuchulainn gave Aoifa a gold ring. they swore that if either was hlled first the other would avengehim. Conchobharwas an old man. Yearslater Conlai wore this ring on a visit to Ulster. brother Despite the misgivings of Cuchulainn could his wife EMER. he lost his temper the moment Conlai cut off one of his locks of hair. determined instructed her son how to be a great ruler so that when the dme arrived for Fergus Mac Roth to retum to the throne. They caught up with Queen Medb's army and Conall slew those who had killed his foster-brother.

The repumtion of the High King remained so strong that Iater the Insh Chnstians also adopted him.he warmly welcomedSt Patnch at hts court (Iuusrmnoru nvleurs Ar-rx. These gods and goddesses invited Cormac Mac Art to their home in the othenvorld. but he set out anyway and on the joumey he fell into a deep magrc sleep and was slain by a group of warriors. Not Ulster ruIer FERGUS until he receivedan invitation from his father Conchobhar. It was claimed that Cormac Mac Art leamed of the Christian faith before it was actually preached in Ireland by St Patrick. returninghome afta hulongvoluntary acile. and Creidhne crafted rivets that flew into place and bonded at once. raped the niece of Aonghus of the Tenible Spear In the ensuing fight.did he consider retuming home. when the De Danann finally defeated the FOMORII. He was the most famous of the earlyrulers of Ireland. Cellach was slain and Cormac lost an eye. I995 ) CORMAC IVf{CARTS (abwe) ragn was dtstingushedbypeaceandplmty A wr. and of his going into volunmry exile with the deposed MACROTH. sentby theharpkt. canied the dyrng Conlai to his house and afterwards buried his forgotten son.e and good man. and gavehima anrative applebranch In tunewtth Chnsttan hindness. Cellach. On his own death Cormat Mac An had to hand back this incredible talisman One of Cormac's sons. the smith god. in rnenge for Cormac's afiair wtthhts Ufe (IrusrnenorayNrcx Baqr-e. CORMAC @elow). a druidess had wamed Cormac that if he went back to Ulster he would be killed.CTITIC MyTHoLoGY endedwhen Cuchulainn drove his spear through Conlai's stomach. During the second battle of Magh Tuireadh.stoppedhya roaikrde hostelwhqe he wa lulled n sleep by the soft notesof aharp DeJarceless in hrs enchantedsleep. he wa Jnoured by the Tuatha De Danann who inited him to tharhiddnworld. was the goldsmirh of CnnnnNE the TUATI]ADE DANANTV and the brorher of cotgHNIU. Luchtar carved a handle in a flash.he wu slain by assdssins. As a High King could have no imperfection Cormac had to step down and his son Cairbe took his place. where they gave him wonderful presens. Cormac Mac Art was the Irish Solomon. However. One of these was a silver branch that bore golden apples. a wise and powerful king. His wisdom seems DE to have impressed the TUATFIA DANANN. when the dF tg hng had nominated Cormac as his successor. Only then did Cuchulainn notice on his young opponent's finger the gold ring he had given to Aoifa. the three brothers could be seen on the battlefield making and repairing spears with magical speed As Goibhniu fashioned a blade with three blows of his hammer. and Luchtar. Cratfttne.the husband of DEIRDM.al. Conuec Mec Anrwas rhe High King of Ireland during the period that FINNMACCOOL led the Fenian warrior band. overwhelmed with remorse and grief. Cuchulainn.iprn 1995 ) tl7 . was the son of rhe COnUeC MAC Ulster hrg CONCHOBHAR An Irish myth tells of his NESSA. the carpenter. distasteat his father's treacheryin hlling NAOISE. whose wife had fallen in love with Cormac. with the result that he ordered that he should not be buried at the royal cemetery by the River Boyne becauseof its pagan associadons. his reign being tentadvely dated from 227 to 266. The atmckwas said to have been arranged by a jealous husband. and when shaken produced music that could cure the sickandwounded. who was well served by the brave exploits of Finn MacCool.

CrlTrc MvrHoLocY RoTH. Thus was the young hero tamed after his first tasteof blood. and from the top of his head arosea thick coiumn of dark blood Iike the mast of a ship. "I care not portrait. the other stood out huge and red on his cheek. Setanta Sualtam Mac Roth was so pleased to have his wife home again that when the boy was bom he accepredhim as his own child As a youth. Their host had now lost a faithful guardian.irg on Conlai's finger revealed too late that he was Cuchulainn's own offpsring Cuchulainn's mother was DECHTIRE. a larger-than-life fighter whose bouts of [emper often causedgrief to himself and others Anger certainly made him slay his son CoNtAI.so a tragic fight ensued A gold . one eye receded into his head. "gaced with the bleeding headsof his enemies". the daughter of Fogall. everyday state of mind Cuchulainn was a favourite of womenfolk But he fell in love wrth EMER.tnves. the daughter of the druid )ATHBAD.1912 ) in trish myrhCUcHUIAINN. arriving late at the gate of a house where King Cochobhar Mac Nessa was being entertained by the Ulster smith CULANN.and with the battlefrenry still upon him. but the last vat became only very hot. the stronghold of the Ulster kings. In his calm. it was decided that henceforth Setantawould be known as Cuchulainn ("the Hound of Culann") Even though Cathbad wamed that anyone going to battle for the first time on a cermin day was destined for a short life. his hair bristled like hawthom. Cuchulainn could nor wait to dealwith Ulster's enemiesand he soon tookup aITIls against three semi-divine wariors named Foill. Lugh kept Dechtire there for his own pleasure for three years When Dechtire and her women retumed to Emain Macha. His body trembled violently. but just it was not obvrous to everyone how strong and brave he was until he hlled an enorrnoushound with his bare hands One day. ology. he soonoutstipped in arms and might Ahhoughsmall. when the young man ravelled from the [^and of Shadows to visit Ulster The fifteen-year-old warrior was Cuchulainn's son by the wamor-princess AOIFANeither father nor son would identifi themselves. pointed out that Cuchulainn had yet to esrablishhis reputation as a warrior and suggestedthat he should go and leam CUCHUIAINN. which he inheited JromhisJatherthe sungod Lugh (LLusmencr| nvSrrpurru Rno. who was the brother of the MAC deposed Ulster ruler FERGUS 1r8 . Retuming to Emain Macha in his chariot.Dechtire along with fifty of her kinswomen flew to the otherworld in the form of a flock of birds During the wedding feastshe had swallowed a fly and dreamed as a result of the sun god LIJGH. so Setantaoffered to take the hound's place while a replacement was found When Culann thanked the young warrior but declined his offer. aswell as their numerous followers.an advisor to the NE55A It Kirg CONCHOBHARMAC was Cathbad who foretold that Cuchulainn would become agreat warrior but die young Shortly after her marriage to SUALTAMMAC ROTH. In this combat Cuchulainn displayed for the first dme the dreadful shape of his battle-frenzy. the young hero was attackedby the ferociousguard dog and only savedhimself by dashing out its brains on one of the gate's pillars. c. all of whom he hlled. who told her ro make this joumey. for her mother was a daughter of rhe god eorucHUS In fact.theInshAchilles. a man's head could fit into his jaw. Cuchulainn was only stopped from circling the defencesand screamingfor a fight through a ploy of the Ulster queen Mughain She led out of Emain Macha some hundred and fifty naked women carrying three vats of cold water An embarrassed or amazed Cuchulainn was swiftly womanhandled into the vats The first one burst is sides The second boiled furiously. was the champion warrior o[ Ulster His name means "the Hound of Culann". l9l3) CUCHUIAINN as a youngsterlivedat the court of the High King wherehe whom trained with other sonsoJchieJtains.he glowedwith an inner divinelight and warmth. Cathbad reassured his son-in-law by sapng that Dechtire had merely gone to visit her otherworld relations. Setanta quickly leamed the wavs of the warrior. a wrly chieftain whose castlewas close to Dublin Cuchulainn asked for Emer's hand but Fogall. Dechdrewas expectingLugh's son. his heels and calves appearedin front. in the form of brightly coloured birds. this insciption beneath and though llastbuta dayiJmyname " area pwer Jorater myJame (CucHuretrll ByJoHN DuNcAN. although he was usually called the Hound of Ulster Cuchulainn was the lnsh Achilles. inhisbneJ mighty deeds many performd qesreflect yearsThehero's dreamy in the which is expressed hrsidealism. who was againstthe match. Fannell and Tuachell. with a drop of blood at the end of each single hair.

but she was derermined to invade and she also had three advantages Firsr. Cuchulainn had lost the oJ to theIsle CUCHUIAINNjourneyed martial arts Onthe to trainin the Sltye aflaming metamanwhogavehim Islehe thedeadly himthrough toguide wheel thesun was his guide qngnire The Jather. brother.lashedhimselfto a pillar and died onhisfeet At theend a crw settledonhis shouher. the greathero had made bitter enemies of rhe CATATIN family. but Ulster wePt for the lossof their champion Indeed. also played a part in gathering rebei'lious Ulstermen and others from many parts of Ireland to Queen Medb's side.r. and the dazed warriors were able ro respond to SualtamMac Roth's call to arms But their help came too iate for on all sidesbY Cuchulainn Pressed his enemies. which was a single-handed defence of Ulster against the invading army ol Queen MEDB of Connacht The main reason fo'r this large-scale cattle raid was a famous brown bull which was kept in Cuailgne But the tyrannical ruler of Ulsrer. L-aeg. One prophecy told the queen that there would be "crimson and red" upon her forces becauseof Cuchulainn's prowess. Domhall told Cuchulainn rhat his best trainer in arms would awanior-pnncess in be SCATIIACH. (Tnr Dr.they cast a spell on Cuchulainn which withered a shoulder and a hand Second. during which Fogall leapt to his death escapingthe hero Acclaimed as the champion of Ireland in a beheading contest. Medb attacked when Ulster's heroes were laid low by MACHA's curse. leavinghis bodY for the carrion birds Conall. conceiving the unfortunate Conlai Cuchulainn finally retumed to Fogall's stronghold and claimed Emer.until the effects of Macha's curse had almost worn off.then Cuchulainn himself suffereda temble stomach wound that even Lugh could not heal Finally. low with a spear. signtfyingdeath This memonal rymbolkes all thosewho Jought Jor lish oFcucHUtArNN indqendarce.rrn BY O SHEPP RD. Medb's forcesby the use of clever racticsand lighrning attacks. in the form of a crow. sRoNzt.. 1912 Rno. King Conchobhar Mac Nessa. av Srrpnrru ) Lugh(Iuusrnqrt. managed to recover the missing parts.the Ulster chamPion was overcometn spire of aid from his divine father. and she wamed him without success not to challenge her sister Aoifa But Cuchulainn beat Aoifa by cunning. and afterwards she became his mistress. mortally woundedin hsJinal combatbut determinedto ftght to the end. the Land of Shadows So he travelled to this mysterious land and served Scathach She taught the young hero his famousbattle leap. whose daughterswere wrtches Just pnor to his last stand along with his faithful charioreerIAEG. rhe sun god Lugh was laid His only companion. his foster- CUCHUIAINN." god. Cuchulainn ded himself ro an upright stone in order to light dll his last breath As soon as he died Morrigan. and became the lover of her daughter Scathachseemsto have UATHACH fearedfor the saferyof Cuchulainn. 1916 ) from the Scottish champion Domhall. support of the goddessMORRIGAN. a skill he was to need dearly in his last campaign. but only after a heated battle wrth Fogall and his warriors. ROMANCE) CELTIC I19 . settled on his shoulder and his enemies cut off his head and right hand. Cuchulainn was soon unbeatable in combat. and were unable to fight for five days and nights Finally.Crlrtc MYrHoLocY For a year and a day Cuchuiainn was taught by Scathach. so widespreadwas Cuchulainn's because he had rejected her fame that his exploits inlluenced passionare advances Yet he still the developmenr of the Arthunan managed to conduct a successful myths in Britain and France (See single-handed defence and was able to slow the advanceof Queen also MAGICAND ENCHANTMENT.

Yspaddaden's lids needed to be levered up with supports in order for him to see and theLllster smith. but they managed on each occasion to catch it and throw it back. andbeautiful s booty carrying offthehing' daughter. ology.. who was born after his father's death. seemed less dreadful once Culhwch found Olwen. arives at Afthur's court. was an Ulster smith who was thought to be a reincamation of the MAc tlR It was sea god MANANNAN his enormous guardian dog that young Semnta hlled with his bare hands. the Welsh glant did not favour the idea of his daughter marrying a man. then killed Yspaddaden and married Olwen. Culhwch successfully completed these trials. seehing help and counsel ThisVictoian painting a medievalmood.1912) on comrade.the daughter of the giant Yspaddaden. a task which took over a year.w<no.With the assistance of KingArthur's men and a couple of divine allies. Thereafterthe young man "the was known as CIJCHUL{INN. more commonly known as FINNMACCOOL. Culhwch's nexl problem was how to persuade her giant father to agree ro the match. a druid. onhis questJor Olwen. gaze in theHighKingConchobhar who Cuchulainn amazement at theyoung when hound outnght slanCulann' sJierce thehero thegeat guard doghad attached at the gateTo compansate Jorhillinghis offoedto talu itsplace hound.Cuchulninn. CUufNN. Hound of Culann". At intewiews held on successivedays Yspaddaden threw a poisoned spear at Culhwch and his companions.tohes hero as a courtlyhunterJrom the Ageof Chivalry The surlystovard couldbe I(qt (xrr-nwvcn. one k"ryhtt. upto hisarms pointbeatat andbuned Blathnat offwrth while galloped Cu Roi (luusrnnnoru At-Ex rvpen. rHEKfNG's ayAnrnrrn ) SoN I20 . Arthur's brusque seneschal. (Seealso HERoIcQUESTS) (whose name means Cuuel "sky") was the father of the Fenian hero Finn Mac Cumal. This fate.Celrrc MvrHoLocY in lrish myrhology. BlnthnatWen theheroes fell qt one Cuchulcinnwas outwq thegtrrl.portrayingthe e. CU ROt andhis raided InisTerFalga. however. Yspaddaden agreed to the marriage on condition that Culhwch perform a whole seriesof difficult tasks. in welsh mythCUtnwCn. When Culhwch finally put out one of the giant's eyeswith a retum throw. onewiWescapade. I 995 By ) IAMES Culhwch AIso like Balor. The three CULIIWCH (nght). His stepof KingARTHUR's mother hated Culhwch so much that she placed a curse on him that he could marry only OLWEN.Cuchulainn (tllusrncfloN sv SrEprer. It was King Cu Roi who transformed himself into IJATH. was the son of Cildydd. in order to choose the champion of lreland. c 1940 Grsxrl. Cumal was also a renowned Ieader of the FIANNAand chief of the CIan Bascna. who had been enraged when Cumal eloped with his daughter. Like the lrish eyeCyclops BALoR.He was killed by Jadhg. the dreadful giant. CUHNN below). Cu Rot (whose name means "hound of Roi") was a Munster hng. Culann was angry about this so Setantaoffered to become his hound until a new one was trained.r Pe'r:. for they fell deeply in love.

Sir Cynon did as he was instructed and a Black l(night appearedto the sound of thunder and the singing of magic birds. Dagda led the Tuatha De Danann on the battlefield. He was in fact rhe grear god of Irish mythology. This Fomoriilike fighter. Although she expressedher love for Cuchulainn. Over the centuries these powerful deities were gradually transformed into fairies . a beautiful woman. during a truce at the time of the NewYear festival. c lN BC ) the sacredrite that was performed by a Sumerianruler and a priesress in Mesopotamia. is regardedby someto be Dagda. in a distorted form. father of the gods. appeared b rragc Although returndhome to tellthe Cynon onfoot tnb. owneda wondrouscauldron of plenty and a double-edged maglc club. (Seealso WONDROUS CAULDRONS) DANA. battles warnorwho theBlnch Knight. Yet he was also associatedwith abundance. Cu Roi took her to his casrle in Munster. The story may recall. and was usually depicted as a man in rustic clorhes dragging an enorrnous club on wheels. When Cuchulainn laid siege to the stronghold. Like an all-powerful chiefrain. pigs and goats.Just as rhe Fomorii had retrearedbenearh the waves. CYNON. ordered Cynon to go ro a founuin and fill with water a silver bowl that he would find there . enough for fifry men. flour.There they made for him a ponidge of milk. Dugduwasbelieved to be wise. being able to sadsff the hunger of everybody by means of an inexhaustible cauldron. full of knowledge and well versed in rhe magic arts He was a chief of rhe TUATHADE DANANN Dagda was a grear fighter and the lover of tr. Cuchulainn's fosterbrother coNALL. and cucuulAlNN himself . caried on wheels Thisbronzerelief of aweful Celticdaty. which only Cuchulainn had enough courage to go through with. ir was Dagda who was held in the grearesr respect. With one end of this weapon he could slay his enemies and with the other he could resrore the dead rc life. according ro a late Anhurian myth. the ancesrors of rhe present-dayIrish To Dagda fell the imporunr msk of setding the defeatedTuarha De Danann underground. doubtless a cousin of the violent and misshapen Irish sea gods. Cu Roi and Cuchulainn carried off ntlruNer. a holy marriage between a chieftain and a maiden at the beginning of each year: similar to DANA. which he readily did with a huge wooden ladle "so big that a man and a woman could have slept together in it" This test tumed Dagda remporarilyinto a grossold man. slaying all rhosewho dared to confront him.a raceof wonderJul. This union was meant to ensure prosperity.anArthurunhero. Sir with CLNON. bur ir did not prevent him from making love to a Fomorii girl. strength and peace. 121 . That Dagda took great pleasure in eating was apparent. wtth the wheel rymbohzng his treasures (culoesrnup CAULDRoN. beautiful but often vulnerable godswho lived in the sparhlingotherworld Here.thegreat mothr goddess. and thusinspired to set Owain outon quat. was the goddess atter whom the TUATHA DEDANANN were named "the people of the goddessDana". fat.were invited by Cu Roi to a beheading contesr. thqr gather to hear thepoignant song oJ Lir's children.his bitter enemies. so the vanquished De Danann disappearedunderground. gave her nameto the TuathaDe Danann. when just before rhe second batde of Magh Tuireadh he visited rhe camp of the F2MORII. and bearing a Iargewooden club. who promised to use her magic on behalf of the Tuarha De Danann. ctLDED stLvER.Crlrrc MYrHoLocy contenders for the championship Laoghaire. and then to throw the water against a marble slab. 1912 ) DAGDA.loRRlcnN.The bones of his enemies were described as "hailstones under horses' hooves" when he wielded his mighty club.the war goddess.was a knight who encountered a black man with one foot and one eye. DnCOn means "the good god". I-ater. a mysteious deJeated. ill-staned godswho were tumed into swans (llrusrnerroru aySrrpHrl Rrlo. On pain of dearh Dagda was ordered by the Fomorii ro consume this massive meal.the bean sidhe or BANSHEES of lrish folklore. Although the evenrualdefeat of the Fomorii at the second battle of Magh Tuireadh was really due ro the sun god rucH.Years lntr Cynon htsmemorable retracdhissteps of awain in search (luusnsnoN nv H Tnrluan 1920) Qynon then foughr his mysterious opponent but was defeared. even after the Tuatha De Danann were in their tum overthrown by the sons of MILESIUS.wth awheel. anorher name for ANU. Blathnat betrayed Cu Roi by showing how the place could be entered.

he had charge of a spring whose waters restored the the dy. She was a daughter of Maga. she threw herself from his speeding chariot and smashed her brains out on a rock From each of the graves of Naoise and Deirdre grew a pine. Cecht's son Miach had made him a new hand of flesh and blood. Nuadawas felt to be no longerfit to who was be a war leader and BRES. The next moming she showed them her new-bom son. DTNNUUID UA DUIBHNE. When her father left her on the shore as a tribute for the FOMORII. Cuchulainn brought none of this. which eventually interrwined and grew as a single tree was the lrish god CnCnf DnN of healing Itwas said thatwith his daughter Airmid. a gift to Ulster. It seemed that Diarmuid and Grainne would settle down to a contented famrly life and they had several children.the birds at night as they rested. as well as telling of how beautiful she would become. even rumed herself into a swan However. the child of the love godAoNGHUsand of the druid ."May myheartnotbreah today for oJour ewryday softclwsare the sea-tides or strong but I am soffM itself. and that the love spot she put on his forehead would make him inesistible to women. years laterwrththeshining three wrthhera $ft from brought Lugh Dechtire -her child. the worst being GMINNE. the Fenian commander. that was retumed when Diarmuid receivedthe famous love spot as a young Fenian warrior One night. she NE55Awished to marry her. a peacewas grudgrngly made. she was rescued by the Ulster hero and fell in love with CIICHULAINN grew up. unaware of the bird's though he was already advanced in years. the capital of Ulster.ATHBAD. When she Ulster on the understanding that they would come ro no harm. It was decided. But Diarmuid's own desdnywas about to catch uP with him. For sixteen years the Fenians Pursued them until. Grainne was betrothed to FINN LIACCOOL. but she wanted Diarmuid and forced him to elope with her. Ieadcr Of thc TI]ATIL4 Iost his hand fighdng the FIRBoLG at the first battle of Magh Tuireadh. at the request of the hng and the love god. but were unable to hit any of rhem. DnCnnRE. In order to follow him. There a beautiful young woman received them but chose to sleep only with Diarmuid She told him that she was Youth. " (Detnom Durvcrtl. but Deirdre would have true identiry. who haddisappeared DECHTIRE. however. day.g gods to life. yearsin their voluntary exile. a fly flew into her cup during the wedding feasr and she swallowed it. So it was rhat rhe warriors came upon Dechtire. therefore. herwomen and Lugh sleepingin a hut on a site renowned for its magical propenies. Apparently the god of healing grew jealous of his son's medical skills and so killed him. Dian Cecht gave him a silver hand. c 1900) DEIRDRE gievesfor thedeath of hn ed Ncoiseand his brothers.g. Deirdre remained sad and kept her disunce flrom the ki. fu a consequence. to surpnse.cucuul. Cuchulainn l)kter'sgreatest became (llrusrn crtoN av G DrNn cu.CTITIC MyTHOLOGY in Irish mythology.advisor to NESSA of King CONCHOBHARMAC Ulster. shesanghu pitiable Iament. but she told her captors that she was too ill to be able to travel for another day. they bur now theywere linked byblood were tricked into retuming to and so he could not marry her. Df tROne was the cause of Ulster's sorrows.the passionatedaughter of High King C)NMACMAC ARr. She fell into a deep sleep and dreamed that the sun god LUGHinsisted that she and fifty of her kinswomen follow him to the otherworld as a flock of birds.His mortal father gavehim to the god as a child. The Ulstermen went after them with slings. DE DANANN. who Setanta.returned onhq wedding mysteriously sungod. When Conchobhar was told of of this he sent for Dechtire at once. a grft was the DTNBNORGAILLE daughter of a ruler of Lochlann. King CONCHOBHARMAC him. to the so Nuada was restored once Dian leadership. Three years later a flock of brightly coloured birds reappeared at Emain Macha. the otherworld hqo.{INN. His mortal father had hlled his brother at binh because L22 . c 1912 BYJoHN ) rnr Sonnows half novoRII. was the mother of. Shepersuaded NAolsE her down with a sling-shot She retumed to human form and he and his brothers to run away with her to Alba After living for many sucked the stone out of the wound. Diarmuid and three companions took shelterin a small hut in a wood. thus earning him the title Nuada "of the Silver Hand" ImPressed though the Tuatha De Danann were by Dian Cecht's handiwork.Diarmuid's life was almost continuously troubled bY desperatewomen. When Dechtire married iUALTAMMAC RorH. was the foster-sonof the lrish love god eorucHUS.according to lrish mythology The drui d cetuneo foretold this before she was bom. But Conchobhar arranged to have Naoise killed and then forced Deirdre to agree to marry him.slain by belav the jealous KingConchobhar Over the brothers'grave. Once married. when out hunting. took his place.with the result that he handed her over to the killer of Naoise Rather than sleep with this man. After NUADA. or Diarmuid "of the Love Spot". But and became very Bres was a tpant unpopular..

Roc revived the infant as a magic boar and told ir ro bring Diarmuid ro his dearh When hundng one daywirh Cormac Mac Art and Finn MacCool. Gilvaerhwy and ruupp I23 . his slingshot had no impacr on rhe charging boar's head and his sword broke in two. was responsible for rhe pregnancy.was hilledby aboar. She had many children. and. Dana ThisfemaleJigure. and by the time the other hunters amved on the scene.thehero waslwedby women oftenagainst his will. lgl2 ) DON was the Welsh equivalenr of rhe Irish mother goddess DANA and was the daughter of Mathonwy.s ds popular as her lnsh countapart. Roc. sySrrpar i9l2 ) DON below).thE senta mysterious warior to challenge him ashe dranhfrom theirforest well luusrnenoN / Rno. the god of death.lihe Adonis.Airmid lts miraclewaterscured the sichand restored thedead. wo. including AMAETHON. GWYDION. and rhe wife of Beli. goredby a wild boar. was lured undergroundby the De Danann who often recruitedchampionsto ftght in their othewvorldlybattles To test hts sletll. sister of MATH. was deniedhealingwater by Finn. c lOO BC ) he believed that Aonghus' sreward.Dian Cechtis creditedwth a remarlable sathcenturyBrehonLaw tract on thepractice of medicine (luusrnenoru ayNrcxBute. surroundedby birds and children. alrhough she was moved by rhe way rhar Aonghus took care of Diarmuid's corpse He took the body to his own palace by rhe River Boyne.to hJe Knwn as theJathu of medicine.who had by this time left the upper world and lived beneath the soil of Ireland DIAKMUID. god of healing. However. where he breatheda new soul inro Diarmuid so that they could converse each day This was how the young man came to live with rhe TIIATHA DE DANANN. is widely assumed to be a Celtic mother goddessSheis one of sqeral Celtic daties embossed on the gildedpanels of the Gundestrup Cauldron (Graep srLv'ER. Diarmuid came face to facewich this creature His hounds fled in reror.\ B\HI F)RD.Crlrrc MyrHoLoGY DIAN CECHT (abwe). guards the sacredspnngof healthwtthhis daughter. theWelsh mother goddess.i995 ) DIARMUID (below). so rhe inesisrible Diarmuid was left bleeding ro death on the ground. ARIANRHOD.a gJtedFanian warior. Finn MacCool refusedro fetch rhe dying Diarmuid a drink of warer. Govannon. but enjoyed someJorm oJ immoftality (llrusrncno. still smarting over Diarmuid's lwe alfair with Grainne A Celtic Adonis. he was too near to death to be saved Grainne was devastatedby the loss.

ww alivewithbeguiling BelleDame Sans Jairy maidats. as in the romances O Rhiannon and Iseult.he dreamsof the pab ::r#:'KX:L:i-DamehotdsinthrarrII'TSTLLEDAMESANS . (abwe). many heroesenjoyed the gifts of the otherworld.s h o e s and affordedunderwateradventures. 1912) rYSTEPHEN and snene 0uusrpcnoN face atlost restored THn EruCnersrro Fonrsr QeJt)of Arthuianlegend. n the brighter side.tr tired oJacplonng the shoes and nvcn of lrelondunttlhe encounteredaferce rwar-hotse dqtl$ of thelvaihrs permanently in Loch Rury The inadatt so tmiJied Fergs thathis face became dktoned wrthfear. Off the battlefield. and crafting charmed rings and weapons.MNCIC AND EXCHANTMENT Celtic myth. w h i l e F e r g u sM a c L e d a ' s w a t e r . shrouding PERMEATES NCHANTMENT the tales in a haunting. but wth a returned n the loch to slay the monstu before goingilwn himself Rrto. a high hing of Uktu. was a funshee who lttracted monnl Wers and then for hr wn amusemant. Bardscould weaken the enemy possessed with satire or enchantedsleep. dreamlike qualiry. wned a pair of waterwith whkh he enjoyd underwatcr travel He ne.Ia Mqa. Excalibur.'4s onlyan unbbmkhed hing couWrule lrelnnd. penetrating the forests and lakes. The allpervasive otherworld lies behind much of the mystery and magic. Frncus Mlrc l-r:oe.while druids bewitched the host with magical illusions. such as Arthur's sword. gus .or Fergus M a c R ot h ' s s i d h e s w o r d . who oftm taunted effanthnighs One such.love philtres or magical of Sadb. "abne and palely toitrnng" k thelnnguishinghmghthue sleqs.insptnng them wtth a hopelss infaruatnn leavingthembereftof wtll or Wrpose until thq uthqed on thelolu. magicalpowers.Yet spells and magic also arosein the visibleworld where bards. desatbd by thepoet Keats. Fe. rickery. nourished or countlessheroeswere reborn from magicalcauldrons. love and romancewere also subject to spells.druids a n d s o m e p r i v i l e g e d h e r o e s .s u c h a s F i n n M a c C o o l .

i t s l t\ Pwrrr's fubove) Jamt[ywanderm un enchunted wtlderness aJtu thetr country. r : t l / t h t t f i t t .CelrIC MvrHoLocY E x c . { r r / r r l i i t t l r .AJed. i l i s t t t . q r t s t * 1 .r thoughht' u. .v 125 .f ) h u r \ r i r ( l r r l r t r .. r / (\ . l r t / t l .e was enchanted Lrythercvtshtng hmself he ullowed htsforestght. t l t r . Nirnue.had been away tn a pealoJthunder Thebaffling sptnted placed wqsport oJa hngenngcurse enchqntment Gwawl. a nval surtor on hvyll to avenge t'or the hond oJRhronnon Eten aJterhrryll's death. t l1 l r r t ( r { r l 1 t I ' c t r f r . Ue. 1984) ByA:AN benu\ (lLursrnrnor. 1 l r 1 r r t{' r . r .4N I FF lg84) rustltngoJleaves (luustnrrtr. ..r. strucha dealwtth the who atlast restoredDyt'edto rtsJormer enchanter. ( l ( r l\1 lhirtt trrtihet si t t t / t i t l i : l t cl 1 j t l r t . l r l \ t t l r l t l \ r } l t l t l tr l 't l r r l t r sl t r t l / . . wtse hht.creattng towu oJ atr rn whtchhe was trappedJorou It rs can sttllbe heardtn theplatntwe satdthat htsvorce Bv Ai. t I r s s i r f h l r r p rri r rh . r i r .the spellbli{ttedhs Jamily. .t .as. t l .t tt . Lnly ol th.. /s t r . l r l t . Manawydan. l t r 1 .untrl Rhrannon'sner\/ husband. and thoughtJtl MrRrnv (ngh).Nrmueput a thorn treeand then Merlin tntoa trancebeneoth an mvrstble trarled hervetlaroundhtm.and desprte a stone and boundthereIry to be lureddeepbeneath htsown maglc spellsIn anotherlegend. t t l l t t / / t t 1 t 1 .i t c t : l t i tl t .lhhcuc//rrtttrtlf t/ tt /t l i s . t t tt t r r l rt l i t / t t h r .

Brown". It was fortunare for Bran that his half-brother did come. smirh god Govannon. Efnisien Iaid hold of the sack and felt about till his fingers closed on the head of the warrior within it. The feast took place therefore not as Marholwch had planned. BecauseEfnisien had not been consulted by Bran over the marriage of his half-sisrer BMNwEN ro rhe Irish hng. One by one Efnisien asked about the contens of the sacksand each time repeatedhis squeezing. EnnrcmN. However. or Eber Belwedby thesea. J995 ) he headed where straighr druid AMAIRGENhad only jusr succeededin casting a spell over the turbulent waves. or Eber "the intothesea and swarrt aswellasanyfsh. then he squeezed and cracked his skull. as he immediarely well as a fish. He had placedbehind each of Bran's strongest warriors a sack hung from the wall containing an armed lrishman. They Jromhis mother's arms atbirthandplunged straight were Eber Donn. a Welsh sea deity.vprn. he askedwhacwas in one of rhe bags.qrr. who refused to acknowledge the right of his older brother Eremon to be king of the whole island. with Eremon ruling the north and Eber Finn the south. all thewaves weptwhen "the Fair".CeITIC MyTHoLoGY DONN ("rhe Dark One") was rhe Irish god of the dead. and was drowned off the south-west coast of lreland. the killed him.rprrsrv ot. but her husband in turn drowned her in whac became known as Dubhlinn ("Dubh's pool").rhey came back to life withour rhe power of speech. crruvn.tN. The L26 . Efnisien accompanied the army thatwas sent againstMatholwch to avenge this insuk. Dn q. When Efnisien inspected the hall beforehand. one of the leaders o[ rhe sons of MILESIUS. Donn's home. and Eber Finn.'N("Son of the Wave") was a Welsh sea god whose parenrs were ARIANRHOD and her brorher GWYDION. bur wich one small imperfecrion . god of the dead. When his uncle. the House of Donn. who died at sea (IrrusrnrnolByJAMEI ALDa. he proceeded to cut off the lips. his bloody war cry. Bran gaveMatholwch a ma$c cauldron that was capableof restoring dead warriors to life. leapt in their conquest of lreland.andwas oJten confusedwithEber Donn. Bur Eber Finn invaded Eremon's terrirory and Iaid waste to his lands until he fell in battle. Soruor rHE WAVE Bl foundered in a storm caused by. it Grrlncr Sxennt.rhe advice of Amairgen was ignored by Eber Finn. Engn was rhe name of rwo of che three leaderswho led the Milesians DYI-AN. So it was that lreland was partitioned inro two kingdoms. Eremon rhen became rhe first High King of all Ireland.sc I900 ) was said. and some dme afrer her arival in Ireland Branwen was demoted from being queen to just a lowly cook in rhe palacehrchens. was thought to be an assemblypoint on rhe joumey to the otherworld. all the waves of Britain and Ireland lamented his death. the Irish did not consider this gift a suflicient redressfor Efnisien's acr of mudlation. when Eber Donn was seizedby a battle-trenny and the charm was broken by his wild cries. who insulted ERIU.To compensare for this act. Eber Donn failed ro reach beheard in theroarof theincoming tide the lrish coast because his ship (Tnr B.An even more unexpected rurn of events occurred when Efnisien rhrew Matholwch's three-year-old son by Branwen on to the fire. Dvt. he became associated in popularJolhlorewith shipwreclsand seastorms. After rhe defear of the TUATHADE DANANN. one of rhe TT]ATIIADEDANANN. Dubh used magic to drown her rival. her angerat her husband Enna's passion for another woman uhimately led to the name of Dublin. andhis death-groan canstill Eremon. The third was named hewashilled.vcn.gathers souls DNUTOS SCC 5AGE5 ANDSEERS DUBH was a druidess. because Efnisien foiled a cunning trap that had been laid for the Britons by Matholwch in his hall. and at a signal they were to fall upon the Britons during what was supposed to be a feast of welcome. in welsh mythology. DONN. was the rroublesome half-brocher of nR+NTHEBLEsSED who caused the rift berween Bran and King MATHOLWCH. He is somedmes confused with ErEn Donn. Branwen would have leapt after her ro the swam sea. fu soon as he was bom aroundhim as thq assanbleonhis stormy islandbejore settingout on theirjournq to the othewvorld Inaitably. earsand tails of Matholwch's horsesduring the wedding feast. According to one Irish tradition. On being told it was com.

When Bres was his final batde.wisdom.sacnfced himself to sav e his comrades (tuununov aySrrparru Rno. Emer's father was a chieftain from Meath and was against the match.and saidthathehad "deeds to do" (Iu-usrnqnox BySrEpHEN REID. his favourite falcon". I995 ) EBER DONN (abwe) and the Milesian chiefsdnft in thefairy sea mists of the lrish cowt OnboardEbcr's ship. out its troubles. where he strerched and burst its sides. thqhad ahandsome but troublesome son. sweetspeech. band. was the daughter of Fogall and the wife of. Cuchulainn Shewasblessedwiththe sA gJB oJ womanhood:beaul. chasilry.he met the lwely goddess. when he fought rhe removed from the leadership of rhe army of Queen MEDB alone. in Irish mythology. She appeared "dark-haired almosr as around to the front of his house. Emer De Danann.ffHA. in Irish myrhologr. He told Cuchulainn to travel to improve his fighting shlls and only then would he consider him as a son-in-law. and her eyeswide and proud and brilliant like the eyes of Fedelma. EMER. the son of Delbaeth.cucuul{INN. he thought request. rhe the Fomorii were defeated at the seat of King CONCHOBHAR MAC second battle of Magh Tuireadh NE55A. and her skin whire as mare's milk.shesmiledathis youth. He hid among the Irish dead and was thrown into rhe boiling cauldron.CeITIc MyrHoLoGY EIATII"A (abwe).butEberlet outhis greatwar cry whichbrolu the druid's spelland stired up a stoftn inwhichhewas drwned BvJAMES ALEX{Noen. Cuchulainn survived EL. 0rrusrnerroru 1995 ) EFNISIEN belw) inspectssaclu in Matholwch'shall. UnIiKe the place. the leader of Indeed. he and his morher tried to persuadehim to remain in went to Elathato ask for help.l9i0) himself.However. of Emer's Even then.Bies (tr-LusrnrroN By Nrcx BTALE. songand needlecraJt When thehero courtedher. because at night it restored to life the trish warriors who had been slain during rhe day The Britons were in a desperare predicament and so Eftrisien. chanot when it was broughr son. w6 and retumed to claim his bride. inspired the lwe ol Ulster'sgreathero. Although Emer was totally other Fomorii. not least because He met the goddessEri on rhe sea many other women also found the shore and there they conceived Ulscerhero attrac[ive. atuck the reluctant Fogall's fortress who was briefly the leader of the before the wedding could mke TUATHA DE DANANIV. a F omoii hing lived beneath the waveswith his wolat and misshapen people Unlihe the other Fomoii. In the fight that took place afterwards the Britons were almost defeatedby the magrc cauldron that Bran had given Matholwch. which he cnshed between his fngm The moody ticlster went on to prwohe a deadly contest. he got on his and dnven from lreland. SoonaJtu. Elatha was a godlihebang with Iong golden hair EmuglngJrom the sea one day in his silvsr ship. who were described enraptured by her handsome husas being hideous and deformed.ar rhe cost of his li[e. who first saw her when he was at the courr of rhe High Kirg of Ireland at Tara. Cuchulainn was forced to the FOMORII and father of BRES. but Bran held her back. but his enemies the witches of celqrlN casr a spell to harden his resolve to fighr single-handed. 1912 ) t27 .Just before their child Bres. In each sachhefelt a warior's head. bur the fortress of Emain Macha. ENTO SCCCELTIC ROIVIANCE EME& a peerless Insh maiden.the druid Amairgencharmedthe seawth magtcof hts wwr. destroyedthe magic cauldron. their marriagewas not withElathawas fair and had golden hair. bur rhe grear effort involved hlled him. who Jellimmediatelyin lwe withhim. En. in remorse.but than.

ct css.)GMA. Banba and goddess. theCeltichorse who v. EPONA(belw). Onginally. appears withher peers in power andbeauty:fromleJt to ight. rhe celtic horse goddess. c I9@) EPONA.won the favour of the Roman army and was depicted in monuments set up at its cavalrybarracl<s as a woman riding a fast steed.CTITIC MYTHOLOGY E?{IN of QighD. was rhe wife of Ma Greine. or Erinn. MEDB AND Fexn sv HAnnv Ct.MedbandFand.fiy. her cloak billowing with air behind her. Hn . Shewas even given her own festival in Rome on December 18. Etain. carry visitors into her husband's palace. possibly like the great white horse cawed in the chalk downs near Wantage. In the Welsh myth of. spreadlwcultacross portrayedhtnding placed in stables. one of the High Queens Ireland.us theRoman cavalry adoptedhy Europe. in southem England The fact that she is often depicted riding a horse with a foal suggesrc that she was also a goddess of fertility. ERIU. roleasafmtlity goddess. often wtthafoal. linlu wtth the otherworld (ErnrH. she and her two sisters. rejectedher andbirik Embohzdhm by thewheat 128 . which sometimes srde-sadille. Epona was almost certainly seen by the Celts as a mare.cR(E. Greeh Helen. PwYtt there is a connection between Epona and his who is made to wife RHIANNON. son of. theJairyqueen Thejuelled atp of plenty recalk Etain's HnuN. and herself one of the TUATHADEDANANN When the Milesians invaded.

went to greet them All three asked that the newcomers would name the island after her. Etain decided in the end to Cuchulainn and Manannan Mac retum to Taraand finish her morral Lir. Emer. they arranged to meet again fought on the side of Queen MEDB discoverythat she was alreadymar.qtruneo then were Medb was turned first into a pool of FAND. - .r:.. Ferdia situation wassolved by her sudden home. and.in Ireland. somerimes Erhnea. the unbom FERDIA tsborne by fromthebattleJteld ter of rhe Ulster warrior Etar To ENCFIANTMENT Thetwo Cuchulainn Deirdre cried out from her mother's hisliJelong Jnend. but not at the hands of Fergus They had been friends before the war and had swom not to fight each other During the final battle. and acted as maid to the daughter of u.was attackedby the nOvORI/. in a vision.AlNN As young men. nvSrrpHrru 1910 herin vain (luusrnarroru ) Foda.seehing Rr. a king of Ulster. but eventually Medb tauntchess. a gentle Tuatha whut was lostto theothewvorld maiden. srewardof the iove god AONGHUS. druid and advrsorto the sons of MILESius. was same Ir was due to Fergus'retreat one of IheTUATIIADEDANANN and rhat CoNAu.but she by became "voices". then a wolrn and finally a fly rhe wife of uaNaruNANMAC LIR nothing but doom and desrrucdon Ferdia's death.vev E We[coustNs.One day she quarrelled with her I nse lamenting. according to one myth fell in love with his predecessor's widow. he survived to be brought up either by Goibhniu or. becauseof a prophecy that said he would be hlled by his own grandson. in lrish myrhology. beatinghim which them in revolt Conchobhar's love Iefthimsore gained for ortRPREwas rhe cause of his Jorayear Having thatthe hisattention. CONCHOBHAR was allowed to rule for MACNESSA. in Irish myrhology. she refusedto eat or drink Aonghus and Manannan searchedfor a remedy and found rwo magic cows whose milk never ran dry and she lived on their milk Fnncus Mec RorH.+ruaNNAN MAC LIR After a chieftain of the TUATLLADE DANANN rried to rape her. NESSA She would only marry him if her son.EXCRT-TBUR SCC MAGIC AND drinking at his house.according monls wasdisturbed a nun. off the north-western coast of lreland.and remainedfor one month During the war of the SCATHACH AILILL This potendally difficult as her lover Before he returned brown bull of Cuailgne.Etain was loved both SCNI for CUCHUIAINN. and so fulfilled his desriny by hlling Balorat the secondbattle of Magh Tuireadh EfHNn was rhe daughter of Roc. when Conchobhar losr the support of EAND'smaidens appeared to Cuchulainn severalleading Ulstermen.Fand FIRBOLG. a cerrain Cian. When Emr'swife accidenrallyswal. thq explained unpopularity. promised rhat Ireland would be named after Eriu EfnltNN. found out about this secret men of Ulster Ferdia did his best her memories High King Eochaidh meedng and took fifry of her maid. by the High King Eochaidh.cuctlui. whom her island and defeared her en.Crlrrc MvrHoLocY DeDanann ETHNE. army and rally the Ulstermen after MIDIR His first wife was jealous of ETHNNR SCC when CONCHOBHAR MAC NE55A rhe death of Cuchulainn ETHLINN Etain and by a druid's speil Etain and some fellow Ulstermen were was rebom as a morul. he led withrods. neededhis help tofght the had her lover NAoiSE hlled in order Fomoii AfterdeJmting herattachers. Despite Balor's attemprc to have the baby killed. managed to reach Ethlinn. with heip from his mother. AMAIRGEN. However. VeiloJlnvisibility. to marry her Fergus wirh rhree island hundred Ulster warriors joined Cuchulainn stayed onFand's Jora month (Iuusrnarroru By SrEpHEN REID. and so the sun godrual was conceived. hq to she mislaidher Foiry She wasrescued thekalm oJ by to a latu legend. later.they were both taught ro fighr by she married. Erain goaded intosingle combatby womb The druid c. brother of the smith god GomHrulu. by the sea god MANANNAN MACLIR."Why should now again " lowed the fly she becamepregnant husband and he left her When she FgnOfR has son of Daman rhe hethatlieshere Jallen W -y hand? wirh Etain Unaware of her previ. the one-eyedgiant of Irish myth Balor imprisoned Ethlinn in a crysal tower on Tory Island.and druids gaveCuchulainn and Emer drinks of forgetfulness (Seealso CELTIC ROMANCE) lost Ulsrer The great CUCHUIAINN his life in this war. was ableto defeatMedb's was the second wife of the god rhe father of orlnoRr One day.. Fand. was the only daughter of BALOR. according to another version of the myrh. 1912 ) Queen MEDBin her invasion of decided to stay with her husband and forget Cuchulainn Manannan Mac Lir then shook his magrccloak between Fand and Cuchulainn so they would never see each other again. especially after he goddess. proved to be a popular king and the people refused to let him stand down At first Fergus accepted this but. hinder Midir's searchfor her. who had awakened EMER. the daugh. who had also learned of the Frncus Mnc Leoa see life as Eochaidh'squeen arrangement But in the end. who CameTo of. theciesof hu Jairy folh. was foretold thar the child would cause andfought gnmly tothedeath At water. but although she lived once Fand A confused argument then ed him into fighting the great hero again with Midir for a period of took place between Fand. Fand MAGIC AND ENCFIANTMENT a _ . Cuchulainn fellexhausted. Ferguspretended to rereat and rhe next time rhey met Cuchulainn would do the ETAIN. and by his brother emies. Cuchulainn's fosterwas reincamated severaitimes She FgoltvtlD rhe story-reller was brother. and against Cuchulainn and the ned to Midir.But Cuchulainn's wife. 1912) ous existence.to avoid coming up against his lost Etain to the god at a game of ens armed with sharp knives to kill friend. ayear Conchobhar. in singlecombat and he was killed time. was a friend and comrade (llrusrnarro.

was killed by Goll. daughter of High Kitg C)RMAC MACART.rymbok oJspintualpwer. ) FIANNA. assailhim and let fly at him lf he sustained injury. His father . as his father had done. who helpedhim darcbp the hqoicirtues oJwtdom and strenglh (luusrnanor. Many of the adventures of the lfuights of the Round Table recall the exploits of the Fenians. (Iuusrnertoru Lrrrepnu. werhung wtth theNuts of Knowldge Fintnn gained hs wisdom from eating the nuts whichfell into the well.orityof their members came from one of two clans. BvARTHUR ) THg FrnNNn was rhe famous band ofwardors responsible for the safety of the High Kitg of Ireland Popularly called the Fenians. as wiseas he was strong with Finn became called Finn Mac Cumaill or Fionn instant insight into the past andfuture (lrusraerrorv MacCumal. a previous leader of the Fenians. the aged seer FINEGAS. afierceband of free wariors.. One of his tutors was the who lived beside druid FINEGAS. a gesture that may explain why Finn MacCool did not challenge Goll over his father's death. CIJMAL. the selecrband of warriors which guarded the High King of lreland. was a druid. which he had received when hunting. such as would reach the waist. but Finn bumt his thumb on the flesh and in sucking it obtained wisdom.To join. Goll accepted this decision with good grace. Indeed. their greatestleader was FINNMACCOOL and the ma. but later Cumal's son Finn was bom and brought up secretly. Goll chose to suwe to death rather than surrender. causingbubblesoJ inspiration with Celtic The wellts decoratedhere heads. Finn never forgave Diarmuid for the elopement. Some sagas to quell tell how he fell attempdng an uprising among the Fenians FINTAN. alone took sixteen the years.eorucHus. a Fenian warrior. Goll slew Cumal. guardedthe High King oJIreland on and rovedup and down the countryside vaious ventures Hand-piched. Then must nine warriors. 1994 avSrunRr ) r30 . or Fenians.bashs in Nechtan's weIIoJ inspiration. fulfillingthe "Fionn" the boy eat the whole fish wouldbeneftfrom mannamed thesalmon.CTITIC MYTHOLOGY THE FIANNA (ngh). Goll eventually manied one of Finn MacCool's daughters. The Fenians were relentless in the chase. the Fenians reached the high point o[ their fame as a warrior band The pursuit of oreRvulDUA DIUBHNE.occasionalivalry brohe out and theoddbrawl. the foster-son of the love god. in lrish mythology." Under Finn MacCool's leadership. he was not receivedinto the band " FINECRS. the Bascnaand the Moma. and he put into it with his shield and a forearm's length of ahazel stick. c 1910 ByARTHUR ) FINN MACCOOL bela^D' a Praocious and gfted child. Trapped. the Salmonof Knouiledge. So great was Finn MacCool's prowess as a warrior that he was soon appointed over the head of Goll to lead the Fenians. but she was betrothed to Finn MacCool at the dme. Hoping to become supremely wise. was the leader of the 1912 svH R MrtLAn. he caught the Salmon of lfuowledge. rhough he also slew his son. This last act of violence was too much and the Fenians pursued him. but a peace of sorts was begrudgingly agreed However.as shownhere therewas (lu-usrnerrp RAcKHAM. Finn MacCool used to quote a saying of Goll: "A man lives after his life but nor after his dishonour.thq were gftedinboth arms andthe arts Although close-hnit. his rival's morul and he exulted over wound. Finegasgenerouslylet the propheqthata Knowledge. The account of Finn MacCool's own death is unclear. He had taken GRAINwE. He gave rhe fish to his pupil to cook. enjoyeda specnl ffinity of the wods He was wtth the crentures raisedon the sbpa of Bloom Sliew by two warior women. was the one destined to gain the oJ Finn theSalmon humbly olfers wisdom. Realizingthat his pupil Finn andpoet. miraculous fish On eating sometimes FINN MacCooL. but unfortunately for his own ambitions he gaveit to the young FINNMACCOOL to cook Finn bumt his thumb on the flesh of the fish and sucked the bum. Cumal had eloped with a girl named Huma and her father urged Goll to avengethis dishonour.r c 1910 RAclctAM. "no man was taken till in the ground a hole had been made. the River Boyne and caught the Salmon of lGrowledge.with a ten furrows'width berween them and him. having nine spears.

the seagods whom rhe Tuatha De Danann eventually overcame At the first barrle of Magh Tuireadh the Tuatha De Danann defeared the Firbolg. Forbai caught up with her as she was bathing in a lake A shot from his sling fatally struck the old warrior-queen in the cen[e of her forehead. lost a hand. in Irish mythology. orbag-mot arivedin lrelnnd afterescaping ahJe ofslnvery in Thrace. though the De Danann Ieader.Celrrc MyrHoLocy THE FOMORII. a misshapen raceof sea gods. which was so called becauseit had earenrhe nuts of a hazel ree thar grew over the warers of ruecareN's well. and were driven from Ireland for ever THg FOUOruI were seagods in Irish mythology Violent and misshapen. FneOCH ("wrath" or "fury"). where thq hadbeenforced to cultivate thelandby heavinghewy oJ bags Jmile earthuproctyhilLsln ronlt. 1912) rNt ByJoHN themselves.while others refer ro an ARTHUR-likeundeath in a cave There he was supposed to remain in a deep sleep unril such dme as Ireland needed his aid FtNfnN was the husband of Noah's granddaughterCESAIR. was a warriorwho defeateda fearsomewarer monster in order to manry Findbhair. in Irish mythology were said to have acquired their name from a time when they were enslaved in Thrace and made ro carry bags of earth They lived in Ireland just before the arrivalof the TUATHADE DANANN But rhey were already being hard pressedby theFOMONt. who are divatby a sichand menacingJrnry (THE FoMoRs THE \Voru. THEFIRBOLG.Finnbreahsthe spell and slnys the unsuspectingdemon For his valourhe wasmadecaptainof the Fianna (lllusrnarrorv BySTEpHEN REID. Queen MEDBof Connachr fell back before rhe fury of the Ulster warriors afrer her invasion of the kingdom. The monk wanted ro tidy up the lrish myth of Fintan's mysrerious transformation The same name was also glven to the Salmon of I(rowledge. because of the deluge rhat only Fintan managed to survive by becoming a salmon.aful scene portrays the Fomoii as repellentand alien creatures. only to have to defeatthe Fomoiri at asecondbartle there in order to secure rheir conquest Often the Fomorii were described as having only a single hand. or "bag men". It is likely that the monk who first recorded the Irish sagas ahered the original myrh in order ro link it with Noah's descendants. thq tumedtharbagsintoboats andsailed to Irelnnd (Iuusrnenoru ByNlcK Brer-r..j995 ) THg Ftnnolc.NUADA. In the second bamleof Magh Tuireadh rhe Fomorii were thoroughly beaten.D oR THE PowERs or EvrL Asnoeo Dunctr't. foot or eye FOnnru was rhe son of the Ulster king CONCHOBHAR MAC NESSA According to one myth. the Fomorii emergedfrom rhe waves to challengerwo rulers of Ireland: the FiRBOLGand rhe TUATHA DE DANANN The Tuatha De Danann were younger gods. however. oppressed lrelandwith cruelty and crushingtibutes This imaginative and pou. In Galway. l9i0 ) 131 . who was the daughrer of Queen MEDB of Connacht The tenible srruggle with the monsrer left Fraoch very badly wounded and he recovered fully only afrer a timely visit to rhe otherworld His morher Be Find (who was a goddess and sisrer of the river goddess BOANN) nursed him back to health so rhar he could claim the hand of Findbhair The account of Fraoch and the water monster some legend is thought on to have had the Danish influence of Beowulf's batrle wirh to Grendel. due mainly to rhe bravery of the sun god LIIGH. and they seizedcontrol of Ireland from the Firbolgs at rhe first barde of Magh Tuireadh. a monster invulnerable weapons who lived in an under- water cavem FINN MACCOOL stands guard on the ramports oJTara awaiting aJiery goblin whosemaglc music usually disarmshisJoes Armedwith aJairy spear.

From Bran'smassive waffiors emerged alive but dumb. the great and gloomy glanx brood ovn thar bubblingcauldron. Tene stylewith Celtic daties and itual activities. which overflows with spiritual sustenance and leads the hero from death to immoruliry. silveror gold. 100 BC ) BMN'5 (aba.t'il *'iri' + WoNDRous C. others restore the dead to life. Some IMCULouscAULDRoNS overflow with plenty.e) Cauldron of kbirth restoredwariors to l{e. while still others contain a specialbrew of wisdom. combined the magical properties of both plenty and rebirth.in gratitude JorhtshindnessHere. for thewarlihe glantsproduceda grou. suchas hunting or Jighting (Gl'xrorsrnup Cerii-onol. whose magi cal broth endowed Taliesin with all-knowrng insight.il'i'. GTLDED srLvER.here. The most famous belonged to the goddess Ceridwen. but without the powerof speechBran rece:edhis wondrouscauWron Jrom two martial glonts. delicious meats. the early Celtic cauldrons find expression in the Arthurian Grail. no hero left his bowl Cauldronof Rebirth hungry.nwarior wery sa weelc (tuusrunoNByALAN LEE. Gundestrup Jound in a bog in Denmarh.copper. is a magnifcent suwiving in exampleof a Celtic cauldron Embossed in the silverg1lt.it is beautiJullydecorated Ia. another Cauldron of Rebirth in Annwn was guarded by nine maidens. though cowardsneverhad their fill. Dagda'sgiganticCauldron of Plenty overflowedwith abundant.tuLDRoNs featureas a recurrenrmotif in Celtic myrh. CeurpRorvs on Prnvrv Qeft)glttteredin bronze. Jlnnhedbyarmed wariors on ather side. Ultim ateIy. Similar mystery bowls or cups fea[ure in Greek and easlern myths as holy vesselsof spintual insight. embossed with exquisite craJtsmanship The gllded Cauldron. Cauldrons of Inspiration provided "greals" or brews of wisdom. such as Dagda's. Some cauldrons. 1984) .

w ..:i{l.. " : :4i i" 1 n 'r..# .t*r !! !! {.. . r:. ?\ a \ . 'ii 'i* 1{ i i".u*.i t i t'fuo.

it is made clear that he is without blemish. Sir Gaiahadsaw pure and humble knight to hold the Grail in a vision.ghs of the Round Table One of efforts of King Arthur to dissuade the seas was alwaln left vacant as it them from undenahng what might was the place reserved for the prove to be their final quest knight who would find the Grail Although they set off in different Unril Sir Galahad sat there.rL. JOSEPH Galahad to take a bleeding spear to requesr ro be fulfilled.enRo H A T H E R E L L . Together they had received place and Sir Galahad was even the sacrament from the long-dead obltged to become a hng for a dme who told Sir while he waited patiently for his OF ANMATHEA. c 19IO ) was unique at the Camelot A mystenous lady then Gnf-tfmD court of King ARTHUR.CTITIC MyTHoLoGY GAIAHAD AeJ). 1864) After this. c 1910 ) GAIAIIAD (nght). although sacredvessel. Anhur's wife.his arnval sparhedoff the Grail w Eurrps ARTHUR's CouRr By Quest (G. standsresplendent in ablnze oJ holylight. the presenceof the Grail was felt in GAIAHAD recav esspiitual nouishment Percival and from theGrail. robed in red. the pure andpeerless hnight. The quest for the Grail was an most of the t(nights of the Round important preoccupation of the Table followed suit. followedby BorsTheideaof an all-sustainingand all-inspiing"greal" or brauis rooted in Celtic myth (How SrnGnLeneo. no directions. Galahad was at last body and limbs Once this taskwas granted his wish to leave the camed out. despite the K.armedas a Chistian Crusader His snow-whiteshield.as one version of the none at the wonderful meal saw or Arthurian myth states that Sir touched the Grail When Sir Galahad took "Our Lord's body Gawain vowed to find its home in berween his hands" and then died order to see the Grail for himself. who had raised Galahad. srRBoRsAND SrnPrncrvnrwenr Feo wtrH THE By SANC GRAEL DANIE Rossrrn . When he the Grail for a few moments. his soul was soulwould live in the next life with suddenly releasedfrom his body Christ the moment his request and "a great multitude of angels bore it up to heaven". told his father thar he should "make him a lceight. From the beginning of Galahad'smanhood.marhedwtth the blood of Joseph oJAnmathea. and the strange king world Joseph first allowed the restored to health. When the castle of the "Maimed Kirg" Joseph of Arimathea eventually and rub it on this crippled ruler's retumed. Twelve nuns. various miracles took Bors when he encountered the Grail. cANvAs. cuss. the secret lover of Queen GUINEVERE. prayed that "he might leave the as Sir Galahad knelt down to pray world". or SANGREAL would come and feed all the He may even have handled the knights This happened. a voice told him how his for his deliverance.filling the SiegePeilous Completingthecircleof hnights. wo's designed in Saras Jor Galahadalone (GilAaeo svw HATHERELL. 134 . The worthy young Sir Galahad was rhe son of Sir LANCEtot.. for there is no man alive more desewing of the order of knighthood" As soon as Sir Galahad had taken his rightful place at the Round Table.c A N y A S . could be granted. for he alone announced how the sacredvessel saw the entire Grail. then. however. and toohhisplaceat the RoundTable. Sir Galahadwas in the knight had earned the right to company of Sir PERCIVAL and Sir occupy the place wrthout being instantly swallowed by the earth. entered Arthur'scourt escortedby ahermit.

The magical transformation of Sir Bercilak de Hautdesert the Green lftright was explained into as the work of the wirch MoRGAN LE FAY. fu the severed head rolled around the hall. Twice it was deflected because he had not abused his host's hospitality by making love to his wife. However. which was the usual token worn by " knight to show his love for a lady. At the meeting berween Sir Gawain and his fearful opponent. The third time it made a slighr cut.srn nyWMrxnrs. inspinngthe restoJthe Knights. But to the amazement of all nothing had happened.helost heart. r pE. the gigantic Green Kttrght strode into King Arthur's hall at Camelot one New Year's Eve and challenged the ltuighrs of rhe Round Table to a beheading contest. present. patience and humility (Tnr. Three times the axe was swung at Sir Gawain's neck. Cuchulainn had no hesitarion in slippingaway from the battlefield in order to keep a secret meedng with a lover. laching the necessary discipline.srRy. an activeand restlesshnight. Fnrr urir.CII-TIC MyTHOLoGY GnwruN. 1895-96 GnwRrr. the giant behaved as if was the most courteous knight at ARTHUR's court. Sir Gawain's mosr exrraordinaryadventure concemed the Green lGright. the Green lGright tumed out to be none other than Sir Bercilak himself. the Green Ktrght pointed his severedhead in Sir Gawain's direcdon and told him to be at a lonely chapel ayear from that day in order to take a tum ar receiving a blow from an axe. Sir Gawain accepted and cut off the stranger's head in a single blow. It did not cut off his head because Sir Gawain had only acceptedthe green sash out of good manners Yet Sir Gawain realized that courtesy was no equal to moral purity. GTNATNT SCC CELTICROMANCE. He was a strict upholder of chivalry and the enemy of Sir LtNCELor. even during Queen MEDB's invasion of Ulster. Rather like the hazard faced by the Ulsrer hero CUCHUIAINN. and thereafterhe alwap wore the green sashas a reminder of his lapse This late Bridsh version of the Celtic beheadingcontest was quite clearly influenced by Christianity GAWAIN. Then. at which Sir Gawain flinched. from the saddle. the royal courr relaxed and thought the challenge over. he picked up his head and mounted his green charger. King Anhur's half-sister. in welsh Gwalchmai. or.r ) Unlike Sir Gawain. Calmly stooping. lost interestin theGrail Questquite early on Ahhoughone oJthe first to setJorth. On the journey to this dangerous appointment Sir Gawain stayed with Sir Bercilak de Hautdesert who had a beautiful wrfe He was sorely tempted by Sir Bercilak's wife but managed to resist her advances for rwo days. on the third daySir Gawain accepted from her a green sash. when a water giant came to test the courage of Irish warriors. SINGLE COMBAT r35 .

although had he for GUINEVEM role as Flovtu Bide.ancelot weakened the uniry of the RoundTable.and Luchtar.o ) came to love Grainne. rrpaired the Tuatha De Danann armour see also WONDROUS with miraanlots spd on thebattlefeW HEROTCQUESTS. ANoN) 0lrusrmnoN in lrish mythology.BY HERBERT DMPE& UNVES. Guinevereis alwap comparedwith Helen of Troy. is crmnedMay Quear in abower of peals On May Morning Arthur and his hntghs celebrated wtth sports and contestsLancebt. Diarmuid politely refused advances But shepersisted untilhe agreed to elope. whose welsh GUtunvERE.o-. the carpater. was the daughter of coRiuecMAc ART.for which he brewed the aIe His Welsh counterpart was named Govannon by rhe Fenians But Diarmuid was killed by a magic boar in a hunting accidentafter Cormac Mac Art and Finn MacCool had finally accepted his marriage to Grainne Although Grainne blamed Finn MacCool for Diarmuid's death and swore to obtain vengeancethrough her four sons.WhO WAS the foster-son of the love god AONGHUS. a FOMORIIspy came to see how Goibhniu made such impressive weapons.the High Kirg of lreland She was promised to FINNMACC))L. the Irish capital. the ltuights of the Round Table. goldsmith. with a rather relucmnt Diarmuid Gradually. the wily Finn wooed her until she agreedto manryhim. JelIJor the iwesistible Diarmuid . Gwenhwfar. the Insh smith god. GnntNNE.rnceror GUINEVERE.with the Fianna in hot pursuit Here. ln Guinevere'scasethe love affairwith Sir l. leader of the FIANNA. he THT GNruI CAULDRONS. 19c.\s shewasbetrothedto Finn her MacCool.CeITIC MYTHOLOGY was the Irish smith GOIBHNIU god and one o[ the ruerHA DE DANANN He could make a perfect sword or spearwith three blows of his magic hammer Just before the second battle of Magh Tuireadh. probably name. the famous beauty of Greek mytholory Such a comparison is not unjustified. a passionate and wilJulmaiden. however. and even wounded the god Goibhniu was said to preside over an otherworld feast called Fled Goibnenn. sixteen moving years they to keep in order to avoid capture r36 . By using magic. alwaysoccelled.the bodyguard of the High King Although still powerful.her exo champion. Cradhne the GMINNE (abwe).inher onglnal SCC SANGREAL. wasan outstanding craftsmanand armourer Along wtth his glJtedbrothm. Finn MacCool was quire old and Grainne preferred DIARMT]ID UA DI. Grainne managed to escape from Tara.who seizedCamelot GOIBHNIU. ltwas herbeaury that also atuacted Arthur's nephew Sir uoDRED. means "white spirit".]IBHNE. for both these women brought disaster to those who loved them. the guilg pairhide in a maglc tree ANON) otrusr&qnoN (below). was the wife of eRrnuR and the secret lover of In the stories about Sir LANCELOT.

slew Iman and as a reward Finn allowed him to marry his daughter. Matholwch sug. to sail to lreland to on herwedding day. was mken to AVALoN.lAI. Later. and forced Guinevere to consent to marry him during the hng's absenceabroad. THEBLESSED. he rumed his nephews into a stag and a hind for one year.1910 By SIEpHEN 0rrusrprnorv ) BacH seeTAUESTN. FINNMACCOOL. t37 . ([-nncrLo. Gilvaethwy. sleep with Gowein.) quarrel. ws an otherworld hng between the two royal families led who crossed swords with King to Branwen becoming a cook. Rtto.c 1910. but spared lrnan when shebegged for HTIITWNS SEERS SCC SAGE5AND merE.ly Jlee with his precious futhur set out after Griddylad and from Prydm's castle *vine The danngtheJt was part oJan demanded that Gwyn ap Nudd retum her to her rightful husband.I-ancebt slrw many h"rghs.or Fenians.Crlrrc MvrHoLocY GUINEVERE (abwe). Arthur. ingeniousplan to help Gilvaethwy wtn his loyal follower Gwythyr.lord of the Welsh hngdom of Gwynedd. w6 the son of the Irish king MATHOLWCH and the Welsh AP NUDD. Hmtato. When Math rerumed and discovered the decep tion. the young woman who was Math's footholder. conilemnedto deathJorhu afair with lancelot.one late myth. Gwyn aMucrcd Griddylad. according ro Welsh GwtoN GWfnN. In order to help his brother. BRltN the daughter of Lludd Llaw Ereint. lrnan instantly changed intn a monstrr and Goll hilled hq. where she later died. which caused her brother. A dispute mytholory. not far from Arthur's tomb. in welsh GwyN princess BRANWEN. even if she was in the form of a monster.crNv s.Gwydion siege of the otherworld king's casde had tnclud hyde" into anhangpnghis proved to be long and difficult. (See also CELNCROMANCE) and the builder of London. King GWYDION (abwe) and Gilvaethv. ART}IL/R. of the Fenians. whoever was the winner on rescuedbyGoLwho slav two of thesistm. In the bbody contestthot ensuel. So another Fenian. mytholory. The Gwan A resourcefulmaglcian. was rhe nephew of GWYDION MATH. was a witch who once spun a magic web to catch some members of the FIANNA. in lrish mythology. mortally wounded. though only three.Shespuna magpcwebto snare the Fenian waritors The wariors were time. He proposed that Gwem. But Branwen's half-brother EFNISIEN would not agree and threw the child on to a fire. was rescuedby him. doomsday could have Griddylad. which meanr that the kingwent awaytowar. It is believed by some that herbody was buried at Glastonbury. the bodyguard of the High King of lreland When this plan failed. should be placed on the lrish throne.r IVldrrHrnrtt. Lludd Llaw Ereint gested a compromise to setde the was the son of the death god Beli IRl. Gwydion stirred up a quarrel beween Math and pnyprRr. Gwydion took charge of his sister ARIANRHOD's son LLEU.stepped forward but wzrspersuadedthat itwould notbe heroic enough for a warrior of his stature to fight thag. into a boar and a sow for the next. Goll. so wineJor someilhsory honcs a strange compromise was agreed 0rrusrnrnourv fin Isz 1981 ) by both sides Gwyn ap Nudd and Gr"nhyr agreed to meet in combat IRNAN (bela4/) was one oJthree sister each May Day until the end of witches. while Guinevere became a nun at Amesbury. According to avenge the insult. as hardly a knight wuls left alive. Arthur 'thefairatJellovship of wept at theloss of REscuEs Gunrvmr rv noblc tmights".l. and into a pair of wolves for the third. The confronadon between Arthur and Modred at the battle of Camlan brought to a bloody end the golden age of Brirish chivahy. Irnan changed herself into a monster and challenged any one of the Fenians to single the leader combat.

Although he just managed to overcome the dragon.A serious wound forced Sir Trisan to send for Iseult. that Sir Tristan asked for Iseult on behalf of King Mark. Instead he exchanged Sir Trismn's sword for his own and left them sleeping.talzenedpassion. It came as a shock then. like the love of culrur'rcnE and IANCEL?T. uNvtts.g" in the story of the Grail. Disguised as a Comish trader.but she found that her heart would not let her wield the sword against him. But her mother gave Iseult's maid BMNGAINEa love potion which.the Irish champion. a lingering ailment similar to the one afflicting the "Maimed Ki. Sir Tristan sought out its lair and fought it. Realizing that the best way to advanceKing Mark's suit would be to slay this monster. recognizing the hair as belonging to Iseult. a beautiful woman with wonderful golden hair. lseult and her mother.but the nobles objected to this anangement. suggested to his uncle that he should go on his behalf to ask for her hand. In Brittany Sir Trisun married but without happiness. cured the orphan Tristan of a wound in the side. lseult was deeply upset.CEI-TIC MyTHOLOGY ISeUf. on the wedding night. suspected trickery and discovered the injured young knight While they were nursing Sir Trismn back to health. On several occasions he rerumed to Comwall in disguise and secretly met lseult again. under the cover of darkness. While oJ alingmngwound hnight Tnstan to health. but he decided not to slay them there and then. so the king said that he would mary/ only the girl to whom belonged the golden hair a swallow had just dropped Sir Tristan. however.was ISEULTOelow). they were eventually discovered. Overcome by the mercy shown by his uncle. On Tristan's arrival in Cornwall. theComish andcured a glJtedhealer. It becameattached ro the Arthurian stories by the later addition ofeRrnuR to the myth. Trisun persuaded Iseult to retum to her husband and he left forvoluntary exile in Brituny. but war took up most of his energies. forglng an unbrealubb and Jinally traglc bond Duncan's strongly Celticportrayal capturesthe intanseand eNo undyngnature of thar love CtrusrrH lsoLDE ByJoHN DuNclN. its poisonous breath weakened him temporarily and an imposter claimed to have won the contest. would make the couple love each other forever. Iseult nodced that his sword had a piece missing exactly like the fragment of metal found in the head of MoRHoLT. and the story of was extremely her love for TRISTAN popular in medieval times. Sir Tristan had monallywounded him on the last occasion the Irish tried to collect ribute from Comwall. his uncle King MARKwanted to name the young man his successor. bur. All would have been well had not Tristan accidentally drunk the potion and gtven some to Iseult on the joumey to King Mark's court. It was r38 . Brangaine took her Place in the royal bed so that he would suspect nothing. Sir Tristan arrived in lreland to find the country tefiorr:ed by a dragon. When her own father readily agreed to the marriage as a means of restoring good relarions between lreland and Comwall. on his recovery. lt happened one day ISEULT and Tnstan unwtttingly dranh a love philtre which haghtened their already a. Iseult wanted to hll Sir Tristan in revenge. was an Irish princess. somerimes Isolde. but nursinghim was wasshortlived asTnstan theirbliss thelrish court Jor political forcedto leave reasons (ltLusrnertoru By EvELYlv Pettt. Although Iseult did marry the Cornish hng. For a time the lovers managed to meet in secret.T. lseult. if drunk on their wedding night. c I9A0 ) an enorrnous "crested serpent". The Celtic myth of Tristan and Iseult originated in Britmny and was retold in almost every European country. thqJellin lne. 1912 ) that King Mark found them asleep with Sir Tristan's sword between them. also an lishbeaury.

but only on the condition thar in return he was given the hng's most valuable and treasured possession. So theywent on to the offensive: milk became scarce. King Iubdan liked to boast a lot. the iast to be recorded in Irish mytholory.was a hnight of legendarymight and prowess Endowedwithunusualshills. Iseult followed him into death shonly afterwards. The Tuatha De Danann suspectedIth of harbouring invasion plans and so hlled him. EitherJoseph. I 9t 0 ) STEPHEN I(AI (abne). was one of the senior warriors of ARTHUR's coun ln medieval romance. Arthur's steward. although the tiny people offered him an abundant crop of com.CEI-TIC MYTHOLOGY agreedthat lseult should indicate her imminent arrival with a white sail. along with his wife.Fergus (luusrnenoru BY REID. thwartingboth Peredurand Culhwch IlLUsrMloN c 1450 at thegate (Meruuscnrpr ) JosreH oF ARrMArHEAwas a biblical figure who was included in Arthunan mythology becauseof the Grail story. Iubdan fell into the porridge and. a "bishop already dead for more than three hundred years".SirTristan's Breton wife said a ship with a black sail had been sighted. Only GAIAHAD was granted a complete vision of the Grail It was handed to him by Joseph of Arimathea. or MILESIUS IUgnnN was a ruler of tiny people According to lrish mythology. he became the steward Sir lGy. in welsh myrhology. to size incitinghisbard to cathimdown greater in menlived by inststingthatJar Toprwe averitable race of glants Ulster. brought the Grail to Glastonbtry. Later. from which he was able to see lreland and so decided to go there. AJter a building Grailto Glastonbury fubry itwhueGlnstonbury churchJor of Grail he a Jamily nowstands. Jounded (MANUscRrpr c 1450 ILLUsTMnoN Guardians ) men and women was entirely cut off. Iubdan of to thedun Mackda ofthe"glant". Joseph allowed Christ's body to be placed in his own tomb. He even made Kirg Iubdan and his wife. this "good man took Our Lord's body berween his hands. and when Fergus Mac Leda put them on they grew to fit his feet exactly Echoes of the dny people in this lrish myth can be found in Jonathan Swift's novel. When his body was retumed to Spain. it disappeared and i$ recovery was the geatest quest for the lGrights of the Round Table. travel there in secret and try the porridge of the king of Ulster. The leader of this FoIh. was mken prisoner by Fergus No ransom offer proved acceptableto the king of Ulster. Fergus Mac Leda.one of theWee wasinclined to bragoJhtsgreatness. IUBDANbelow). Whoever wore these shoes was able to travel across the surface of water as if walking on dry land. Jealous of the reunion of the lovers. who received it with humble joy" I(AI. Tristan lost the will to live and threw himself on his sword before Iseult could land and reach his bedside. was Ith's uncle Mil. In one tradition. His own long life was said to have been due to the Grail. and offered it to Sir Galahad.rivers and wells were made foul and polluted. courtships and ill-fated lovers were always popular with the Celts. Unfortunately. He landed with ninery followers just after the TIJATIaDE DANANw had defeated the FOMORII at the second battle of Magh Tuireadh. to put a stop to this annoying habit his court poet told him that Ulsrcrwas a land of gians. or his brother-in-law Bron with his son Alan. a pair of magic shoes. the or ARIMATHEA JOSEPH inhis Chist'sbody manwho interred tohavebrought the isbeliorcd wwttomb. r39 . Gulliver's Travek. He was said to have magical powers: he could go nine days and nine nights without sleep and breathe for nine days and nine nighs under water I(AI KNY SCC invasion of lreland.(Seealso CELilC ROMANCE) IfH was said to have dwelt in a great towerin Spain. he couldgo for nine daysunderwaterand could grow as tall as a forest tree at will He was very gruf. ventured htsvalour. Stories of elopements. mills burned and during the nights the hair of (above). his sons swore to conquer the island. he is a Comishman and Arthur's foster-brother. Queen Bebo. for whom this late story of frustrated passion held great appeal. After a year and a day of this harassmentFergus Mac Leda eventually agreedto releaselubdan and Bebo.

shoohhiscourt and split the Fellowship of Knights Yet both loversare good but traglc portrayed by Mallory as essentially characters EvenArthur realizedthat Guinwere had beentrue to him inher way as a generous and by thar fatthful consort.it wentJar bqond what the courtlycode would have allow ed (MaNuscnrpr ILLUSTMTToN c I 400 ) in their Tnrsr. if not all. Sometimes of the rivals is young and handsome.u(above)ond Iseult snatcha tensemoment together romanceThq had gown obsessively attachedto one clandestine another after acctdentally dnnhing a lovephtltre intended for Iseultand her betrothed.as in the caseof Pwyll and Gwawl.the two suitors are simply rival admirers. expressing warmth and wisdom. Jraught with guilt and unrequited wTuRNBArr.such as raven-hairedNaoise.While all the characters are portrayedwith touching flaws.are quite as irresistibleas the ravishingCeltic beauties.q. or Diarmuid of the Love-Spot. talesinvolve a love trianglewith two men contestingone desirable one woman.while the other is an oppressive guardian.Most. AND . 1904) longrngs(Tmsren isoLDE ByA cnrvns. KingMarh of Cornwall Thedoomedlwers embarhed an a desperate and traglc romance. [-ANcEtor (above) and Guinevere's abidinglove t'or eachother woundedArthur.The attractiveyoung heroes.Deirdreand Fand. This recurrent rivalry probably q'mbolizesa seasonal battle betweena Lord of Summer and a Lord of Winter for the Spring Maiden. the heroinesemergeas sffong and independent women.and he was n6)er lessened love Here. one loved and the other despised.CELTIC ROMANCE HE LIVELyAND coMpELLINGcharacter of Celtic romance stems from the heated rivalries and passionsof the lovers. drama and colourful characters of timelessappeal. elsewhere. the couplehissat thar first meeting contnvedbyGalleotin an embroidered medionl setting Althoughtheir lwe grew out oJ the courtly tradition. Celtic love trianglescreate tension. as in the tale of Naoise and Conchobhar.

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War chaios pbyed altq rob in Celticbattle. chaioteq oJ Cuchulainn. Laeg's brother. Anhur conducted an unsuccessfulsiegeof Sir l-ancelot's castle in Brittany. Sir Lancelot and Guinevere met only once more before the knight renounced the ways of war to lead the life of a hermit.nc was GuCHUIAINN'S [eer. I-aegthrew himself in front of a spear aimed at his master Id. after muchJasting and down.g ARTHUR's Lancelot in the presence of King were other ltrights of the Round IJADUIBHNE. praying came dtlast to Carboneh. and l-aeg'sshllwas crucial to many of Cuchulainn's victories. When he tumed them all Ir{NCELOT.c 1900) SurnNcBvWFCALDERoN.cANv r42 . Ki. cetlts. reputation of Arthur's queen also handsome lrish warrior DIAKMIIID was suspicious and confronted Sir appeared unblemished. including Morgan LeFay. Although Sir l^ancelotmanaged to make a fightwho would be his "paramour". (Seealso CELilCROMANCE) IAEG. or carved the head into two parts. where she died. LE Arthur and Queen Guinevere. wtth diwer andwcrnor acting cs a single t9I6) By unit 04usrnrnoN J LEvENDEctcR. described as "the flower of knights". In the subsequent batde at Camlan. most of the Ituights of the Round Table were slain. however. but they eventually became atracdve to women. not unlike the lovers. He was known as Lancelot of the Lake because the I-:.dy of the [-ake had plunged him into a magic pool when he was a child Sir Lancelot. Then a second and more deadlychallenge to the hng's authoriry came from Sir Modred.demandingthathe oneof than tobe hs mistress choose (HowFounFArny FouttoLct{crlor QUEENS s. the truth.he All of Sir Lancelot's could not enterbutwas granted avision GUINEYERE too closehewasstruchby great adventures and exploits were Whenhestepped indeed informed by ths secretlove fire andleJt dazedfor 24 days (r-cNcn-or For a dme Queen Guineverewould REFUsED THE GneIL Bv E BuRNE-JoNrs. but there Once Ki. He was also a grearfriend and companion When FANDinvited Cuchulainn to the Land of Promise. "With such great force and Sir M?DRED There she demanded that he must Sir Lancelot smote Sir Meliagaunt to Guinevere's chamber and choose among four enchanresses on the helmet that the stroke surprised the lovers. near Salisbury. was very magic boat to AYALON. 1870 ) not allow Sir Lancelot to come to Honour seemedsausfiedand the her. his acdons effectivelysplit the Round Table and weakened the sffength of King Arthur's realm First." ing exit and severaldays later saved Queen Guineverefrom being bumt to death. drave the hero on allhis adventures. So SirAgravain led rwelve knighs kotght and shut him in a dungeon. Sir Meliagaunt. he sent Laeg before him to suwey the place During Cuchulainn's final and monal combat. mosthanikome and gJted IiNCELOT. attractd both monal anil immortal queens FourJairy queefls hae hdnap the sbeping hnight and hold himin thar castb. Queen Guinevere retneatedfrom the world and became a nun at Amesbury.g Arthur was mortally wounded and taken by a I-qNCELOT was one of the geatest and noblest knights in the Arthunan tales. The Celts were renowned in the ancient world for their skill in handling charios on the battlefield.CTITIC MYTHOLOGY charioI-q. of Arthur's hnights. A Table who could not accept this half-sister and enemy MORGAN FAYcast a spell over the sleeping tournament was held to discover judgement byarms.the the knight admitted his love for Grail Castle Bang tainted with sin. acted as scout and comrade andfinalty casthimselfin front of a sryar meantJorhismaster. his nephew. was charioteer to coNALL Caemach mistress.

q1984) LlR. foot or eye. Before delivering this decisive blow Lugh had circled andoafts. ITUO SCC NUDD god GOTBHNIU. On one occasion the sun god appearedin a magic mist. After a long search. including kicester in England. BLODEIIEDD. succeededin reaching Ethlinn and she bore Lugh as a result. But Cian. since his grandfather was the lrish one-eyed god neroR. Lugh's mother was ETHUNN. andbony. because over time "Little stooping Lugh'. With the help of his uncle GWYDION. tumed into the leprechaun. off the nonhwestem cozlstof Ireland. theraplndent Celtic the ledtheTwthaDeDatunnagainst Mbr. (l-rn's Carlpnnt ByJorDrDuNcAN. in Welsh mytholorywas the His motherlaid son ofARIAwRHoD.tg th" promise that he was to have no name unless she gave him one. Shakespeareprobably had the Welsh LIyr in mind when he wrote his tragedy Kngl-ear. Well before the final battle between the Tuatha De Danann and the Fomorii. the Fomorii champion. fell in love with inn IJR'Sfour lnely chrWrnwqe turned bykariulous stqmothq. Blodarcdd.r ByE wu:-:cousrrvs. the only daughrcr of Balor. includi. saved Lugh from Balor's wrath and raised him to manhood. he locked Ethlinn in a cryatal tov/er on Tory Island. though the wife conjured by Gurydion and was nearly his the magician lv0{TFI For this woman.CTITIC MYTHOLOGY r t Flll Qigh}hail n fitrn intoan uflc wlfe to a.Cian's brother. Lugh was himself pan FOMORII.lwirwntedtlu the enemy host on one foot and gd oJarts inwhkhhe game of fdchell. It would seem that. The Fomorii were sea gods who challenged the TUATFIA DEDANANNfor control of lreland. vwndcil and Hc hidin tlrcfczla. I9I2) Lamfhada ("of the Long Arm"). Lleu overcame all these taboos. When the guilry lovers smrck him.apehismurilnous . Lugh's final claim to fame is that his name became part of the term used to describe the fairy in lrish folklore. magician and god of healing. or Luchorpain. son of the Tuatha De Danann healrng god DIANIECHT. The De Danann leader NUADAstepped down in his favour. despite Sving his name to nuilny places. and Lugh sent his shot smashing into the eye the moment itwas opened. a series of curses upon him. Thus Balor died and the Fomorii scattered. Lugh's proweas tls a warrior had been recognized. the tiny guardian of hidden treasure and the expert cobbler. undoing. no weapons unless she provided them and no wife of the human race. or Llyr in Welsh.. who was known as Lleu in Wales and as Lugos in France. with the result that its tenible gaze fell upon the Fomorii ranks behind. Balor's eYe was forced back through his head.The sun god was believed to have fought alongside his hard-pressed son during Queen MEDBof Connacht's invasion of Ulster. As sling-shot whomhe sW with hismagtrc another man and plotted Lleu's death. paralprng stare. Either the seagod I&{NANNANlvt{C LIR or the smith with a sling-shot. Lugh became known as r43 . This ingenuiry may account for Lugh's introduction as the father of Cuchulainn in the more historical sagas. otusrnefloN 44y I r. For swans andhunga 9A0yun tlvy adureilcoW wik tluir in W waters. ilNvtrs. named Lleu of the Skilful Hand. LLEU. like the Ulster hero cUcHULAtNNand the berserkers of Germanic mythology. thq waebent humanfomt. He was alwala described as a young and handsome wanior. 0uusrn rnor. clnrminglXtenm ranrd a Whatat Last poignant song. I 912 ) the Fomorii in general and oneeyed Balor in particular. an altemative name for Lugh was Samildanach ("the many-shlled"). theywere sometimes described as having only a single hand. the father of T.t.IANANNAN Manx seagod. god. the battlefrenzy gnpped Lugh in such away that one eye disappeared into his head while the other expanded into a hideous. restored him to human form and healed his wounds. popularboard with one eye closed. dmn starnnguntil Gwydionlurdhim Blodadd andratord himn healtlu By wasturnd intnan anl. Gwydion found him. was the lr{c uR. Quite possibly this great victory represented the rise of youngergods amongst the Tuatha De Danann themselves.who raised him. Indeed. Because a prophecy had said that Balor would be hlled by his own grandson. After Cuchulainn's death his foster-brother coNALL claimed to have received help from Lugh when he chased Cuchulainn's killers. Balor's own single eyelid had to be raised by four servants. a magic circuit that copied the single-leggednessof ucelled. sun LllGH. for the youthful Lugh felled Balor with a more modem weapon than DAGDA's ancient club. Althouglr Lirwas also a sea god he is hardly mendoned in mytholory. and at the second battle of Magh Tuireadh Lugh fulfilled the prophecy of Balor's death when he killed him LUCH was the Irish name for the Celtic sun god. Lleu rose into the airin the shape of an eagle. Fotnuiibn W hisgranilfathu.

they killed him. Macha cursed all Ulstermen to suffer the pain of childbinh for five days and five nights whenever the kingdom was in danger.since only he was able to control the hound which cuLHwcH needed to win the hand of orwEnr. Machawon the race and gave birth to twins. ) his foster-mothertook him to see his true mother and his parentage Ulster. He was killed shortly afterwards by raiders from I|{ABON. ran after the king's chariot build. was said to have been abducted when only three nights old and imprisoned in Gloucester However. a the unfortunate nun. the god of prophecy. he duly helped to capture rhe wild boar rwRCH TRwYTH with the aid of the hound and to take from between the boar's ears the razor Ulster threatened to execute her husband if she did not race. who was incorporated in Welsh mythology as a warrior once his worship was all but forgotten The Romansknew of Maponos.the favourable days for him to relling. Mac Da Tho promised both these rulers that they could have was revealed. wastheyouthful overseas.oe 1994 that he was not reallywell bom that Gnev. though heavy with child. whom they equated with Apollo. including Medb and CONCHOBHARMAC NE55A. looted a church and raped a nun.king of that Olwen's father had demanded. . and many of his neighbours coveted these animals. to was inhabited by murderers. the actions of Mabon are uncertain. Mac Cecht and his brothers could not decide whether to divide Ireland berween them and so they consulted a stranger named ItH.MORRIGAN ANdruTUNIN ShC voyage of revenge first mamed Nemed. l-argebirds that. suggesdngthat he may have been a former god. hewas The nun gavebinh to Maeldun and also theclassical godApollo equated. often identified with he sailed on his long and strange BADB. in contrast ro the fundamenully pre-Christian mphical voyage of the earlier BRaN. though nearhqterm. to which he his father. the ants almost devoured after her boastful husband said the crew and the boat. Maeldun was soon retreated When the hound. and ordered the inhabitants to celebratethis choice each August. It was only shilbd huntqamong Anhur's champions when children taunted Maeldun (Iuusrnenox syMl&qr. possibly even London: the Roman Londinium may havederived from Lugdunum IMenON. she living on another island were found could outrun all the king's horses to pose no threat. Lugdunum ("the fortressof Lug") The Roman emperor Augusrus made it the capital of the provinces of Gaul. He owned a fine hound and a huge boar.1910) 0[usrpcflol second battle of Magh Tuireadh. a Scythian The first island Maeldun came ru1er who defeated the FOMORII. a Celtic god of youth. son of the Welsh dMne mother Modron. Suspecting from his responsethat he had designson conquenng the island himself.r. and slaughtered the three of his foster-brothersto find boar to provide a feast. thus provoking the invasion of the sons of MILESIUS Dn THO was king of MAC Leinster at the time that MEDB was queen of Connacht.He then set out with the hound. oJlJkter's greatest needThebitter curse stemmed If4eC CnCnf was the trish god by the Jromhq ill-treatment Uktermenwhen. but the latter father's death.CTITIC MyTHoLoGY LUCUS was the name used in Britain and France for a god very similar to rhe Irish rucn and the Welsh lmu His importance can be judged from the old name for Lyon. Maeldun's fatherwas a chieftain of the Aran lslands who attacked the Irish mainland. Next they landed upon an second battle of Magh Tuireadh. advisedbya druid as to which were over which rhey had been quar. which is said to be the reasonfor calling the fortress of the Ulster hngs Emain Macha ("Macha's Twins"). as large as later Macha laid a curse on Ulster horses. goddesses. MeflPUN.The late saga that describes his voyage is a mixture of Christian and preChristian ideas. Welsh love god A SrJtdmt$iirrrn.in all likelihood Vihngs.she of eloquenceand the son of. but the sea gods who slew her second apparently not the killers of his husband NUADA and herselfat the father.wrth the child was fostered by the local AlthoughJorgottan asa god. launch and sail a threehis charioteer cut off its head skinned coracle Then. Apart from adventureslike this. The god's name was used for many other place names.. only to leam that he had invited them Fighting broke out been murdered Determined to avenge his between the Ulster king and the men of Connacht. possibly Maponos.ocue wasJorced to race toprweabet onJoot After NUADA had been hlled at the ry SmpHrruPe:. the month in which the feasrof rhe Celtic sun god Lugus occurred. or Mael Duin. an expedition was mounted to release Mabon Once free. A isle of enorrnous an$. sdll accompanied by his foster-brothers and MnCHe was one of the Irish war also a crew of seventeenwarriors. Maponos ruler's wife. was one of the geat lrish voyagers. who was the sister of survwed inWekhmyth asMabon.or Maponos. however They and chariots When the king of even provided the voyagers with MACHAcursed theUktermen to suft'er the painof childbirth at thetime forfive days.

which was covered with orchards of delicious apples. outtosea. and a hermit who lived on salmon that was given by * otter and half a loaf provided each day by angels. Among other strange creanrres and encounters on the voyage were gigantic swine and calves so huge that they could not be cooked whole.r ME{ER" 1991) IA{EIDUN. Asthey wiled flungJar thrugh themah. an underwaterisland of prophecy. Maeldun caught up with his farher's killers. rwolving fire. aghast. beer and wine. silver. so it was with some relief thar Maeldun and his companions landed on the Island of the House of rhe Salmon. Evenrually.(tuusrntnoN By D. from which the voyagerscut offa small piece as a souvenir. a sea of clouds in which casdes.. a sea of glass. a solitary pilgrim on a tiny island that was enlarged every year by divine providence. Similar lunrry was encountered on the next isle. onhs qk voyagt. bur they pleaded for mercy and a peace was agreed. Two subsequent islands of monsrous. gigantic honsesproved to be even more dangerous.crylng birds. on islands that werc populated by rwohing beasrs.tpur. animals and a fearsome monster suddenly appeared. glant smiths. intoxicating fruits. fighting horses.Thus ended thevoyage that was said to contain "the sum of the wisdom of lreland". Heobwvcdilouriytlut tlv am synrblizd atlttwt nnbegrydgd each othcr. A regular supply of fresh salmon was provided by a device that periodically threw fish into rhe house from the sea. There theydiscovered an uninhabi. Danger w. Thevoyagm. as well as comfonable beds. contagious laughter. sheep rhat changed the colour of their wool apparenrly ar will. stoppcn by tlrcblah slandof tlv mill (abarc) tylwe lived a glaot"y milla grtmly gnnding mounds of cant.wa ilrapeilwrth a silvqnet. a casde with a glass bridge where there lived a beautiful girl who rejecred Maeldun's advances. IdAEI^DUNOeloul) andhrs sailon silvr column rising foundawondrous straightfrom thesea. an island divided inro four hngdoms by fences made of gold. a wonderful founrain that gushed milk. ted house with food and drink. the offer of etemal youth on one island which was inhabited by a queen and her daughters. awairing them. lts summit.fiutsntnoN SYALAN lrq 198{ ) meat.fores6. an amazing water-arch. a sombre miller who ground everything that was begrudged in the world. however. a population of moumers. (See also FABULOUS VOYAGES) MAEVE see MEDB.Crlrrc MyrHoLocY on top of a pedestal. a mpterious car and fierysvine. The ground on one of them was hot like a volcano. a gigandc silver column and net. *ild 6tttty. brass and crysral. Aurnan hached of a piece u proofoJke tale. an inaccessible island L15 .lost in tlres}1.ts soon encountered again.

beside gneJ atTnstan's death Marh. but his fields were stripped by mice He caught one of the mice and would have hanged it. Manawydan asked for the retum of Rhiannon and Pryderi. which is situated in the Insh Sea about halfway berween Ireland and Bntain Manannan was a seagod. so they travelled to England.0[usrnenoru MenI( was the king of Comwall in rhe Breton myth of mtstaN and He was the guardian of his ISEULT. a magician and friend of Gwawl. MONGAN. ro. thel'ish sea MANANNAN. He o<changed the sword for his own and left without waking them. he was not endrely unsympathetic. thar tnp 0uustn rtotr BYMIMNDA Gru''t. where he lived in Emhain ("of the Apple Trees") His home was imagrned to be sited off the western coast of Ireland.CTITIC MYTHOLOGY Mec LlR. were enveloped in a magical mist When it cleared. He had both divrne and mortal children. Ieaving Cigfa and Manawydan alone. Iinla with the seawere far lesswell rin defined The brother of nReru and nnaxwnN. the suitorwhom Rhiannon had refused in order to marry Pwyll (Seealso MAGICANDENCFIANTMENT) IvIePoNoS seeMABoN MANAWYDAN (abwe) tiedto grwv IUARK belw) watchessadly ashrswtJe. boat in a self-propelled rode thewaves "Wave god. and the ruler of the Land of Promise. 1991) MmtnWYOeN.c 1900 BY ) ouusrnnnoN wheat aJtu a my stanousblight had devastatedhtsland Onefield was npe for hawestwhanwernight itwu stipped to the stalluby mice In dupair. inherit supematural gifs. herselJwrth ponrayd a a muctfulman. somewhere in the Atlantic Ocean His wife was the renowned beaury FAND. RussELr Fum. hneek beforea drawn sttord. who drove a chariot as easily over the waves as over a plain and was said to have a ship that sailed itself. took his name from the lsie of Man. he married BLES5ED on the death of her husRHIANNON band PvwLL. Mongan did. tovoyagers. and even when he came upon the lovers sleeping together with Trisun's sword between them he did not kill them. Shamed by this act o[ mercy. stirup or soothe couW Manannan appeared Heoften ships orhinder andhelp at theoutvt oJ such asBran. an Irish princess. So successfulwere theY that the local craftsmen forced them to leave.he planned to hangone of the mice. along with Rhiannon's son PRlDrru and his wife Cigfa. sonof Llyr.and he went on to become a greatking and mighry warrior god.t MANANNAN of the lrish sea god ttR. 1984 BYAIAN ) strangcr. and one of his mortal sons. Manannan therefore shook a magic cloak benveen Fand and Cuchulainn in order to make sure they would never meet again Manannan Mac Lir was a noble and handsome warrior.). whowa oJten up andborehr off to a touter gatheredher where shewasrestoredtohealth. He then ried to support them by growing a crop of wheat. Isath. Tristan solemnly retumed lseult to his uncle and went into exile in BritunY. where Manawydan and Pryderi made a lMng as leatherworkers. was conceived by way of a decePtion similar to the ruse used for conception Manannan ARTHUR's slept with an Ulster queen when disguisedas her husband.was of the Irish rheWelshequivalent though his sea god MANANNAN. both Pryderi and Rhiannon disappearedby magrc. magician and healer. however. a sea '4s Sweeper" called thesea. Although jealous of Tristan and lseult. including the abiliry to shapechange. One day he and Rhiannon.who fell in love with but the Ulster hero CUCHULAINN finally chose to stay with her sea god husband. their palace was deserted and the land around it desolate. orphaned nephew Tristan and the husband of Iseult.@elou. . On their return to Wales. until drssuadedbya Lez. but a passing stranger offered him whatever he wanted in return for the mouse's life. The stranger agreed and revealedhimself to be Llwyd. the lovers knew that they must part.

no He very carefully measured the king could reign in Connachr exact distance between the spot unless he was married to Medb. rhe son forehead using his sling-shot Thus of King CONCHOBHARMAC NESSA. Math could only live if his feet were held in the lap of a virgin. also known as Maeve. one of his nephews. nearly all the Brirons were hlled and all of the Irish except for five pregnant women. IMruCN t+7 . in welsh myrhology. GWYDION. was the lrish kingmarried to BMNWEN. their earsto their heads. brocaded shieW asa in whichCuchulainn andothq hqoes lost sign ofpeace ByAr Nt-ze. becausehe claimed that he had not been consulted over Branwen's wedding. he stealthily made brown bull of Cuailgne and killed his way back to the pool and hir the Ulster hero CUCHULAINN She Queen Medb in the centre of her was herselfslain by Forbai. where she bathed and the shore. Efnisien tossed Matholwch's three-year-old son GwERNinto a fire In the battle that followed.themagnifcantbut malanlent queen was of Connarht. 1984) thar lwa 0uusrnenoru 0uusrnenor. Efnisien.and their tails ro their bodies" Later. Except during war. 1916 ) MATHOLWCH'SAqDconvoy uJships glides up to theraggedWelsh in the shore MAIH was rhe brother of rhe Welsh mother goddessDoN and a great magician At the time that PRYDERI ruled over Dyfed in the southem part of Wales. his brother. distance Satisfied ar last rhat his when her forcescaptured rhe geat aim was perfect. fell in love with the young woman who held Math's feet in her lap. thebeautifuI sistr dJ A wiWandwiful woman. however.r ByJ LEyENDEctcR . "cut off the lips of Matholwch's horsesat their tecth. Math was the lord of Gwynedd in the north. a prelude to a doomedmarnagebetwean warnor who as Jought fiucelyasMorigan himself andBranwen. SCC FABULOI) S VOYAGES while she was bathing in a pool Forbai had discovered that Queen MEDB. precipitated she BrantheBlessed Theshipshad arignsof andpapetuated thebloody war withUkter silh andanuptilted. Medb's most famous the top of a pole over the same action was the invasion of Ulster. the sister of nRaru tle BLESSED and half-sisterof rnvlsrEN. ft stronghold of Emain Macha and was also said that she "never was practised with a sling-shot until he wrthout one man in the shadow of was able to knock an apple from another".CIITIC MyTHoLoGY MEDB (abwe). who was believed to hold the hngthen he returned to the Ulster dom's sovereignryin her person.was Medb was in the habit of regularly the wamor-queen of Connacht taking her bath in a Galway pool According to lrish mythology. the furious Math turned his nephews into animals IM.qrHoLwCH. When Gilvaethwy. was Ulster revenged. tncked Math into going to war wrth Pryderi so that the girl might be left behind On discovering that he had been deceived. when Bran took his army to Ireland to avenge the insult of Branwen being made a cook.

armedwith spears and crestedhelmets Thar comrades onJoot wear breeches and caps. In addition to the basic weapons of spear. sling and shield. the hero of legend had recourse to magical skills and a range of enchanted weaponS. he suf ued from chroniclach of sleep. the Ulster champion fought in single combat every day with a different warrior. sword.Shortage pitched battles. castthe hero into a magpcal sleep Jor three and nights. the originalExcalibur. njoys a short rupite betweenbattles fuhausted by continual combat. chosenchampions the restlesshqo harassed the army with his rnoNBy YvoNN r Gr:flenr. pitying him. The Celtswereheavilyreliant on thar long shields. duelled to the death.culDnot'r. Arthur's mounted knights encased themselvesin glittering iron. hisfather Lugh. In the Arthurian legends. Even in a large-scaleepic war.Instead. he confronted oneby one Betweenduels. snatchingcat-naps beween dueb Once.andbear spears and. long bossed shields. like the campaign of Cuailgne. c 100 BC) . 1991 sling {trrusrn ) Crrrrc Clernv (ngh) ide their battlehorses to war. While the Celtic heroes wore scant arrnour.such as Cuchulainn or Morholt.SINGLE COMBAT N wAR.THEANCIENT CElrs relied on heroic single combat. Cucnu-uttN Aeft). GTLDED srLVER.single combat continued in the form of Ltghtly jousts.while trumpetersbnngup the rear.dunngwhichhehealedallhs days wounds When Cuchulainn deJaded Wtr abne against theforces of Medb.which were usually made oJwood and sometimes cwered with decorativebronze worh Other sharp-rimmed shields could ako be used as missile (Gulotsrnup weApOnS C. such as Arthur's Excalibur or Fergus Mac Roth's Caladcholg. chosenchampions.as a meansof settling disputes. rarher than all-out gf manpowerforbademultiple warfare. the Insh champion.

/rror/ G o a c l e t lr r n h . ' n t ..'1 thc forlress rrttlls anc/ rrt. ) t ' + .:trrlt'J thc { c i l r t t r r t l C c l t h l . Ltrr'urn prr-shcdhrs pct hrri la l n t i r t l ' r (f ' ( r r 1 r a \ sh .lrl hrnr cornrcdc-rn urlrs In thts unequal rnatth. lldnl ilLisll'ilrntng untrl ()rrlrn s cir'ft'rrr c \\'hcn rhc .qrtrntconrp/rrrn.i r i \ . o n d .'1 . t h c r r s e .Eng. \ \ l r .. . macle h thc irnrght -s. u r n ' sh o n l c a p t t . tht ( ) w . rrt rhc rnt'prrssrhl. b u t s p a r c L l t h t hntght ilri 'rRliii)\3)4i 1\ Iri 1984 O w ' : r t l ' S ( h c l o u ' ) l t i t r J n c s s[ t r i ] i l r r n t r l l t r i tt lathlul /rrcnr. c l l. g hi / r r rr'crr' n()r ftrr hrs lton. rrc(iIr{r( /t1l.:/ t h a t h c r o u l d i r t t n d l t ' ( h r r r r r r r .u. u ..irrho prorcr-l to bt u rtrftt. .urnt'r't'rc's hanclmattlen.slr.CTITIC MyTHoLoGY lntrnI dn drdn. . r i \ r k 1 i i .1.ttrl Gtutnt'-s rLlgc gcrvc hrrn t h e d g e u n c l h e ( ) r c r ( ( i m e. l . s h o t h i h u m f r t r r r s fought trrcles.'.ln rnsull trr (.

until it was leamed that a beautiful girl was with child by a demon The child tumed out to be was Merlin. one oJthe Tuatha De at the palaceoJTara to Danann. somerimesMyrddin. by disguising him as her husband Due to this deception Arthur was conceived Once he ascendedthe throne. she bound him the fortressbecauseit is likely that in stone by his own spells {trlrmrN ANDNIMUE Merlin was able to deal with the BYE BURNE-/ONE5. the daughter of Beothach She becamefurious with jealousywhen Midir mamed a secondwife. Rrir.CTITIC MyTHOLOGY MfnltN. 1984 ) MIDIR (nght). Midir alwaysappeared as a splendidly dressed young man Midir's first wife was Fuamnach. an Ulster warrior. and when done. whose father UTHER was said to have sucPENDMGON cessfullyinvaded Bntain about this time Merlin sided with Uther and employed his powers to enablehim to sleep with lgraine. in Insh mythology. alate copy of which can still be seenat Winchester today Merlin's birth was the subject of a strange story Apparently. he had to accept in the end that she was the High King's consort and leaveher alone Midir also had some difficulty in acceptinghis father's successorsas leadersof the TUATIIADE DANANN The conflict that he started seems to have had a dangerouslyweakening effect on this generationof godsjust before the invasion of the Milesians. and now no one can set me free. Either Viviane. was the famous wizardof Arthunan mythology So powerful was his magic that one medieval tradition credits him with the magical conthe outstruction of Stonehenge. would never be safe until the ground rhere had been soaked by the blood of a child who had no MERLIN QeJ). ETAIN. possibly the Lady of the l-ake. imprisoned him in an enchanted wood after Merlin had explained all about the secrets of his own magic As who once Merlin told Sir GAWAIN. being the only knight wonhy enough to see the GRAIL Merlin sat down and was at once swallowed up by the earth.aN LEE.g Arthur. cANVAs.OR MILE SCC t50 . MILE5IU5 MTT. Fuamnach tumed Emin first into a pool. the Ulsterwoman he loved. he pleased There are various accounts of Meriin's death One tells how the wtzard forgot about the seat at the Round Table thar only GAIAHAD could use.ke bewitchedby toher She sapped powers inherited from his demon turnedhislove own ends ofsecret father Somehow the boy did not hts power andplunderedhis store need to be sacnficedfor the sakeof hnowledge. sage Jrom anotlier world. still possessed thehdy oJthel-a. lost to him by enchantmentThe long since pair dnfted upwardsand disappeared andJlewto an througha palacewindow. who.a andJaithJulfnend to three wise counsellor portrayal captures ablehings This powerJul the mysticaland visionarynature of Celtic bards. responsible for the problem This mixture of pre-Chnstian and Christian ideas sits strangely with Merlin's later assistanceto Ki. standing British monument rhat has survived from ancient times Another of his worl<swas supposed to be KingARTHUR's famous Round Table. the gods Unlike his father. and I taught my beloved how to bind me to herself.who then went on to defeatthe gods. who is usua\ ponrayed asa rough. as wrth many of the Celtic gods and godhe could assumeany shape desses. then into a worrn and finally into a fly in order to keep her away from Midir fu a fly Etain was swallowed by the wife of Etar. fabulous who Christian. was father of rhe proud son of DAGDA. coarse figure. c 1870 ) problem by means of magic Two dragonswere. in fact. and reborn as the wife of the High King of lreland Although Midir recoveredEtain. for allhiswisdom. appeared carry off Etain. was an inspiredseerand mysticmage. from Ulster With a druid's aid." (See AND MAGIC AND5EER5: also SAGES ENCHANTMENT) MIDIR. King Arthur had Merlin as his trusted advisor and often used the wizard as a messengerbecause. possibly near Stonehenge. though baptized as a MERLINbelow). passedby: "l am also the greatest fool I love another more than I love myself. the wife of a Cornish nobleman. the daughter of a Sicilian siren. the Bntons were toid that a great fortressthey had built on Salisbury plain. CANvAs. 1910 By SrEpHEN otherworld (Ir-rusrnarroN ) mortal father Such a half-human sacrifice seemed impossible to achieve.rootedin a deepffinity with nature (Mgnrru BY Ar. or Nimue. like other sinful men who had tried it before him Another story blames the wrzard's death on his passion for women.

somerimes Mil or and mention in particular the Mile. was fought nearSalisburyandmosr Morgan le Faywas one of the three of the Iftrighs of the Round Table women who took the grievously were killed. his deJeating the other accountshe retainedhis own familysucceeded. often Danann retired to an otherworld plotting his downfall According to beneath the soil of Ireland one story she is supposed to have stolen the magic sword Excalibur MOOnfD was the treacherous and sent it to Accolon. Ith. the [-and of Promise. c 1910 ) r5r .1864) e). Arthur' s treacherous MODRED (abov abusedhisroleof regentand nephew.whowas slainby Mongan then retumed to lreland theTuathaDe Danann."the people of the Accolon of Gaul. When Mongan was three days old.asArthur's yet also his guardian in death thom in liJe. bat.CeITIC MYTHOLOGY MONCnN was the son of rhe Manx seagod MANANNAN MACLIR.which the Le Fay is always depicted as the Milesians won. Arthur to quash usurpedthe throne. but his schemingnephew other lcright admitted his guilt and tried instead to uke the rhrone and surrendered However. wooo. but in himself. wounded king in a black boar to Arthur. rulers Ireland reincamatedas FINMACCOOL. at a conyent. According to Irish mythology. 19.10 describe how he used his shape) changing abiliry to get his own way. his conception had been made possible by the use of a deception akin to the one used by MERLIN so that UTHER could sleepwith Igaine and so conceive ARTHURManannan Mac Lir had assumedthe shape of an Ulster king in order to sleep with his beautiful queen. a terrible battle rebellious nephew Sir MoDRED. his father took him to one of his otherworld realms. the British myths that tell of Following the final decisivebattle Arthur's incredible reign Morgan bet'ween the two forces. CANVA5. was the name given to a recovery of his wife Dubh Lacha Spanish soldier whose sons were He had inherited the divine abiliry said to have organized the final of metamorphosisfrom his father invasion of Ireland The murder there of their kinsman ITH caused MOnCnN LE FnY was King the Milesians to take revenge by ARTHUR's haif-sisterand in some conquering the island This rhey versionsof the story she is said to achieved by defeating the TLTATHA have been the mistress of Sir DE DANANN. SINGLE SAGESAND COMBAT) MORGAN LE FAYS (below)paradoncal nature is relectedin her dual roleas both healerand dorh maglcian. after the force GUINEVERE to marry him. DeDanann whoretreated intoan invisible identity The storiesabout Mongan (luusrnenoru otherworld sy SEpHriv Rrro. oJ the Although Milesius did notreach shore famousleaderof the FIANNA. On bloody battle against Arthur's the king's return. who then nephew of King ARTHUR While he challengedArthur to single comwas away waging war in Brirtany. was then mken ro AVALoNin a black boat by three mysterious women Queen of Northgales and the Queen of Wastelands" (Seealso 5EER5. the Tuatha De king's implacable enemy.she Althougheducated managedto emerge as a glftedmagcian (MoncnN LE FAy ByA SANDys. where the boy remained until he had grown to manhood. who had been mortally AyALONThe other two were "the wounded during the battle. the exisdngrulers. including Modred. Throughout all goddessDana". MtlfStUS. It is MILESIUSsails toavenge the claimed by some traditions that Jorlreland death oJhis nephew. When Accolon dropped the Arthur had appointed Modred his sword Arthur recognzed it and the regent. t'orcing the rebel Jorces Bothpmshed in theJrnal battle that endedthe war and so cameto an AND end theArthuian golden4gc (ARTHUR MODRED gy W Hetutmtl.

Naoise and his two brothers would be a naked man walking MEDB's forces. suaded him to run away with her the lrish capital. untilthq wqe lurd bach crw. shnehing and Jlappingher Mac an unsuspectingFrgus in lrelandby death.the Ulster ruler during the Iifetime of the hero CUCHUL{INN. Nemain was said to have been the wife of NUADA. but in anger he had even wounded her. in Irish mythology. w6 an Irish goddess of a mortnlblowto htshelm. them all home. or to signtfiimminant as hqe (lLnrsrulrn ay Srrprer Ren. becoming the River Boyne. but not before he had been wounded by the giant's great poisoned sword. Cuchulainn aheap ofbbody she nnsed andwailingw hero to thegreat raiment fulongng Bv Rno. to whom King Mark and Cornwall were expected to pay an annual tribute. FERGU S NIAC ROTH. Conaire was told to undress and retum home to Tara on foot. the waters rose from the ground and chased afrer her. avErnrw death on the batdefield who helped oJword inhisbrain 0uusrncnoN Ptw c 1%)0. and Along with nenp. werping a washer saw combat.theyoungTistan fought theolderhmght lionanddealt lilu amighty MOnTGAN. to them.) the TUATHADE DANANNat both of war deities who sometimes appeared as beautiful young women and sometimes as crows. theInshchampion. carrying only his sling. theCornish sistEr ISEULT greater Morholt's his poisoned wound. Unknown to and as such she settled in triumph on the shoulder of the Ulster hero so that she could avoid maniage to Conaire. Conchobhar had Naoise Scotlnnd. to which only Nechtan and his three cup-bearers had access. Conchobhar. was the mother of CONCHOBHARMAC NEssA. cetuneP. introduced himself to Conaire as his real father Nemglan.theterible goddess of war. The leader of these incredible warriors. promise that no harm would come NAOISEelopes to thesea MORRIGAN. one sometimes asawashrat war. so excellent was his rule. in a duel nmcomer. screeching over the batdefield. thq foundrefuge andhunted Ness. but Mess Buachalla was careful to wam the boy that he must never. Before he died. hll a bird. in lrish mythology. On the eve of the wedding. and so enraged was Fergus Loch futtb. Nemglan came to her in a bird shn and seduced her. Fergus Mac Roth was so in love with her that he readily agreed.CTITIC MYTHOLOGY an Irish bird god. somedmesknown lodgng a piece as Monigu. ovq InshtaxesDespite pmlerand shill. It happened one day sent FERGUS onlyrefused Monigan's love. would be able to cure Tistan. He therefore sailed to Ireland and succeeded in hlling Morholt. Usna and his wife Elbha. 1910) Roth. smrednethead(Ea raven trap to a deadly winSs to of Conchobhar's great enemy. Conchobhar along the road to Tara with a sling MAC ROTHto bring in his hand. Suspicious of that Conaire was driving his charFor such a deed his fate was sealed. she would agee to the match only on the condidon that her son should be allowed to rule Ulster for one year. 0uusrnrfloNANoN) was the gigandc MOnHOm brother of the king of lreland. whatever the circumsmncesmrght be. Mark's nephew TRISTAN was determined to put an end to this practice.Cuchulainn had not fled with her to Alba. When batdes of Magh Tuireadh.the successionwas raised in Tara. conJronts Morholt told Tristan that only his MORHOLT. with herJavourites Most killed. fell in love with Mess Buachalla. succeeded to the throne and proposed marriage to Nessa. When DEIRDRE Her favourite form was the crow. He thus became the next High King of Ireland. associated with the other war NnOmn deities MACHA. was an trish warer NeCHfeN god and. he loaded his sling.High Kingof lreland. scare thehost. daughter Etersceldied and the question of per. NfnACUtN. the leader of the DE DANANN. siding blss lrrng in pastoral oftenshe or Mac Roth that he joined the forces deqanil salmon.BADB and rurunlru. Forgemng his mother's instnrcdon never to harm any bird. NESSA.appeared BeJore hrsLrst presaglngdoom theford. 1910 STEPHEN ) 0rrusrprnoru iot down this very road when a flock of birds with beautiful plumage descended upon him. she formed one of a goup r52 . Naoise agreed. She was was rhe eldest son of Conaire Mor was a young man. according to some versions. the husband of BoANN On Nechtan's hill there was a holywell that was the source of all knowledge. To make up for his misconduct towards the birds. but trusting Fergus' with thegreatIrch beauty. there was a prophecy to the Ulster hng COwCHOBHARMACthe effect that Eterscel'ssuccessor CUCHUIAINNwhen he was finally killed in the war against Queen NEssA. However. When Boann found herway to the well. was a goddess of war. (whose name means NguetN "dreadful" or "venomous"). Nessa'shusband was King Fachma of Ulster and when the king died his half-brother.but at the end of the year the people of Ulster refused to let Conchobhar step down from the throne. however. the berothed of Eterscel. MORRIGAN MACIuA. In the Dardre fhry fled across pursuedby Fqgus MacRothBy appeared sometimes asawarnorin a event. at which point the birds immediately tumed into armed warriors. Queen MEDB of Connacht. of. TUATHA of oJthedrmdfulgoddesses NElt{IN. and this was how she conceived corualRnMoR The child was passed off as High King Eterscel'sson.

who BEil-E. Niamh nursed him and Fomorii Bres complained to his hnsmen about his treatment. gods who were soon to challenge them at the second batde of Magh Tuireadh. whose magrc hounds were also believed to be able to cure the worshipped dursick. 1995) BvNrcK Mor. Niam bore the poet a daughter.Whrle CUCHTIIAINN recoveringfrom wounds sustained Ieadercausedthe second battle of during the war against the men of Magh Tuireadh. youthLilu kla andDanaebeforeher. because of a temporury replacementfor a hand he lost at the lirst battle of Magh Tuireadh. becamehis mistress She then ried At the second battle the lethal to prevent him retuming to battle But the witch BADB. The silver replacementwas to reveal abeauttful plumage moulted But Nuada she made by DIANCECHT.or IJud. the nrins of a great temple have been found on the banks of the River Sevem. NUADA. oJ meadinba pitdugthrou$tthecantre the earth 0uusrnrnor ByAuN l. For a while berween the anotherabirdgodJrom NEMGITIN. Danann leader. Nodens wurs ing the Roman occupation.z. there is no doubt. Nuada is cognate with rhe Welsh NUDD NUDD. also known as Nuada Airgedamh ("Nuada of the Silver Hand"). Iove wrth the poet oISlNand they Iived happily together in the L-and of Promise. Conaire was dissatisfiedwith it and umed god lwedthe andborehim to Dian Cechr's son Miach. hand. also known as Llud to the Britons. a son. cast a spell and Nemain before the sun god destroyeditwith a sling-shot on Niamh so that she wandered LIJGH away into the counrryside Badb Their victory saved the Tuatha De Danann. was an important Irish god and DANANN Ieader of the TI]ATHADE The De He was mamed to NEMAIN. Buachallabeiorehu nvo battles. because the halfConnacht.one of the eye of BALoRkilled both Nuada daughters of.his as leaderbecauseof the loss of his . Nnu oF Tnr GolnnN Hetn was a daughter of the sea She fell in god uerueNNANMACLIR. and round his head a wheel of light pulsed and beat with changing colours". is the Welsh equivalent of He also had a silver hand.which was one of the otherworld realms.Nuada appointed nnrs world. He is described as sitting on his throne "with a white light about him as it had been a fleeceof silver. Danann were a younger generation the sea of gods than the FOMORII. he became NUADAof the Silver Hand and in Wales NUDD of the Silver Hand.ruled a strange MayEve whatitwasplnguedby thattwosubtenanean scrarmIt transpired duingan scream dragow causelthe sinhing Thq wqesoothedby annunlbattb. to Mess came in. ln lreland.ceumtN.(IuusrntnoN made him a new hand of flesh and was rhe wife of coNALL blood Dian Cecht slew Miach out NHUH was of jealousy. known as Llud to the Bridsh. but later they in tum were then assumed the form of Niamh and told Cuchulainn that he must defearedby the sons of MILESIUS That Nuada was the great De retum to the war and fight.. and in one tale was lanown as Llud Llawereint (" silver-handed") Bitain at a time NUDD. sheJlav weddingto theHighKing. 1981) r53 .CTITIC MYTHOLOGY NUnnn. Nuada's restoration as Caemach. Plur nam Ban ("Flower of Woman") NOPENS was a British god of healing.

This out success Eventuallyhe gaveup made OGMA. god Ogham scipt. which followed them on the safely shut in by steep cliffs. the son of rhe Fenian. and for months neither of them stirred from their dwelling Then news amved of invaders in ships off Dublin. butwiththe granddaughter of oecoe. Finn exhausted animal stopped and MacCool and the other hunsmen croucheddown on the gound. the earliestsystem of wriring used in lreland. consisting oJ vertical lines crossing a lateral baseline Ogham messages were carved onstone and inscibed andwands or onbarhs oJhazel aspen Ovr 400ancient messages have By NrcK 1995 suw|ed(Irrusrnerroru BMLE. Ogma's task the idea of the transmigration of was a happier one since rhe Celtic souls from their Celdc neighbours otherworld was a delightful and In the sixth century sc the famous peacefulresdng-placefor the soul and unusual Greek philosopher prior to irs next rebirth in rhe $nhagoras left the Aegean island of world It is thought rhar Greek Samosand went to live in the city colonists in the westem end of the of Croton in southem Italy He becameexremely interestedin the OISINandthefairy maiden. invented the OGMA.CTITIC MyrHoLoGY OGMA *as the Irish god of eloquence and the inventor of Ogham. then all the enchantmen$ would ceaseto have power and she could resumeher normal shape So it came to passthat Sadb iived with Finn MacCool as his misress.4rroru BySTEPHEN REID. After the temble batde was over and the De Danann were victorious. the Irish capital and hounds were. however. he discovered that Sadb IeaderFINNMACCIIL According had been lured awayby someone to lrish mytholory. and the sagasthemselves were later recorded by monks using the Roman alphaber Ogma was a son of DAGDA. which was a immortal. dark stranger came every now and again to see his mother.At last the pack from seizing the child Having driven offthe dogs. Ogham is made up of a series of vertical or sloping lines inscribed on a base line The sagastell of vast libraries of Ogham writing.Jlew theory of reincamadon. She their home a tall. withoverflowing mead andwondrous ship of all living things creatures (lLLLrsrR. His two best towards Tara. Ogma claimed as his pnze a magic Fomorii sword that was capable of recounting all the deeds it had performed oJeloquence. nor least becausethe hngdom of Hades was Mediterranean first encountered not an invidng place. When the stranger finally t54 . Oisin was rhe disguised as himself (a common greatestpoet in Ireland. Oisin's mother was a searchof everyremote hill. with that no harm should be done to the whom he lived in a quier valley deer. like the the Greek god Hermes or the Roman Mercury. the god of eloquence.mythology) Realizingthat it must sidering how as a young man his be the enchanter whom Sadb had father had eaten the Salmon of rejected. but she alwaysshrank away in fear and the man left in anger. keeping the the base of the Fenians. as Finn MacCool with It happened. His followaway ona snow-white through steed golden ers. acceptedtransmigration ghtful deli otherw orldbq ondalldream s. who were rhe older sea gods who had challenged the TUATHA DE DANANN. through animals and plans as well. valley none other than the goddessSADB. that his his companions and dogs was dogs tracked down avery strange returning homewards.the younger generation of gods of which Ogma was one. Ogma was a fighter like other Irish gods and also. or FIANNA. son of the FOMORII goddessDomnu Indech was one of the leaders of the Fomorii. Niamh. by chance.Finn MacCool organized Ifuowledge. told them that he did not know the and even to lick her head and identity of his father. I9i 0 ) In some lrish myths Ogma is said to have married EtAtN. but that his limbs So Finn MacCool ordered mother was a gentle hind. who was the daughter of the god of healing DIAN CECHT At rhe second and final battle of Magh Tuireadh Ogma slew Indech. but that she had leamed that if Finn MacCool came to love her. he was responsiblefor conveying souls to the otherworld Whereas for the Greek and Roman messengergods this was a sad dury. most likely a Viking raid. was with the Vikings On his rerum. To way home until sunset. That same nighr Finn MacCool awoke to find the most beaudful woman he had ever seen smnding next to his bed It was Sadb. a beautiful quarry and Finn MacCool came deer started up on their path and upon them surrounding a naked the ensuing chase took them boy with long hair. all hope of finding his mistressand Oisin's uncle rerumed to his pleasureof hunting One day. but instead of atuchng their quarry the regardedthe boywith cunosiry. in fact. and forestin the country. andscented and as a result proposed the kinfilled withbirdsong Jlowers. and the Fenians were called to arrns For only one week Finn MacCool was absentdealing OtStN.who believed that the soul was mistto theInnd of Promise. perhaps trick among shape-changers in Irish not a surprising achievement con. ) explained how a spell had been placedupon her. He hounds began to play roufld her. somerimesOssian. who was a god described as rhe "Lord of I(nowledge" Besideshaving a truly remarkable skill as a poet. though only inscriptions in stone carvings have suryived.

and becamea shlled fighter like his father. his saddle slipped and he fell to the ground In an instant the magic horse vanished and the valiant youngwarrior was tumed into a blind and frail old man A Christian addition to the end of this myth includes St Patrick everyone rook Oisin to be Because mad he cried out: "lf your god has slain Finn MacCool. conjunngup the heroes and gods age phantomsoJ that bygone maglcal (Osstlx at Fnllcots Grtino.4ANANNAN while on a hunt by the shoresof a lake Shesuddenly appearedriding a horse with silver hooves and a golden mane When Niamh toid Oisin how she had travelleda great distance to invite him to her father'sotherworld realm. his timeandJoundhimselJ suwivor oJa the sole aloneand bereJt. then I would say that he is a sffong man " So he was taken to the saint. ashisbegnning hisend asstrange (lrrusrRarto| nvSTrpHrvRuo. for everyone he knew had died long before The peoPle seemedfar sadder and more carewom than the heroes he had grown up with By chance he came uPon a raggedgoup of men attempting to move a boulder. the l-and of Promise. Irelandbleah Jound aweary and andhimselJ andsmall. who recorded his strange tale and explained the changes to Ireland since the amval of Christianity 155 . the hind was forced to follow him.he readily mounted the magic steed and was never seenbY his father again ln the orherworld kingdom he foughr against a giant in an underseacomFOMORII bat worthy of his father But aftera number of other exploits Oisin began to miss his own land of Ireland Niamh gavehim her magc horse so that he could visit his home.but he also inhented the gentler abiliry of eloquencefrom his mother. OISIN. which he easily lifted for them while still seatedon his mount However. but told him not to dismount otherwise he would never be allowed to return lreland struck her with a rnagic hazel wand. and his songs and poetry were admired throughout lreland theotherworld. Finn MacCool embraced him as his own son by Sadb. age Withhislyre he sangofthe maglcal of hrsera.lu rs.CeITIC MYTHOLOGY aJter OISIN returned from the othewvorld an old man. which involved one of the most difficuh coursesof raining imaginable. sad onthe passing oldmanAfter withered away slipped hequietly legends. c. although she tned to comfort her son as she left As soon as the boy finished this accounl.the daughter of the seagod hCT MACLTR OiSiN rnCT A. 1910 ) appearedto Oisin almosr a strange land.on hisretum Jrom the people andcold. and immediately named him Oisin ("Little Fawn") He was trained as a Fenian warrior. 1800 ) His famous adventure concems NIAMH. maglc .

1984 ) . whichwasguarded by the Blach Knight He passedthrough thefairest vale untilhe sawo shiningcastleon thehill After enteing its otherworldlydomain CulhwchdeJeated the Blach Knight. leading the hero d o w n u n e x p e cr e d b y p a t h s o f adventure and discovery.he a. seem barely attainable. learns much-needed Iessons and carches sight of even more tantahzrng quests ahead. 1984 ) Ceueto'r QefD. Other goals. En route he meets new friends and travelling companions. to seehhonour. vision From Camelot.HERoIC QTJESTS puRSUrr HE THRILLING of a real or visionary goal forms the plot of many compelling tales of advenrure.honour and.such as the Grail. to wrongsand to winladtes and renown The dvenge a symbol of JigureoJthe questinghnightbecame aspiration (luusrnerror ByAr-AN LEE. and guardedher realm until hisyenfor adventurelured him olf again QLLU|TRAn1N sy A. as when Culhwch set our ro find fa:r Olwen. setofr in searchof the Castleof the Fountain. the questinghnight setJorthon joumrys of adventure and discovery.ertnur' s shining city-castle. as when Geraint went forth ro avenge a wrong. or retributory. inspired by the nle of Cynon. while Peredur./.bur serve as shining symbols of aspiration.uLee. drew hnights of the from far and wide to join the Fellowship RoundTable. the quesr usually rakes on a magic of its own.The goal is not alwaysthe most tantalizing part of the venture and might seem like a redious or even trivial rask. but servesto spur the travelleron his way. Owain and rhe Grail l(nighrc were inspired by o rherworldly visions and ideals. Wharever the goal.ercameher resentment. The impetus is sometlmes romantic. Ownrru (abne). and went on to woo his widow AJtera rather dfficult beglnning.inspiredby ideak oJcourage.

highest greatestoJ all quests Many hnightssetJorth butJav returned \Vhen Arthur's wariors resolved to undefiahethe Grail Quest. 1984 ) PERED uR's (above) quest Jor adventure led him through througha many wondrouslands At onepoint he passed lwely iver vallq.Twrch the earsoJ theternble.Tnn Gner Qursr (righ) prwed to be the and hardest.the longestseiesof tashsrn Celttc mytholog En route thehero enlistedthehelp oJ Arthur's Culhwchin oneof hishardesttashs. BiALAN ) search for new adventures(lnt'. war-bandwho asststed which was the retnonl oJa comb.1895-96) CutuwcH's QeJt)quest Jor theJair Olwen involvedthnrynine impossibletashs. lamenting that the fairest fellowshipoJnoble hnightswould nuer meet again around thetable at Camelot Hewas nght. wariors with suchshilland mrght that deJeatingcountless the localempress Aft'r Jightingherbattles.forJnt oJhis companywuefittedJor andmarry the quest aNo Anvtnc pmshed (Tne DEPARTURE OF THE KNIGHTS BY E BURNE-JONE5 AND W MoRRls. razor and sctssorsJrom boar.enchanted between TwWth (/LLLrsrMloN BYAL4N Lrc.filled with colourfulpavilionsand a wondrous multitude oJ windmills and water-mills He lodgedwith thehead miller andjoustedtn the tournament. i irri .. he impressed he ruIed with herJor Jourteen yearsbeJorecontrnvinghis 1984 Lrr-. Arthur wept.sraartor ffi iiti 'ff '.. TAPESTRY.

force AMAETHON. scissors and a razor from berween the ears of a fierce boar. provide a magic cauldron. Culhwch had to uproot a forest. ro nourish its crops. and persuade a number gues6 to come of unlikely to Yspaddaden's by the stronghold. 1984 ) OLWEN QeJ). son of first ro be had released from pnson. lggl ) steal a maglc dog. he JIedintothe wiWaness andlived asawildman. who had to go to great lengths to securehts bnde (lrrusrnenow ByATAN LEE. Culhwch said that "Ki.CeITIC MyTHoLoGY OfWfN. hire as a huntsman Modron. possibly for swereignty (Itrusrnqrroru ByArr{N Lee.depictedhere as a vibrant. find a wonsreal derful sceed and swift hounds. wanders through the otherworld. a boar's tusk for the giant to shave with and shaving cream made from a witch's blood: OWAIN and Arthur (below) appearin a warrior' s dream. provide honey nine times sweeter than thar of a virgin swarrn. in welsh mythology. burn the wood for fertilizer and plough rhe cleared land in one day.awarior of King Arthur's court. the god of agricukure. Culhwch succeeded and married Olwen "and she was his only wife as long as he lived" The giant was killed by one of Culhwch's fellow knighs. who MABON. one of King ARTHUR's warriors Culhwch's stepmother hated him so much rhar she cursed him to mary only Olwen. Undaunred sheer size and cornplexity of rhe challenges. a comb.. 1981 ) .Iihe a shy. until Arthur smashesthe pieces The game symbolizes abattle.wasting away untilrescuedby a nobluoman (IrrusrnenoN sv Au|v Lrc. OWAIN below)peers through thetangled branches ofthewtldwood. get a magic cup and a hamper of delicious mear. bring four srrong oxen ro help. obtain magic seed. Yspaddaden was so upser by the obvious affecrion berween Olwen and Culhwch that he set his daughter's lover a seriesof tasksin order to prevent the marriage Among other things.g Arthur will provide horses and men to help him win Olwen" He also informed the gianr thar he would retum to slay him. caprure the birds of RHmNruoru. a girl whom rhe warrior came to love dearly.but the players simply play on. creature Overcome withshame after wronginghk wtfe. leash and collar.borrow the drinking-hom of the underwater king Gwyddbwyll and rhe magc harp belonglng to Teirru (an instrument rhar played irself). broodingwoodedidyll Olwenwas lovedbyCulhwch. playing grvy ddbtvyll Duing the game. was the daughter of the gianr Yspaddaden and her suitor was CULHWCH. make the smith god Govannon forge rools for the work. Arthur's hnightsbattle with Owain's ravens.wtld. whose song could wake rhe dead and lull the living to sleep.in flaming red.

he glven to the "Maimed King" of the GMIL story in whose castle of was overcome with shame A remorseful Owain fled to the forest Carbonek the holyvesselwas kePt. and he gradually sricken by disease and theY all diedwithin thespaceof aweek. the race of Partholon were Arthur's court. died of the PRNSTTru. who gave him a ring of invisibiliry. the waniors who acted as a bodyguard to the High King of Ireland. and when the lcright galloped off to a nearby casde. PgllnS treachery and unfaithfulness. Soon the lord of the Luned from death by buming and slayrnga giant. Sadb had been changed into a hind by ^ spell. When a King ARTHUR's fellow warrior named cYNoN was defeated by ^ mysterious Black l(tught. which Finn MacCool brieflY lifted. When avery anry lady arrived was one of the names at court to accuseOwain of deceit. in welsh myrhology. son of Sera. felt that the Fenians had too much power. who fell in love with Sir L4NCELOT Sir Owain took up his arms.was Owain persuaded Luned to plead believed to have led one of the early his causewith such successthat his invasions of Ireland Together with twenty-four men and their wives.or Fenians. PARTHOTON (abwe) Jound a lush. the goddess SADB. Finn MacCool returned briefly from the otherworld to moum Oscar'sdeath. and pursued the solitary life of a In other versions of the tale he is hermit. But had receded and cleared the island of trees ready for cultivation. His name means "deer lover" and recalls his grandwhom mother. forgot about his wife. one of whtchwasnamedafterhts son c 1910 RACIGIAM. Thus he became master of the he is said to have come out of the Castleof the Founmin. OwntN. But he lived during a dme when the ruler. the comingoJ hnight (lrLusrnAnoNavAu. maglc potion to restore his health. pnmal countrywhatheJirstlnnded in Irelsnd The foress and ploins wcre alive shyandbeaunful creatures with strange. widow consented to marry him. theredeeming Galahad. SINGLE QUESTS) theGrail theGrailKingguarded PELLES. AISO CELTIC court.which included saving of the Grail and allowed to hold it.He severelywounded the Black t(night but did not unseat him. he gavechase only ro find himself almost a prisoner once he entered its walls. High King Cairbe refused to pay the Fenians for their sewices and raised another band of fighters to rePlace them. awaiting wasted. and r59 . rhe long absenceof Owain wonied Kingfuthur a great deal.the Black l(night. was the son of URIENand one of warriors. Cailbe. According to one version of the myth.v Lea 1984) of rururuueccooL. There he would have died known asAmfortas Pelleswas said but for a well-bom lady who used a to have been the father of Elaine.CTITIC MYTHOLOGY PERCIVAL castle. Oscarwas a mighty fi. so he sent According to the myth. as the Black west after the waters of the Flood I(night's stronghold was called. Oscar hlled Cairbe in single combat but was himself mortally wounded. whilehis country state. who was said to be "a yellow-haired maiden from a warrn country". Oscar's mother was Eibhir. near present-day Dublin. the son of olstN and the grandson a bloody struggle ensued. where he was reconciled with his wife. They seem to have spent the rest o[ their lives together in Kingfuthur's ROMANCE. The GAIAHAD. Not deterred by her grief. Parihobn cbared the land for cultivation and inhis time threenavlnlus appeared. knighs granted a vision knight and the lion had numerous ARTHUR's adventures. (SCC HEROIC COMBAT. In a battle fought at Gabhra. Owain retumed to the Castle of the Fountain. some wound.ghter. PAnTHOLON. Finn MacCool first encountered while he was hunting. in Irish mphology.SCC wound Owain had inflicted on him. slew a and bore him the pure knight Sir who was the onlY one of dragon and befriended a lion.Owain set out to find this stranger.one of the best of all the FIANNA. after living in Ireland for some five thousand out a party ef knights to find him Owain retumed with them to King years. symbolizng an incurable helivedin a wilight spiitualimperJection. Maimedby theGrailCastle in Corboneh. ) ByARTHUR 0rrusrnnnoN w6 OSCAR. Owain was saved by a lady named Luned.

CTITIC MyTHoLoGY PERCIVAL. which reminded him of his knighrly dury ro behave as a good man. rhe Grail was later lost and irc recovery became the great quest for rhe IGrightsof the Round Table The puriry of Sir Percival may have meanr rhat he was permirted a brief glimpse of rhe Grail. However. bur he was denied the complete vision and heavenlyreleasethat was eventually granred ro Sir GAMHAD.at which smoke. and then ser off in quesr of the Grail. and then to die in rhe company of angels. "by chance and grace. sometimes as Templeisen.tRZivnt Bl MARilN WtX. was in larer Arthurian mythology somerhing of an ousider He was brought up in a forest far from the courr of Camelot and was completely ignorant of courdy manners However. "Our Lord's body between his hands". the holyvessel that was used ar rhe Last Supper and which received the blood that flowed from the spear thrust in Christ's side at rhe rime of the Crucifixion The Grail had been brought ro Bntain by IOSE4H OF ARIMATHEA. who was also sometimes called Percevalor Parsifalin differenr traditions. was the seventh son of Errawgand the only surviving male. Sir IANCELOT's son Only Galahadwas allowed to touch the Grail. aJterthe Knights Templar (P. 1934 ) PfnCryRL.g Anhur roAyALoNafter he had been wounded in rhe battle againsr MODRED. This did not prevent Peredur from becoming warriors and his one of ARTHUR's many advenrures formed the basis for the laterstories abour pERcIVAt. rhe sign of rhe Crucifixion. Meanwhile. His father and brothers were hlled before his own coming of age. Sir Percivalunfortunately fell somewhat short of the high standard of conduct required for recovering the Grail. One day on his joumey he encountered a wondrous and mysterious ship and at once fell in entering her bed when. The mysrerious Queen o[ the Wastelands.eNo. the enchantress who had artempred to waylay him and diven him from his quest "set off with the wind roaring and PnngOUR in welsh mphology. the rich man who had allowed Christ's body to be placed in his tomb." So annoyed and filled with remorse was Percivalby rhis moral lapse that he felt obhged to inflict a punishment on the weaknessof his own flesh by wounding himself in the thigh. sometimes hnownas ParstJal. Sir Percival saw his unsheathed sword lyrrg on rhe ground. So he made the sign of the crosson his forehead.headingtheOrder oJGrail Knights. CtNveS. was Sir Percival's aunt On his personalquesr for the Grail. . he travelledto KingARTHUR's court and was duly made a knighr. one of rhe three ladies who rook rhe dpng Ki. the PerJect Fool.attained a glimpseof the Grail throughhis innocence Retuming Jrom Sarras.he becameGrail King. and on its pommel was a red cross.

AN Lrr. the old enemy of Rryll Other mice the great hall was filled wrth light " When the mist cleared. who discovered the infant in his stable The chieftain's wife named the child Gwri. who in Wales took to the field like knighs attired in full arrnour Indeed.marchedinto Gwyneddto awnge the theJtoJhis swineby maglctan. but the matchwas unequalas Gvuydion bewitchedPryden with maglcal illusions (lrrusrnqrto. 1984) PRYDERI.and Peredurdrew his sword and smote the witch on the cresrof her helmet so rhat the helmet and all the arrnour were split into two And she raiseda shout. spladid as a peacoch.^l nvAu^t Lre. Gwydion The the resourceJul dispute was to be decidedby singlecombat. or "Golden Hair". his wife During their temporary disappearCigfa. in welsh mythologr. animals and his wamors ransformed by magic crops were gone Pryderi. son of the Welsh sea strange events had been causedby god Llyr. Pryderi suc. "Care". Rhiannon renamed him Pryderi. Pryderi's father morml warrior rather than a god At Manawydan discoveredthe trurh as their wedding banquet therewas a he was about to hang a mouse for peal of thunder and a misr fell "No eating their corn The creature one could seethe other. lord of DyJed. "For the third time the hag slew a man of futhur's before Peredur'seyes.CTITIC MYTHOLOGY raised in rustic secreqt. them on her back into his hall When Pwyll died. but when. ides out to joust with Peredur (lrlusrnqloru BYAIAN Lrr.1984 ) 16r .1984 court (IuusnarroN ) number. Manawydan and Rhiannon ance. and said it was Peredurwho was destined to slay all the witches of Caer Loyw " (Seealso HEROIC QUESTS) PnYOfnI. Pryderi and his mother had were the only peopie left After two been forced to work as donkeys Rhiannon's rejected suitors and a chieftain brought up by TEIRNON. aftersevenyears. a saddle andarmedwith heset sharpened stahe. and orderedthe rest of the witches to flee. but his hands penance by sitting at the gare of stuck to the bowl and he found hvyll's fortress and telling srangers that he couid not move or let it go He was also struck dumb When of her crime.Rhiannon and Pryderi disappeared ceeded him as lord of Dyfed and in another mist It later emerged rhat all the gave his mother in marriage to MANAW)'DAN. present-day But the skill of England Manawydan and Pryderi as craftsmen made them many enemies and they retumed to Wales ln a becauseduring the child's absence ruined castle. fish and garne. then offering to cary his mother tried to save him. grav PEREDU& upstrongand aglle butdanidoJcourtly Whenhe three manners saw shining entranced Daising a hnights. they finally decided to travel acrossthe border to Lloegp. was the son of PWYLL. Pryderi came across her life had been very careworn a golden bowl fastened by four She had been falsely accused of chains on a marble slab Pryden hlling her son and was made to do went to pick it up. fonhJorArthur's BvAr. Peredurwas particularly adept at defeadngwitches. PEMDUR arousedthe rageof the Pnde of the Cleaing whenhe suppedwith his his wife The arrogant hnight assumed wrfe's guilt and punishedheruntil Peredur JinaIIy challengedand werthrov him the proud one Here. and of RHmruNoru Pryderi was snatched from his cot bv one of years eking out an existence on wild honey. hewas of twigs.he was finally retumed home. the land helping to devour the crops were was desolate People. although in Pryden's a spell laid on rhe household by an myth Manawydan appears as a enemy of Pwyll. a notable chieftain of Dyfed in south Wales. although tumed out to be the wife of Llwyd. his myth as it is told in rhe Mabinogon ends with a terrible duel between him and a leading witch.

the maids told hvyll how she had devoured the babyin the night. the Welsh otherworld. tell her ale rc every sranger who came and offer to canry them on her back to the great hall.was aision inwhite andgold.AIAN l^ee. retumed home He then wooed and won RHIANNON for his wife. a chieftan of Dyfed.lies in waitwrth 100horsanan to tnchGwaul. One day hvyll was hunringin the forest when he saw an unusual pack of hounds running down a stag. the man ro buta anse clorfirltheirWeandmaninge. for the singing of her birds was said to be able to wake the dead and send the living to sleep. a ival suitor oJRhiannon Jor thehand Once wapwered. having successfullyhlled Havgan and fulfilled hls promise to Arawn. after the birth of a son. When Rhiannon awoke in amaaement. who could be slain only by a srngleblow. Rhiannon is a singular figure in Welsh mythology. and to slay Havgan. herlat withoutcomplaint Iaid a spell on Pwyll's household 0uusrRrnop nY NaN ItE. 1984) o[usrncnoN year. angeredat her barrenness. AII of ridinga WrV steel. for each her rejection of Gwawl. since a second one immediately PWYI (abne). had been restored and grown up.Gwawl agredtobave thetwoin peace. Indeed. the spell condnued to dog Rhiannon. both before and after Pwyll's death. even though he would shareherbed Pwyll.andclad. was Rhiannon PRYDERI excused from her penance (See . Pkiannon as a result his enraged father had endured.Pwyll treated Rhiannon at last. the ruler of Annwn fuawn told hvyll that he was being hanied by ^ rival named Havgan. They laid bones next to their sleeping mistress and smearedher face and hands with blood. RIIIANNON @lovt). She bore her suffering and injustice with a also CELIIC OTHERWORLDS. she was unjustly accused of eating the baby. PwYLL. which meanr "Care".CTITIC MyrHoLoGY Because of this curse. Pwyll imposed a humiliating penance upon her. in brnadd Rhiannon's noubles stemmed from silh Thetwoseemdmade othr. But her real nature was in all likelihood originally connected RHIANNON. and As patiartas she wasfuaunJul. Rhiannon suffered years of barrennessand. at which the stranger revealed himself to be AMwN.asf'r. whom she named pRronru.dsguised asabeggar. he boasted the title Pen Annwn ("Lord of Beyond"). Rhiannon henself had her own magical aspect. Not until the eventual retum of her son. During the period of exchange it was understood that Pwyll would not make love to Arawn's wife.t seen W and the long-suffering wife of hvyll. although a rival suitor never forgave him and laid a curse upon his household. 1984) P\AryLL was achieftain of Dyfed whose authoriry even reachedinto ANNwN. Everydayshe had to sit by his gate. whom she had been promised. in welsh myrhology. MAGIC padence that still seems remarkAND ENCHANTMENT) able. Pwyll accepted the charge and promised to make amends. Even after the boy. buthisbittq anrse blighted thar mari4gevnthstrange mtsfoftunes B]. becausewhen the babywas stolen her maids were so afraid of Rvyll that they blamed Rhiannon. however. These hounds were snow-white in colour and had red ears Pwyll drove them off and was serting his own pack on the cornered stag when a grey-clad horseman rode up and accusedhim of discourtesy for chasingaway his hounds. At one stage she and Pryderi were changed into donkep. was the daughterof Hereydd. whom she called ("Care"). For years no child was bom and.

in lrish mythology. Eochaid ended weapons and thrust it into the god. Sadb came to Finn as a woman and for a dme they lived happily together Then. wa compelledby goddess. such pre. but Goibhniu merely pulled it out again and drove it into Ruadan. The hero recognized him as his own son by Sadb. That night. and for nine wonderful nights Ruadh slept with all of them. It is tempdng to link her wirh the horse goddessEPoNA. On the island there lived nine beautiful women. DANANN.was. a gentle SADB.CrlrIC MvrHoLoGY with horses When Fwyll first set eyes on her. Rhiannon's stolen son was found in a stable and her punishment for Iosing him was ro act as a beast of burden to visitorswho came to herhusband's palace. on which li'uednine buunful women who slrpt on nine bronze beils Thar qa slwne with rainbow ltght. birdshenlwtth their maglcal song. meaning "Little Fawn". her own Iife with poison. the bodyguard of the High King. covered with a garment of shining gold brocaded silk".IUSTMIoN ANoN ) qed a RU ADH.ge doom. an intrqid vqtagil. c 1910 avAnrnuR ) ouusrnnnoru SADB. RUnOnN. herweeping was said to have been the first keening in Ireland. The women then informed him that together they would bear him a son. field to bewail herson. hcking the severedhead of his son before them like a football. nuansand singlng as rcNens. in Irish mythology. he unfortunately forgot about his underwater lovers. bavitchingfuafi for nine blissfd nighs beforehe grav ratless again NrcK BE4r4 1995 BY orrusrMnoN ) 163 . Hwaner. She first appeared to the hero while he was out hunting. RONAN. was a voyager whose RUenH ship became becalmed off the nonh coast of lreland. however. dtscw secret rslandbeneaththe wana. While some. Also.gyving &rcxnnu. boy. (II. was the misrress of rlruru MACC))L. so he called him olsltrl. a tfury lwely son. Sadb had been placed under a powerful spell by a wrzardand was compelled to take the form of a deer. the lrish equivalent of the great Greekhero Theseus. in their fury. he chanced upon a magical underwater island. the popugreat Ieader of the FIANNA. Just like Theseus'secondwife Phaedra. Celtk an andmyth are alwe with btrds of everyhind. but although a goddess herself. forehead from whose the shehadlblud tuJt ofdeuhairwhere "Little Fawn" fis tn hs name. Rhiannon was riding "a big fine pale whire horse. gril.the king's second wife Eochaid loved Ronan's son more than her husband. much oJhrhfea a anail drud tolive a FinnMacCool shebore deq. when he swam away to find help for his dyrng crew. larly known as the Fenians. when Finn was away from home. Eochaid toid her husband that the young man had attempted to rape her. pursued him. hrg of Leinsrer.torW archantingsongwassardtofu able to walu thedudandnlullthelMnginto a deepsbep. the wizard returned and turned Sadb into a deer again Finn searched the whole of lreland for his lost mistress. Although Ruadh promised faithfully to retum at the end of his voyage. At the of the TUATHADE second batde of Magh Tuireadh Ruadan was sent to spy on'the Tuatha De Danann smith god Ronan ordered his son's execution who was busily making G2IBHNIU and died of remorse when he later spears. When the stepson showed his honor of her passion. When the goddess Bri$d came to the battlethe half-noMoRll ruler and of BREs.but the only uace he found of herwas a naked boywho had been raised in the wild. in the tangled relations of his second marriage.one of the few Celtic gods or goddesses to be worshipped by the Romans. Oisin grew uP to become one of the most famous of all trish poets RHIANNON'S singing birds were heralfu Tharbeautifuland of theothem. Ruadan se2ed one of these leamed the truth. According to lrish mythology. and they. was the son of the goddess BRIGID monally wounding him.

they sailedacrossthe oceans.he reachedan rslnnd surmountedby a fortress with a brazen door and a glnssdrawbndge which thrut the trm.u. bronze door. passed through a fabulous archipelngo ln one strihing eprsode. shevngalny about her lnely home acrossthe sen whbh inspiredBran andhslansmn to *t sail Far out to ea. some of timeless delights and some of deadly perils. MAELDL/NAeJt) sg1sail to avengehis father's murder and.ellen bacluards .The yen ro travelitself was often inspired by tales of the otherworld.a telling signoJ Whn thq struchthe the othemvorld. just one of 50 in timclas joy ail plnty Bran's oart oavdthe sruch delightfnhearcns vfwe rulclived Yet an tN wn.CTITIC MyTHoLoGY EaT\TTT^^T-r rAI' U LTJ U \ ) V LJ YAtrl. Another featureof the restless Celtic voyager was his eventual disenchantment with otherworldly delights. and the epic tnps of both Bran and Brendan were sparkedoff by otherworldly visions.left besde him as he slqt l-ater a beauttful worwn chd. Maeldun. exploring a myriad of dreamlikeisles.usually through an archipelago of wonder isles. a soponfc sound sent them to sbep until thq awohe to the welcoming voiceof the castle's enchantress When Maeldun tned to woo her.Cehic voyagersexperienced a time walp.) T ^^\rr a ^ T- r- HEEptcvoyAGES of Celtic myth are fabuloustours of the otherworld. in othaworlilly robes cameto rerlaim theboufit. Like time travellers. either retuming home long alter their time or condemned to wander on a iourney without end. en route. the whob cnstle dissolved. and a yeamirg for the changirg seasons of his homeland. and the scilon found themwlves BMN's (abwe) voyage wa sparhedof by a blossoming and scentedsilvu fairy bough. Like another intrepid voyager. tluy reachcdhqwondrous kb of blosnmingtrea.rur.r . clnngpngsr<olrnlns oJ thar homeland ouusrnrnor rr D.

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It was said to be the cup that Christ drank out of at the Last Supper It was also believed ro have received the blood which flowed from the spear thrust in Christ's side at the Crucifixion. that Sir PERCIVAL was originally the knight who saw the Grail. in fact.aJter inspiingthe great questin Bitain. once inside the body of one of Cuchulainn's enemies. at the end of the quest.CeITIC MYTHOLOGY or Grail. the vesselfilled Kingfuthur's hall with the most tasty smells. certves. Although it made a single wound on entry. the chivalrous Sir GAWAIN immediatelyvowed to seek out its home in order to see the Grail for himself Many of the Kttightt of the Round Table made similar vows. but clencs were always aware of its links with pre-Christian rites (See also WONDROUS CAULDRONS.On its unseen arrival at Camelot. holyvessel of Arrhurian mythology during the Middle Ages.ruc GRA|L SANGREAL AeJt).rhe rich man who buried Christ. the mere presenceof rhe holy vessel was enough to act as a challenge to most knights to pursue a path of goodness. in Pucival and Bors.however.g". but it was thought not to have left Britain.g who feared the Ioss of his ARTHUR. a powerlul charge of Celtic magic in . When "the Holy Grail covered with a white cloth" appeared ar Camelot. wasbornebach to Galnhad. angelic a goldcenser bears thedweoJheaven from "a savour asiJall thespicebf which arose the ther'e" world hadbeen the . who lay between life and death in his castle It seems. Cuchulainn was able to defeat Aoifa by trickery and made her his next mistress sinfulnessof the times lndeed. Sir used its magic power to GAIAHAD cure a mysterious ruler. was the SnNCnenL. best fighting men But only Sir Galahad successfully completed the quest and died contented. HEROTC QUESTS) ScrqrHecH (whosename means "shadowy") was a warrior-princess in the Land of Shadowsand tutor in the martial arts. nothing lessthan a Celtic cauldron of plenry When.1874) BYDANTE rur S. thirty barbs opened to tear the the stomach apart \JATHACH. theGrailMaidens womerr. so that the I(nighs of the Round Table ate and drank as never before. or by his brother-inlaw Bron and his son Alan. it allowed Sir Galahad to live on in a Chrisdan otherworld This obvious debt to Celtic mythology meant that the Church never fully embraced the Grail as a Christian symbol The gre^t populariry of Grail stories forced a degreeof toleration. the Grail was always associatedwith the early Christian settlement at Glastonbury Another miraculous object connected with the Grail was a bleeding lance or spear. OF Brought to Bntain by IOSEPH ARIMATHEA. "who had trembled when his mortal flesh beheld spiritual things" lt is even stated that Sir Galahad was a descendant of the same Joseph.andwas celebrated a Euchaistic Mass bejoreoscendingto heaven Couurnv (How rHe GMIL ABlDlrH tN A FAR BY WTLLIAM MORRIS. much to the distress of Ki. daughter of Scathach. and that it was only in Iaterversionsthat Galahad took his place as the only knight worthy of such a vision The Grail was lost. After holding the Grail in his own hands. the draught that Sir Galahadtook from it atJoseph of Anmathea's request ensured his spiritual suwival Like a Celtic cauldron of rebirth. One myth recounts that her most famous pupil was the Ulster hero CUCHUIAINNShe taught him his famous battle leap and gave him the spearnamed Gae-Bolg("Bellyspear"). for Joseph of Arimathea administered it as part of the sacrament to Sir Galahad. c 1890 ) this Christian myth. "the firsr Chrisdan bishop" There remains. nevertheless. rhe "Maimed Ki. the young knight's soul was releasedfrom his body and "a great multirude of angels bore it up to heaven" That the Grail was the representation of the body and blood of Christ there can be no doubt. Sanasby the three goodhnights. the Grail became "Our Lord's body". and was unhaPPy that he wanted to fight her sister A)IFA In the event. was Cuchulainn's mistress during his year of training. recalling spiq "greal" oJ Celtic myth oF Gm DAMSEL RossErrl. ct'qss. rather that it was hidden somewhere in the country becauseof the was guardedby SANGRML Oelow) Here. It was.

became her husband and bemes that grew on the tree. squattingat itsfoot all day The eloping a Duibhne and lwers. he accepted cucuuL+INN as his owrr son.C 1870) Searbhanand he allowed them to SCOfnwas said to be the earliest shelter in the branchesof the magtc known ancestor of the Scots tree. from and DieRMUIDuA DUTBHNE returnedto tell the tale: Percival. one of the was a FOMORII ancient sea gods This one-eyed. SennnHnN. Diarmuid I. and they had a child. i'. Goidel. who gave his name to the Gaels In another tradition. Fomoii g1ant. arcn aJter them rn liJe hs death Hehad exhorted as thE were weahenedby without success. becameits guardian {tae simplest. DECHTTRT swallowed a fly and fallen into a deep sleep ln this state she went to the othervrzorldwith Lugh and there conceivedCuchulainn While Cuchulainn was single-handedlY defending Ulster againstthe invading forces of Queen MEDB of Connacht. But the severed head continued rhe call to arms long enough to rouse the warriors Sunrrnu Mec RotH.CeITIC MYTHOLOGY SANGREAL (abwe) wasattainedby three verydtlferenthnightsGalahad.the purest.1910 nvStepnrx ) to fight (luusrpqrorr r67 .the mostworldly.but Grainne sheltered Grainne dwelopeda cravingJor the tree's maglcbemes This so anragedthe glant and the thatheand DiarmuidJought mighty Searbhonwos slain with his own club luusrntnoNANoN) SUALTANI MAC ROTH'S (ight) head rallied the Uktermen to battle. which made it difficult for According to one version of the FINN MACCIIL to find them myth. which no one dared approach However. lrish mythology. although the hero's real father was the sun god LLIGH On SEARBHAN Q{t). the surly one-qed guardeda magic tree. Suaham Mac Roth attempted to gather the men of Ulsterwho had been weakenedbY did curse So desPerateiY MACHA's he tum his horse that Suaitam cut off his own head with the sharP edge of his shield. was the brorher of FERGUSMAC ROTH. who had settled in attempted to eat some of the maglc Egypt.the the hard-pressedlovers the FIANNA. AN UISTCITNAN. IAPE5TRY. she was the wife of and was killed fighting MILESIUS DANANN TheTUATMDE in Irish mythology. warrior. managed to become friends with ATTAINMENT BYWILIJAM MORRIS. she was the daughter of an However. Macha's curse The cies oJthe severedhead atlostbrohe the spelland rousedthe men Rep. one-arrnedand one-leggedfighter the Fomorii wamor was slain CI. during the sixteen-yearflight of GRelrurun Bors. Searbhanand Diarmuid Egyptian pharaoh A wrse teacher came to blows when Grainne named Niul.]CHULIAIN SNTENTN SCC the night of her wedding to had Sualtam Mac Roth. beheldits contents.J in its branches. guardeda magrcree.

TnnNON was lord of Gwenr Is Coed and fosrer-farherof pRrornr. So Suibhne was once again on the brink of madness as headlessbodies and severed heads hanied him. Monumens to Taranis have been found all over the Celdc world. Ceridwen prepared a magic brew thar.ingvision. rhe present and the fuure. Taranis is usually depicrcd wirh his symbol. I have been alive. and everyyear on the eve of the first of May the animal gave birth to a foal. He hacked off the hand bur heard a crying coming from ouside and found a threeday-old baby boy lying on his doorstep. Eorann. l99l) (whose name means ThnnNtS "Thunderer") was one of the few Celtic gods with whom the Romans idendfied and he was often equated with Jupiter. I am new. "the thunderer". who assumed the characteristics of a bird.TU was rhe daughrer of a ruler of the FIRBOLG and wife of Eochaidh Mac Erc. Teirnon and his wife took the child in and raised him as one of their own. leaping from rees for seven yeam before his reason rerumed. the resemblance to pwyLL became increasingly marked until they knew that he was the missing son of Rvyll and RHmNNoN. The word "taran" is srill used in modem Welsh and Breton to mean thunder.he alreadry surpassed allofArthur'sbards in spiitrnlinsight Heisportraydhue as avisionary spiit whowas ot one wth theforces ofnature (IuusrncnoN rvSrurrnr Lrn:. Ronan was founding a church on his land. During the chase he transformed himself inro a hare. here represents the electnclight of a thunderbolt. but as he grew. St Ronan thanked heaven for this and cursed Suibhne. In one version of his story he was the servant of rhe witch CERIDUIEN and was named Gwion Bach. " (See also SAGESANDSEERS) . which is sometimesusedas a symbolof the sun in Celtic art.{NDA Gptt'. As Gwion Bach was tending rhe fire beneath the cauldron. His name means "a people" or "a ribe" and so it may well be that rhe manllinscripdons to him are acrually dedicated to local deities of a region rarher than to a single pan-Celdc figure. sly godwhom theRomansequatedwith their supreme deil Jupiter. was one of rhe Celdc gods mentioned by the Roman historian Lucan and is often equared with the god Mans. which mysteriously disappeared One year Teimon decided to keep watch ro see what would happen. One day King Suibhne was outraged to learn that. and his soul ascended to heaven". When Sr Ronan heard abour this recovery. Another priest took pity on che tormenced man and wrote which down Suibhne his sad tale. TAUESIN ("Shining Brow") was a Welsh wizard and bard and according to Welsh mythology he was the firsr person ro acquire rhe shll of prophecy." he said. "rhemad one". sezed the saint's psalter and threw it in a nearby lake.Jonx. which was byhis shiningbrw At the rymbolized youngage of thirteen. he declared that the festival of Lughnasadh be held in her honour. Nexr day an orter rerumed rhe psalter unharmed. 1994 ) THI. Agiant clawed hand came through the stable window and took the new-bom foal. Although his wife. Ir was originally the occasion of a nadonal sponing compedtion. "I am old. a fish and a bird before being eaten by the wirch in the form of a grain of whear. after "died a Christian TALIESINwas a prophetic bardwhowas gtfted wtth all-hnou. The wheel. Teimon owned a beaudful mare. another Firbolg hng. some of the hot liquid fell on hrs finger and he sucked it ro relieve the pain (much like FINN MACCOOL when he was cooking the Salmon of l(nowledge). ried to restrain him. when a messenger arrived to summon him to an ally's aid on the batdefield. symbolized by the trident. wirhout his permission. Whoever swallowed these precious drops would know all the secrersof the pasr. he prayed that the hngwould not retum to persecure Chrisdans. wctsa Celtic IA&{NIS. "l have been dead. a msk which killed her. The furious Ceridwen employed all her magic powers to pursue the boy. the wheel. from the Adriatic coast ro the nonhem regions of Britain. wzls ro peld three drops of knowledge. which rook place on the first day of Augusr. (llr-trsrnAfl(r^l By MTR. also called Tounds. He rhen laid hands on St Ronan. later Gwion Bach was thrown inro the sea and was caughr in a fish-trap and renamed Taliesin because of his radiant forehead. a three-pronged spear. nor unlike the Olympic Games. She was said ro have cleared the forest of Bregso rhar it became a plain. in lare Irish mythologrwas a hng cursed by St Ronan. the hng rushed ro the new foundadon.Crlrrc MyrHoLoGy SutnnNe GEILT. Becauseshe was the foster-mother of the sun god LIIGH. TnUfnffS. afrer a year of boiling.

the srory of Tristan and tsrulT was popular in Cornwall.. watchingthe birth of a JoaI. qvasthairy arm thrust was shoched to see throughthestable window After hachingat thearm withhis sword. an incorrect report of a black sail caused Tristan to lose rhe will to live and he died of his wound When Iseult was rold of her lover's death she too quickIy died. c . but later was gravely wounded and sent for help from Iseult. theuo had in love Jallen before sipping thepotion. 1984 ) ro Comwall.heJounda splendid castleall alight and alive with song Sadly. 1900 ByEvELTN ) quest. separation and their dearhs The Iovers' end was particularly touch- ing Having agreed ro pan.however. he wasstruchbachby aburningbeamof light. the Irish queen. gaze at each other in rapture In one legend.TeirnonJound a beautifulbaby boyin thestable. Ireland and Bnttany A love porion prepared by Iseult's mother.Crlrrc MyrHoLocy TEIRNON.nng lseult would white sail to indicare rhat she was aboard However.900 ) 169 . ruIersoJ the realm (lr-r-usrnqrror ByAL{N Lrr. arcn though he doubtedhis chqnces because oJ his illlcrt love Jor Iseult At one stagein his TruSfnN.enchantedby lwepotion. Tristan wen[ ro Brittany. t'or only thepurestcouldattain the Grail (lLLLtstRqrtnru nv EvrLvrv PAUL. was one of the great lovers of medieval myrhology His name is said to have been glven ro him after his morher's death in childbirth Of Breton origin. bur of a broken hearr (See also CELTIC ROMANCE: SINGLE COMBAT) THoues THE RHyueR see CELTIC OTHERWORLDS TRISTAN humbly sought the Grail. rhe nephewof King MARK of Comwall. where King Mark wait- ed to marry her The ensuing taie relates the sad course of rheir love. whomhe raised and who turnedout to be the lost son of Rhiannonand \mll. was the cause of their grear love Tristan and Iseuh drank ir accidentallywhen Tnsan was escorring her TRISTAN andIseult a Aef). who had once before cured him of a serious wound she sailed ro Bntnny cure So with a magic It had been agreed rhar the hoisr a ship carr. which only served to quash theirscruples TheVictonan design captures theextreme nature oJ courtly lwe luusrntloN peut.

The retrieval of these objects was one of the hardest of the tasks that the giant Yspaddaden set CUHWCHwho wanted to marry his daughter oLwEN. the present-day lrish The Tuatha De Danann overcamethe FOMORII.ne treasure snatches Jrombetween the bOAT. father of the son god LUGH To atone for this crime. Apart from having their exPloits recordedby the monks who wrote down the lrish sagas.and hereMabon. vrolentand monstrous seagods.an went to live ancient raceoJ lnsh gods.CTITIC MYTHOLOGY TuerHe Dr DnNANN were "rhe people of the goddessDana" in Irish mythologr They were the lasr generation of gods to rule Ireland before the invasion of the the ancestorsof sons of MILESIUS. and the cauldron belonging to father of the gods. which DAGDA. bringer of vrcroryover the Fomorii. a pair of scissorsand a razor.eoch sidhe. was a king who was tumed into a gigantic boar for his sins. bnngrngback to lreland such magicalobjects as a healing pigshn belongingto a hng of Greeceand a cooking spit from an undersea hngdom When fulfilling their final labour they were badly wounded and Tuireann begged Lugh for the pigskin to cure his sons. Finias and Murias From these ciries the Tuatha De Danann brought to Ireland four talismans:the Stone of Fal. their great war-leader. was an inexhaustible pot that was capableof sadsfyingevery appetite It is clear that the gods known in lreland as the Tuatha De Danann were common to all Celtic peoples Their namescan be found inWelsh myths and in inscriPtions on the continent of EuroPe ln lreland they were not entirely lost with the advent of ChristianitY. the spearor sling-shotof the sun god LUGH. 1984 ) TUATIIA DE DANANN (above). celebrated on the last du1 of October to mark rhe new year. The boar was an important animal to the Celts and appears in many myths. as the slayerof BALOR.S CATS (ILLUSTMTION BY AIAN Lrc. Between his ears he kePt a comb. It rePresented both war and feasdng. as well as in statues and carvings. a subterhadhis own sparhling ranedncourt whichglittered with wonders Lrc. which screamed aloud when the rightful king of Ireland placed his foot upon it. the magic sword of NUADA. which was a weapon that could only inflict faml blows. underground aJtertheir defeatbythe Milesians Beneathgasry mounds. the De Danann were believed to allow mortals to enter their realm was the Irish father TUtnnnNN of three sons who killed Cian. was the who. crafts and knowledgein four mawellous cities of the nor[h. shilfully . 170 . therenownedhunter.1984 ByAr-AN within (lnusrnqrroru ) TwncH TnwYrH. but the god refusedand they died TWRCH TRWYTH helow)wos aboar eenhis benv that guardedthreetreasures ears which Culhwchsought to retnue Arthur'swar-bandhuntedthe boar. Lugh demanded that the sons of Tuireann should perform a seriesof near impossible tasls. ar the second battle of Magh Tuireadh largely because of their superior magic They were said to have learned magic.the Tuatha De Danann took up residence underground as the faines On the ancient Celtic feast of Samhain. Falias. Gorias. in welsh mythology.

he ashedhim to design a table "round in theliheness of theworld" (lrlusrMnoN ANON ) the hero food. ruled Rheghedin north-west Bntain His courageand skill as a walrior were celebratedin many songs. and. UAITHNE was the god Dagda's inspired harpist Hehad. he forgot his own srength and accidently broke her finger while taking a dish from her hand Her scream brought her pre- vious lover to Uathach's immediate aid. threeequallygfted sons who playedsuchsad musicthat on one occasiontwelvemen died weepingfrom sorrow The Celtic bardsaccompanied their music wlth lyncs which perpetuated the legends down the generations (Ir-r-usrpcrroN ANoN ) UefH ("Horror") was the name of the water giant who challenged the three lrish heroesCUCHUIAINN. he called out to the harp to free itself.CTITIC MyTHOLOGY UAITUNE. father of owarru.qTHACH was one of rhe lovers of the great Ulster hero and champion CUCHUI-AINN. Gorlois. The harp responded by killing nine Fomorii and then singing Dagda's praises Uaithne was also the name UTHER PEMRAG ON. affth-century ruIer of Bntain.r. destroyingthe castlewalls (Irrusrnqtror. but Cuchulainn easily slew him in rhe fight that followed and afterwards Uathach transferred her affecrion to the vicror UATH submitted three Iishheroes to a beheadingcontest to testthnr courage and Jind the champion of Ireland The rules allowedahero to behead the glantbut only iJhe could return theJavouf on the next day Only Cuchulainnhadthe courage to behead the glantand placehisheadon the bloch (tnvsrneroN ByJAMEs Alrxrrvorn.was consultedand revealed that two dragonsbattledbeneath the site wery night. laoghaire and cox. Duke of Comwall. a precocious seer.r nvAuw Lr. 1995 ) YORflGERN. who had been Cuchulainn's tutor in the martial ars When Uathach sewed eachother and sitwithout quarrelling Turning to Merlin. U. Uther was able to sleep with lgraine because he was disguised as her husband.It was stolen by the FOMORII. tied to build a grand castle.1984 ) 17l . but it kept collapsing When was consulted he said that MERLIN a red dragon (the Saxons)battled with a white dragon (the Britons) beneath the fort and that the red dragon would evenruallywrn. and the result of their union was Arthur The wrzard vrnriru helped in this deceprion and later Uther kilied Gorlois and married lgraine. was the magic harp of the TUATFIA DE DANANN god DAGDA. Unen is said to havefought a successfulcampaign againstthem andbesieged them on the island of Lindisfame UrHrn PnNonRcoN (whose name means "dragon head") was ARTHUR's father According to lateBritish mytholory. in Irish mythology. provided that he would then lay his own head on the block for the giant to decapitate Only Cuchulainn rose to the challenge. of Dagda's harpist hit upon the incredibleidea of having a round table at which 150 hnightscould see URIEN.qLLrc abeheading contest Each was invited to and chop off the giant's mke an a:<e head. Arthur'sJathu. according to lrish mythology. the enemies of the De Danann When Dagda discoveredwhere it was.including rhe work of raurslru When the Angles invaded. while Arthur was taken by Merlin was a British ruler VORilCERN who hiredJutish mercenaries. but the walls hept crumbling The boy Merlin. but as increasing numbers of Saxons came inro Britain he fled to Wales Here he tried to build a stronghold. the daughter of the female warrior SCATTIACH. the Munster kirg. and was proclaimed by the giant as the Irish champion After the himannouncement uath revealed self to be CURoI.

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chroniclers of rhis event noted the srange worship accorded to the rhunder god Perunu or Veles. while Frqrbears at nght. Although a nadve hammer-god undoubtedly existed before the Vihngs arrived in the 860s. Their beliefs remained similar ro those held by the tribespeople of Siberia unril quite recent times For rhe purpose of rhis book these traditions have been grouped rogerher under the generic [errn. Rumanians. Norwegians. Without such passing resrimony our scant knowledge would be almost nonexistent Even so. the influence of Christianiry and lslamic rule replaced the native story-telling Of Baltic myrhologlr next to nothing now exists. Dutch. such as the inhabitanrc of rhe Baltic shore: the Prussians. while rhe Slavs are made up of Russians. Norse. Swedes. but were later for a time under Islamic rule also This long Ootw. theleadingwarior god oJtheVihings.the WorV TreeAt centre is thethundu wieldinghis godThor. lcelanders. the Samoyeds of Russia. the imponance of northem wariors in Novgorod and Kiev made it inevitable that the Russian god would be identified wrth his Germanic counterpan The strength of the Vihng presence can be judged from the Arab raveller Ibn-Fadlan's accounr of the ship cremadon of a "Rus" Ieader on the Volga river in922. fiery thunderbolt. It is rherefore likely that the Slavic thunder god Perunu had already absorbed much of Thor's mythologr. anearof corn to represent hts Jmtlity (Taprsrny. an ancient group once spread right across the tundra of Europe and Asia. and any of their exracdon. and the lirtle we know about their worship is usually as a consequence of its Christian terminarion [n Russia the conversion of Vladimir in 989 to rhe Orthodox faith involved rhe ransacking of pagan remples at Kiev. Croa6. although some idea can be formed of the pantheon The brutal truth is that European mythology has escaped the Baltic fate only where by historical accident it was written down In the case of Celtic Germanic and of Slavic descent Today the former group includes Germans.INTRODUCTION INTRoDT]CTIoN HE MYTHOLOGY OF NORTHERN AND eastem Europe is essentiaily that of two main groups. are actually the scattered remnants of rhe Uralians. Most Slavic gods are nor much more than names. Slovacs and Poles.bears theweapons ofhiswarcraft. English. there are difficulties wirh Vladimir's own pagan beliefs prior to his conversion to Christianity. Mjollnir. an axeandspearThestylized tree depicted beside himrymb olizes Ygdrasil. peoples of River Dnieper was a by-product of Viking exploration. Fortunately. Other peoples have also contributed to the mythological tradition of the region.t2rH cENruRy) isolation from such Slavonic influences did not bode well for Balkan mythology As rhe mphs were never wntten down. the god of flocks. Further north there are conrriburions from the Finns and the Lapps of Sweden and Norway The northemmost people of all. He was of Swedish descent and the "Rus" state he ruled on the 174 . It is a fact thar the overwhelming bulk of mythologl surviving from nonhem and easrem Europe is Scandinavian and lcelandic in origin. Lithuanlans and Letts.Serbs. In the Balkans the Slavs not only encountered Onhodox Chrisdaniry. atleft. Danes. Bulgarians. the Lapps of Finland and their cousins.

and then break up again. 175 .TNTRODUCTION mythologywe are fortunate in the care taken by Christian monks in lreland to record the ancient sagas. when a vigorous tradition formed around the heroic deeds of Odin. the shield-bidng fighters who rushed unheeding and naked into the fray. approximately 750-1050. flung the old king down and slew him with his sword as he fell." noted the Annals oJ IJlster. "The sea spewed forth floods of foreigners over lreland. planned (Wooo 12ru crvrunY.tnvtruc. He was recalling the sagas of the Viking era. Viking warriors were largely organized in small bands or ships' crews. although on occasion they built up armies or large fleets of warships. but it was sunk beneath waves of northmen and pirates." In 836 the Vikings had decided to set up a permanent raiding base on the site of present-day Dublin. the doom of the gods.and enabled them to travel far and wide. These dead warriors. providing detailed explanations of the old myths. trading voyages or piracy. otherworldly bloodOn tastingthe andlearnt to undmtand birdsong power from thebirds treachery the sleepingby histutor thatReg1n. "so that no harbour. the restless and adventurous Northmen . no casde. no stronghold. Norwegians and Swedes. the monstrous offspring of the fire god Loki and the frost giantess Angrboda. the war god said "the grey wolf watches the halls of the gods". no fort. And much of Germanic mythology would have been lost in its tum without the efforts of the Icelandic scholar and statesman Snorri Sturluson. where nearly all would fall in an encounter between the gods and the frost giants.put to sea in search of plunder and land. Gathering to Valhalla the heroic warriors slain in battle was the only policy Odin felt he could sensibly follow under the constant threat of Ragnarok. who was acting as his charioteer. after the Germanic peoples overran the western provinces of the Roman empire. Iike the forces that attacked France in 842 or invaded England in 866 Their magnificent ships and expert seamanship gave them mastery of rivers and seas. since Odin. fire. Whether Harald Wartooth accepted this as an adequate answer is uncertain. were desperately needed for the final battle on the Vigrid Plain.) c. This chief of the Germanic gods exened a special fascination as "father of the slain" He shared those who fell on the battlefield with Freyla. It is hardly surpnsrng that aggressiveVihng warriors loved hearing about the exploits of one-eyed Odin. and FaJnir. The lrish lamented the Viking onslaught most. might be found. At the tum of the thineenth century Snorri Sturluson wrote a handbook for poets on the world of the Germanic gods. He also inspired the frightful berserkers. no beach. Thor and Freyr Still untouched by Christianity. When the Danish king Harald Warcooth complained about Odin's fickleness. Odin himselfwas desdned to be killed by the wolf Fenrir.The classical heritage of Greece and Rome was presewed like that of the Cels in monastic libraries. They mlght sewe under a famous leader for a while. only joining together in temporary alliances for military expeditions. the way he gave luck in battle and then suddenly withdrew it again.the Danes. dragon. the Einheqar. the goddess of fertiliry. oJthe ternble theheart Slcuno roasts thedragon's was which splashedwith histhumb sucla the gained Sigurd blood.

INTRODUCTION Vttnqu-e. thetroublesome godtdunts theRhine Maidens. But for rhose who settled down as colonisrs.wastobegln mischiwous andplayJul pranluter.housed Odin's phantomarmy oJheroicwarnors. jusr a cenury or so before Scandinavia was converted to Christianiry. Ever handy was his rhunderhammer Mjollnir. the splendid. Thor is represented in the sagas as an honest and straightforward person. who aregnevingtheloss oJ thar Rhinegold (ItusrnerroN BYARTHUR R4cKfiM. was destinedto werwhelm the world at Rngnaroh (Irrusrnerrorl rnovTnr pRosEEDDA. must have seemed like a description of contemporary times to rhe footloose Vikings. 1760) The "axe-age. the wth a fiery ticluter god.thepreordaineddoom of the gods On the right. He was very popular with lcelandic colonisrs. Loxt below). Odin's son. Thor was indeed a reassuring supematural presence in both divine and human crises. buthebecame sodarh ondttistedthathis malice threatened thestabtlity oJthe world andprecipitated Ragnaroh Here. or local tyrans on farmers. Although "allergic" ro frosr giants. a magic instrumenr wirh powers of destruction.sword-age". fertiliry and resurrection. either as farmens or traders. be they encroachmenrc by frost gians on gods. which was the age that would lead up ro the carasrrophe of Ragnarok. who had fled southem Norway to avoid the Odinlike acdvities of leaders like Erik Bloodaxe. Jormungand. Thousands of them revealed their allegiance in the choice of family name: Thorsten or Thorolf were most common. gatheredtofight at Ragnaroh. or even overzealous Christian missionaries on pagan temples. the massiye World Serpenr. an alternadve god ro worship was Thor. helow).many-spiredHaIl of the Slain. It was hardly suqprising then that Thor became a greatergod than Odin ar rhe close of the Viking era. c 1900 ) L76 .

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the husband of MN and father of nine daughters. and wpaR. but the god's hammer saw off Hymir and his gigandc friends As a result.NonsE MyrHoLoGY AEGIR. under the leadership stone of opll. blind HoDR. included his sons BALDER ("the bleeding god") and BRAGI. the god of eloquence. SIF. which sheusedto snatch unsuspecting satlors from the dechs oJ shipsand dragthan down to theseabed Sheentertainedthem in her coral cayes. Thor was displeased with were pleased to come to terms In the arrangemenr and so devised order to cement the peace. At one time th€re possessorof a magic hammer of was a war between the younger inesistible force In pq/ment for rhe Aesir and the older Vanir. the fertiliry until sunise when thefirstraypetnfied god nnnrR.rmir. and the forces led by Loh AlnrntCH seeANDyART AnGIR'ssister-w{e. the wife of Thor. who was the keeper of the apples of youth Almost all the Aesir were to be hlled at Ragnarok(the doom of the gods). with his hom.rhe jusrice hoped to marry Thor's glant daughter.Rnn. turned to stone in the vigiian r HEIMDALL. ended in a peace thar left the Aesir the gods promised that he could dominant Both branches had in marry Thor's daughter THRUD.Aruorn. the god of war T1?. whose dury daylight (Iuusrnenoru BvJAMEs ALFxANorn. rhe trickster LOKI.was Jamous t'or her drowningnet. rhe destrucrion of ships and rheir crews To ensure a calm voyage. butftrsthehadtoprove thathis in a splendid hall supporred by great wisdom made upforhissmall stature pillars of red gold and coveredwirh Thor quizzedhim andprolonged thetest a roof inlaid with silver. the brothers of Odin.a son of H. although no details of his descent survive Aegir was sometimes depicted as a very old man with whire hair and claw-like fingers Whenever he rose from his underwater hall.whose mighty magic hammer was the only weapon the frost giants feared.Jono. another of Odin's sons. was a dwarf who was family of the gods. he broke the surfaqeof the sea for a single pulpose.a dwarf famedforhiswisdom. one of the gods exchangedwith the Vanir.ALUS ("All Wise").i995 ) it would be to summon everylirirg creature to MGNAROK. the day of doom. once a leading Vanir. THOR. prisoners would usually be sacrificed to Aegir before a Viking raiding parry set sail for home One myth tells how the proud sea god was ourwirted by THOR Aegir had been ordered by Thor ro brew some ale for the gods. Thor acquired a vast cauldron from the frost gianr HYMIR k was so big that when he hoisted ir onto his shoulders. and However. in Germanic ology.residedin a glisteningunderwaterpalace from where he directedthe swirlingwaves throughhis nine daughters. or Eagor. the Ar. when a terrible battle was destined to nke place berween the forces led by Odin. but he pretended thar he had no cauldron large enough for rhe task In fact he disliked being told what to do But undaunred.who werehnownas the billow maidens The hissing. with ale It was at a subsequentfeastfor the gods held by Aegir rhar r-oxr showed how evii he had become when he insuhed rhe assembled company and stabbedAegir's servant Fimafeng The goddesses of the Aesirwere FREYJA.several a test of knowledge to srop rhe of the leading Aesir wenr ro live dwarf from marrlnng his daughter. questioned him all night long the Aesir's home becausesunlight rumed dwarfs to The Aesir.was a Germanic sea god. which weapons Alvis had forgedfor them. VILI and VE.cm (above). were one branch of rhe myrhology.lihe all dwarfs. who resolvedquanels Thrud.god of fire and ally of the frost giants. Arws. a son of Odin who was desdned ro avenge his father's death at Ragnarok r78 . a humiliared Aegir had to accepr the cauldron and supply ASGARD. among the Vanir. rhe waves He seems to have belonged ro an older generation of the gods rhan either the erSlR or the VANIR. the other branch outwrtted by ODIN'sson IHOR. rhe fertiliry goddess and twin sister of Freyr. which were lit by gleaminggold and where meadjowed asJreelyas inValhalla (llli/srunoN By PErER HURD 1882 ) THf AESIR. fact grown weary of fighting. 1995 ) handles reached his ankles Hymir tned to stop Thor leaving with rhe cauldron.seething Nordtc seawascalled"Aeglr'sBrauing Kettle" (lrrusrnnrroru ByJAMES ALEx. Alvis who.the were the VANIR. Odin's wife. god ronsETI. in Germanic myrh. and IDUN. the unwitting killer of Balder. Thor of important Vanir wenr ro ASGARD. FRIGG. rhe home of the gods.a tempestuous and powerfuIgod of the sea. while a number When Alvis came ro ASGARD. the seagod w.

However. including his magic gold-making ring. the farmer. Andvari sunendered all his immense hoard of gold. it was capable of being stretched to a great size and so no ordinary amount of gold could be acceptedin compensation. eventually. when Sigurd reahzed that for the sake of the reasure Regrn intended to kill him in tum. who had bY this time become a dragon The hero duly searched for the creature and eventually found it in its lair and slew it. The fire god was not permitted to wear his sky-shoes. Becausethe flayed skin was endowed with magic powers. Carrying the dead otter.Hel awaits a nan inmate AXOVnru. oDIN and noNlR came acrossa farm and offered to share the otter's meat with the household in retum for a night's lodgings. behindthe Vanir uins. dripping tunnels to an underground lake.Nonsr MvrHoLoGY Tnr ArstR AeJ) werewamor-gods worshippedbyheroesandhings Very lihe and diedwith thq loved. he told Hreidmar of Andvari's curse and in this way passedit on to the farmer lndeed. But in his anger the dwarf laid a terrible curse on the ring which would causethe doom ofwhoeverwore ir. When Loki retumed to the farm with the gold and Odin and Honir were released. Hreidmar settled on a death-price: enough gold to cover Otter's skin. or Alberich. while Odin and Honir (in some versions just Honir) remained at the farm as hosuges. who was the nchest of those who dwelt underground Only because of Loki's terrible threats. the offering was none other than his own son OTTER. like the otter before. Thus it was that Andvari's curse continued to cling to the stolen gold and brought about the death of all it those who attempted to Possess (Seealso RINGS OFPowER) 179 . where he caught a large pike. and these were also kept as security against Loki's return.Nonrnru Goos DESCENDING By w CoLLlNGwooD.t'ought Norsemen. he made sure that he slew his foster-father first. To the horror of HREIDI4AR. the three Norns examine the darh thread of destiny. Andvan dancedwith rageand cursedthe ing At top. Finstof all. On an expedition to Midgard (the land of men). bound them hand and foot. Hreidmarchanted aspell toweaken his guests and then his two suwivingsons. he. Loh killed a sleeping otter with a stone. c 1890 ) ANDVARI'sbbove) treasuretrrve was stolenby the godsOdin and Lohi in order to pay a ransom When thq toohhis goldmahingnng too. Odin protested their innocence and pointed out that they would not have come straight to the farm had they known the otterwas the farmer's son. Loh was allowed by Hreidmar to seek this great treasure. was a craftsman dwarf who lost his hoard of treasure to the fire god LoKt.led thehuoic Aesir Tnr. Loh descended through amaze of. whilebelow. humanfeelingsfor. wife of the seagod eEGtR. CANVAS. tumed out to be more than it firsr seemed For it was in fact the dwarf Andvari. Hreidmar was soon after killed by his son Fafnir. sem herein hornedhelmet. thq were not immortal Odin. inside and out. Having borrowed the drowning-net of Ran. who then ran away with the cursed treasure was later PerThe hero SIGURD suaded by his foster-father Regrnto pursue Fafnir. This fish.however. as he was known in later German legend. FAFNIR and Rrcnv. So. thoughdivine.

ODIN set the seemingly impossible Iimit of six months for the constnrction of fugard's walls As a concession the stonemasonwas allowed to use his horse.*ot Qeft) walkwrebuiltbya gpant stonemason. in Germanic mythbetween the gods and the giants ology. fugard's mlghry built by giants is a widespread walls were built by a stonemason. However. wamed that rhe wolf would bring abour Odin's dearh action was finally raken to bind Fenrir securely with a magic chain and keep him in captiviry.xeuorn. which is not dissimilar to the above story conceming fugard's walls (Seealso MGNAROK) Asc. She was rhe misrress of LOKI and the mother of three monstrous offspring: rhe wolf FENRIR. sayage . brood oJmonsters Hel. he his hammer It is ironic that the had no choice but ro garher to his defences of Asgard should have side the greatestchampions been built by the labour of a frost giant. who named the hand TinTns in southem Greece. He rhen hurled Jormungand inro rhe ocean. like his sister Hel "surrounded by corpses and swirling death-mist" in the netherworld A tenth-century Danish complainr about Odin's withdrawal of luck from brave wariors is answered in terrns of Angrboda's brood Odin is supposed to havesaid that "the r80 . ar MGNAROXthese rwo who were the younger enemies were destined to meet in a the AESIR. Odinflings theserpent intothe iq deep.a wo[. was a frosr giantess.who wuebanished bythe Jormungand gods Here. the goddessesof destiny. aided byhis wondrous horse. one-eyedbeings.anda glontserpent.NfUNGAND. Odin was Iesscertain what to do wirh Fenrir. the day of doom. in Germanic mythology. were believed to have been construcredby rhe Cyclopes. and sronger branch of the family of batde of mutual destrucdon. Fenir. 1995 ) IAMEI the sun and the moon.where the huge snake smashed through the ice and sank down into the depths. plus example. as his price for the eighteen-monrh rask Ar LOKI's suggestion. A group of gods broke into Angrboda's hall ar night. and destroy him The sea serpenr Jormungand also awaited the final conflict.:usrrurrc:. The other branch.a rottingg1rl. ODIN first banished Hel ro rhe "world beneath the worlds" and there he put her in charge of ail the inglorious dead. To the horror of the gods he had finished all the walls. when the NoIWS. who were giant. There is also a srory of a dispute over Payment for the snengthening of Troy's walls by the gods rrpollo and Poseidon and King l-aomedon. so ar first he decided that rhe gods should keep an eyeon him at fugard. gods. given rhe bitter enmity ASCenO.to help him in the work. Hrimthurs. thus prevendngthe compledon of thejob The stonemason then revealed himself as a frost grey wolf watches the halls of rhe giant and tHoR broke his skull with gods" With this threat in mind.three days before the time was up So Loh transformed himself inro a mare and beguiled the stonemason's sullion. while Angrboda guards hu wolfchild (tr. bound and gaggedher. c lg90) ANCRBODA. was the divine stronghold of Indeed. Although Angrboda's children were thus contained. for of the ferdlirygoddessFRE[. and a daughter named HEL. the vANIR. except a gateway. myth in Europe The walls of Hrimthurs. SvadilJari The gods gave himonly sixmonths to complete theworh. rhey agreed thar such creaturesmusr be deah with quickly. and rook her and Loh's children ro ASGARD. the magic Svadilfari.NoRSE MyTHoLoGY ArucnrooeQet't) mothered a dreadful .N By Arc. or Angerboda (" Distress-bringer"). the serpentJOR. The idea of ciry walls that were lived in Vanaheim. Odin knew rhat the wolf Fenrir would break free at MGNAROK. hoping to avord payment Heneafi on timebutwas thwartdbylohi's finished fichery (Itusrnenol ByH HENDRICH.A.When the gods heard about this brood.

The cow herself seemsto have suwived on the goodness that she obtained from an icy salt lick. first some hair appeared. ODIN. and nouished thefirstfrost g1ant. BURI. She Iived in a strangehouse which had legs like a chicken's at each comer. Their sonswere the first gods. fu the giant fell the blood from his wounds flooded the land and drowned all his frost children. emergedJrom thepimal ice at the dawn of time.perchedon a rolling log shepropelk herself fow ord with a pole ttuusrufloN syI Bruilu.Nonsr MvrHoLocY was rhe primeval AUOHUMIA cow in Germanic mythology.In time Buri had a son named BoR. Wrtwoman. This creature was the first animal to ("the emerge from GINNUNGAGAP yawning emptiness") at the start of creation From Audhumla's teats "flowed four rivers of milk". by an ethereal a wondrousrainbw bndgecalled BiJrost (Ir-r-usrnerror ByALAN Lrc.then a head.who married Bestla. is the hideous man-eating lemale demon of Slavonic rradidon. Ymir. (abwe) the magnificent stronghold oJthe Aesirgods. cANVAs. part-tree Here. the ongnalcw. except for BERGELMIR and his wife who managed to escape Bnnn YAGA.the first frost giant and the first live thing of all. c 1790) BeneYece bottom ight) was a Slavonic witch of monstraus sze who prqed on travellers. Shesuwived by liching icefrom which she freed the Jirst man.1900 ) r8t . it was believed that she flew in an iron ketde. fu she licked. From Ymir's children descended the frost gians. and stood inside a fence made of human bones When she wished to travel. donuring thar fleshwith a mouth that stretchedJrom earth toheII. She wasseen as ahunchedhag bearded. shimmeredon a plane aboveMdgard Within. below). somerime s Jezr Baba.her mouth is said to stretch from earth to the gates of hell. and finally the whole body of a man. Audhumla liclu Bunfree of the ice (Aupnuuuay NAAEILGAARD. These three battled against rhe frost gians and finally slew Ymir. Bu'i Here. nourishment enough for YMIR. rhe daughter of a frost giant.WLI and tt. while Ymir suchbshcr milh. the implacable enemiesof the gods. According to some versions of her myth. AsGAw.1984 ) Auotruute. therewere countlessshining glittuinghalk Jor each of the gods lsgard was linlud to Midgard pathwayJor the gods.

who plottedhis tra. FORSETI. the god of fire He was so annoyed by Balder'sescapefrom danger that he transformedhimseif into an old woman and vrsited Fngg's hall. was rhe son of oDIN and FRIGG and rhe "bleeding god" of Germanic mythology His wrfe was Nanna and their son. the bodies of Balder and Nanna.er he went but. were placed on a pyre in a longship which was allowed to drift buming out to sea. he remained unharmed All in fugard were delighted except LOKI.spread light and goodwillwhera. theemblems ofsleep Hisship was set aflame andpushed outtosea where it shone bightly. Balder was tormented by nightmares.Nonsr MYTHoLoGY BeI-nEn.glc death and impisoftment in Hel This romantic portrayal captures the sacred. wirh a travelled through the nine worids branch Although depressedby thrs and got each and every thing ro news. So Odin rode his eighrleggedsreedsLEIrNIR to the land of the dead and by means of magic Ieamed from a seeressthere that Balderwas to be killed by the blind god ruoon. BALDER's body was laidona pyre in his longship andhewas then cwered in treasure wtth anddecorated and flowers thoms. as the divine inhabitants tned to understand rhe meaning of Balder'sdreams Theywere deepiy puzzled because the genrle god least deservedto suffer such torments. except blind Hodr.bejore sinhing intodarhness (Fuurner oF A VIKNG By F DrcKsEE.W- bitter godlnhi. Loh leamed that she had received a promise of harmlessnessfrom all things except the misdetoe. 1893 ) 182 .uenalf. alwingand gentlesoul. with the result that the branch passed right through Balder. which was a plant too small and too feeble to bother about Armed with this information. ceNvrc. Loki gave him the branch of mistletoe and directed his throw. 1840 ) ed that he was about to die A sense of foreboding. who had died of gnef. He used the eight-legged Sleipnir for the joumey While Hermod was away. was sent to HELin order to oflfera ransom for Balder. rherefore.evohed the enry of the '' . settled over ASGARD..' Betoen. somerimes Baldr or Baldur.Chnst-lihe goodness of the god (BALDER BY B FOGELBERG. his own brother. ln conversation with the goddess. Balder'sbrother...who immediately fell down dead At Frigg's entrearyHERMOD. the home of the gods. was the god ofjustice As a young man. Loki went off to cur some mistletoe In his normal shape the fire god rerumed to the assemblyof the gods and found everyonethrowing things at Balder. inevitably. Pretending to help Hodr enjoy the sport.. all of which indicat"i'. Odin retumed to fugard and swearan oath that ir would do her found that his wife Frigg had a son no harm To Odin's relief this plan to save Balder The goddess plan seemed to work When rhe gods decided to test Balder'snew invulnerabiliry by throwing srones and spearsat him wrth great force.

giantess. Balderwas expected [o retum and rule over a world cleansedby catastrophe. who was the dying-and-rising god the ancient Greeks adopted from the Phoenicians. Like the undead Celtic KingAnhur. released treasure dragon's Jorhispeople (lrlusrncrtoN BYJAMES Auxaruorn. until Beou.after MGNAROK. Beowulf followed her into a lake and dived down to her cavemlike lair A desperatestruggle then took place and Beowulf lost his rather than magical opponents.th and toohherW surpise battled calmly (luusrnrnoru I 995 BY Ar.Nonse MvrHoLocY In the netherworld the brave Hermod found his brother Balder seatedin a high position. Beowutr.lt would seemthat some of the initial appeal of Christianiry in northem Europe was connected with the triumphant retum of the risen Christ on Judgement Day. but BewulJ Jought :v'i. When he asked for his release. Although inrmlnerable to weapons. and bled to death. the doom of the gods. whom some interpret as theJutes. a green land risen from the sea. belonged Grendel. wept for were sent out him" Messengers and soon even the stones were an old frost weeping But THOKK." So upset were the gods at this refusal to mourn that it took some time for them to realue that Thokk was none other than Loh in disguise Nevertheless. since his kingdom had been rid of a menace. Having once again saved King Hrothgar's kingdom from danger. Grendel was seized by Beowulf and held in a powerful grip.&c^rprn. In contrast to the Celtic myths that describecombat with watergiants. who had continually terroized tore and dwoured the Danes. dead and alive. aswell as that of Adonis. One night a dreadful crearure known as GMNDEL came to the hall of King Hrothgar and ate one of the wanions sleeping there. craJtedby armour. the water monster fled to its home. the Germanic stories tell of heroes who face actual monsters BEowuLF. Balder remained with Hel Balder's good looks and early death recall the myths of the Egyptian Osiris and the Sumerian Tammuz. King Hrothgar loaded Beowulf with gifts. deep in a nearby lake. ) JAMES r83 . Beowulf soon found himseif almost on his own. 1995) Beowun wrestleswith a monstrous merwomanin the crystal cavernof her undemvatqden GrievingJor the death oJ the her son.e.where his father ruled Towards the end of his popular reign a dragon attacked his land Going out wrth rwelve followers to slay the fiery beast. Beowulf retumed home to southem Sweden. from which it could only trusry sword Like Anhur. it was at the cost of his own life. This is quite unlike the great Ulster hero and champion Cuchulainn's beheadingcontestwith Uath.OUNSCC BALDER BEOWULF was rhe Germanic hero who slew wo water monsters.refused. an even more dreadful creature She returned to the attack and ate another sleeping warrior In Pursuit. saying. for all his companions but one ran awayin terror Although he managed to hll the dragon. he was fortunare to find another magic weapon in the water and he used this to finish off Grendel's mother. (See also RAGNAROK) Bru-oR seeBALDER Bru..But neither the king nor the warrior reckoned on Grendel's mother. gazesup at the gory trophy hanging Jrom the splendidvault oJDenmarh's VictoryHall Theglanthairyhand to thefearsomeseamonster.1981 ) break away by losing an arrn. Hel said Balder could leave only on condition that "everything in the nine worlds.Grndel. for in these traditions their monstrous opponents were able to restorethemselvesto life after they had been decapimted tachled in hisoldage. His story is set in Denmark. Delighted by this feat of courage and strength. He was said to be the nephew of the king o[ Geats. memvoman Jrenry.ulJ the creature's arm nght out of its sochet (lLr-usrtucfloN By ALAN Lrr. dying Balderwould occur in a new world.seenhere with raiseddnnhing horn.arcn Jire' hismight neither Yet breathingdragons Wayland. Mortallywounded. or Sir Gawain's with the Green lfuight. slainby BeowulJ.For the Germanic peoplesbelieved that the retum of the wounded. "Let Hel hold what she has. norhis t'abled crushing thedragon's withstand could in the wounded was mortally teethBeowulJ the seeing buthedidnotdiebefore combat.

even though Billing approved of Brncrrutn below) andhis wife werethe the god's suir On rhe conrary. sky or sea. world wherethq founded the realm oJ vALr. fire and the gaping pir of GINNUNGAGAP Bor's father-in-law. in Germanic mythology. told him rhat he was . according ro Germanic mythology.Nonsr MyrHoLocy BenCflMIR. he was king of the Rurhenians. she onlyfrost glantsto escape drowningin treatedrhe chief of rhe Germanic the torrent of Ymir's blood thatflowedfrom gods wirh undisguisedconrempr his morTalwounds Thryjournqed in a Eventually. ice. BnnCl was rhe son of oDrN and Gunnlod. in Germanic myrholory. who was never at a loss forwords. a female giant. when there was no earth. VILI and vE hlled Ymir and rhrew his body into rhe middle of GTNNUNGA GAp. all the frost giants drowned in rhe grant'sblood exceprBergelmirand his wife By using a hollowed rree trunk as a boat.only mist. rhe goddess who kept the maglc apples of yourh When LOra retumed ro ASGARD. Bor lived in rhe time before the world had been made. who would avenge Balder's death (Ilrusrnerroru By NtcK BULE. thegodsmovedto andfro (lLLtrsrnarroru ar AL4N Lee. Rind She was destined tobear Odina son. 1995 ) BOn was rhe son of BURI. and was guardedby rhe watchman god HEIMDALLEvery day rhe gods rode acrossthe bndge ro hold meerings at the rr"ellof uRp Btlt tNC. also had a son who imparred his wisdom ro his nephew Odin. she gave way hollowed-out tree trunh to the edgeof the to his advances and she bore a son. Bragi. 1995 ) BIFRosr (above)wqs a glganticrainbow causew ay. was the flaming three-srrand rainbow bridge berween ASGARD and Midgard (heaven and earrh respectively) [t was said ro have been built by the gods our of red fire. was the son of Thrudgelmir and the grandson of YMIR When ODIN. reaching Jrom the shining citadel of Asgard to theearthly realm of Midgard Composed of fre. was rhe farher o[ ntruo According to some traditions. who was intent onwooing thehing's daughter.husband of the granr Bestlaand father of ODIN. and was the Germanic god of poerry and eloquence He was married to IDUN. tt shimmered with rainbow-coloured light in huesoJred. or Russians So strong-willed was Rrnd rhar ODINcould norwoo her. the giant Bolthur. who neverlost their harred for rhe gods Ar RacruaRox rhe frost gianrs and the dead of HEr were desrined ro settle the final account for Ymir's dismemberrnent BIEnOST. thedwarf is Odinin disguise. blue and green Over the ethereal arch. 1984 ) BtruNc (above) gazes in wonder at the glittmng tinhets bythedwarf Jashioned goldsmith Rosterus Unhnown to King BiIIing.VILI and \rE An ancient god. VaIi. water and air. greenwater and blue air. rhey escaped to continue the race of gianrc. however. afrer being instrumental in causing BALDER's death. who killed Hopn with his Jotunheimand bred a noy rlce oJ glants bow and arrow (lr-r-usrnerroru By NlcK Breu.

words of stopping his tned to calm Odin the effect of Bragi's even more threatening He finallY prophesied the destruction of the gods and then fled from fugard Possibly Bragi was a lare addition to the Germanic pantheon It is not unlikely that Bragi was added through the dMne elevation of a poet.ar (luusrpcnoN Tnr BTsruGAMEN below) wa. first by marrying Gudrun and rhen by helping Gunner win Brynhild On discoveringSigurd's betrayal. until seduced by Odin The dwarfsgavethet'air child a magicalharp and sethim aJloaton one of thar fne-craJted vessek Jrom whichhe sang hrspoignantSongoJLifewhichroseto the HyRD. c 1900) THr BruStNcS. guarded the Mead oJPoetry. Dvalin. Brynhild planned his death. day Buri's hair appearedwhere she licked. since in Germanic courts poets were venerated second only to kings. Gunnlod. who married a frost giantess. bearded man carrying a harp. her OnlySigurdbraved sleep wahing ho from hr enchanted (llrusrncno^i BYARTHUR RAcKtl M. unawareof its curse. BoR. but then killed herself in despair (Seealso THEVALKfRIES.2) ByPETER hem. namely. on the third. basing her diviniry by payrngsuch a price As a penance he made her stir up war in Midgard. On his travelshe was bewitched by Grimhild into berapng Brynhild.VILIand \rE VallEies. Bragi was portrayed as an old. and. company Loki called at their feast Bragi "the whereupon Bragi threat- ened to twist off Loh's head as the only sure method Iies Although the gathering. when she desired something badly enough The Brisingamen came to be identified so closely with Frepa that when wished to disguisehimself as THOR the goddess to rerieve his hammer she lent it to him to from THRYM. besideherselfwith longng treaure An pad dmrly Jor possessingthe it so enhancedher emblemoJthe stars. was rhe ancestor of the gods He was released from the ice by the primeval cow One AUDHUMIA. beauty that shewore it continually.were the mysterious owners of a golden necklace. that the fertility craved To ODIN's goddess FREYA disgust she slepr on four successive nights with the dwarfs Alfrigg. c 1890 ByJ and day 0uusrnrnoru ) WhO AVALI<YRIE BNYNHILD WAS defied oDIN and so was banished to earth and imprisoned within a braved ring of fire When SIGURD the fire and broke her charmed sleep. wherehts mother. Andvannaut. wrth byOdin waspunished Jor meddling The godputhutosleep hiswill inwarfare herin a nngoffre.san craftedby dwarJs so uquisite nechlace fnely that it shonelllu liquid jome The goddess Frqja. oJtheleading one BRvNHILD. What seems more likely is that the sexualprice Frefa paid for it represents the other side of love. 18f. not even Odin's great disapproval.e)wasbornin a glitteing stalactite cave.and their sons were ODIN. the worid of men Freyja and Odin shared those slain on the battlefield No agreementexistsabout the meaning of this strangemyth. also known as the Brisdings. in Germanic mythology. they fell in love. LOYERS) TRAGIC BURI. his entire body He had a son. Berling and Grer in order to acquire it. blind passion and lust Nothing could stop her. and when oaths were swom they were solemnized by speakingover a vesselcalled the Cup of Bragi BRTSTNCNMEN POWER RINGS OF SCC THT BruSNTNGS BNUNHILD BRisINGs SCC SCC BRYNHILD on Loki was to make him Bnecl (aba. make his costume convincing (See ANDTALISMANS) also TR. not Ieast because the identity of the Brisings is unknown It has been suggestedthat necklaceswere the specialadomment of mother goddesses. night PENRosE.called the Brisingamen.CASURES r85 . his head was free of ice. bragger". He gaveher his nng. When she retumed to Odin accusedher of deASGARD. where andimpisoned hero remainuntila peerless wouW she freed thescorchingJire.but this hardly does more than explain Freyja'sattraction to this particular one. on the secondday.Nonse MvrHoLoGY unwelcome Enraged.

the gods gne a g1ant.Day.lanches and brows Jrom their iqt shoulders (RcrNoere ar NrcHr at H SoHrnrnc. icy wastes and seethingsprings. the landvaettir easlly took fright. Shining Mane.while light elvesinspired the forestsand lakes. theJrost glants sent freezngblasts to nip the budsoJsping. shyrng away from Viking dragon ships.in one myth. Day's horse.with is electric skies. Tne Fnosr Grnrurs (below)personified the iq teftors oJthe Nordic landscapeMighry. who imbued the land and guarded its welfare. the go& placed a shieH.dark dwarfs unearthed glittering gems and metals. or CooW. storrn and fire giants. a clwnot andhones n drwe round the eanh once e''tay 24 hours. Yetother less dramaticbut no lessimportant spirits were the invisible landvaettir. such spirits roamed the mountains and snow slopes as fearsomefrost. personi$dngthe mysteriousand menacingforcesof nature. litup the earth and slq with the radiance of his shininghair. much lihe theJrost glants. (sw Drsc. wasfashionedby the gods from a bright sparh ofJire Its glou. fields and rivers wi rh whirling spirits of nature. or land spirits. or shooh ava.menactng and numbing. So great were the telrors of crushing ice and searingfire rhat the giants loomed large in the Norse myths as evil and ominous forces. cANVAi. Svalin. drawnby two white stee&and drivnhy the sun-maid.was easilypeopled with nature spirits. GTLDED BRoNzE. a host of vital forces filled the world and imbued the forests.ingorb wasplacedin a chaiot. Sol Feaing tlnt the sun's heat mifitt be harmful. inJront of the golden car In anothq myth.In Slavonicmyrh. c 10008C) . c 1890 ) Tnr Sunv(above). Helpful and timid.whoseundytng enmity wouldoyerwhelm the gods at Ragnaroh In the intenm. In the undergound cavems. the ice masses of the North werec constantthreat to the Norsemen.l NATTJRE SPIRITS HE DRAMATTc LANDSCApE of scandinavia.

which explains u ch a-sth e Rtescngehr ge someJ a ntostrc r o ch. whichwerelx Lrythe shrning goldol gleamrngcoral caves. for e.s berate RhmeMdrdens ratnbott'bntlge abot't 'ttr'. then tmphs' reJlected colour. a stormyspint of the seu.s an(l oLtt(ro?s uere created fu gants treatltng too hear. she her husband.s lost thcrr gold Htre. Ymtr too ugly to be sten. t l90C I Denx DwaRr-s @elow) -*te lotmed from mup4ots tn tht Thc gods thought them rottrngfesh o/ the siarn . uncl condemned them to a lfe undergound thus aplatmng Lrire ganr-s.s rs seekrng Satlo the Jluorescent sone gold pocheted Ran'sfovour wisely Jrv rhe tnp ( I L L L\ l R 4 l ( ) \ BI ARTHtR R{akHA\l.elpful.named the FlameoJtfu Sea.Eant. t' ormat i ons.tvrHoLOGY the shfting nar 0eft).tly at the dawn oJ time Best sutted to mrst and fog the mountaln gants. tn lcelantl tht hrghest peuhs are named lohul whrch dmvts Jrom Jotun ot Gtant l9g5 l lt Ntct BEAIE ilr rL-srRrnat\ 187 . moods.aJttr (#alit\/ of ltordtc wave. the sea Ranloved gold. rn her drowntngnetand gathered satktrs harmful She themdown to thedepthsoJ thesta There. tht.xample. \rR4ri( j\ E] {RfHl R R{(kr/4\1 r' la00 . Lrkc dwafs. somettmes somettmes moods oJ the ocean. the mam srnaller stons-s and r ochs scattered across the Nordic landscape The twin pettks ofTrold fintlteme . Rocx eNo Srom. -€': v'ho etherul spntes Tsr Rtlnr tr4qtorNs (abovd rvere m lakesand nters dunng thett'inter.l Gr. howa'er.s enttrtained Aegr.Nonse N.tttmecl to -stoneIn dctr-hght. the mttuntuin tthoes v'er( knott'n us Iiil ' ttq ti. )\ tsiqi-'1\i I F i 9s4 ) S-'r L :1. were petnfred bv the light of dt+'.qNrs persontlted the vost crdlgr mountdlns and storm clouds Rocky thastn.wtth rlrag4ed rn her herviclim. the gnef whenthe RhrneMardens rhe crossing to the gods theirlos.. formed bl foohsh grants who were caught outstde at slinnsr Snntlarly.t 1nsummcr The nt'er's theforest-s to lltt through thett'ater wrth tumtngbluch. .reflected h.emergngfrom tlv'el. cre two bands ol\NanlngdwarJs forgot to retre(lt beJttre sunnv v'hrspmngbehtnd " d**ufs' talk" As dwatJs had a httbtt ol who rochs.s (nght).

rhe Einherjar formed FRnNtn. was strong enough ro hold rhe animal Finaliy. c jg90 ) mouth was kept open by a sword so he could not bire. and quarrels between them are said ro causeeanhquakes DNAUPNIR DTNTruCH SCC R/NG5 OF POWER SCC RINGS OFPOWER EECON SCC AEGIR THe EtNHrn. Laufey Although it seemedto be a silken ("Tree isldnd") who gavebirth to ribbon.a sword-age. which he raised ro fight ar RAGNAROK. the doom of rhe gods This was the final battle between rhe gods and the frosr giants on the WGRID Plain. the then secured to a rock and his THE ErunrR/A& or 'huoic dead". (Seealso rHE vALKrRrEs) beast of RqcNaRoK. the chief of the gods. of a mountain and bird's spitrie his wife was anorher giant. he decided that Fennr should be restrained No chain. cANVAs. were the wicked dwarfs who killed the wise man KVASIR in order to gain his magic powers They mixed his blood with honey in a cauldron and made a mead rhat besrowed wisdom Bur Fjalarand Galarlost the wonderful drink to Sutrung. was destined to become his vicrim Kidnapped by the gods and brought to AscARo where rhey could keep an eye on him. l9l4 ) ODIN's private army. Fenrir would nor have it Loki when hir by a lightning bolt round his neck unless one of rhe unleashed by Farbauti Little else is gods put his hand berween hrsjaws known of Loh's paren6. and the Germanic mythologr. Suttung was boastful abour his . Fenrir was so savage that oniy the war god rrn dared to feed him At first Odin was uncertain about the wolf. helped by his brother REGIN Greed made him monstrous in nature and form. as he tumed inro a dragon ro guard his hoard The legend of his rreasure drew many aspiring heroes to his lair in search of fame and forFanNtR slays his Hradmar. rhe goddesses of destiny. known as Dabog to rhe Serbs and Dazbog ro rhe Poles Son of Svarog. god of fire.a wind-age. and any wounds they sustained were magically healed. outwirted the dragon and forefinger thewaningpair. choosing the bravesthuoesJor Odin's ghostlyarmy A chosenherosawa soaing VollEriejustbeforetheJatalblw GHE Roe oF THE VALKYRTESBy W T MAUD. and brother of svenazlC. and Odin was swallowed by him FnNrus seeFENRIR Flnltn and his brother Galar.rhe doom of the gods His was "an axe-ag?. thegods gaze onin numb won his ill-fared reasure dismay lttusrnarn9 BYF yoN Sussilt. these dead warriors would fight every day and feast every nighr. rhe god of the sky. a wolf-age. bur Andvai The dwarf s cursed the yourhful sicuno. rhe dwarfs made a ("Cruel srriker") was magic fetter called Gleipnir from FenneUTI a giant and father of the fire god strange materialssuch as the r00ts LOKI According to one tradirion. When freed from captivity at Ragnarok. before the wrechng of rhe world". son of rhe magician HREIDMAR. as a pledge that it was as harmless as it seemed Tyr was the only one FeNntn. Fenrir was a fearsome spectacle His vast mourh gapedso wide that the lower jaw touched rhe ground and the upper one reached the sky. the moon. wamed him about his own fate. a frost grant whose paren$ they had also kiiled Unlike the dwarfs. in Germanic mythology. was comrpted by the cursed ring Andvarinaut Lusting after the fabulous ring-hoard. because tune Most mer their dearhson the Jather. he was bom again everymoming and rode through the slcy on his diamond chanor unril he becamean old man in rhe evening In some versions he is married to MyESyATs. or Fenris. he slew his farher.according to prepared ro risk his hand. but when the NORNS.Nonse MyrHoLocy DAZHBOG was the Slavrc sun god. armed with from thedwarf ing canbeseen glitteing onHreidmqr' s his father's sword and guided by ashewithesin thedustBehind Regin. Until then. however. heisbewitched bythetreasure trove stolen blasted heath ourside his lair. was the son other gods laughed when the wolf of the mischief-making god roxi bit it off on finding that the chain and the frost giantessANGRBODA could not be broken Fenrir was He was the devouring wolf.were gathered upJrom thebottlefeldby the VallEieswho galloped arcr theJray.AR were the "heroic dead" of Germanic mytholory Theywere garheredfrom the battlefields by rhe vALr<rRtES In vALHALLA. ODIN.

and was known to the Frisiansas Forsite He was the son of neronn and Nanna Both of his parents were killed.) mouth as a signoJtrust (Drc. and so when retum Suttung gave chase as Flalar and Galar mixed Kvasir's another eagle. like yeast. the mead into jars left empry for his causes fermentation.the was strongenough bravegod Tyrfetters Fenrir at the costof hts ovn hand. and the it was from the spittle that Kvasir eagleand flew back to ASGARD. and slithered downwards to the hidden treasure as quickly as he allaying stiJe and resolvingfeudsHe nuer could. the. ln the account of Kvasir'sdeath. chainedhim to wasso satage that the gods an undergroundroch Only a maglcal cord tobindhim Here.but just failed to blood with honey in a cauldron catch Odin. rhrown unwitringly by the blind god noon. home of the gods. judgement in his goldenhall.8m F.the Iand of the frost gianm. which the brother wtthhonq to producethe goldenMead of 1995 ALE].ANoen. Glitnir. we are told in demil that his hall of Glitnir "had pillars of red gold and a roof inlaid wrth silver " There he sat in judgement and resolvedstrife Fnrn seeFREUA FREYR FNTY SCC Fnryn seeFREYJA r89 . Reaching the secret cave. Odin changed his justice.r. his father stabbed by a piece of mistletoe. Disguised as evil Bolverk.NORSE MYTHOLOGY acquisition and it was not long before the gods heard about the mead. Although Forseti plays only a relatively small role in Germanic mythology.+n belw) andhisbrother Galar slew the wise Kvasirand drainedhis blood to extract his wisdom Two glisteningbowk and the Kettleof Inspiration clntained the s mixed maglcal fluid. ODINhimself decided that he would go to JoTUNHEIM. he failed to reconcileeventhe bitterestJoes 1995 Bv NICK BULE. it is clear that this is a myth about they created a magical mead connection The berween insPiration. ) changed himself into a handsome (lrrusrnertor one-eyed giant and for three days and nighs he was Gunnlod's lover. There he sPat had been formed.rRIn Jathtedby Lohi. branches of the gods. and some form poetry and wisdom of potent drink occurs in several mythological radidons was the Germanic god FOnSffI of jusdce. and laY hold of the magic drink. and settled the disputesoJ godsand men. he journeyed to Jotunheim and persuadedthe frost giant Baugi to tunnel through a mountain to where Suttung kePt the mead under the care of his daughter Gunnlod. To put rhe seal on their peace agreement the two The passionategiantesslet Odin drink up every drop of the mead. BY ) Poetry (Iuusrnartoru JAMES shape from Bolverk's to a snake. thewolJ Fer.. had spat into a jar..a. Once the hole was drilled. fermentation. and his mother with a broken heart shonly after this raglc event.arsiR and before he turned himself into an the VANIR.. theJair god oJ Solomon-lihe forcefor peace He sat in (abwe). was a Fonsrn. which he placed in the wolf s crrurunv. Spittle.

n av NJ O BLoMMER. dividing ried. on her arrival having conrrol of sunlighr. c. Njord wenr well as love. spnnhling morning don and summer sunlightbehindher She shoohsping flowersJrom her golden hair and wept tears which turnedto gold.l helow) Jla.the younger branch of rhe where they lived with the Aesir as a and the lover of destruction (See gods under the leadership of Odin.r. token of friendship also SORCERYAND SPEUS) alongwith his father Njord and his goddess of lwe. 19t4 ) 190 . shetoured heavanand many admirers. which she obtained by sleeping with irc four Fnru. 1852 .Nonse MyrHoLocy ("Lord").the slain berween rhem ar the end As late as 1200. Odin who was rhe farher of barrles AEslR. the virile son of Dionysus younger AESIR. she taughr the gods the fruitfulness and peace His Fnfv. a suitable partner for moved ro ASGARD ro live with the wirh Freyr and Freyja ro ASGARD. which were rymbolsoJ her warm Germanic ferdlity goddess FRDgA.A rirle of known as Freya or Frea. associatedwirh the wind and the earth in search of her rovinghusband. including OTTAR. the voluptuous. Sweden was YANIR.qrvvns. tradirions state that. alfections Accompaniedby a JlochoJ dwarf makers Her beaury won her Their father was NJORo. with ootN and THOR. derives from "field" FREyR. sheddingtears of gold all thewhile She was said ro be a sorceresswho was one of rhe principal gods He (Fnrv.) could fly in a falcon's skin Some was marnly concemed wirh feniliry. or Od. ("Lady").one of the two branches to live invALIIALI q. rode in a chaiot drawn Fnrrye.or to amberat sea Shewasso beautlful that shewas wooed and pwsued by all liwng creatures (Ilrusrn crroN syF voN SressH.the god airborne love spiits. whom she changed inro a boar sea Freyr.blue-eyed Frefa's greatest treasure was the BRISINGS'necklace. Freyr benveen rhe rwo sides. rain. and the daughrer of rhe sea god NJoRDin Both Odin and Frefa took an name of the frost giantess he marGermanic myrhology and sisrer of interestin rhe heroic dead. somedmesFrey. She was an importanr fertil. Fnnn was the twrn brother of the by cats. of whom norhing is Priapus. Freyr's statue in ity goddessand a member of rhe of every battle Odin's share wenr his temple ar Uppsala. who were led by known but his name. Sessrumnir [t is Possiblyfor this reason the Romans divided After awar the Vanir seem possible that Fref a's losr husband had always identified him with ro have been supplanted by the Odur. somerimes in fugard. while Frefa's noted for the size of its penis inro which the Germanic gods were lived in her hall. GrRoe. was Odin. Odur. was the spells and charms of the Vanir Skin means "shining".t over the earth. and Aphrodite Although a memODIN When peace was agreed For she was rhe goddess of lust as ber of the VANIR by descent.

a datyoJtheatmosphue.Shidblndnir. and becausehe did not lcnow how to gain her affection he became ill Njord became so worried about him that he asked his faithful servant Skimir to find out what was amiss. ) GEFION GNTNTNN SCC thepivilege oJsittingbeside FRrGG enloyed throne. Ftigg extracted a promise from each and every thing. the mistletoe appearedsuch a harmless l9t . Shmirwent to rhe land of the gians. persontfyng thecbudsHs Jlnshing oftx wn symbohznga sutbeam. Skimir said that he would distaff shone impose on her an unbreakablespell astheconstellation of Fng's Spinning that would make her a perrnanent \Mheel Herheron plumes rymbolizehu whileherhrys stgniJy her divine outcast and it was this that perdiscretion. Skimir tned to persuade Gerda to plant that she did not bother about it This proved to be a mistake because the fire god roru got the blind god uoon to throw a branch of mistletoe at Balder which killed him. goddess not unlike the Sumerian deity Inanna. in Germanic mythology.his magic horse and his magic sword The servant was instructed to bring Gerda back to fugard. a gatb godofsummtrsun shouters. because Loh refused to moum on behalf of Balder Thus it would seem that Frigg was a ferriliry.igg has much in common with nnrY_1a Although her role as consort of Odin shows her to be a devoted wife and mother. herhusband.onhis Jabulous paircould thedivine Hlidshialf . except the mistletoe. C 1920) FRIGG. waslord and. also known as Frigga. of the Jairyrealm Here. that no harm should happen to him Apparently.NOnSr MYTHOLOGY Fnrn (ndrl).home hets sailinghis ship. whether her father liked it or not. since it could fight giants on its own (See AND TALISMANS: also TREASURES TMGIC LOYERS) FruCXN SCC FRIGG SCC FRIGG FruJn see FRrGG FruTHIOF TMGICLOYER5 SCC She refused both this gift and Skimir's second offer of one of Odin's arm-rings Gerda'sresolve was only strengthened further Fnrcc belout). spunlong pearly oJcloud from her jovelled which in thenightslE Finally. the chief of the gods. as a gesture of goodwill that had been ageed at the end of the war between the Vanir and the Aesir.the doom of the gods. goddessof the earth and atmosphere. she roo a falcon skin and has a possesses great passion for gold ft is quite possible that the two goddesses had their ongins in a single earthmother deiry FruCCN declare her love for Freyr in retum for "eleven of the applesof youth" the fertiliry god with an agreement to meet Freyr in a forest in nine days' time In this way the passion of Freyrwas fulfilled. fought ALE&{N 1gg5 ryJ^MEs DER. forehnowledge (ILLU5TRAIION 8y H THLAKER. was the daughter of Fjorgye. though she lacked rhat goddess's ability to enter the netherworld F. 1gg5 suaded Gerda to pledgeherself to housaviJery (Iuusrnarroru By NrcK BEA:-E. taking two of Freyr's greatest treasures. though ir cost him his horse and sword which he gave ro Skimir At nacruaRoK. oJtheLtght Elves oJ Alftam. yet well she knows the fates" When Balder dreamed of impending danger.fromwhere viav the nine worlds. accord0uusrnenox ) sister Freyja. witnessing events present andfuture she nqer rqealedher Aparagon oJ silence. and mother of natPnR She has given her name to Friday Frigg was a fertility goddess who "will tell no fortunes. Freyr's myth is about his wooing of Gerda.wife of oDiN. Frigg's subsequent effon to have her son releasedfrom rhe land of the dead also failed. On reaching Gymir's hall. Having leamed of this love. Frija and Fricka. when Skirnir then threatened to webs decapitate her with Freyr s sword. he sorelymissed his mighry magic weapon. JOTUNHEIM. the daughter of the frost giant Gymir When Frep first saw Gerda he immediately fell in love with her. Odin. *vord.

her supernatural sons Thq and draged the tllledfield to the coast the sea to Denmarh. was a beautiful frost giantessand daughter of the giant Gymir. part of present-day Denmark was a frost giant. Gefion's name is connecredwith "g. disguised as an oid beggar. and was one of THoR'smost formidable enemies lt happened thar LoKI. who caught it in Gnd's iron gloves Angered beyond measure by this exremely discourteous action. Thor amved at their destination. was a Germanic godthe dess of fertility akin to rnEYTA.managed to trick Kirg Gylfi oflsweden out of a great tract of land In retum for her hospitality. Grnoru (abwe). BEA tI-. Gfnnn. sister of the fertiliry god nnrrR. Thor threw the still hot and smoking ball back down the hall. as abegar. inidally resistant to the idea. GJALP Greip.qrtotn. had uken the form of a hawk and was caprured by Geinod The only way Loki could avoid death was to promise to bring Thor to Geirrod's hall without his magic belt and maglc hammer which protected the god againstfrost giants BecauseThor rrusted Loki he went with him to Geirrod's hall Fortunately.ring" She was usually imagrned as a vrrgin and as the protector of virgrns after their deaths However. though. the GftnnOD and father of rwo daughters. The Aurora Borealis was believed by some to be the radianceof Gerda (SeCAISO TMGIC LOYERS) L92 . she was persuaded to marry by Freyr's when he faithful servant SKIRNIR. and FRIGG. Danish hero. wirh Loki hanging as usual on his belt Geinod was nor at home. like Freyja. a consunt companion of Thor.lay in theCityoJ Bqondthesleeping shrouded in cobwebs of Treasures theChamber gantsparhled jovelsandweapons the came Here full oJ later. they rested on the way at the home of a friendly giantess named GRID. LoKI accused Gefion of selling herself. who reluctantly became the wife of the fertility god Although FREYR. she cut from the mainland the whole island of Zealand.NoRSE MYTHOLOGY GgntON. magic iron gloves and magic staff Thus equipped. also known as Gefinn and Gef on.and she wamed Thor about the plan while Loki was asleep She also lent the god her own magic belt of strength. ona roid years Thorhill. Geinod himself then appearedin the hali and using a pair of tongs he picked up a red-hot iron ball and threw it at Thor. but the giant's servants received the visitors It was not Iong. before Geinod's rwo by slain immense body. GEIRRoD's QeJ) theNot-Dead. the thunder god laid about the frost giant's sewants with the magrc staff. disguised wtthfour plougheda vastJieA in Sweden glant oxut. ) in Germanic mytholory. sraight through an iron pillar and deep into Geirrod's stomach After this. representingthe nine months of the nonhemwrnter.1995 NICK By ) for hishing {trtusrwloN daughters ried to hll the slumbering Thor by lifting up his chair and dashing out his brains on the ceiling But with the aid of Grid's sraff. for a necklace Her myth concems ploughing and doubtless recalls the ancient ritual of ploughing a token strip of land each spring Gefion. Thor succeeded in driving the chair downwards and crushed the frost giantessesinstead However. the king offered Gefion as much of his kingdom as she could plough with four oxen dunng one day and one night Wirh the aid of her four giant sons. the wife of oPtw Appropriately for a goddess of agriculture. Jloatedit across whereitJormed the island oJZealand (lr-r-usrnqrron 1995 ByIAMES Ar-rx. transformed in[o oxen. Thor. threatened to recite a terrible spell This spell would have made Gerda so ugly than no man would ever come near her again Shewould be transformed into "a sight to make the blood run cold" So it was that Gerda met Freyr in a forest after nine nights.

mythology.and ra. wd a "yawning emPtiness" at the time of creation. sheremarned portrait reflected unmoveduntil Jorcedby threat of magc to c 1920 H THEAKER.fIR. along with her sister Greip. stihingGjalp with aboulder He then ed himselJ ashoreby graspinga tned to kill rnon. By licking the ice. his teeth rocla and stones. Buri's three grandsons. the ice of Ginnun1agap melted and from the drops was formed Y.his hair the treesand his blood tumed into the lakes and seas The brothers used his skull to form the sky. and.ealedhu master's in water. Thor managed who.inspired Grnpa (above). Austn and Wesrn holding up rhe comers beaury. and melted sparhs slowly from the afrostglant anerged iry droplets slowly (ir-rusinarrorv 1995) ByNICK BEALE. the frost grant.ODIN. Gjalp did what she could to harm the visi- tors Even before their arrival she added a torrenl of her menstrual blood [o a river in order ro drown Thorand Loki Awell-aimed stone stopped Gjalp and sent her howling home However.NonSr MYTHOLOGY in Germanic GINNUNGAGAP.the primeval cow. at thepimal abyss Gltvruuncacap theiq between ofcreation. ng.tlfngThor as he wades to stem the tonentby giantess. his bones the mounuins. Audhumla uncovered nuru. with four dwarfsnamed Nordi.lay the dawn swirling north andfery southTwelve and intoitsvacuum gushed streams Jroze In thesouth.lts massiveweight broke the backs of rhe rwo giantessesand they died in agony on the floor (nght). from his body Ymir's flesh became the earth.auPnuMLA. 193 . the world of men. accom. By ) panied by the fire god LoKt. came (lrrusrncrroN' JAMEi to the hall of Geirrod. daughter of GrrRRoo. the Germanic heav thunder god When Thor.vIU and Vr.mountain ashnamed "Thor'sSalvatton" 1995 ArcxeNotn. killedYmir and took his body to the centre of Ginnungagap There they made Midgard. she and Greip then med to ram the head of sleepingThor againstthe raftersby suddenly raising his chair The thunder god woke just in time to force the chair downwards by using a maglc sraff. which lay berween the realms of fire and cold. ancestor of the gods. BY ) consent (l[usrnqnoru GlerY (nght) stirsup a iver into a great across GJAIP ("Howler") was a frost flood. icebloclu intomassive fiery theice. Sudri.a Jrosty the lne of Frqr who sent Shirnir to wn hu hand Althoughheoferedher the applesoJ glowing youth. As the warrn air from the south met the chill of'the north.

the fire god. Some thrown over the heads of an enemy time after her death. was a surly boatman. Grid loaned Thor her own belt. in Hennnnn Germanic mythology. which rhe fire god rorc ordered as a replacemenr for the golden hair of THOR's wife SIF. who needed her advice god hung himself on the cosmic on how he could win rhe love of uee YGGDMSIL for nine nights in the beaucifulMenglad. When rhe Svipdrag. Exacrly who this Aurvandil. Thor had been lured by LOKI. Groa was before batde commenced. the deceitful croublemaker and braggart. Groa herself tried by magic ro remove whetstone fragments from Thor's head aftei his fighr with the frost gianr HRUNGNIn. bruully cruel". order to obtain wisdom. GRoA. Grendel's arrn was tom off and he ran away and bled to dearh in his watery lair. Wishing to cross a deep river. just like Christ. though it has been suggested thar he may have L9+ .but the boatman remained away from the bank. a glftedhealer. Thor could rhink of no responseto Harbard's abuse other than anger. three-comeredstone when it had collided with Thor's hammer in mid-air So excired was Groa. Thor failed to nodce rhar Harbard was his father oDIN. chants charms wer Thorin ordertoloosen thestone splinters lodged in thegod's Feelingrelief forehead and gratitude. he was.that managed to be both srrong band that she unfortunately failed and slender. the dwarfs decided ro please the gods by using the fumace to make a ship for FREYR and. for Odin. It was in this lair rhar. according to Germanic mythology. and never missed its to finish the spell. In the fierce struggle that ensued. only ro be met by insuls. BEOWIJLF. The meeting between the two gods reveals their differenr characrers: Odin. came to the royal hall and ate a sleepingwarrior. held one of the monster's arrns in a vice-like grip. was remains uncertain.Nonse MyrHoLocy GRENDEL. into dangerwithout the protecdon of his magic belt of strength and his magic hammer. In some rraditions she is said to have borne ODIN a son.byThor's news about the GUNCNIR was rhe magic spear belonging ro oDrN. iron gloves and unbreakable scaffro face Geinod. the silenr god vloaR. a man-danuring monster. enreaty for Odin's aid.Thor rwhlyrevmled thather Iong-lost husband was alive The happy news soucitedGroa thatsheforgothr spelk andsolefta splintuin Thor's head (Irrusrnenoru ByNrcK nutt.'{NS) GUONUN GUNNNR SCC THEVALKTRIES SCC NORSE HEROE5 GnlunILD SPELLS see soRCERy AND ("grey-beard"). he needed the assistanceof four men ro canrylt. who sazed thecreature'shairy limbin a vice-lihe gnpandwrenched itJromits sochet Howlingwith pain andrage. It was required in Viking a few fragmenrc of whetstone custom that a spear should be remained in Thor's head. "gri* and greedy. Having made the wig. 1995) GROA. while Thor is hottempered but honest. and to have made for him a special shoe which enabled him to stand in rhe mourh of the wolf Rnrurun. ln his fury. rhe sons of lvaldi. rhe leaderof rhe Germanic gods. Beowulf killed rhe monsrer's mother Grendel's head was so Iarge that when Beowulf broughr it back as a trophy to King Hrorhgar. as an roused from the grave by her son. orAurvandill. was a seeressand rhe wife of Aurvandil. jedbachtohiswatery Grendel lairand bledto death@ruslunoN ByArrrN LEE. met hismatch in thefearless warior Beowulf. stabbed with a SPear (See also TRMSURES AND TALISA. and rhis was why mark. [t was forged by dwarfs. later. been a fertility god of the werlands. whose frozen toe THORtumed into a star by throwing it up into rhe sky. rg84 ) GnENOEL was the name of a water monsterwhich was invulnerable to weapons and rroubled the kingdom of King Hrothgar of Denmark One night Grendel.Mischievous Loh had cut off her beaudful locks as a joke.They had come from Hrungnir's sharpedged. GruO was a kindly frost gianress who helped rhe Germanic thunder god raon in his struggle against GEIRROD. the god THORsummoned Harbard to ferry him over. however. bur a visidng warrior. at rhe same time as a wig of spun gold. a spear star and the rerum of her lost hus.

the dwarf. carvrngit wtth maglc ruNES (ODIN BY R FOGELBERG. he would summon the godsto Rngnaroh (I[usrRArroN 1995 nvNrcxBEI. ) the sacredosh (ttusrntrloNBYALAN Guwcltn (abwe) wasthe name of Odin's spear. Disguised as Rig.There he stood ready to blow his hom Gjall at the onset of RecruenoK. the mortal who esmbIished the three social groups: the nobles. ) GuNGNn's Gelow)spear shaftwa cawed Jrom the sacredwoodoJYggdrasilAfter gaining wisdom at the WorA Tree.Nonsr MYTHoLoGY HETMDAr (nght). as he was thought to be the supreme watchman perched at is top. the god visited in turn three houses in Midgard and fathered handsome children for the nobiliry.the three-strand bridge that linked ASGARD and Midgard (heaven and eanh respecdvely).forgeditshead.N. and the enslaved. srurdy children for the peasans and illfavoured children for the slaves. the son of nine mothers and the watchman for the Germanic gods Originally. MARBTT.rt. all-seang god peers through the boughsoJ 1984 Lee. sleepingless than abird Gtftedwith specialsightand heainghe couldseeJor100milesby "rght or day. He stood upon BIFRosr. above the higlrest rainbow.both slenderand strong itwas unsttervrngin its Jlight The weapon was so sacred that oathswere svtomon its point Dvalin. he may have been an omniscient skygod. C 1890 ) or Heimdalr.the one-qed. SCCHEIMDNL r95 . the peasan$. was HetUPnLL. andhear grassgrovingon the htlLsideWith his cumedhuaW's horn. HNNAOET. and Odin made the snfr. Heimdall's name may be related to the concept of a "world [ree". He disguised himself as RIG. He could hear the sound of grassand wool gowing. and see for over a hundred miles. andJashioned staf Jrom its holy wood Here.bnght guardian of the BtJrostBndge.during which he was to be the last to fall in single combat with L}KI. Odin apaJect broheoff obough. wds a)er alert.

such as the Brisingamen necklace. such as the golden apples of youth. Fenrir.l r r lrtt h rltt rnLi{l( fnll }r't sur h prt'r-rou-s g/rs wrre tovett'tl Lry (ohove)netkluct wus trat'tet)\t Tur' Bru-SIwGAMEN four tlwarJs wirh such aftstry thut tt gltttuedlike tt constelkttron of starsin the nrght. the Finnish Ilmarinen excelled in magical crafr and produced a peerless talism?il. Most indispensable .s Irlurt ttrtJ ho applts oll m tn tll-fattLl atttnlpt fir .. l l l o l r t t / o r r l v l c i u n .vcaijUrrs Tl lrrol ' 5 DOOmcianS nammer.^.1852 crNvA-\ ) t l r t g r c l r r t . r t rr l / l t f t l l r . ) l l 196 . .slzy AroundFrry1u's lovdy nech.^ L^ -^l^' \. sta turntd to amber (i:Ri\tA B)N / () BrttrvrnDErAiL.undFrqluwrpt fttr tht earrhwhenr.produced lntits ol the heuvens trrdsures sht cned. ttbecame an tmblrm ol the and earth She.*er proJuse\.Is r l t r .h r a s r t J i s g t r s e c /u s a b t r t l .ingship for Frelr and a sword that fought of its own accord once drawn. among sorcerers. were their living rreasures.in her turn.slcri/ thc qrrclS e l r . . Whenher tears thty turned to gold. NUollnlr. only Volund the smirh r& could match the dwarfs {ffi in artistry and crafr while.. rl infallible spear.LlrL 5uu5 ---^- wulluruuS l--^--^ ---^ \. t h t ' d c r r y -o f . Among morrals. Gungnir.f i r I J i r r rl r r N . s r r r i { h l f ( ) s l r r y rr h t g o r i s o l t h a r r r g r r u r a n d v r r i t l i i l J t r t f / r t l r c r r i l l . s ( l t J t ) r o l c / t ' n r r p p l ts k e p t r h r ' s o d s r t e n r u l l l v r r u n g I ht' lrihtrlrrus lntn trtt ir'. fl1. perhaps. The tireless dwarfs were aiso innovarive engineers who crafted a collapsible.lst'\'rrr-ns r r h o ..tht' thret' w.ts tandcd dn(l g-t(uLlt(l b^.zuqlHE MosT cELF-BR{TED fsMhN of the Norse world were wise and gifted dwarfs who laboured underground in ca'erns studded rvith gems. / . but tearsshed at lell on roch. With superhuman artistry and secretwisdom. Some precious marvels were created by nature.the Sampo. r R 1 r i .the goldbristled boaq Gullinbursti.Nonse MyrHoLoGy TneESURES AND TALISMANS (.. and Sif's golden hair which grew narurally. and udins I I r .. I D I ' N ' . ( a / n t ( . Most amazing of all. such as the silken thread which fettered the fierce wolf. S p r r n g . . others were supematurally powerful. Some of their creationswere exquisitely beautilul. they lashioned fabulous treasures and tahsmans for gods and heroes.upetrully dunngher search Odur lorherhusband.ryLlL..

orr. F ( ) R G t N Gc t r L H t . wascraltedLry thedu.jar\ r I 900 ) .5 2 ) WorutRous LoNGsHIps(above) to both Freyr antl Thorstern helongerl Thegod'sshtp. Ellida.the tahsman was mystenously t'ashroned from oneswft tlutll.Skidbladnir. Draupntr.'vln Qef).was never Jar poseof the from htsgrasp. and wasusedto hallow both btth and death ceremontes Gr. salt mrll and monq mrll. the Etemal Hammerer oJFinmshmyth.the mastersmithloolzs tntentlytnto thefurnace to seewhat theJrre hasproduced ( f H I .afs A personftcrttion of theclouds. sea across and av Akhoughtnussle enough to cot"Nel/ all the gods and an ennrehost.ftJrom theseagod.stling wrnd and outstnpped wasfumedfar and theeagleThe floatrngJortress -*ide A r { \l R4rr( )\ B} . ( 1906 ) Tar Senapo(below)was forgedby llmannen.ed wrth the whi. Thor'swondrous hammer.whichproduced etghtsimrlar gold nngs everyntnedays.ensuing lastingprospenty and power Here.as seenherein thischaractensttc god with his hammer clutchedclose to hts hean The Mlollnir wasusedas a t'iery thunderbolt.erchteJ. and as a weapon for smashtngglants'shulls It was a talisman of bothcreat:ity and destruction. Thorstein's pocheted drugon boat. S a v p i t B l ' A G A L I E \ K A L I E I i .tt ghcled land.rt couldbefoldedtLpand hhea handh.l i llrr. whohammered out the slry at thedawn of time Oyer threedays.avcNrn(nght). fabulous was u g.Aegr Shapetl planks which grew lry sruellng togethtr tn thefotm oJa *-rnged dragon.a gatn of barleyand thefleece oJa summerlamb So out oJthe maglcal flames oJthet'orgetheSampowascreated.rnilk of thet'erttle cow. it consrsted of aflour mtll. ( A \ ! ' 4 5 .Elhdara.NoRsr MyTHOLoGY M. r _ l 8 .an everlasting source of weakhand power (tr.r lsrRqrro^BlH HFIDRI.Iaunchrng shaJts of hghtning. Odin's great spear.neyermrssed its mark Thespearshaftwasfashtonedby Odinlt'romthe sacred ashol Ygdrastl and carvedwtth the god'smaglc ntnes lust as valuable was Odin'sJabulousnng. u.

Hodr unintentionally killed his brother BALDER. bur her thighs and legs were those of a corpse. This Danish version shows mythology. were as terrifying as she. Thor would have landed the prize had not the sight of the serpenr rising from the depths of the sea terrified Hymir In the confusion that ensued Hymirwas able ro cur the greatsea serpent free. dreary home (luusrnerrol ByJAMEs AlrxAruoen. However. thestawed inmates of HeI Balder. kna. In the Icelandic tradi. ("Sky Bellower") was the head of a giganric black ox The ox belonged to HY 4/Rwirh whom THORwenr fishing foTJORMUNGAND. was rhe son of oolN and FRIGG. whois possibly one of thing not to do her son any harm. Hermod was allowed to take back ro A5GARD the armring which Odin had fastened to Balder'sbody as a memento Hermod nearly met his own death on ajoumey to Midgard. Hodr kills Balder wirh a magic was the blind god of Germanic sword. thereore rows .bur the head stuck in his thr.OT. the sea serpent.oRlzutrcAND rhe serpent.to assail thebared gate oJHeI Within. the son of optl and FRIGG. for it was he who was sent to HELafter Balder's death to ask for his brother's release He rode there on Odin's famous horse. Hodr and Balderare rivals for HOO SCC HODR the hand of Nanna. and used its head to bait his hook Jormungand rose for this delicacy. When Hel refused to let Balder go unril everyrhing wept for him. her powers were stronger than Odin's. he acted as a divine messenger Hermod also shared these gods'interest in the dead. the fire god. and Balder is portrayed as a hateful figure. Hel's subjecs were little more rhan silent attendants of rhe semidecomposed queen She was only partly decomposed because she had the face and body of a living woman.and brother of netorn Rather like the Greek god Hermes and the Roman Mercury. to complain imtably that Hermod mustbe aliye (IttusrnqloN BypErER Huno. ing death. the eightlegged SLEIPNIR. Hodr was sent to join him as a punishment. Hel's throne was known as rhe Sick Bed and hersubjecrcwere "all who died through sicknessand old age" Hrnuoo leapsbravelyinto mis$ Hel on Her. Once it became clear that Balderwould have ro suy in the land of the dead. (ILLUSIMTIoN be too insignificant. or Himinbriorer. In a very different version of rhe story. When Balder Hrnuop below)spurs his steed Jabulaus was noubled by dreamsof his com. Modgud. however. Their HODR.pain andhunger in thar cheerless. prwohed the gnm guardian.listens unimpressed to Hermod'splea to release the much-loved god Balder Jromher dismal realm Behindher. in Germanic myrhology. his morher Frigg exacr.the brothers in averydifferent lighr tion. I 760 ) the animal's vast size.Nonsr MvrHoLoGy Hflwas the daughter of trickster LOKI. the gim goddess oJthe dead. and guided Hodr's hand when he threw it at his brother. r98 .hneeling. somerimes Hodur or conflict is finally resolved when Hod. He was saved by magic. ro which she had been banished by oDIN. Thor had no trouble in breahng Himinrjot's neck. 1995 ) his vain mission to seehBalder's release from death The great noisemadeby the hero and his eight-hoofed horseSleipnir when thq crossed the crystal Gioll Bidge. the land of men He was senr there by Odin to consult a Finn named Rossthiof about his worries conceming the future.soulsof the old. 1gg2) HnnUOD. rhe chief god Once there. however. and retumed to reassure his fatheras best he could. The unpleasantnessof Hel's realm standsin marked contrast to the pleasurable and enviable afterlife that was enjoyed by the heroic dead who dwelt in Odin's wondrous hall veulerte.tthe hnatt thathewas futurewell. for when Odin's son BALDERwas hlled Helrefused to retum him to his parenrc Her brothers. however. HIIralN BRIOTER seeHrMrN(/or HtUtNn.oat.Balder canbe smt waitingstoically beside ed a promise from each and every an alarmingcreature. She was ruler of the Germanic netherworld (also called Hel). FENRIR the wolf and. and the frost giantessANGRBODA. a plant the goddessconsideredto destined to remain in cheerless HeIforner. The rickster FRoM THE PROSE EDDA. The branch of mistletoe went straight through Balder. who fell down dead. though it was Hel and her ghastly home which were adopted by the Christians as rhe name for rheir realm of etemal damnation. sichor of her sad subjects ciminal who suferedceaseless cold. despire god rorc leamed about rhe mistletoe. who A sole exceptionwas the misdetoe.

to a new eanh. they in rum were back to the Aesir. c 19OO ) r99 . Not for nothing was Balder slain by his blind brother in a game that involved throwing potentially dangerous objects.the doom of among the VANIR as a token of the gods. However. c 1840 ) nent characteristic was said to be HonNmsee HoNrR his long-leggedness. "Balder and Hodr rerum HOCNT and his brother. Apart from a terrible inability to HOOUNSCC HODR make up his mind. who benryeenthe nvo warring branches onciled. according to Germanic mythology. Thar rhese owned a famous but ill-fated for. they when it came to making decisions side of his father's nature.befriended the hero SIGURD. he doomed and suffered at the hands of the Germanic creation story. Instead.BaAer. L*i M&3pi#i llodr'slvnd n aima dradly darrof mistletoe at BaAq. who had unwtttingly betrayedher love Although refusingto hill SigurdhimselJ. whowasblind Jrombirth.of the gods. way he appeared always to rely on kind. the wise MIMIR. is the oppoSrgurd'gfonune. rec.y sla. was believed that Honir was the (Seealso NORSEHEROES) of his nature that mkes delight in god who gavehumans their senses. his other promiDrrruor Bfl-DER By CEcrcnsrrnc. (ILLUSTMTIoN ByARTHUR RIcxrrnv. Honn (abwe) . Hodr. Hocll to below) listens suspiciously Brynhild's passionate pleaJor vengeance on her lwer. Sigurd. goodwill after peace was agreed from the world of the dead".v hisbelarcd brothu. world. unwittinf. promptedhy thetwkted god. w6 a member of the ersm goup of gods and brother of oDIN. Gunner. bewitched by the curse.. First ring's spell. as the arrangedSigurd's death. In some versions site of Odin's foresight. he prsuaded Guttorm to undmalu the awfuldeed Brynhildwas laterflled wtth remorseand hilled herself . The Vanir therefore god of magic and inspiradon. rhe side of the Atli who coveted the gold. who tance in lcelandic myrhology. Honir unfortunarely two sons of Odin are menrioned tune generated by u magic ring proved to be a grave disappoinrtogether here shows their imporcalled Andvarinaut.NoRSE MyTHoLoGY HONtn. Sent to live After &{GNAROK. He represens rhe posirive and. ahnost too good for the She asked the brothers for help. his fellow Aesir. Under the ment to his new companions. Lohi Hre. rhe chief god. or Hoenir. it represenls his blind spor. Sigurd had unwittingbecame increasingly angry at the there is Balder. while the (rHE othu godslmh dtsmny. The when Hogni and Gunner inherited killed Mimir and sent his head second brother. cANvAs. of any hnd. handsome and ly betrayed the Val$rie BRYNHILD. onin shochd death.

whom they called Mist Calf Alongside Mist Calf stood Hrungnir. skin. but anxious lest the god slay the most powerful of their 200 . the two the divine treasure.t'oolishly on his stoneshield.the nine worlds and challenged pensared and told Loki to obrain him to a horse race Mounted on Odin won a enough gold to cover Otter's flayed eighr-leggedsrntPruiR.believtng that lt* expected Joe.NORSE MYTHOLOGY or Reidmar. Huglwasan illusion to ThiaIJi. Although the hammer shattered the whetstone and went StR all the gods. The frostSantlnew rhat he had to avoid his opponent's hammer. curse upon it Hreidmar was so stronghold. ing to Germantc mythologr. Jaster 1995 Ar-rx. off to SIGURD fieasure. The heart of a dead mare was used to animate the clay grant. three-comered stone in Thor's direcdon. Thor. challengedThor to a duel on the border between fugard and Jotunheim No one had met the thunder god in single combat before. Hreidmar demanded to be com. who swiftly launched his own sharpedged. they were both proud and anxious: proud that Hrungnir had challenged Thor. rhe land of the gianm second son. Thiolf couW frosty at every step speed ivalwhogathered Jor. o rughry frostglantwtth balances a stony heart and shull. who was a shape-changer. he hurled his magic weapon at Hrungnir. the glant tnes to deflectthehammer Uthhis whetstone (iLLUsrMfloN By IAME' ALEXANpm. hean and shield were made of stone. When the frost giants heard about the forthcoming duel. HRUNCNIR. or Golden O[[er. was the sffongest of the frost $ants and owner of a powerful stallion named Gullfaxi. where Hrungnir was invired to rest before retuming to pleased with the gold that he did not wory/ about the curse But his JoruNHErM. i 995 ) nvalThialf. accordHnfnUen.As soon as Thor was in range.mb olizngThought. but the dwarf placed a had ridden to AsGARD. Thor acceptedeagerly. in Germanic mythologr. Mane He encountered ODIN on one of the god's joumeys rhrough was killed accidentally by LIKI.competingin athletic Tryashe go&andglants shillsbenveen notoutrunhts would.an outstipshts Hucr (above) of a contest warior.even though Hrungnir's head. but the frost giant. guard rhe gold and Regin asked the hali in which the honoured to slay him and recoverthe dead lived with Odin. plans to attqchhim the impactoJ frombelow FuIIyexposedto Thor's crushinghammer. except FREYJAand THOR At this point the grant-slayer retumed and waved his magic hammer ar Hrungnir. unhnown than ev er q. Fafnir. The weapons met in mid-air.came to covet But Hrungnir drank too much srong ale and became alrogant He the treasureand killed him for ir Fafnir changed inro a dragon to even threatened to carry VALLIALIA. and he held his sharp whestone in readiness. understandingthat he would be easily killed without his own weapons. awaiting the anival of Thor.but he was killed as well Jotunheim on his back and to kill HnrrucrutRQO. inside and out The wily fire narrow victory over Hrungnir on god seized the dwarf ANDVARI's Golden Mane By this dme.quor* BY ) action (Irrusrnqnoru JAME' number So they made out of clay a man so huge that the thunder god would shake with fright when he first caught sight of him. was a magician-farmerand rhe father of ANd OTTERWhCN FAFNIR REGIN.

in Germanic mythologlr. Theywould then retum to rest on Odin's shoulders and tell him what they had obsewed. Inside the great fortressThor Odin and whisper the latest novs into his and his companions failed in a CAT. there was no way that the sea god Hr. theywere unable to see the top of its batdemens without pressing the crowns of Jlew through the nine worldscollecting their heads on the napes of their information Thq would thenJly bach to necks.At the end of their adventure. In order to be informed about events in the nine worlds. Hymirhad an enolrnous cauldron. w6 a young frost giant who ouuan THoR'shuman sewant HIALFI in a race The story of Thor's joumey to the srronghold of nGARD in the land of the frost giants is full of magic.Thorused his hammer to black ox When the sea monster such effecr that all were hlled Hucttw Aef). threatened tocapsize thestrug. Gobles host suggested they go fishing if were thrown before Thor left wirh they wanted to eat again. Hymir found them and of the waves.he on to crush Hrungnir's skull. father of the war god trR. Without this huge vessel. the giant's cauldron.) 201 . the thunder god himself being wrestled down on one krree by an "old. so deep that it could brew ale for all the gods. however. old woman". or Memory. which shows Thor to be an ineffectual suong man in the face of cunning spells.Nonse MvrHoLocY took this bait and AEGIRcould offer hospitality to JORMUNGAND ODIN and his companions. (ILLUsrMrroN FROM THE PRosE EDDA. The race between Hugr and Thialfi was but one incident in this strange adventure. Odin sent the ravensout everyday to see and hear all that happened there. Hymir shookwith terror and tHoR were sent to fetch it When they anived at Hymir's hall.one of Odin's fabulous ravens. whosefloffd tfleoflS Thought. After this heroic incident. a number of stone fragmens lodged in Thor's head and he was also pinned beneath one of the fallen Hrungnir's legs. [-oh.cuttheline howarcr. Sure enough.Together the grgantic cauldron When Hymir they put to sea in Hymir's boat. ("Dark One") was a frost HWtm grant and. He also failed to empty a drinking hom. Slqmir wamed them that at Utgard there were gians even greater than he. Thor became known as "Hrungnir's skull splitter".the god of fire.le Hymir.sank bleeding beneath the surface ence. the travellers saw that Slcttmir and Utgard were no more than magic creations sent out by the frightened frost gians to m1atifr m€hty Thor. when the travellers reached Utgard. The next day their deterioratedinto violence.infear. had cause to remind Thor of the superiority of brain over brawn At one point Thor. HUCI ("Thought"). (ILLUSTRATTON FROM THE PRO5E EOOI'. so T1n Thor set about its head with his hammer. ln the confusionJormungand tore Tyr's mother advised them to hide itself free of the great hook and until she had expiained their pres. the chief Germanic god.Muninn. Thialfi and his sister RosKYA inadvenendy slept in the thumb of an empty glove belonging to the enorrnous frost giant SKRIIIIR. accordrng to some tradidons. mistaking it for avzrsthall. When he woke. though he felt suffice for food instead Back in Hymir's hall. withhisglantcatchWen battledfuriously theboat. ("Thought") and HUCTNN Muninn ("Memory") were the ravens o[ODIN. and some frost gianrs attempted to follow him in order to regain the Thor baiting his colossalhook with rhe head of Htvttl4yor. Two whales had to offered them a meal.rIRandThor below) foodon t'orageJor bait tantalizing tip Thor's afatedfishing wster themonstrous serpent.1760) number of tests.was an airborne gatheru oJ news Alongwith hisbrother raven. Throughout the joumey the trickster LOKI. relations uneasy Thor astonished the assembled company by eating two whole between host and guest quickly oxen byhimself. I260. sttracted godwho the which delighted Jormungand. only to leam afterwards how its other end was in the sea.

the land of mortals. which sugHe then threw Jormungand into gesrsa linkwith unopER-AKt(A.apps. Here. Svarul{heim. possiblynear the Nonh Pole Itwu a rmlm of mtsts. where he grew so long creator goddess of the lrpps.bliuards and roanngwinds From hre the frost giants dtrutedblasts of wind to nip thebudsof spnng orJ-usrp. but a deiry of the sky and the these monsuous children to be air. Nidavellir.TANS) IOUNIE SCEIDUN was rhe crearor god of JUUnlt Finnish mythology and their in Germanic supreme deity. washurled into the icyoceanby Odin Therehe grevvto sucha monstrous ske thathe encircledMdgard and threatened. was a snwt<wred the ocean edge. Loki then resrored Idun to her true shape and she gave magic apples to the ailing gods. in Germanic mythology. Loh rold Idun rhar he had discovered apples of much better qualiry gowing nearby. settled gathered and found as a general fear of death on fugard. Verylittle is lcrown JOnUUNGAND. At IQro I(tnJunMELwas a srone MGNAROK Jormungand was ro god worshipped by the [. the other branch of rhe divine family.1gg5) 202 . the saryt sonoJ Lohi. the home of the VANIR.rhe land of the frost glan6. He took Idun and her apples in his claws and flew to JOTUNHEIM. Jotunheim was variously described as being inside Midgard. by THOR. god of fire. or over the sea. that he encircled rhe earth. He seems to have been brothers at the Creation. except thar the oak tree LOKI. and was known as the Midgard Serpent. was caprured by the frost giant THIASSI. By threat of magic Loki to bring back he compelled Idun and her apples. in the shape of an eagle.On his retum ro ASGARDtherefore. the god of poetry. the realm of the unworthy dead. The loss of rhe apples ar first caused the gods ro become weak and old. A mountainous region of freezing cold. where.sailors throughout the ocenns. He was later giantessANGRBODA. the WorM Seryent risesto afuit of ox head. I Z@ 0uusrnenotFRoM ) (nght). Loki flew to Jorunheim ldun into her home. who allowed the rain to fall. Alfheim. rhe land of the dwarfs. their minds began ro weaken. as a a nut falcon. kidnapped and brought ro AsGARD. dtngling from Thor's ftshing line THE PRosE EDDA. or "Great Lord".(Seealso MGNARoK) Reindeerwere sacrificedto Kied I(e Jubmel as late as the sevenreenth was the land given century to ensure successin the JOTUNHEIM to the frost gians by oDIN and his hunt. and the frost was sacred to him. At lasr ODIN srrengrh his remaining Loh. it was one Among the Swedeshe was linown of the nine worlds sheltered by the as Sto{unka. Thiassi awaited hs prey. HEL. changed and carried The frost grant gave chase as an eagle. Then IOUNNOR INCTNORG Jrzl Bann SCC IDUN SCC TMGICLO\4R5 see BABAYAGA AESIR. mphology. rhe fire god. w6 the serpent son of about him. and cold Niflheim beneath Yggdrasil's100ts. With its regarded as "lord of the herds".NORSE MyTHoLoGY IDUN. stronghold of LTTGARD. Midgard. Idunnor or Iduna. shehands outher precious gJtsto the wer-youthful gods Jrom her inuhaustible cashet The mythic tradition oJthe golden apple. Vanaheim.one branch of the gods.r ByJ PENRo5E c tSgO ) skin. When LoK. which produced ltfe-ging apples Here. the goddess who guarded the apples of youth. rhe come on to the earth and be slain northernmost people of Europe. The others were ASGARD. he had to promise ro sreal the apples from Idun to securehis release. She was the wife of BMGI. rymbolizng immonality and Jmility.the home of rhe I(NNNTTHILD SCC TRAGICLOVER5 Jonuuvcewo Qdt). the land of the lighr elves. rhe home of humanhnd. cosmic ITeeYGGDMSIL. the the ocean. wirh blearyeyes and loose Ioutt guarded a Jabulousfruit tree. rhe land of the dark elves. but he was bumed to dearh by fires placed along the tops of Asgard's mighry walls. Ukko's wife was Akka. can beJound inboth ancient Greehand Celtic Cultures (luusrpqTlor. was.rnoru ayNlcxBFA:. and brother of replaced by Ukko. also a supreme FENRIR and nnt ODINananged for god. and so the goddess trustingly accompanied him into the forest. (See also TREASURES AND TALISA. thehome oJ thefrost wastelandon Jonrunelu gtrants.

+reR and Galar. many of his adventures involve the pursuit of women and he accompaniedvAnvavoINEN on ajoumey to the land of Pohja in search of wives. Jromthe oJthegodsHetravelled theworld spittle gods withhts sense inspinng and mortals was Afterhis death hisblood andwisdom to mahe of inspiration used a mead (IrrusrnenoN Pnosr Eoon. (Seealso woRSE HEROES) KUIITRVO SPELIS SCC5ORCERY AND KVnStn was a wise man in Germanic mythology. His name means "spittle" and recalls his creation when the gods spat into a jar to mark the end of conflict beween two branches of the divine family. But his magician mother put his body back together again and restored him to life. Renowned for his great wisdom. cqNvAs. grfted endowedwith Kvesln(nght). The Aesir then took the jar and Kvasir was made from the spittle.Nonsr MvrHoLocY LrurruxerrurN (abwe) was slain and dismembered duingone of his uploits But his maglcianmothr gatheredhimup and restoredhim toliJe Hue shecallsuryn a bee to bing lrfr. As a child.the god of the dead. FROM THE I 760 ) with a talent for song. His most dangerous exploit was an attempt to kill the swan of TUONI. he travelled the world and wherever he went people stopped what they were 203 . r'|. the VANIR and the AESIR. Failing to protect himself with magic. ("Lover") was LgutNxnINEN one of the heroesof Finnish epic. At bear festivals hunters used to sprinkle their faces with an exrract of alder bark. a character ww created wondrous wisdom.Slr'lrn1 honeyfrom bq ond the highestheavm (Lrurrxeruru's MoTHER avA GnurN-IGr r FLq. he was tom apartby Tuoni's son and his remains were scattered in the river. He was killed by two dwarfs. As the protector of bears. A carefree young man. who wanted his wisdom They mixed his blood with honey in order to make awonderful mead which gave the gift of poerry ro everyonewho drank it L-EB-OLN4AI ("Alder man") was a Lapp bear god. Leib-Olmai required certain prayers before he would allow any man to hll a bear. c 1890 ) doing to listen to him. he was bathed by his mother three dmes in one summer night and nine times in one autumn night to ensure that he would become a wise adult.

here.gnaroh.) T non (nght). the World Serpent (rnonnNo THE GIANTS BY M E WINGE. thq refusedto sunenderunder threat of death Hogni died laughing as his heart wascut out. after puttingup a Jtercefght and slnyinghisarchfoe. Thor was destinedto die heroically at Ro. facing death and doom with vigour and courage. For the Finns. supematurally strongandarmedwtth the maglcal Mjollnir.while acceptingthe inevitabiliry of death on the field and doom at the end of the world.No less than the heroes.NoRSE HERoES He MrcNcs were famed for their fighting spirir.plqedhis harp with hisfeet. the bravestheroes went to Valhallawhere they awaited the fated and fatal showdown at Ragnarok.they battled with incantadons rather than force of arms. After death. the Norsemen fought with undiminished spirit. while agedVainamoinencould alwaysslip out of a dght comer by shifting shape.qnvtNc. slnying giants with andrechless rage ffirtless ease Alongwrth someof the othergods. death was not always final: Leminkainen had more than one life. c 1890) . was a Jormidable foe Bang nather immortal nor invulnerable. CANVAS. DETAIL.andhoarded his gold When sazedby AtIi. 12TH cENr. Armed with magical forces. and Gunner.died gallnntly thoughnatherlived aJlnwless ltfe Drawn into the web of tragedy wovenbya cursednng thE sleuy the peulesshero Sigurd. the Norse gods were heroic. word-fame was everything. redeemingand surviving a hero's death. Guvxrnexo Hocrr AeJ). but also by a sroic fatalism. though perhaps less grand and stoic.who coveted their gold.Their hardy heroism was doubtlessshaped by the crushing Nordic climare. For the vikings. Finnish heroeswere quite as determined and brave in their way. defuingdeathto thelast (Wooo c. facing doom at Ragnarokwith fighting spirit. the N ibelung brothers.hefought with a fearless spirit. cast into a serpent's pitwithbound hands.

thrusthis sword rnto its belly Thebloatedcreature had grown increasingly monstrous in shape and character. the most slewthe famous oJlceland'sheroes. ) Slcutrlp rHE VoruNG (nght) prwedhis heroicstdtus by drawngJorth a maglcalsword thrust into the Branstoch Mh by Odin With this word he wonJame throughout Scandinavia.and soughtvengeance syp wlsox.Nonse MvrHoLoGY Srcunp (above). c 1900 ) Jor his hinsmen (ruusrncrro. hu lfe Jrom then on was bhghtedby the cursethat camewith the ill-Jated treasure 0LLlsrmrror B' AL-4N 1984 Lrr. Sigurdhtd tn a holein the dragon'sslime traclzand. Sigan who resolvedto slay all the Volsungs All ten sonswere tied to forest trees . all the betterto guard hrs cursedtreasure AhhoughSigurd'sheroicdeedwon himJame andfortune. tembledragon.N 245 . as Fafnrr slitheredacross on his datly tnp to thefoul Jorestpool. prq to the beastsoJ the Jorest OnIy Sigmundexapel.but alsoprovohedtheenvyoJ his brother-rn-law. by biting of a wolf s tongue..Fafnir Armed wtth hisJather'sinvincible sword.

in Germanic mythology.NORSE MyTHoLoGY I Fsnr Qef). sometimes a tall as the tallest tree A jealousgnrdtan oJ hLslmJy realm.lohihelpsOdinquietar thcraging il*orf. afrah green age inwhich thq were destinedto repopularctheworWand so renav the human race. he lwed to lead tresrysers AStrAy 0[usrunoN By M voN ScHwtpo. (Iuusrwnot ry NrcrBar u. thoughhe appearedin the shapeoJa man. was a man who leamed the wisdom of the gods.lohistole a fur. They were destined to survive this catastrophe and then repopulare a new world.whichrwls an omen oJ doom QuusrunoN ry F yop Srrssnr. disappearing from his woodland home undl the following spring. Hqe. His myth comprises a retelling of the knowledge he gathered there. c 1860 ) In (nght) and her mate. when he would rerum wilder and noisier than ever. Lifthrasir. sometimesas small as aleaf. somerimes Lopt. His chief attribure. and stayed in VALHALL{. Through the branchestheywill see a new sun bum as rhe world ends and surs again " LtrmneslR see un 206 . rhe doom of rhe gods. however. Akhough human in form. 1995 ) THn LESHY. spint of theforest. l9l{. also known as Lesovik and Lesiye. castno shadowwherehewalhedand could easily camoujage himself among hisJorest trees.olrtrr'sbrothcrs sc a weqingNorn. whibat thetop. was his abiliry ro change size: he could become as small as a rnouse or as tall as the highesr tree Every October the Leshywent inro a hnd of hibemation. "The bellowing fire will nor scorch them. Boredom was a problem for Loki. he had a long green beard and casr no shadow.the end of the world. I NSNM SCC THELE5HY LnsovtK see rHE LEsFry LOODFAFNIR. Toa??eaft dwarfs trasure. where the gods held their daily assembly. was the Slavonic spirit of the forest who led travellers and hunters asray in the woods. and grew progressively more evil until eventua\ rhe gods bound him in a caveundl the coming of nacruaRoK. and their food will be rhe moming dew. It is an interesting mixture of commonsensical advice about good conduct and superstitions conceming the avoidanceof witchcraft. tooh shelterat the end of theworlil in the sunlitbranches oJ the cosmicashtree. The fact that his paren$ were giants may help to explain his tendency towards evil deeds. was rhe Germanic fire god and son of the gians FARBAUTI and Laufey. LOKI. theyoungcouplecltmbed dmn and a nf:t^t agedawned. He I-oto helped to precipitnte a cycle of iolenceby callously slayng Ottafor hls Otter'sfatha. ODIN's hall. He visired rhe Well of uRD. who "was tired of the string of days that unwound wirhout a knot or a twist in them". which would rise from the sea like a volcanic island. trickster and shape-changer. He was a mischief-maker.) Ltf and Lifrhrasir ("Life" and "Eager for Life") were the man and woman who were to hide in the cosmic ash tree YGGDMSIL al MGNARoK. Ygdrasil After theeanhhadbeat purged byfire andflood. it will not even touch them.invohnghis bittn anv.

the tncluta god. But the goddess became excited and upset the nest.. His monstrous children byAngrboda were ANd HEL. At the beginning there was only Luonnotar "all alone in a vast emptiness". and the whites the moon. Loh discovered. Afterwards Luonnotar fashioned the continents and the seas. Without these maglc fruit. the Finnish hero. lvlenoeR-AKIG and her male companion Madder-Atcha were. brought about the loss and rerurn of toul and her apples of youth.was atfrct just a pwful pranlutr. Thor seized it and laid low all the frost grants present. toh tricked his friend because the price of his own release by Geinod had been delivery of the thundergod into his power. vntt and Narvi. who lived undeqEound. whue shednful unnl an eagb built a neston her hnee Wat she acadentally upset the nat.JORMUNGAND ruler of the underworld: all fearsome representatives of the evil side of his nature.NORSE MYTHOLOGY simply could not help plapng tricks and exposing the gods to danger.n). The price for the hammer's retum. mounted an e><pedition Loki was then placed in a dark care. Even after he brought about the death of oDIN's the gods continued to son BAI-DER. When Loki led Thor unarmed to the hall of the frost giant GEIRROD.with whom he had two sons. (See also MGNAROK) Lopr seeLoKr (which probably LUONNOTAR means "Daughter ofNature") was the creatorgoddessof the Finns. Then he was to emerge to lead the army of evil in their final battle with the gods. and gave birrh ro vAINAMoINEN. In this dreadful prison. Scatteredhagmentsof these eggs were transformed into the stars. Their three daughters were involved with procreadon as well. Odin located the fish and to catch it. Madder-Atcha was responsible for the soul and Madder-Akka for the body. who immediately attacked his brother Nawi and hlled him. Lolrr (abwe). with the result that from the broken shells of the eggs the heavens and the earth were formed. however. tolerate his presence in ASGARD. The yolla became the sun. undl one day a bird made a nest on her knees and began to hatch some eggs. the gods were subject to the ra\xages of time like everyone else. looked after the interests of the new-bom child./. the divine couple who created humankind. To escape their wrath Loki changed himself into a salmon. was the hand of mEtnA. Sarakkasupponed women during childbinh. ) Luorworen @elo. On occasion lohwas even prcpared to riskserious harm to his companion THOR. FENRIR. although it was often his quick-wittedness that afterwards saved them. Loki was manied twice. Later she floated for cenuries on the cosmic ocean. feast Butwhen he anived atAEGIR's and began to torrnent everybody present with insults and sneers. The child they made was then placed in the womb of its eanhlymother. first to the giant ANGRBODA and then to SIGI?. grat restlrssin theheawns and sltppd into the cosmicua.a primal goddas. their patience came to an end.tthe godsrealQedhewas to imprtsonhim l-ohi was evil and resolved amnlrrrlly bound to a ruh. the fertiliry goddess. Yet it was Loki who devised the novel scheme to get back Thor's magrc hammer after it was stolen by dwarfs and passed into the hands of the frost gianr TlIRrM. moon rnot avNlcxBrerr. the thunder god. its egsbroht andformed the urth and slE. He therefore persuaded Thor to go to Thrym dressedin Freyja'sclothes. SeealsoJUMAr:{. stn. Loki.Juksakka ensured that the baby changed from is originally female gender. Narvi's intestines were then used to bind Loki beneath the dripping mouth of a venomous snake.1995 and stnts Ouusrn ) 207 . From his hgh seat in Asgard. His son Vali was changed into a wolf. when Loki would meet his own end at the hands of. for insance. only the loan of weapons from the hndly frost giantess GRID saved the thunder god. When Thrym took out the magic hammer.unnqout. but becameso ilarh and twrstedtlllr. wtth hisface atposd to thefay drops of a snaltc's c 1870 venom 0[usrnnnourYD PE]rRosE. according to the kpps. while Uksakka. if a male child was to be born. the god awaited Ragnarok.

the fertility goddess Dressed in Frefa's clothes and accomDanl . which comprised "many Jreshgreenage. MJOLINfR Mert Syne Zevrye. and the grantessJamsaxa.thq invohedthe dess was huppy to be seen all pnmal daty. Thorshowed his gatitude by giving the young frost giant Hrungnir's magnificent horse. was awise god sent by rheAEsIRro the VANIR in order to seal the peace after these rwo branches of the divine family tired of war.west. the patroness of green snakes The of Rngnaroh Magni ("Mighty") swings Letts believed that the stars were Thor's sacredhammer. wth oil (Iuusrnenoru nyNrcx Br. Thor fell wounded ro the ground. she was an object of veneration up to the early years of the rwentieth century.000 years ago Believed ro possessrhe abiliry to predict the future and ro settle disputes wisely." Magni comrnented "lf I had met this gianr first. and appeared libations oJhemp oil Bowingto the eut. ("Courage") Jollows behind (Iuusrnnrroru ny The Moming Star. ODIN. ("Moisr Earth Mother") was the Slavonic earth goddess Archaeological evidence suggests that her worship may have originated in the basin of rhe River Don as much as 30. In Thor's hands Mjollnir was the gods' certain protection againsr their enemies. only by night. even rhough none of the gods had been able to shift Hrungnir's leg. while the sun god.Nonse MyrHoLoGy MeCNt ("Mighry") was the son of rHoR. however. while Modi the children of Menu and Saule.qu.the frost grants That is why the gods were so worried when the frost giant THRy. the Germanic rhunder god. Golden Mane After MGNAROK. Because the Vanir felt that rhey had been cheated. and brother of Modi Afrer his duelwirh HRUNGNIR. fields at dawn andblessed the earthwith avoided his spouse. rhe doom of the gods.p.they cut off Mimir's head and sent it back ro rhe Aesir.head He was also unable to move because one of Hrungnir's lifeless legs pinned him ro rhe ground Even worse. it was an instrument of destruction. was the Baldc moon god The sun was imagrned as the goddessSAULE. stide across the root of the cosmic ree the sunlit Plain of lda at the dawn oJo YGGDMSIL To gain Mimir's wisdom. fertiliry and resurrection. "ft's a pity I didn't come sooner. smeared the severedhead with herbs so thar it would never rot He then recited a charm over it to restore its power of speech [-ater.I stole it The price for its retum was the hand of rRnY. or Menulis.Mimir's head was placed by Odin to guard a magic well under Mecm andhisbrother. he would be fallen to my bare fists " Akhough oDlN was rather put out by young Magni's inrervendon. in Germanic mythology. Thor wetted himself when he noticed the clay gianr Mist Calf Insult was nearly added ro injury when. was Jaur. the strongest of rhe frost gianrs. however.s Arrxtr. when Russianpeasantwomen were still performing elaborate rires in order to summon her presenceto protect them from disease MNNUUS SCC MENU MENU. 1995 ) said to have been the child of a love affair berween Saule and pnRKUNo. as fragmentsof whetstone had lodged in his. Magni and Modi togerher would inherit Thor's magic hammer. 1995) MIMIR. at the age of three years.roER. in shame and anger. Odin gaveone of his eyesfor permission to drink at the well MJOt-l-NIRwas the magic hammer of the Germanic thunder god THOR Made by the dwarfs Brokk and Eitn. eachtime soahingtheearth through the day. Modi.after the world destruction truths unknown ro any other person".north and south. Magni proved strong enough to free his father Thor. Men Sne Znurvewa invohedby Slavic the thunder god For this reason farmersathawest time Thq entered thar the moon god.

carvedthe world out of the carcass of YMIR. Thor raised his hammer certain magic words and its legs were vulnerable to attack On the day of the duel. and could onf be held by an iron gauntlet It was not just destructive.the moon is drawn by across Early All-Sw{t. had a son and a daughter so handsome and beautiful that he called one Moon and the other Sun The gods were angeredby this comparison Odin snatched the brother and sister from Midgard and tumed them into constellations to guide the real heavenly bodies on their daily and nightly journeys acrossthe sly (below) htslovely named MuruotrraRl angeing thesun andmoon. but it proved Though inadequate for the task into the creature towered the clouds. 1995 horn (IrrusrnenoN ) Nanna.oruNHElM. pull the larger sun 1995 Srrweno.qr-r. of Mjollnir passed to (See ownership Thor's sons MAGwI and Modi also TREAS URESAND TALISMANS) MOXKURALFI.ed end.greater ision Odin's qe floated in the Jountain. a rymbol oJ the Jull moon. MUNDTLFARI was a man who offended oDIN. it was very slow-moving MJorrNtn QeJ). torHcENruRv) . glou. moon oJHamdall's besidethe crescent By NrcK Br. Thor hlled Hrungnir but wet himself at the sight of Mist Calf His human servant THIALFIwas less impressed.N and chanted to consecrate the ceremony. his fall shook. the thundergod. and swung his axe at the clay giant's legs When Mist Calf toppled backwards. When Odin. before Thor strongest This occunedjust met HRUNGNIR. however. Mist Calf was ani- mated by the heart of a mare.whirlingpattems oJ Vihing art beautifuIlydepict the blazng qes oJthe god {srwenpENDANr. moon and stars. was a gigandc or Mist clay giant. After doom MGNAROK. Bv GTENN ) chaiot (Irrusrpqrro.but ako creativeand hallowedweddingsand births The acquisite.the original frost giant. children aJter The children withhis thegods arrogance chaiots weremadeto dnve theheavenly the slE At leJt. single combat. Waher and Rapid Goer. He was made from the claybed of a nverby frost giants in order to tenify THOR. they solved the problem of its illuand glowminadon by using sparl<s ing embers from the sun. Calf. the in of the frost gian$. who lived in Midgard. rymbolinngthe saciJiceof oneviu Jor another.rymbolizng Thor's red-hot at the mallet thunderbolt. while two eagersteeds.NoRSr MyTHOLOGY MtulR saws Odin a draughtfromhis wondrousFountain oJWisdom Thepnce demanded for this pivilege was one q/e. along with his brothers yILI and vE.Mundilfari. the land of the frost giants. the day of and the end of the world.

but in the autumn Dazhbogleaves his bride and only retums to her after the cold winter months have passed.8ru cnvruRy. was the dragon lMng ar one of the three r00ts of the cosmic tree YGGDMSIT.Njord's own sister NERTHUS.) 2r0 . Some raditions represent him as the cold. a stag browsingon thelearcs of Ygdrasilis in its turnnippedby Nidhog rejectingthe hJe anddeathstruggle at therootof the UnNeTSe (Wooo crnvrNc. strophe of RacrueRoK. o gruesome dragon. Every spring the divine pair are remarried. Myesyars is a beaudful woman.with passions opposite to herwn. suggest that Nerthus was sister and wife ro NJORD. she was an important morher goddess who had a sacred grove on a Frisian island.At a cenain lake the goddess bathed. whichsymbohzed pimal motherhood andabundance The supply of dead. According to tasteof dead flesh. Njord. god.tnoN BvJHuARD. bur age on fhe cosmos in some way. a member of the divine race of Between mouthfuls he would send VANIR and father of the fenility gods the squinel Ratatosk up the cosmic FRELR and f'nrrye. In others. the gnaw at the root of Yggdrasil iself. ripping NIOnO was rhe Germanic sea corpses apart and eadng them.1g3O) people honoured hetW layingaside all iron tools andweapons and donning e festiv dress0uusrnrTroN EvJAMEs Arxqtprn.she feet What Sludipiclzed dunng herbiannual Neither fire nor flood could deter foundthatshehadwon a *t)eet. was Nlpnocc kJt). of hts Njord. in Germanic myrhology. Both Yggdrasil and Nidhogg were N. her image placed in an ox cart and attended by a priest.asceRo.have huJeet inspected whowas W Sll. alone Auusn.home of the gods. Freyr and who were perched at the very top.aldi. rhe doom of obliged tochoose afutsbandJrom theshape Nrnrnus ides in a tiumphalprocession.yono up wtththegods to belw) lines destined to survive the final cata. dwelt in iq Nilheimand. NIOHOGG. the consort of Dazhbogand morher by him of rhe stars. drawn ing on the vast and inexhaustible andso she soon tooh to hr chilly hilk W t*o hafm. During these sacred journeys peacewas expected to prevail because "all iron was put away". The name of the goddess may have meant "powerful one" because it refers to suength. oA smgod Jmilityfestival withJlowen. When peace was tree on an errand of insult.when notdevouing corpses. baldheaded uncle of rhe sun god DAZHBOG. Sacrifice by drowning was a pracdce also favoured by the ancient Slavs in eastem Europe. At regular inrervals Nerthus travelled inland along a recognized route.the sea god.NoRSE MyTHoLoGY MYgSYefS was rhe moon deiry of Slavonic myth. Nidhoggwould some versions of the myth. The freezing misr and darkness of Niflheim. which was the lowest of the nine worlds. Bedeched hq chariot was the dragon from its ceaseless quite feast. an eagle and a hawk. NenfnUS was a Germanic goddess. the gods and the end of the world. tthabitually nibbled therootof Ygdrasil. Someversions of the myths of . where the dragon lived.thecosmic tree Here. divine family. Quite possibly Tacitus was describing a local cult of FRafA. Freyla came to live with the Aesir as When momentarily dred of the a sign of goodwill. 1995 ) and afterwards slaves who had helped in this ritual were drowned in Nerthus' honour. and mother of Freyja and rRna.whose cult was described by the Roman writer Tacitus in the first centuryAD. the nvo branches of the two birds.According ro him. mother of Freyr and Freyja was presumably hoping to inflict dam. for the agreed between the AESIR and the agile animal periodically disturbed Vanir.

as of It was believed decided gians the destinies and dwarfs. encountered in Greek myrhologr. in Shakespeare'stragic play Macbeth. Aeglr A gentle soul. were the Germanic fates. Njord's second marriage was to the frost giantess SMDI. The original undoubtedly Well of Urd. andvaled Shuld symbolizes her closedscrollof thefuture clasps (lu-usrnarroru lrorn. her did not accompany husband and children to fugard. the coupie could not agree about where they should live Njord found Skadi's home in JOTUNHEIM. and in Engiand there was maintained a belief in rhe tremendous powers of rhe three sisters long after the arrival of Christianity For instance. where heavy clouds masked the sun and harsh rock made the ground as barren as death [n her wild and unforgiving land. however She came from a range of frozen mountains.1 995 ) IAMES since the Aesir disapproved riage between brother Nerthus of mar- and sister. he aided shipsin distress.N"Jonocalmedthe stormsraisedby the tempestuous god.decidedthe destintes and mortak ds thq wove the Web of Fate Here. atleft. too cold and barren. Njordlwedhis sunlit coves and creehs. wiseold Urd reads from the scroll of thepast. who chose him on the basis of his beautiful feet However. while Skadi disliked of shipbuilding of Noatun the noise and bustle around Njord's hall nighrs in each place they decided to live apart Skadi went back to her favourite pastime of hunting on shs and the weather-beatenNjord retumed to a life at sea The apparendy unbridgeable gap between them probably reflecs more than personaluste Njord was certainly seen as a god of fertility. was the site where the gods heid their daily Noms assembly known by ("Present") The rwo name other are Verdandi and Skuld ("Future") that the of Noms gods. the land of the frost gianrc.v favourable windsand causedsummer showers (Irrusrnenoru By ALEXAwoTn. homeof his sacred seagullsand swans Popular with sailorsandfishermen. but alsowealth and good fortune in the form of land and sons Skadi's associationswere quite differenr. akohnown as the Nordic of both gods Fates. The as well in Asgard After nine humankind Anglo-Saxons 2tt . Lachesis ("The Decider") and Atropos ("The lnevitable") lt would seem more than possible that the Noms were also originally thought of as spinners Howevet. there was hardly any scope for humankind Nonrqtn seerHE NoRNs Tan Nonrys.whileyoungVerdandi the present.the Three Sisterson "the blasted heath" obviously owed somerhingro rhe Noms A clear parallel of the Noms are the Moerae. the goddesses Nom was The URD ("Fate") of destiny. in Germanic mythologr the Greek and Roman concept of the Fates spinning an individual length of yam for each mortal life does not appear THg NOnNS. . 1995 BYJAMES ALrx. where nothing was able to grow or prosper at all. or Nomir. ) called Urd by the name of Wyrd. since he provided to those who worshipped him not only safe voyagesat sea. or "Fates". they were seen as three sister goddesses: Klotho ("The Spinner"). which was situated under one of the roots of the great cosmic ITeeYGGDMSIL. fu in the Germanic mythic tradition. blo.

was a beautiful. meting out fare in the name of Odin.Brynhild or Brunhild. virginswith golden hair and snowy arrns who served the chosen heroes everlasting ff.On the battlefield. dark angelsof death who soaredover the batrlefieldslike birds of prey.ffi: heroine. Chosen heroes were gatheredup and borne away to Valhalla. fallen Valkyrie.mead and meat in the greathall of Valhalla. Moururro Verryrrrs Aeft) soaredoverthe battlefeld throughstorm clouds on lying steeds Their prarly mountspersonifiedthe rain clouds. especially.TLKYRIES ALKvRIES wERE oRrcrNALLy srNrsrER sprRrrs of slaughter. Ide ahzed Vallcyries were infinitely more vulnerable than their fierce predecessors.and often fell in love with mortal heroes. they soared over the host as lovely swan-maidens or splendid mounted Amazons.THE V.:'ffi.the heavenlyabode of Odin's ghostly army. This far more appealing n d I . In later Norse myth.sprayingdewandhoar frostwer a . li e b e l u n g e nlied. the Valkyries were romanticizedas Odin's shield-maidens. were at risk as they might easily be trapped on earth if caught without their plumage. where the . Swan-maiders.

. . l l l .. r t . r r q . 1 { t 1 . i L t r i l L l r l i l l . i i . ' / t g / i t . l l. t r t l i i . l r . t r .l r r r ttLlL/\. \ .rr! /il' :lt. i i ' 1 1 i 1 i 1t i ..:l.i11 / l r r i t l l l i i t . . .r1..it j. f .1t l t i I .lLr))i( 1 1 1 . l l t .l f 11 r. r \ . l t / / ..l ipl.J 'lrt... i t t .Non. r 1r 1 i .. l i . / .. .. q. l . i i . 1 . 1 1 1 1 . . 1 r .l\t 1' 1 l r 1 1 1 . . t i /1. lr. . ' l r .. l l . \t tir. r r i l r i \ \ (( f . i . j \i.. . 1 1t l t .1'. l l .l . ) / 1 ' . . l ' t . . i r \ l l ( r / 1 .. i \ r I l / l it. t r . 1 1l t t L r i r i l I f l t ..' l r ' \l r rll.ilL{Lllsr ' 1 . . r ..r/ iiit '. r t ( ) i l t r tr l t . ) r t t i .r .. r 1 l . . f 1 1 ri 1 . t i . r s f ' r r r i .11 11 / . i 1 l . i l l.1' \ \ tiltri. L i r r t t L it t l f i l l r . \ ( l i1. / r . l . ..r ttt. r 't s L it r r / 1 I / r r r ( rt1. l . q i t . l. 1 1 r 1 1 .'.iir. l r i f l r rr t .{\r /. / t i t t t Ir.il. r l l r .'. i ' . l l l r .i iii( . ' i t .)l 1s.r r. t 1 L / l / tt t i 1 1 1 ' r ... . .il rlrrr: \r l/lr. t l t t i i i r r \ \ \ i t r . ' . l l {l .'. r . ) l . t l i' . t r l .sE MyTHOLOGY r 1 1I r. .rlt r \ i I / i i r i r l l l ! ' r / 1 (. f ' l / t t r I / . ..ilJ i\.. 1 rr t . l rtnrlt.r11. . i t . . t .. .. .. : / r .lirrrit.. 'r i r .1 .it lltt lrl t\tl\ 1r. l lr( /)l \() rlll{( il I J t ' 1 g i . (\ littr\fll.i!: rrl. 1 t ' t' \ / ) l ll i r r ' r r i . . . 1 1 /1 11 '1. 1i r .q i .. r i r i . : 1( ./ 'lrrriri. /".. 1r .iill ltl . 1 .

Huglnn and Muninn.Je gocJ erv.i th"nno Hi.irb.omcnsot'good luch (Onr^arE BuRNI-/r. an immense hall in rhe diwne forrress of ascaRo.theavbornen(ws reporters.thelughest gods. rather he inspired it in a devious manner Odin was ever (below).) 214 . Gen and Frekr. whom rhe Romanshad identified as the sky god of rhe north European peoples Tir rerained his interest in war. for in VALHALIA. c . the onee. was the chief god of Germanic myrhology.n< n "madness" It indicatespossession. ctNves.ved was said Lo prresi.that he did not embody martial esctasy himself. OorN astheWtldHuntsman. darh omens wl DHuNr oJdoom (THe oF ODIN. bur Odin was looked upon as the insprration for hard-bitten warriors He alonehad rhe power ro inspiremen in battle to a stateof berserkragein which rhey fearednorhing and felt no parn The terrible berserkers would rush naked into the fray. alsoknown as Woden or Wotan.rvrs.hrrh t^.I870.NonsE MyrHoLoGY OPIX. ghostli'hunt throughthe stotmymidnight slry In the roar and rumbleof thestorm clouds. oJ srrs onhrs uunite. ry I'NAruo. as in the battle-frenzyexhibited by rhe Irish hero Cuchulainn That Odin becamerhe foremost god shows how important wartare always was in Germanic tradition It should be noted. however. while at hisJett crouchhis pet wolves. Norsemen fanciedthq heardOdin's phantom idrrs sweep across the sIry. the son of BOR and grandsonof nuru He was particularlyfavouredby the Vilcngs a n d ro se to p ro mi n e n ce in the eighth and ninth cenrunes These seafarers and raiderswere attracted b y Od i n 's l o ve o f b a trl e as the "lather of the slain". lB72 ) mighrywatch-tower overloohrng thentne worlds Hovenng nearbyare his tteless rayens.nii t^. er ("glorious dead") Ar the EINHE(/AR rhis penod it seemsrhat Odin drsplaced TtR. biting the edgesof their shieldsin a maddened frenny Odin's name meanssomethingahn [o "fury" or OorNQep. ieudstheheratchostcn c.

and he fathereda number of children. withhisinJallible doom of the gods. thefull floatingin Mimir's well. The Danish King Crucifixion gave Christianity a Harald was supposed to have been head-smrt in northern Europe.His only consolation was the foreknowledge that his resurrected son Balder would be worshipped in his stead in a new age and a new land which would rise from the sea. Shifty-eyed and flaming-eyed he might be. though. Odin took the place eleventh century. Odin was a god of magic and wisdom. His conflicting negative and posidve aspects are indeed very similar to those of the Hindu god Shiva. and v.sacifced one qe Jor a draught of Mimir's Fountain qe symbohzedthe oJWisdom His single radiant all-seang sun. These Einhe4ar armed which in g Draupnir.beJ s hiswtJ eIo clasp riors slain in battle was the only in eagle helmet policy he could adopt under the the Jorbattle Jray Armed is slE. Among those said to be HODR. (See also rHr AND SPELLS.signtJied moon Odin hung himselfJrom Ygdrasil. the god of [ire. fu the oldest of the gods. SORCERY VALKTRIES. tolearn the the cosmic ncurl c 1950 ) secrets oJthe dead (Bnoruzr 215 . treeJor nine dEs.the andblue spear. in a timelessbattle oredivinginto ngngly. while his lost qe. Odin's own ravens HUGINN and Muninn flew about and then "whispered into his earsevery scrap of news which they saw or heard tell of" The birds' names mean "thought" and "memory" respectively Becauseof his wrsdom and his knowledge of events. his sonswerc THOR.Nonsr MYTHoLoGY ready to stir up strife. He gained insight in another way by hangrng himself for nine days from YGGDMSIL.the doom of the gods. This heyday.sword-age" . When asked passingasVihng colonists settled down as peaceful farmers and about such withdrawals of luck. the great destroyer-saviour of Indian mythology. so the final scene was to be a batdefield. struggle berween the gods and the frost giants Odin himself was to be the monhlled by the wolf nr'ruruR.he tunic. hanging formed an important part of Odin worship. strous offspring of the fire god roro and the frost giantessANGRBODA Besideshis authority over the battlefield and the glorious dead. Ragnarok. symbolizngthe constant threat of RecrueRoK. It is possible that the obvious throats" so that their vassalswould wade through torrents of blood on parallel between this myth and the the battlefield.ANVAs. because he had cast an eye into MIMIR'swell in retum for a drink of its "immense wisdom". beganwith the death of Odin's son Balder and the realization by the gods that in Loki.qu. carved the world of men out of his dead body. gave Odin greater wisdom goddess FREUA and set them at each other's than anyoneelse. Odin was oppressed by the approach of Ragnarok. Odin kept himself informed about the affairsof the nine worlds with two faithful ravens As Vihngs at sea sent out ravens in search of Iand. Just as the cycle of Germanic mythologystarted with a cosmos awash with the blood of the original frost giant YMIR. Odin used to reply that "the grey traders. were desperately needed for the andhiswondrous therymbol oJhis pwu andwealth final battle on the vIGRID Plain. a violent interlude prior to the end of the world that would come at Ragnarok his wife in In addition to FRIGG. For Odin's love of wisdom was so profound that he was prepared to sacrifice himself to plumb its depths. Violent times were Harald to his death. Odin was often ponrayed as a grey-bearded old man with one eye. Asgard. rhey had tolerated the growth of evil. and on one voluntary death. the cosmic tree. instructed in mctics by the god and Odin's own worship appears to granted manyvictories. The great Viking raid of 842 on Nantes in north-western France can thus be seen as the outcome of a barbarouspledge to the god. But during the Vikings' wolf watches the halls of the gods". a god of vision. where nearly all would fall in a (Opru's Lrrve-rnKNtc ByF LEEKE. Odin had many other wives. and his subsequent resurrection by means of occasion commanded the fertility to "find rwo kings magic. was c 1875) c. even being regarded as a shortcut to Valhalla. but Odin also had a strongly posidve side to his character as the most learned god. he was treated by the other gods as their father. his face hidden bya hood orabroad-brimmed hat. Most of the ciry's inhabitants were slain and hanged naked or clothed from trees. There was nothing that Odin could do to prevent the catastrophe. scene. at the close of the of the hng's charioteer and drove Viking age.lt was "an axeage. BALDER. the first-bom son of Bor.when Odin and his brothers vtt andvr. MGNAROK) OF POWER: RINGS OorN (abwe).Oow belm). where the gods were predestined to gush out their own blood. Gungnir. ln his final have gone into decline in the early battle. Gathering to Valhalla heroic war.

He was the chief god and a creator god. Prnuu seepERUNU PfnUNU. apart from the names of gods and goddesses. He was obvrously OTTER. There'the war god ODIN. PgnxoNS PnnxuNAS seepERKUNo seepERKUNo worshipped at Uppsala in Sweden. a lover pleasing to Freyla who shared rhose fallen in battle with Odin. that Perkuno Orrnn was disguised asa boar byhis divine lover. wearing a turban. "howling and foaming in frennl. Menu made himself visible only by night. (t utrurroN (which probably PrnxUNO meant "striker"). Vladimir 216 . for he had storrn He was depicted as an taken the shape of an orrer. waniors who. Frqtjarides him to theseer Hyrdla. was the Baltic thunder god. An order of priess is known be covered inside and out with to have mainrained a perpetual fire gold Loki succeededin taking as as part o[ Perkuno's worship much gold as he needed from rhe Bahic mythology appears ro dwarf ANDyARI. although Perkuno was rhe HREIDMAR When rhe fire god rOrcr standard European god of the killed him by mistake. angry-looking middle-aged man Hreidmar demanded compensa. connected with rhe Slavic god was the son of rhe magician-farmer PERUNU.he Jathutocatchfshfor nibbles a salmon withhisqes closed to avoid seeinghis dinner dimintsh witheach mouthful Blind to theworld. in Germanic mythology. known as Perkunasin Lithunia. Perunu's supremacy was ended byVladimir. like Odin. 1995 ) Ju. and the curse passedto Hreidmar. as quick to anger as the giant-killing Germanic thunder god. 1995 ) JAMES Orrrn was turned intoanottu byhis dinner. beardless god Potrimpo was the Baltic Freyri grim Patollo was the Baldc Odin: and the Baltic Thor was Perkuno. the Germanic fertiliry godPatollo was the chief god of rhe dess. the idendfied him with rhe Devil.Baltic peoples gaveworship ro PAT)LL).Piorun in Poland and sometimes Perun. This would explain why him into a boar so rhar she could Christian missionariesimmediately keep him with her in ASGARD.hewas easy prEJorInhi whocaveted theotter's Jtne BY Nlck Br-qrc. excepr flor one whisker. so Loh was compelled ro hand over the ring as well. The young. known as pyerun in Russia.rhe rhunder god THoRand the fertiliry god FREYR were revered. Perkuno and potRIMPo. At Kiev in Russia he had an important temple until the tenth century. he also be given a ring which not unlike the Germanic rrio appearsin a surviving myth about SAULE. Perkons or Perkonis in Latvia. It is of considerable interest.NoRse MyrHoLoGY Andvari tried to conceal. wirh numerous wives and misresses. he took it The wamor caughr the goddess's awaywhenever he had a desire ro attendon through grand sacrifices tasrehuman blood Ar some point He buih a srone altar and tumed ir before the advent of Christianity into glassby rhe consranrhear of Patollo seems to have taken on a the fire he used in preparing his more pronounced role in respectof bloody offering Fref a transformed the dead. His sacred objects were the skulls of a man. Whereas the sun goddess carried on as if nothing had happened and conrinued to show herself to all humankind during the day. whereas at Romowe in Prussia. rhe ruler of Kiev who was later raised to rhe sainthood. saying that whoever owned them would be destroyedby rhem Loh put the ring on his own finger and retumed to Hreidmar with the gold There was enough ro cover the whole skin. seehingprooJ of Ottar's hingship The seer imparted to Ottarhis withsome Memory Beer to help familytree himrecite it correctly in a contestfor the throne(lu-usrnarroN By Arcxeuorn. inspiration and che dead He was depicted as an old man with a long green beard and dearh-like pallor. Here. After living rhe qpical life of a Slavic prince. next to nothing of Baltic mythology has survived. the one-eyedgod of battle. According ro rhis tale. magic. Unfortunately. the moon chosenot to appear in the sky with the sun becauseof Perkuno. therefore. In the myth ir is suggestedrhar he is related ro rhe berserkers. home of the gods. the sun goddess. Frqja Here. who had an affair with Saule.lefr a uail of terror and leaped like wrldfire over land and sea". a was rhe human lover of horse and a cow Offen FREYA. was the Slavic thunder god.with a fiery face and a curly black don The otter's flayed skin was to beard. A late account of the Balts even supposes a migration from Sweden in the sixth cenrury. She even used the disguised Ottar as a mounr PrnxoNIS see pERKUNo Ottar may have been a leader of a warrior band. the equivalent of Germanic ODIN. PnfOfJ-O was the Bakic war god. and insisted that have possessedthree main gods. and was said ro be a disunr Baltic region He bestowed good descendantof the hero SIGURD fortune and. Their love-child was rhe Moming Star. Andvari cursed both the ring and the gold. and the moon god vrruu.

secretary to the Greek general Belisariusin the sixth century. since surviving details of Perunu's worship suggest that he was originally believed to be an aid to agriculture. as well as those of the Jews and Pnncnvuroamedthe tkundery sly onhrs milktone. his sacredtree. In Russianfolklore the memories of Perunu's great skill with the thunderbolt can doubtlessbe found in stories that tell of dragon-slaylng and other supematural deeds rhat required enorrnousstrength PERUNU PTONUN SCC was the Baltic god of POTTUPO fertility and the equivalent of the Germanic fertility god FREYR. as place. naked and decked with flowers. spreadingsummer sun. lndeed. His choice fell on rhe Bfzantine form of Christianiry and thereafter the Russians and the Greeks shared the same form of Chrisdan worship. for the esmblishment of the Russiansrare resulted from Viking trade and settlement on its greatrivers. whilehis hornedturban recallshis sacred cow Perhuno.he appearedwith a silver head and golden moustncheHe was transjormedinto St Elijahwtth the arival of Chistianig. nvNrcxBFr''ts. I 995 ) PERL.. veteran Patollo bears a shull rymboliztnghisffinity withwar and death. and sacrificedcatde and orher animals to him. and in Poland Peruny as well as Piorunow According to Procopius.TNU. with though he was also associated rivers He was depicted as a happy young man without a beard and crowned with ears of grain PERUNU PYENUN SEC ". he bombardedthe lands oJthe wrchedwith hailstorms The oah. as afertility god.::i 217 . Prnxrno can be seenherendingwith his divinecompanions: on theleft. Whirling and drinhng seem to have been important in his Russian worship. dancing in a magic circle. chasing awayclouds and meltingthe snow A god with a socialsense.at right.u. the Slavs worshipped above all the god of lightning. The Viking leader Oleg had captured Kiev in 882 and raised its status to "mother of Russian cities". It seemsquite likely thar Thor provided the native Slavic thunder god with a developed mythology. it is hardly surprising that there are obvious parallels berween Perunu and THOR Oleg was referred to as a "wizard".Nonsr MvrHoLocY "rired of the desire forwomen" and sought a newway of living He sent out ambassadors to witness the religious ceremonies of both the Catholic and Orthodox churches. wanderedwer the earth. crownedwith Iruitful wheat. 1995 orrusrpcnoN ) Moslems. With this Germanic influx. in Bulgaria Perin Planina.jnshing shaftsof lightning Jr om htsthunderbolt Inhis efiig atKia. rainmaking ceremonies are known to have involved a chaste girl.names still indicate In Slovenia there is Perunji Ort. was burned in his honour (lLLUsrMiloN ay Nrcx BE/. 1995 ) Elsewherein Europe the Slavic peoples also revered Perunu.. next. Prior to this conversion in 988 though.young Potimpo. Jlashes his lightning (llrusrnerroru By IAMES ALExANorn. the "Rus" owed more to north-westem Europe. in Croatia Peruna Dubrava.

had taken shelter in the sacred rree yGGDMSILand they emergedafrer rhe camagewas over to repopulate the earth Severalof the gods also survived. their preoccupationwith a cosmic carasrrophedid not fade altogether. who inhented rheir father's hammer. "has such terror appeared as rhis we have now I RecxnRox (abov e) was ed by foreshadow a chillingFimbulwinter Soland Mani grat. Though usually imagined as the watchman of the gods. which SPIRJTS made them covet their father's gold While Fafnir turned into a RIG was the name assumed by the dragon in order to protect his gold. and his brorher HONIR. a new world was desdned [o "rise again our of the water. fair and green" Before the batrle rwo humans. Andvarinaut.a sword-age" It was a rehearsalfor the "wind-age and wolf-age before the world is wrecked" Ahhough Christianiry did evenruallycome ro the Germanic peoples of norrhem Europe.rhe short. among them Odin's sons VIDAR and vALI. However. Hamdall. which he did But. and mosr of the orher gods had died in the mutually destructive encounter with the frost giants.ery host (lLLUsrMTroN BYJAMES ALFxANorn. There he tutored the young hero SIGURD and urged him to overcome Fafnir. Odinwrestles with thesnarlingwolJ. pale with fear. known as jarl. The Last Judgemenr exercised their minds during the MiddleAges It maywell have been that behind the Nazis' resolve ro fight on in World War Two lay a folk memory of Ragnarok RNN SCC NATUM SPIRITS RECIN and his brother FAFNTR RTNUER SCC HMIDMAR slew their father. I 995 ) JAMEI suffered at the hands of rhe heathen " Bu[ for rhe Vikings ir was like Ragnarok. while under the spell of RHTNT MruONNS SCC NATURE a cursed ring. or "hrg"." Alcuin lamenred. andboth gods diein the conflict(lrrusrRenoru By ALD<ANDER. 218 . the god once approached the lowlydwellingof an old couple. sharp shore-raid againsr the ncher lands ro rhe west and south. and BALDER who came back from the dead Ragnarokheld a grear appeal for the Vikings. Regin then plotted to murder Sigurd. Heimdall was also idendfied with Rig. whose onslaughr on westem Europe is still the stuff of legend Once they understood the effectivenessof the standhogg. THOR had been overcome by Jormungand.Lohiwrestles withthebnght god. "no one is free from fear" ln 793 the British offshore monasrery of Lindisfarne was sacked and Sr Cuthberr's church was spatteredwrrh the blood of the monks "Never before in Britain. he reckoned without the young hero's insight: Srgurd was forewamed by the birds and killed Regin first the slave or thrall. the magician HREIDMAR. then. LIF and Lifihrasir. 1995 ) RAGNARoK's onthe Aef)warraged iq Plainof Vignd Hue.a final batdewould be fought berweenrhe gods and the frost giants on the vIGRtD Plain On the side of ODrN and the gods were ranged rhe "glorious dead" who had fallen in battle and were raken to live in VALHALIA. Thor's sons Modi and MAGNI. while with rhe fire god LOKIand the frost gians fought the "unworthy dead" from riEr (the Germanicnetherworld). and the noble or chieftain. plus the fearsomewolf rETRIRand the sea monsterJORMUNGAND There was nothing rhat rhe chief god Odin could do to prevenr rhis catastrophe His only consolation was the foreknowledge thar Ragnarok was not the end of the cosmos After he had been killed by Fenrir. whileThor slays themonstrous world serpat. equally as corrupted by the curse as his brother. as Alcuin remarked in the eighth century. Jatal yenom At left.scanning the horizon for the Iinal frost giant attack at Ragnarok.Nonsr MyrHoLoGy RACNAROK was the doom of rhe Germanic gods Afrer a terrible winter lasdng rhree years. "an axe-age. blizzards swept down touteredaver Jrom the pealx and icebergs thefrozen earth Lohi brohe Jree from his bondsand set sailwith thef. Fenrir.According to Rig's myth. though dyngJrom its Jormungand. the free peasanr or harl. Germanic god unuoeu when he Regin settled down as a smith in created the three categoriesof men: the royal Danish household.

gave good adviceand departed after three nights Nine months afterwardsAmma bore a son. Maiden and Capable Together they ran farms and were free A third dwelling Rig stayed at was a splendid hall belonging to Fadir and Modir ("farher" and "mother") While Fadir attendedto his bow and arrows. Afi and Amma (literally "gandfather" and "gandmother") The well-dressed pair were spinning and weaving: Afi prepared a loom.karls or spear. but he was strong Thrall took as his wrfe an equally ungainly person. Snor. mythoiogy AsJulius Caesar the ancient Germanshad no equivalent of the druids and cared lirtle for ntual They found religious significance in the depths of forests But the Romans.blue-qed boy. 1995 ) Ai and Edda 0iterally "great-gandfather" and "great-grandmother") After introducing himself as a lone wayfarer. Rig stayed three nighs and gave them good advice Nine months afterwards Edda bore a son. Husbandman and Smith.1995 Bv NrcK ) god. Jarl.seizing booty and distriburing treasureto his free followers At last he married Erna ("lively"). Rig slept between his well-off hosts He stayed three nights and gavegood advice Nine months afterwards Modir bore a son. Rigwas given coarsefood to satisfi his hunger and a place in the bed berween them when itwas time to sleep. a fair and wise noblewoman. imparting ganngwith pndeathisJirst whowas and Thrall. farmhousewhere entertained by Amma he was hospitably and Afi Rig stayed Jor threedaysand a fine sturdy. Jarl rode through the world.can worhing theirJrurtful land be seen (lrrusrnatrrrru Brerr. FaJnir. Karl andhis w{e.in battle 2r9 . Jathered namedKarl. long heeis and bent back. Amma spun a thread Once again Rig shared their table and bed. and later the Vikings'victims. ) Rtc nextvisiteda thnJq. itspeople and Jatheing men.weighed down with generations of hard labour Rig visited a second house. throughout as a serpent's When he grew ro visiting three manhood. and girls called Prettyface. Thrall. and she bore him twelve sons One of rhese learned magic so well rhat he could prevent forest fires. Gram Once mended. Fatty and Beanpole From these ill-favoured children descendedthe thralls. Sigurdslew Regln'sbrother. rhe Germanic tribes of and northem Europe Scandinar. who {ew up to be a natural farmer Here. Rigsups freemen withaged rustrcs in their seashorehut.Nonsr MvrHoLocY ing "daughter-in-law") and rheir children included boys named Strongbeard. who was fair-haired and handsome.ra had alreadylost a priestly classby the time we encounter their noted.the swordwasso strongand sharp that it split the iron anvil in two With it. who was red and fresh and brighteyed IGrl took to wrfe Snor (mean- RrctN reforgesthe shardsoJSigurd's wondroussword. Karl. Jarl could use bow. the enslaved labourers of the oppressed class Eddar's son Thrall himself perfecrly sums up the back-breaking toil of his oppressedclass. control storms and cure the sick lt was said that he excelled even Rig in understanding and almost became a god The implication is that in his person he combined the roles of pnest and king The myth of Rig sheds light on the structure of Viking society In con[rastwith the Celts.with a bright cheek and an eyeas piercing Rtcwandered theearth. were in no doubt about the Germanic love of warfare and the role of the armed retainer. he could classes oJ ride and swim and hunt experrly andjarls or earlsHere . a drudge with crooked legs. Jarl as his speciai son. as well as girls such as Laz1bones. the orher main rribal people of pre-Chrisdan Europe. Roughneck and Horsefly. One day Rig rerurned and greeted mortal child. thick fingers. the sturdy free peasant. accompanied by fine conversation and dnnk.short nails. wrth rough skin. swollen lcruckIes. warrn and better fumished Inside he encountered an industrious couple.who had turned himselJ into a dragonso that he could t2rHcENruRy guard his gold NvooocARVrNG. dirty feet. sunbumed arrns and a big nose Their many children included boys like Noisy. Modir saw to her own looks and clothes After a large meal. o bornlabourer Jather wrsdom and relling him how to claim his lands In obedienceto the oJ the serfs (lr-rusrnerroNBvNrcK Bzarr. fighting and slayrng.sword and shield. who was black-haired and ugly. thethralls or sufs.

Vainamoineh. were blessed with magical weapors.SORCERY AND SPELLS oRCERY AMoNG THENonsrMEN was a unique and precious art practised essentially by Odin and rhe Vanir deides of nature. By contras[. he punishedhisenemies bqtondtheir consulting magicians. glvinghim a dry loalJor hts lunch. much like a morml shaman.KULLL-nVO ByA GALLEN-KALLELA.cAN\. the Finns penetrated to the roors of life. the heroes of Finnish myth were often gifted from birth with asrounding magical powers and arcane wisdom. developed his skills over a lifetime of search and sacrifice.stffid with a rochwhich shattered hisfamily hntJe times Norwegian kings forbade people ro In response. clad in a blue mantle and slouch hat . Cunsr or. Equipped with a repertoire of sacred songs. Odin. he wandered the nine worlds as a vagrant. respondedto the world'ssleightswith distortedmalice Grftedwith powuful sorcery. After hanging himself on the World Tiee.The wise wtzard. Cnme (THF. Although disringuished heroes. they usually lacked any magical powers. c 1850) . such as Sigurd.while debonair Leminkainen was bathed as a baby ro imbue him wirh wisdom and sorcery.As. d toftured soul. was a born sage and sorcerer. bur also by dwarfs and some privileged mortals. he learnt rhe secrers of the dead and restored himself ro life. the arch-sorcerer.unlovedJrombirth. gathering and garnerirg every snippet of information he could find. Finnish sorcerers were so famous that in medieval Kurrrpvo cursesllmannen'swichedwtJewho had tauntedhim bqond endurance. Ever thirsry for wisdom and power. he tumedher gentlecows into bearswhich devouredher at the milhing s a i l t o F i n n m a r k f o r t h e p u r p o s e o f Kullewo. Llsually women..

and nner learnt theway of deniedlovethroughouthis lit'e things {xuttERVCl ByA GaLLrN-KeLLnq. i :H o L o G Y (above)fendsot'Jthegnffin perched on his VarruaiuornreN Louhi.along l. could and potions. c . practitilners forehnowledge loveand intelligenceOdin quichly learnt all that Freyja surpassed couldteachhimand. ofyouth.srmrr()N r 1920) B)IJTHF. Kullewo was his sword Although a powerfulsorcerer. songheunderstood wasfamed and Gruuulro QeJt).seenhere 0lrusrn+nos Brynhild. goddess c 1910) BYARTHITR RAcKrlAM. who had tumed shrp Themonsterwasthe sorceress.she for her maglc Withher spells feared and controlhis wrll Whenshe memory a person's erase Sigrd her maglcmead. ptpingloudly onhis cowhorn. her talons raisedhis rudderand crushed Vainamoinen but Vatnamoinen and scattered.N : ' g n 5 g : M Y .rJh the otherVanir deitiesoJJertiliry and nature Shewas the Jirstto teachthe wamor Aesir the practiceof seroror glvrngrts maglc SerorwasuseJulbutcould be dongerous.his mother'sBlachie oJ ablastedstretch dogrunningbehindEn route hepossed hrs long-lost greenwherehe had unwittingly despoiled the maiden's bemoaned sister Here the meadow grasses weightof guilt and a terible fate Feelingthe crushing Kullemoeventuallythrew himselfon liJetimeoJ bitterness.K A i l F l A . ( ) r r H t : S A M P L )B \ A G A L I F N .as predrcted mysteiously (liI t/. cANVAs. and power overliJeand death.A(ER.the bird She into u metalhc herself Sampo Justas sherearedto stnhethefinal blow.QueenoJthe Nrebelungs. A RrrucoF FInE (far left) enctrcled sleep in an enchanted protectingher from all but the to win bravest OnIy Sigurddared the Jieryctcle of Jlames spiit camed him through' the sleepingbeauryHrs fearless by the brrdswhose unharmed. the Vanir in maglc arts ln later myth. l c t . 221 . r . c 1850) Fnrl7a (nght) was renowned for her maglcal crafts. v t e r 1852 ) doomed Kurrrnvo (above). Jrom birth. was after thetalisman. r p . TheSampowas brolzen itspower gatheredsome fragmentsand partly restored ( D r . ewr thirsry Jorhnowledge. .heJorgot hts unsuspectrng ofJered love fell rn lovewith Gnmhild's for Brynhildand rnstead c 1910.) RR{(Klr'\r1 B)ARIHT Gudrun (lrrl \rR{li()\ daughter. Frqja wasrdentiJied oJSpnngwho guardedthe maglcapples with ldun. setout 0n his last journq. the ValLeyne.

in contrast. THr Rusnlru were warer nymphs and can be found in both Slavonic and Russian mythology They were thought to be the spirits of drowned grrls During the winter months. the Rusalh came out of the water on to the land and lived in the cool of the forests. becameill with a mystery malady and was nursedbach to health by Odin in disguise The old nurse. when the rivers were warmed by the sun. they lived in the great rivers of eastem Europe. in a corner. unkempt and unattractive creatures. the kindness shown to the snake was regarded as a guarantee of Saule'sgenerosiry. in ahotbath Jirstby bathingher The warm water thawedher Jrozenheart and symbolized the meltingoJtheJrozen nnd oJearth (trlusrnerroru By NlcKBute. in Germanic mythology. was [he daughter of King BILLING and the mistress of ODIN. who travelled with him thereafter. the god of fire. the gods. So Loh asked the sons of Ivaldi to make a wig from spun gold The completed piece of work was quite remarkable. they were commonly pictured as beautiful.of Uu. It was long held that seeing one in the countryside meant that either a maniage or binh would follow.the peasants SIF *as the wife of ttoR. Next morning Thor was beside himself with rageat Sils distress When Loh protested that it was only a joke.NonsE MyTHoLoGY Rrrun (above).4l. siren-like creatures who would attempt to lure unsuspecting passers-byinto the water with their magical song In the nonhem regions. During the summer. Saulewas imagined as pouring light from a jug. SRVTPO SCC TRM5URE5 AND TALISMANS was rhe Baltic sun godSnUlf dess and. crossingthe underqround 222 . who were the divine twins Castor and Polydeuces The unnamed Baltic rwins are said to have rescued Saule from the sea and built a bam in which the goddesscould rest.who would grab travellers from the river banlcs and drag them down into the river and drown them. 1984 ) continued to reveregreen snakes.who pursued her in various disguises Their love led to rhe birth of yALi.To hll a snake was an act of sacrilege. and the mother.which was at the start of summer. the mistress of the thunder god rERxuwo Shewas worshipped by Lithuanians. and the fire god said he would get the dwarfs to weave a wig as a replacement. On his way GUNGNIR the stronghold of back to ASGARD. sTGURD Strcr'ruED see SMCUUND SCC TMGICLOYER5 RIND. But Roskva's brother THIALFIbroke one of rhe thigh bones and when Thor came to resurrect the goats one of them had a limp The enraged god was only pacified by the promised servrce of Roskva and Thialfi.they were the last people to be Christianized on the continent . in the RiversDnieper and Danube. restoredRind to health. the Germanic thunder god. Vecha. Every house kept one: under the bed. so Thor offered his own goats on the condition that no bones were broken. even under the table Apart from ensuring a household's wealth and fertility. thE emerged from the ivers to dwell and dancein the eniching the grassin thar wahe Jorests. (lLLUsrMfloN ay Ar. Odin was deposed as king of the gods for forcing Rind to submit simply in order thar he might farhera son. taking on different forms in different regions For instance. Prussiansand Letts before they were converted to Chrisdaniry Her worship took the form of looking after a harmiess green snake. according to one tradition.a cool Nordic pnncess. by a previous marriage. probably a representation of ripe com and therefore fertility. rhe sons of lvaldi used the remaining heat in their fumace to construct a collapsible ship named Shidbladnir for the fertility god FREYR and a magic spear called for ODIN. one night cut off her beauriful golden hair. in south-eastem Europe.for it was so light that a breath of air was enough to ruffle its skeins and so real that it gew on her head by magrc Thinhng to get the gods even more into their debt. ROSnfn was a farmer's daughter who became a seryant of the god THOR When Thor stopped at her father's house and asked for food and shelter they were too poor to provide mear. Thor demanded to know what he was going to do about it.The golden liquid which she generously gave to the world was the basis of life isell the warmth so necessaryafter the cold north-eastern European winter Another fragment of myth about Saule concerns the Baltic equivalent of the Greek Dioscuri.The sight of a dead one was believed to bring tears to the eyes of the sun goddess Even after the conversion of the Lithuanians to Christianity in the fifteenth century . rhe child who was to avengethe death of reLorR In one version. god of archeryand shing She is the subject of a strange myth in which the trickster LoK. the water nymphs were considered to be malevolent. 1995 ) THE RusALxt (nght) dwelt in ivers and lahes The southern spites were pearly beautieswho lured travellerswith their sweet song Duing Rusalhi Weeh.r Lre.

the scourgeof the frost gians. he even smked his own head on their inabiliry to do so.A magic sword freed them and killed Siggeir and his sons Signy chose to die herself in the burning Gothic palace. Lohi lurlu menacingly behindthe dreaming beAuty (Irusrnerroru By NrcK Brnr. Loki also met the dwarf brothers Brokk and Eiti. fu a result.a sore W hn vengefulhusband. Morning Star. but they were both captured by Siggeir. However.qvoen. until only her youngestbrother Sigmund was left alive. Jbshes (IlrusrncnoN BYJAMES Ar. abweher. the dwarf brothers fashioned the magrc hammer known as MJOLLNIR. who bittuly resentelher brother Signund's victory in a maglcal strord contest 0rrusrn cflor'r By 1995 Atrx. which caused Loh to plan a revenge against Thor (See also TR&{SURESAND TALISMANS) stcuut tD seeNoRsE HERoEs SIGI IY. the boat and the spear that Loh persuadedthem ro make something better. Signy got a slave to smear Sigmund's facewith honey so that the wolf would lick him instead of biting him Sigmund was thus able to catch the wolf's tongue in his teeth and overcomethe beast Signy helped Sigmund to plot revenge She even slept with him in disguise and bore a son named Sinfiotli When Sinfiotli grew up she placed him in Sigmund's care.but they had no objecdon to Brokk sewing up Loh'slips with a thong when Thor dragged the god back home after j*irg Src (abwe nght) wa Jamous Jor her gold. hair. in Germanic mythology. symbolwng npe haw estcorn When Lohi att ofiherlocluher misay representedthe winter season when the cornJiel&. was the unfortunate daughter of VOLSUNG. They were so jealous of the workmanship that had gone into the wig.Nonsr MvrHoLoGY S.are reducedto stubble Hue. but not before she had told Sigmund the truth about Sinfiotli'sparenmge 223 . The gods would not agree. losn.. supposedly a descendant of ODIN. goldatlight poured from herheavenly thesummery haghtthrough clouds downto the earthbelw Thesnahe onhcrcrown herJertility symbolizes andabundance The herchiW.EMNoen.1995 ) Slctw (nght) Queenof Gotaland. 1995 ) caverns where the dwarfs lived. Brokk demanded Loh's head.eurr(abwe). she nied to wam her fatherand her ten brorhers about Siggeir'splot against them. rushes down the glacialfiord to greether hinsman Shewamsthem oJan ambush planned Siggar. ) JAMES he tried to flee. The gods were delighted with the treasuresLoh and Brokk had brought back.Married againsther will to the Gothic king Siggeir. but they were ambushed in a forest and bound to a fallen ree Each night a wolf devoured one of them in lum.theBalticsungoddess.

liching somr-spilt blod Jrom which he learnt thespeechof birds. By cunningly stabbing the monster from underneath. or Siegfned as he was lcnown in German. was the faithful wife of the fire god toru and morher of his sons Narvi and vau. (Seealso NORSE HEROES. kgn. thus apparendy gaining borh dwarfish wealth and wisdom. wzls a northern Germanic hero similar to the Celtic KingAnhur He was the foster-son of REGIw.rnrsco. To get rheir hands on the gold Regrn and his brother FAFNIR had then killed Hreidmar. he roasted the creature's heart. a gftlrom Odin father's Theconquenng swordwould$elp Sigurd in hisdestined mission to slay thedragon. FaJnir. cc^. guardian oJa Jabulous butill-Jated treasure (Srecrrueo tN THEFoRGE Bl oF REGIN W rr)N HANScHltp.which once belonged to the dwarf ANDvARI. but Fafnirwanted the rreasurefor himself and tumed into a dragon to guard it. Fafnir. who senr him to recover a fabulous hoard of gold Regin's father HREtoiu. Sigurd succeeded in slaying Fafnir. winning of Jame and aJateJulfortune. 1880) Stcunp (righl confronts theJire-breathing dragon. in Germanic mytholory. and slayshim. since Fafnir was said to have understood the language of birds When he realized that Regrn intended to hll him for the gold. Once rhe gods realized that in Loki they had allowed rhe growth of evil in their midst. Srgurd slew him before carrying it away himself.qn had first acquired rhis treasure. (srecrnreo rro FAFNIR 8Y H HENRTCH. On the advice his mentor. also known as Sigunn or Sigrym.vAs. the smith at the court of King Hjalprek inJutland. 1906 ) 224 .TMGIC LOYERS. they watches withfascination Stcunp (above) as kgln Jorges thebrohen shards oJhis wondrous sword.Nonsn MyrHoLocY StcnyN StcuNN see srcn{ seesrcrN StCUnO. RINGS OFPOWER) SIGYN.

A deity oJhuntm and mountain snake above Loki's head when the climbs. As a result of this threatened fate. When Freyr wished to marry the frost giantessGERDA. c NVAs. the Germanic god of fertiliry.a companion of the "unwonhy dead". however. Frqr. L2KI. however. c 1890) apples. capturedin his dinhinghom (rlrusrncfloN BY GLENN Swmp.iEs Awxtxoen195 ) troublesome god in a cave. When the gods ofascenp face Wen she writhedin agotry. ODIN'S Son. and a glwingportrait of Frqr. On another occasion. 1995 ) bound him in a cave.Nonsr MyrHoLocy Slcunp (abwe) oatls inhiswondrous nfit weapon. Eleven apples of youth.shahingtheearth trorc killed her farher for srealing IDUN's ANDSrcYN ByMEWrNcE. theeager hero setofl ucitedly onhisfirst quest This strileing portrayal highlights they outhful iilealism of the zealous Nordichero 0rrusrnrnotByARTHI/R RACKH M. or Skade (which means "destruction").anticiryting victory wer hk fightful foe. whenever she feet only. Skadi armed herself and went to the gods' srronghold to Despite all that her husband had seek compensation. stood them on end and bored a hole through each of them. However. were no temptation to her Nor was one of Odin's arm-rings Gerdashowed no fearwhen Shmir threatenedto beheadher. Njord and Skadi Src{Dt. head and causedhim to wirch vio. was a figure in banished to an iq prison There she nofihem Germanic mythology. stoodbyhim uen afterhehadben Slcvl (abwe). his sufferingbycatching the venom This was agreed.Skadi made her choice only to dislently. fasteneda snake ro a sulactire above the god's head and there he wuls to remain undl RAGNARoK SKADI. Fafnir. Thinking that the mosr went awayto empry its poisonous shapely feer must surely belong ro contents. First they took hold of rhree slabs of rock. When the gods had tied the Iast Iqrot. fu the couple were unable ro sxenn see sK{Dr stand the conditions in each other's hornes. he promised Shmir his horse and his sword and senr him ro. Then the entrails of Loki's son Narvi were employed as a rope which bound the fire god to the stones. Skirnir had some difficulry in persuading Gerda to agreeto the match. She lessened his pain by catchingthefery was the wife of the sea god tryOno venomdnbbledby a serpenttied abovehis and daughter of the frost giant went to empty the bowl.a Jrost glantess On a mission to win Gerda Jorhis gentlemastu. she demanded a and did what she could to lessen husband and a bellyful of laughter. Draupnir.oruNHEIM. but she began to panic the moment he started to recite a powerful spell It promised to deny her any joy or passion. a cnl anil indqndnt huntress. and it hn o! slop tlun in hq husband'ssunlit was she who placed the venomous cwa. it cover that she had picked Njord was these compulsive movemens The merrimenr was provided by that accountedfor eanhquakes. he THIASSI. Equipped with the shatpestblade and neves of iron. ) SruRun (abwe) gallopsthrough aJiery ringguardingthe iqhome of Gerda. the magic fruit that kept the gods young.c 19ff. According ro rhe Vihngs. Shmir acted in his role as messenger by going to the dwarfs on Odin's behalf to order a magical fetter so that Odin could resrrain the terrible wolf FENRIR 225 . the danted wtJeoJInhi. for the beautiful frost giantesswas to be transformed into a loveless outcast. Gerda at last consented to meet Freyr and so Skimir received his promised rewards. the land of the frost giants. the enrails became as hard as iron. NJORD's wife. sheguidcd thcir sleigla am the gods eventually imprisoned the snox4 0ulstttnoN cf l/o. the venom fell on Loh's handsome BALDER. To ensure Loh's discomfort the frost gianressSIi{DI. Refusing an done.a multiply ing nn g.. Her relationship with rhe A Wirit ol winta. shewasJar happir on gods continued. who tied his resticles io a goat. Sigrn remained rrue to him offer of gold. Shirnirbears gJ* oJliJe-gving apples. provided thar dripping from the snake in a woodSkadi chose her husband by his en bowl. decided that ir was best to live roamed the mountainsonhq snow shoes apart. SrtnNtR ("shining") wasa servant of FREYR.

the land of flame.. chased after the moon Both creatureswere said to be the sons of a giantessliving in Iron Wood Ravenous dogs often threarened to eat the heavenly bodies in rhe myths of northem parts of both Europe and fuia Chinese families today sdll bang cooking utensils ro frighten "the dog oflheaven"during a lunar eclipse Sxorr below). thinhng it Skryrmir's was a hall. chased thesunacross theslE. along with their servanB THIALFI and ROSrcya.He was identified with the fire god Lo:rc. frost giants. the citadelof thefrost giants The travellm strug. and fling fire in eYerydirecdon. So huge was he that on a joumey through the land of giants THORand LOKI. This fabulous creature was the offspring of an unusual union benween Svadilfari.Nonsn MyrHoLocy SKOLL. At necNARoK. and L2KI. in Germanic mythology. symbolizng Repulsion. w6 a fire giant with a flaming blade who would set the cosmos alight at &{GNAROK. the shapechanger. SlgtPNtR ("Glider"). the chief of the Germanic gods. the doom of rhe gods. pointingout the shortestroute to lJtgard.led on through snow diJts. "fresh and green". Another wolf.plunglngthe worldintoprimordial darhness (Itusrnnrroru ByGLENN 1995) STEwARD.to seizethe sun between his jaws and swailow her Jusr before this happened. the sun would give birth to a daughteras beaudful as herselfand this new sun would warm and illuminate the new earth risen from the sea. Slcrun. inadvertently slept in the thumb of empry glove. a magic creation sent out by the frost gians in order to prevent them from reaching UTGARD. 1995 0rrustpcno^/ ) SxnYUtR ("vasr") was an exrra Iargefrost giant in Germanic mythology. in Germanic SUnf mythology.the frost giant awoke in the belief that either a leaf or an acom had dropped on his brow Afterwards it dawned on Thor and his companions that Slcrymirwasa giganticillusion. a stallion of greatstrength. unaware that Shrymir wa in Jact only a gant illusion santto thwart and mtslead them svNtcxBw-e. though. The nine worlds were to become raglng furnaces as gods.who had disguised himself as amare Sleipnircould travel over sea and through the air. following the catastrophe. a JincewoIJ. Skoll was destined. a massiveJrost g1ant. named Hati. Sleipnir was the horse that carried Odin into battle. was rhe eight-leggedhorse ridden by oDIN. When Thor later tned to hammer in the skull of the sleeping Skryrmir.actsas mountain guideto Thor andhts parly. to dushSholl's sole aiminlfe from dawn was to wertahe anddevour theheavenly orb. was a wolf that pursued the sun in her flight across the sky At RAGNAROK. the giants' cimdel.At Ragnarok Surt was ro rise from Muspell. and was swift enough to beat any other horse in a race. Sol sPIRITS seeNATURE ("Black"). the 226 .

ces.or Svarog(who was identified with the Greeksmith god Hephaistos) and the brother of DAZHB)G The fire god was depicted wearing a helmet and carrying a sword. the fabulous eight-hoofed (or somesay. dwarfs. was the war god of the Slavic peoples of central Europe His temple at Arcona on rhe Baltic island of Rugen was destroyed by King Valdemar of Denmark and his Christian advrserAbsalonin I 169 SVNNOZIC SCC SVAMZIC .eight-bggd) steedof Odin. the worshippers of Svantovrt at Arcona believed that the god would mount a sacred white horse and nde out at nights against those who denied his diviniry In the moming the horse was often discovered to be covered in sweat Omens for successin war were read from the behaviour of the sacred horse as well Human sacrifi. He was the son of Svaroz. was named Sursey after the god Surt SVNNTEUT SCC 5VANTOWT The building contained a fourheadedsmtue of Svantovit that was nearly thirty feet in height Multiple headswere indeed a feature of the Slavicpantheon. It may be that the view of the end of the world as an immense conflagadon was influenced by the volcanic nature of lceland. thefurnaceoJ Muspellat Pagnarohtolead hisfiay hordes against the diine host With hislnming sttord. formed by a volcanic eruption off the coast of lceland. also known as Svantevit. seaor earthwith eqnl ease Slapnir'showes rumbled. in the stormcbudswhen Odin travelledacrossthe sly as god of thewrnik 0uusrnenoru ayGuuN 1995) Srnverp.Nonsr MyrHoLoGY Slaprun (abw e). which were a widespread custom throughout the Germanic and Slavic peoples. afircefire roseJrom g1ant. were made to Svantovit before any great undertakings. he set the nine worlds ablaze. elves and animals were all to be reduced to ashes. certainlydeservedhrs name "Glidu" forhe slippedthroughcloud.g at Rugenwr worshippedbeforebattle . Svexrour (nght).before rising again.4s a deity of plenty and destiny. a new island. plattyandrode oJ ahorse A oJdivrnation white washrptin thetanpbfor itual horse divinatton sy Ntcx BEArr.usrnAnoN BYJAMES ArD04Noe* 1995 ) SVANTOVIT. lt is thought rhar Svantovit may also have been worshipped as a supreme deity and seen as a father to other gods Prior to the Danish destruction of the temple in the Christian era. 1995 0uusrnqnoru ) dead. and on his breast was a black bison's head Human sacrifices were made to Svarazic. the war Jour-headed godoJtheSlaw. fresh and green. monsters. the German bishop of Mecklenburg In some traditions. after his capture in 1066.was the Siavicfire god.a meaning that can sdll be found today in the Romanian language). from where many of the wrirren myrhs originated In I963-7. especiallyof the fire that was used to dry grain.. Svaraztcwas idendfied with the flame of lightning SVNNOCICH SCC SVARAZIC Sunr belwD.hebore ahom Jertility. the living. sometimes Svarozic or Svarogich (which probably meant "hot" or "torrid" .greanand nqt tlJ. guarded theworVonJour sides His stone efri. SVnnnZIC.Then the eanh would sink into rhe sea. burning them to blactcned cindm which sanhbeneath the boiling oceanonly to nseagainJresh. including.

Hunding Sieglinde' who plnns to slnySiegmundin a duel \ilhen Siegmund wins. By contrast. Sigurd Ritg.might be seenas a sun lord who. shewas daied contnctwrth Fnthio[. in the heartwarrning tale of the summer god. Freyr. as in the tale of Sigurd and Brynhild. FnthioJ. Stgurd (IuusrmnoprYF lEEtc. up apart. only at the start and closeof his shining career dawn-maidenwhose path he crosses as when simply serveto test the lovers' honour and courage. Srccuuxo and Sieglinde QeJt). In their love affairs. c 18N) . ?s when Odur flees Frefa or Skadi lives apart from Njord. in the sanctuaryof Balder's temple. Sigurd. the lwen uchange secret glanceswhile in the cornpanyoJ s suspicioushusband. where a cursed ring wrecks the lives of severalpairs of doomed lovers. who wos considred beneathher royal status Yetwhan Fnthiof brolu the sanctity oJ the tanple to rescueIngeborg she reJusea to flee wtth him.were siblingswho grot. Brynhild. In other tales.. Cloistqed by hu watchful brothm. Such conflict might symb ohze seasonalchanges: Njord's sunny love can only hold wrntry Skadi for three months of the year. while his lover. of thar sadunion is thegreathro. stopsspinning and pines Jor hcr lover. symbolizesthe armed with a sunbeam.Sometimesthe trials of love symbolze the battles of naure. he wins his frosry bride by sheer warmth of love which melrc her icy heart. belieing husef honourbound to. Sometimesa trouble. though friction is rife.both ailunng traglc Jates.mess. c 1895 ) INGEBoRG(abwe). if short-lived. he and Sieglinde enjoy bneJlnebeJore dyng one on the the otherin chiWbinhThechiW battleJieV.for instance.TRAGIC LOVERS yet rarelyso stark are common everywhere. the gods seem Iuckier than mortals.obq thewshes IAMENT of her royalbrothers (lNcrnonc's BYFNJENSEN. dispels darl. beforemeetingby chanceand Jalling in lwe Here. c Nv s. TALES OFTMGICLOVE TMELESS lies curse at the root of the and bleak as in Norse mythology.obstacles Frithiof faithfully guards his sleeping rival.

overcome W 5"4. c 1890 ) Fnrrnror and IngeborgQeJ)are at last united in Balder'stemple Thechildhood g's sweetheartshad been thwarted by Ingebor hostilebrothers Wile Ingeborgwas forced into a mariage with an old chieftain. Prrurv C BLTTLER. Whn Brynhild discwered Sigurd'sapparentbetrayal.oJ Fnnn QrD.MsrRoM. J*itf"l hawest (Fnrvn KRrtvntlo (ngh) wahes from a nightmare in which she dreamt that a lavely whiteJalcon was struch in Jlight by nvo blach eaglesHer mother interpretsthe dream to mean that Kramhild will arcntuallyJall in lwe with a by the white bird peolesspince . a poet and a Chnstian pontifi ponder the meaningoJ theTeutonicepic.rant. of beannghis wheat. Kramhild is depictedtellingher mother about her dream. but doubtedhis chancesuntil his decisive ser. hilled herselfto be Intd to rest besidehim (TnrFuurnel 1909 ct+ttves.Gerda. setoff to woo the gyl for his master Gerdaranained unmwed until shewasJorcedby threat oJmaglcto atleast consentto a meetingwith FrEr Oncein thecompanyof thefiery god.Gunner and Hogni.Sigurd in misery Ring.Iater KreimhildJell slninby her two brothers. wi.thhis boar at htsJeet. Gerda's iq heart thawed Frqr appearshereas a dreamysummergod.the blach eaglesIndeed.someyears later the dreom cametrue as inlwe with the greathero Sigurd. c 1840 ) BRnvntro and Sigurd @bwe)findpeace togetherat last after a romancewrechedbyaweb oJ intigue and vengeance AJterpledglnghislwe to Brynhild. wooo.o gentlesummer god. c t 87 JoNEs.from aJarand at once Jell in lwe.Shirnir. while below a bard. was unwittingly tnched by Sigurd into marrying Gunner. caughta glimpse theradiantJrostgldntess.. who wue actingunder theinfluenceoJa curse Here. cANVAs. he waited honourably until the oA hing died nuo beforeat last wtnninghis bnde (FrurHron INGEBoRG ByJ A MAr.the Niebelungenlied trHe LEGEND or Srecrrueo By F PILorY.emblems 0) avEBuRNE-JoNEs cANVAs. shecned outfor vengeanceSigurd was slnin and BrynhiW. in her turn.Sigurd wasbaryttched into marrying Gudrun Brynhild. FnthioJ roamed thehtgh seas \I/hen his undying love drwe him home. ) .who is symbolized and that he wtll be hilled W t*o murderers.

he ignored this instruction and split a thigh bone ro ger ar rhe marrow Next moming.the grantgrabbed hold of the god and. was a frost giant and the father of sxaot who stole from the goddess IDUN the apples of youth It was reallyLOKI'sfault thar this event occurred Disguised as an eagle. as he enjoyed tickling or smothering peopie to death His daughter Tuulikki was a spirit of the wind Tapio is often portrayed as wearing a cloak of moss and a bonnet of fire THTRIEI and his sister ROSKyA were the children of a farmer and servanrcof the Germanic thunder god rHon When Thor and roxr were travelling through Midgard they stopped at the farmhouse and Thor provrded goats for supper on condirion that all the bones be kept intact Because Thialfi had nor had a satis$ring mealfor a long time.creatingthe clatterand rumble oJ storm clouds Thor alone among the gods neverrode. however.Nonse MyTHoLoGY TANNCNOST (meaning "Toorhgnasher"). or Thiazi. cANyAs. In another myth Thialfi deservedThor's gratitude when he toppled the enormous clay giant Mist Calf. Loh promised to deiiver the goddess and her magic apples into the frost giant's hands The effect upon the gods was immediate Without ldun's apples to eat each day. the thunder god noriced Tarurvcruosrand Tanngrisnir Qef) wereq pair of goats who pulledThor's chaiot across the slE. all rheir bones remained intact Thor would then wave his magic hammer over the skin and bones and rhe goats came alive TAPTO was rhe Finnish forest god. wood. c 1890 ) Teuo (abwe). and made him fly as that one animal was lame He was so enraged that he threatened desrruction of the farm and demanded compensation. Thor's goats provided an endlesssupply of mear as long as. but also of forest woodland beasts andtheherds oJ forest Arrruxoen. which had causedThor to panic with fear He also fetched aid for the wounded thunder god after his duel with HRUNGNTR. godof theFinnish o green dwelt in thedepths oJthegreenJorests. He was placated only when Thialfi and Roskva were given to him as his servants Although Thialfi lost a running contest to HUGI during Thor's visit to the frost gnnt stronghold of IJTGARD. his master was ourwrtted by magic in severalchallengestoo. they grew anxious and old In this crisis Odin alone had the determination to rally enough strength to plan a recovery The gods captured the tnckter Loki. was the name of one of the two billy goats which pulled rHoR's chanot The other was named Tanngnsnir ("Tooth-grinder") The rumble of the chariot was heard by people on earth as the sound of thunder Like the magic boar of VALHALIA. when Thor used his magic hammer to restore the goats to life. andgrowing aftr-lihe Alongwith other sylvan daties.but eitherstrodeor drovehisgoat-drawn chaiot (THon RNo rHn GLnnrs ny M E WNGE.he beard was lordnotjustoJ plants. the srongest of the frosr giants . af[er cooking. was believed to ensure that woodland game remained in plentiful supply He had a dangerousside to his narure. clad in moss. along with his wife Meilikki and his son Nyynkh. who.in Germanic mJthology. which could be eaten one day and reappear alive the next. cattle(trrusrnerroN ByJAMEs 1995 ) THHSSI. in Germanic mythology. to secure his own release from Thiassi.

HEL.the leaves.nl B'" Nr(.reJused onechance This Loki was able to accompiish.NonsE MvrHoLocY Tuutn Aeft)and his sister.K Bp. tearfor Balder. 1995 Bv NrcK ) lovedBalder (JtusrncrtoN the god He very nearly caught up with Loki. Odin took Thiassi's eyes from his cloak and threw them into the sly as stars "Thiassiwill look down on all of us.. aloneamong all the creatures to sheda stngle bring back Idun and her apples the nine worlds. stuch to withhisstafJ butbecame eagle t'ast av PrtrR Http. whtle Thialt't hoping to silence his snores. on Hontr andLoki aneagle.. and Roskva gazeon in dazeddisbelieJ. journq to Thor on a Jabulous accompanted rn a Jotunheim En route. Odrn.Thiassi'sdaughter Skadi came ro Asgard to seekcompensation for her father's death When her demands had been satisfied. "Let Hel keep what she holds " Some versions of the myth maintain that Thokk was none other than LOKI in a falcon to Thiassi'shall in order to THoxx. 1882 thebtrd (/ri rrsraarro^ ) found Thokk in a cave.tr.Roshva.l'rr. dead and alive. said that she allow him back ro the land that of rhe hvrng on the condirion "everything in rhe nine worlds. thq sheltered g1ant's glove. and when they explained their mission the giantess replied thar she had no use for Balder and added.so destroytnghrs bur the frost giant almost thwarted oJescape Jrom Hel Around bttter Thohhall . 1995 ) THNZT SCCTHIA5SI THOKK *ut the callous frost After giantess of Germanic myth the popular god BALDER'sunfortunate death. and stones the plan by turning himseif yet creationweeps . burned to death by the flames Eventually. weeps for him" Messengers were therefore sent out to ensure that everything moumed and were satisfied thar they had achieved their aim back On their way they to ASGARD. as disguised Turasst afrostg1ant.r.o.mourningthe of themuchloss again into an eagleand flpng after snowitself B.until wohenby his gus\t snoresHere. however. (lrrtrsrnarro." he said. "for as Iong as the world lasts " 23r . the queen of the "unworthy would dead".Thor battersthe glant'shead. pestered Thiassi At one pornt a tip to Mtdgard upthe gods' swooped down andscooped Lokt lunged at the dtnner pot Enraged. QeJt). but as Thiassi flew over ASGARD his wings were set alight by fires thar the gods had placed on top of the stronghold'shigh walls The giant could no longer fly and so fell to the ground.

t By Ar-Dhrvorn.so rheir vrsit to the hall of the frosr Thor sat down in a chair ro await giant GEIRROD Having been cap. along with the Greek Zeus and the Hindu Indra His name means "thunder" and his magic hammer. (luus'Ix'Anor.asaheadstrongchild. edgeof. and Fjorgrn. and a beh rhat increased his strengrh MJOLLNIR. He was exceptionally srrong. But on the rwo daughrers of Geinod had been large . Geirrod's daughter.Gjalp and Greip to death. he used BecauseThor enjoyed Loh's com. These mer. Quick as a flash. Thor and Loki spenr rhe nighr with cRID. where servan$ into danger as a price for his own grudgingly received them. rhe Roman sky god and peer of rhe hot-tempered. The thundergod still had a piece of this dead frost giant's throwing srone stuck in his head to prove it. rhe birrer enemy of the frost giants. spirits of lightningHue.his retum. iron gloves and unbreakable staff.rhe srrongesrof the frost giants whom Thor had hlled in a duel. for rhis was the day belonging ro Jupirer. the sons of lvaldi ft had a huge head and a short handle and always hir its mrger Thor was rhe mightiesr of rhe Germanic gods and rheir sraunch protecror againsrthe frost gans At MGNAROK. VinglrandHlora. very THon.swept away. the land of the frosr giants. which he used to handle rhe red-hor hammer shaft. inhis most popular guise as champion oJ the gods. rhe doom of rhe gods. there was his relish for a contest.usrp.Nonse MyrHoLoGy THOn was rhe Germanicrhunder god He was the son of oDtru. who had fled sourhern Norway to escapethe aggression of Danish and Swedish rulers. with the resuh rhat rhe chair fire god lead him to Geinod's hall came down hard enough ro crush without the protecrion of his ham.wasa tireless warior and glant-slayer With his red-hothammer and belt of strength. usually atrached himself to Thor's beh .oruNHEIM. thefiery youngster displnys bothimpressive temper andmight bywhirlingbearshin bales in aft ofrage.may once have meant "lightning" Among Icelanders and Norwegians family names like Thorsten recail rhe name of rhe god. overhanging the flood and scramThese adventures were often bled ashore on the opposirebank dangerous for Thor. he could floating in the air. The freedom Such was rhe casewith owner was nowhere to be seen. iron gaunrles. rhe fire god. while hisguardians soothe hk anger.energeric and had an enormous apperire. Thor sucson of Loh. 232 .his frequenr companion L2KI. the thunder god swingshisfiery missile (Ir-r. I 995 ) JAME. Thor opened his avoid death only by making a eyes and saw rhar his head was promise to deliver an unarmed about to be rammed against the Thor into the frosr gianr's hands ceiling. so Thor was most grateful at Grid's loan of her own beh of stengrh. gloves and belt.Grid's staff to push againsrrhe ceilpany and was so trusdng. until Thor blocked the source of the blood with a wellaimed srone k struck GJAL?. Snatchinganap. was in many aspectsnor unlike a gianr himself. for these farmers had lirtie sympathy with the foorloose Vihngs who worshipped Odin. he was a formidable foe Here. whose menstrual outpouring had swollen the he was destined to be hlled by the river Even then. a friendly giantess Grid wamed Thor abour Geirrod's hatred of the gods She told him rhat he would be especially pleased ro avengethe death of uRuNcNIR. Crossing a torrent of water and blood near the frost giant's hall proved difficult. of course. the goddess of earth When the Angio-Saxons eventually adopted rhe Roman calendar. red-headedThor. although nor and Loki clung desperatelyto the before Thor had hlled the monster belt of Grid that the thunder god Before he was slain by rhis terrible was wearing Happily. was the handiwork of two dwarfs. however. they named rhe fifrh day Thursday after Thor. a trial of strength Two goats drew Thor's great chanot acrossthe sly: rheir names were Tooth-grinder and Tooth-gnasher His magic weapons were a hammer. rhe hammer.cfloN ByARTHT/R R{cr<rl^M. preferred honesr Thor.as Thorlost his foonng pent JORMUNGANo. prwed toomuchJorhis mother andwwrakedby twosaintly guardians. rhe powerful but straighrforward opponenr of rhe frost giants Yet Thor.rhe chief god. especially Soon Thor and Loki arrived at when Loki led rhe thunder god Geirrod's hall.whichdoubledhis power. c I9O0 ) TnonAef). really a thunderboh. MJOLLNIR. Loh and he ceededin gabbing a mounrain ash had many advenruresrogerher. the rwo gods were poisonous venom of the seaser. the father of rhe slain The Icelandic colonists. which allowed him ro ear a whole ox at one sitting And.he was tured by Geinod when Loh was in surprised when he dreamed he was rhe shape of a hawk. he let the ing.

the powerful Hrungnir. Foolishly. chanot As hisbronze tn its iron gauntlet. although his charioteer had the good sense to topple the clay giant by attachng his legs with an are. On the day of the duel Thor wet himself at the sight of Mist Calf.trn. although the thunder god was left of was a symbol hammer Tnont Qeft) pwer anda source and destructive creatwe ls and goodfortune of Jmtlity. clouds gathered round his towering head. The son of the frost giantess Jarnsaxa. None of the gods could releaseThor and it was fortunate that his own three-year-old frost giant son IvfiGNI tumed up after the fight.ininga hammq.1995 ) thrusting it upwards. hewasnichnamed copper Vendor. Thor was delighted to see Magni's strength and gave him the dead frost giant's steed Golden Mane as a reward.renonal of the north. insulted the gods. The frost giant mentioned by Grid. They built a clay grant 233 . Named Mrsr C. andclnttr of a raclutlilu theclash made thelkttb luttbs.asin this charm. When Thor rerumed at this point the giant challenged Thor to a duel The frost giants did what they could to aid Hrungnir in the forthcoming frght. and rerurned the compliment by throwing it back at the giant.thesign Ch*tianity s'wept oJthe often cross fusedwtththesign contr. a mistress of Thor. The iron ball passed tl"otgh an iron pillarbefore tearing a hole in Geirrod's belly. Using a pair of tongs. and Wtthqesablaze and tempests storms hammer hisred-hot hebears hairaflnme. (Strven. 0uusrn rnop BY J AMEIAtaYArrlorn. he launched a red-hot iron ball at Thor. IorH cENr. rhe clay giant was animated by the heart of a mare and.) pinned to the gound by one of the dead frost giant's legs and with a piece of whetstone lodged in his head. Afterwards Thor smashed the skulls of all the sewants. cross within ahammer. Then the frost giant rerumed and ried to hll Thor as well. as a guest at the gods' sronghold of he drank too much and ASGARD. the land of the frost grants ln the fight with Hrungnir it was Thor who came off best. much to Odin's ruledthe THonbeW). had fallen in single combar with Thor.Nonse MYTHoLoGY of such enorrnous sZe that Thor would be struckby tenor on seeing him. thethundr god. Magni also told his flattened father how he could have dealt with Hrungnir with his bare fists. but the thunder god caught it deftly in the iron gloves he had been given by Grid. Mist Calfs fall shook Jotunheim. slow movrng though he was. the frost grant challenged Odin to a horse race but then.

whose name said that sizewas of no imponance means "vast" Blows deliveredby a . cutshim Jree (THon rN rHn Bcr. but tinally their arivalat Utgard. managedto lift only one paw of a cat. the serpentwasdestined to ovewvhelm the world at Ragnaroh Here. Thialfi and Thor all failed to shine First the fire god lost an eating contest A second event saw Thialfi easily outpaced in a foot-race Then successively Thor lost a drinhng contest."the bigger they are. a brorher and sisrer Ir happened rhat Thialfi disobeyedan instruction of Thor when rhey dined rogerher ar his parenrs'farm Thor toid everyone ro be careful with the bones of some goarsrhey were eadng Bur hungry Thialfi split a thigh bone ro ger ar rhe marrow. Loki. in fear. the heavier flrustratedThor to SkDrmir'ssleep. whtle Thor strug.NORSE MyTHoLoGY THzR battleswith his arch enemy. and. most embarrassing of all. the leader of the frost giants revealed that he had used spells to gain the advantage.Loki was more thoughring head were dismissed by rhe ful lnside Utgard huge frosr gians glant as either a leafor a rwig brush. Thialfi and Roskvapledged themselvesas Thor's servants As Thor.eyed the four guests Their leaderat ing his brow during the nighr On firsr ignored rhem. the home of the gods. was easily wrestled down on to one knee by "an old." complained Odin Another famous advenrurein Jotunheim concerns rhe visir of Thor and Loki to the srrongholdof UTGARDOn rhe way rhe rhunder god passed through Midgard.rr crrHyrr4rn sr H Fr/sELt.he devrsed a series o[ games in hold's dimensions While Thor which Loki. rhe land of people. Thialfi and Roskva neared Urgard. old woman" Once Thor admitted on leaving Utgard that they had come off second best.les to oyercome thebeast. and gained two human servants named THIALFI and Rosrye. 1790 ) "You should not give a the son of a giantess annoyance horse to instead of your own farher.the J ormungand. they spenr one night in an empry hall It was so big that severalof rhe halls in Asgard. the rravellers acknowledged "little" Thor Then were just as amazedat rhe strong. cexvas. could have fitted inside ir ar rhe same rime Later rhey realizedrhar rhe hall was in fact the rhumb of a frosr gianr's empry glove Ir belonged ro sKRr 4tR.they fall" . before throwing rhe bone on rhe goat skins in a comer Next moming. the rhunder god noriced that one o[ rhem was lame As compensation and in order to prevent him from slaying the household. when Thor used his magic hammer to restorethe eatengoats to life. Hymir.He told them how Loki had actually been pitted against wildfire. caught on his Jishing line A lurhing evil coiledaround the earth. and Thialfi against his own thought. while Thor had tried ro swallow the 234 .

fell into their hands after it was stolen by the dwarfs Is 4. for the two gods "both enjoyed each other's company" (Seealso NORSE HEROES:MGNAROK) 235 . 1930 beenan tllusion (IrusrmrroN ) ocean. bahinghim over the head to silancehis snores. which had been tamished by the god having to dress like a woman Mjollnir was the sole protection of the gods against the frost giants It was the thunderbolt which terrorized them prior to the catastrophe of Ragnarok Apart from is destructiveside. Thor was passed Tnon QeJ)andhis party visitedthe iq citadel of Utgard. Wildfire. Lohi out-eatenby Age Here."fo smash their legs.Iift the massiveseaserpent Jormungand and wrestle with old age As soon as this messagewas delivered.break their skulls. confronted mryhty Shrymirwithhis tiny hammer. Thorwas the scourge of evil and in Germanic mythology this could only mean frost grants Loki's eventual siding with these gnm opponents is therefore one of the saddest events to befall Thor. and an excited Thrfm handed over Mjollnir The ensuing massacredid a great deal to restoreThor's fierce reputation. Thor's magrchammer. I995 ) with Jormungand in THoR (above)wrestles theirJinal combatat Ragnaroh Trapped within the serpent's crushingcoils.Thor its ugly headwith a Jatalblow of smashed nine hishammer:he then staggeredbach pacesand drownedin theJlood oJvenom s gapingj aws flowingfrom the beast' (ILLUsrMTroN BYJAMES Attxenom.butto no avail Each time the giant wohehescratchedhisbrow and noddedof again Later. the strongholdoJthefrost glants. the hammer had other magic powers over fertility and death It seems to have had the abiliry to restore animal life It also hallowed marriage. the fertiliry goddess Loh got Thor ro dressin Frefa's clothesand go to Thn'm's hall instead Despire his god-like appedte.wherethq underwenta seies of allegoical tests Thialfi was outstipped by the speed of Thought.Thorleamt that Shrymir had nvI Hueno. and crush their bacl<s" Like his Hindu equivalent Indra.andThor overcomeby Thor faik to drain ahombnmful of the OCCAN (ILLUSTMTION EYJAMES ALEXANDER. 1995 ) off by his "bridesmaid" Loki as a blushing bnde.NOnSE MyrHoLoGY Tnon (abwe) impukive ds uer. Utgard vanished Only then did it dawn on Thor that Slcymir and Utgard were illusions. for otherwise Thrym would not have been so ready ro place Mjollnir between Thor's knees when the thunder god was disguised as Frefa But throughout the myths relating to Thor we are never unconscious of its unlimited destructive powers For it was the thunder god's purpose to quell the enemies of the gods . vast creations sent out by frightened frost giants But it gave Loki some satisfactionto leam that brain had indeed triumphed overbrawn EvenThor had to admit that on certain occasionsLoh's clevemess was necessaryto hold the frost grans in check Such a moment in time was when Mjollnir..+. the frost giant THRY demandedas the price of the hammer's retum the hand of RRrr. new owner.

1Orn crrurunv ) . the dwarf Sindnfashions the magnificent ingwithfre and arcanemaglc in his undergroundforge (luusrnanov ayAr. wasan emblemof abundance and power Preciousbqond compare. consolidating his vastwealthand dominion overthe nine worMs Draupnir was crafted by the dwarf.it dnpped eight similar gold ings every ninth night. Dneuprurn.:j84) Tur. symbolsof doom.qru Ler. but not alwayshappinessand somerimes tragedy. Another ring of doom was Thor's Domhring. The rings of heroes inevitably brought wealth and power. Lfcorrupredby greed. Wolfdierich and Dietrich were symbols of a ring-lord's circle of power and everlasdng fame. a s. but later retnevedit when Hermod ventured to Hel The return of the nng rymbolized the promise ofJertiliry afbr winter bleahness Here. Goto Rtrltc among the Vlhings wos a precioustohenof power.the ring was a potent symbol of power. suchas thisbunal treasure Exquisitely wrought. Odin'sfabulousing. fame and as an fortune Sometimesbequeathed heirloom.Yetthe pure nngs of Onhnit.bold lines express the vigour and strength of Vihing craft (Gtr strvrn. or Thor's Oath Ring. Brohh. The Domhring possibly symbolizedthe inevitability of retribution.RTNGSoF PowER MONG trtr VrrcNcs. Odin castthe ing upon Balder'sJuneral pyre. fortune and fame. which blighted many lives.The magicalrings of Norse myth were also symbolsof destiny and. A gift of honour and form of currency.it was alsooften buned with the nng-lordJorthejournry to the otherworld. Sindn.'mbol of fair play and good faith. while his brother. in their bleakesr form. the ing's clear.it was also sometimesa royal heirloom. Andvarinaut. Much morejoyous and fabulousrings were Odin's astoundingDraupnir which literally dripped eight similar gold rings everynine days. such as the swedish sviagriss. formed by a circle of stone statues surrounding a punishment pillar in front of his temple. One famous examplewas the cursed ring. pumped the bellows ln an extrayagdntgestureof gnef.

\ t ' c jn n g .s \t1r\ untl nng of pour rli/r h r r r r l e sa r t J i r t t r r q r t c s f ) t t t t t r i t r r t r ' t . : . ttntl cctnted ofl tmdThc.1 t{ +H\ AlrrRrcH ioflnc).rr Firiirrr rrho lLr.s be:nttchttl h Gnnhila B n r r h r l c ih rnttr hctrci. s I h c f i i s r r .r Fu. rg u a r r i t h c n r r t .iLlr-ul lltrr niftc/ rl f. { n c l rc i l l l l c l L { l l.nt Frtr'ta a.s l c r t t h c d r r i g r r n h r n r h c r r r e ( l l h t / r t h r r / r r t t n s ng-hoard hur xtth r1 .lr1 '\ i|-1rtr lrt .s afto r.stc. r t a1 i 1 1 /rr h genrs Afrt'r rurrr. s t r r ' r r g f ie r tc{. . r .soltcicriranclttl tht nng::l p()\m.rlla. l|Oil a trrrrrdrou. e .Bnrrhric/ u l t o c .s m a g r a / g o l d n n g a s r . trtgcrl trtt ll rt rortcfir/ Brr nhr/d sechrrrq hucl dunundetl the nng tttm|.Nonse MvrHoLocY ffi r.lfffl slcnrng lt-\ (.rr.'rs+ lrir .s Odtrr Fngg Lohr Frnr t t l l s e a r c h r . u dwarJ rf rhe Nrebelungen[cd. ' t i i i S l a . Fafn rr Ai thouch n'ilrtricrlf hrm-self. { l h t r r n $ t l i ' d s i i r e s r i i l r .irrrt) ' tf tt trrrrhlcttilrc \\ r1 237 . elet-florler-tttg W o l / c J r c f r r r h H c r c D i t t r r t l r h r L ' .s uricio.s r h r ' l r c r r rh l : a t h i l h r s / c t s l ht &d rcrllrng rr.rncl. s c r g r r l i c o / . i i r -ls fhe Ernpl'r. lorged u nngol pctwer rr/ rhc sold rohben DtffRtCH (abot'c) a GofhrChtto.\ IlrI i')\ -\ii\-\r\ l'll+ l .s r u g o n 1 .sl l t r ' \ f r l gtntclfathu r ) r l r ' t r \ i l l c c lh D t c t r r r l t ' .l1r d v .h o a r c l W ' i r e n r h e v o u t h f i r l h c r o . R D ( r r g h f) l \ ( r n l h ( ' Lt i l . s r n ' ud . t t r l. s{ r r ' . e la r n c t { i c c t.. a n c l L l a t m u l h r ./ lris st.lhtl/()t{s fronr thc Rhrncgold stolen lrom the Rhrnc I'latdcn. l f - [o octt()n Ihc .ho ti h trs rr'icr-(o/d te f r r r r r rL o h r u a .ittir.rirfhc r/rrcrrl I-.'11p l ..nt'tlhrnr-sel/ t() dsst/dgr' hcr h()ll()llr . lliir.rurth J rrrqclorn 1tr /t t t r t s t b t l t o r t l .4./ r . s p u r n n g lo l r tht htclkn treasute r ? l ( rL d t i n n s t ' r t c i t u r t l e d .serrl AnrJlarr Hrt'rclntttr t^.fnn ttn. .sleir lttnt .l VulLune Bntnhrld hr trtt.s rrn€ frr.( ) sg r Lir(/('tt b. sr l n g r r a . f t r t t t ' t n n t n . s u l l u l r o n t f l t t ' .eb tr/ cloorn Alto lalling n1 l()\c urfh the splcndrr.Ec.4ant-sFalner and incied gotlsantl grants tthLze fot bttillhnq Vrrlh.\tir8eIn the horcier rhcgocl. ( .g G utlnnt r?lcr Whc n hrs rncnrrrrl rctunrcd hc s u | | t t c c lf r o m q r i i l t a r r c l gre/ -Srerlc/ s {rrlci tn f titrt c r t r i r c c ir h c c i r r r r r f t h c Nrhr'hrne bnrthcrs tlhrr .scr hLr.r'ing rh-ul. r l t ( ) n .rt Fu.ha / t i ' D t f h t ' r t r 1 8S >ti//t'rcJ w. g r " /r.irrlg0n quttrtltan. . L i t s ch l c r l l r r r .S i q u r L( / r r h o r t ' .i tht qrrirl \c.. lsrrirrd u n c Ji l r r t s t r r n g .h o a r d I t l u n u .tl by rhc hrrrer c ur.

goddess of illness One of the few heroeswho managedto escapefrom Tuonela was VAINAMOINEN After SucceSSfully crossingthe river that marked the border of Tuonela.stole Thor'ssacredhammer. her son createda vast iron mesh across the river so rhatVainamoinencould not retum that way and would be rapped forever But when he woke. in Germanic myrhologr. Triglav once boasted four separate temples Thesewere mainnined by war boory. he was received there by Tuonerar.causingpanic at Asgard Here. when rhe sunlight tumed Alvis inro stone THnYU. was the daughrer of rhe rhunder god ruon and his wife SrF Shewas promised ro rhe dwarf ALVISas a payrnenr for his handicraft Bur Thor prevented the dwarf from claiming Thrud by keeping him mlking until morning.flung across the iver. the hero changed into an otter and swam easilythrough the net Tuolt guardedthe darh realm oJTuonela on thebanhs oJablachiver When VainamoinenvisitedTuoni in search of maglccharms.which Thor then used ro lay low all rhe frost grants in sight TsRru Qrf).vprn. including Kipu-Tytro.1995 ) 238 .buned aght Jathoms dou'n j 995 (Irru5rneroru ev Auxe.wwas a rhree-headedgod of the Slavsliving in cenrral Europe At Stettin in present-day Poland. o danng storm g1ant. and scoutingtheiq wastes of the hammer. ) J. the glantbroods onhis roclE hilltop wqloohedby Lohi. rhe fire god rorc persuaded Thor ro go ro the frost gianr's stronghold disguised as rhe bride in order to recover the hammer Loki also wenr along in the form of a maidservant Thus rhe unusual pair arrived ar Thrym's hall Even though rhe frosr gianr was quire suspiciousabour his bnde-ro-be. Loki cleverly managed ro talk him inro producing rhe hammer. who lived in the dark land of Tuonela. was the frost gianr who came to acquireTHOR's maglc hammer The gods were at a loss becauseonly this weapon could protecr rhem against rhe frosr gianrs When Thrym said he would exchangerhe hammer for rhe ferrility goddess FREUTA. dtsgutsed as a in search falcon.Nonsr MyrHoLocy THnUn. who gavehim beer to drink But while her visitor slept. from which few travellers rerum With his wrfe Tuonetar he had severalchildren who were deities of suffenng. one renrh being the amounr due to the god at the end of a campaign The best remple at Stettin housed a black horse for Triglav's use In the twelfrh century Chrisdanity amved and Tnglav'sstatueswere broken and their muldple heads senr to rhe Popein Rome as curiosities TUONT was rhe Finnish god of the dead.he was trapped by a vast iron net.tuns TIR seerrn Twvlzsee rYR TruCf.. but thehero changedinto an otter and slipped through (ILrusrMIoN NrcK By Butr. in Germanic myrhologz.

NonsE MyTHOLOGY Tvn Qeft).and at Ragnaroh slew Garm (lt-tt. and YG G D R ASIL. receivedsacrificesof hanged men Ir is not unlikely that Tyr was an destined that the hound which srood at the gates of HEL. also known asTiv and Tiwaz.a popularswordgod.and over recent years archaeologistshave found numerous splendidly omamented spears dedicatedto Tyr The myth of Tyr relatesto the binding of rhe wolf nrruRtRThis monstrous creaturehad grown so powerful that rhe gods decided to restrain it No ordinary chain was strong enough. whrleher ststers andt'uture fate The Nornswatnedthegods oJ from the Juture evtland drcw lessons on the IJrdar pool past Urd fer)two swens oJ theworld whogavebtrth to theswans (lrrr. Odin's maglcspear. dunng whrch it was Garm.l rrrsAtExlroi.n .l 995 ) B) JAME-S the awrse Norn. orWpd (meaning"Fate" or " Pas t" ) . the gods w er e not s upenor or beyond the infiuenceof the fates Indeed.the of Lolzi Yet Fennrhepton ftercewolf-son uery day. and the son of ODIN and his wife nrucc The Anglo-Saxonsusually called him Tiw and gave his name ro Tuesday (Tiwesdaeg in OId Englsh) He was closely associated wirh Odin and. since it was customary for the Vikings to casr a spearover the heads of an enemy as a sacrificebeforefighting commenced in earnest. U r d w ar ned the c hi ef of the Germanicgods. . ODIN. T\T. and might. Iike that god.arioN At ExqNI)IR.persomt'ied Llno (above). The be the other gods just laughed downgrading unconnected hand of Tyr may not with the loss of a URD.stnarror llr /. was Tvn (above wrth sword invohed before battle.honoured on dances. Jamed Jor htsbravery wasassigned the taskoJ feedtngFennr. remble wolf nrrunlR the doom o[ the gods A Cehic god by the name of Nuada was forced to grve up the leadership of the lnsh Tuatha De Danann ("the people of the goddess Dana") after he lost a hand at rhe first battle of Magh Tuireadh But Tyr was still able ro light ar MGNAROK. present representecl past. acting as watchdog to rhe land of the dead. and belore Fenrir would consent to a magic one being placed round his neck. but was lustas shrlful the hell-hound left.that he was destined to be krlled by rhe at RAGNAROK. Tyr had to put his hand in rhe wolf's mouth as a sign of goodwrll When the wolf discovered the chain could not hand be broken. w as one of thr ee s i s ter s who were the Germanicfatesand The rwo were }crown as the NORNS other sisters were Verdandi ( " Bei ng" or " Pr es ent" ) and Sk ul d ( " N ec es s i ty " or " F utur e" ) U r d gaveher name to the well thar was situatedbeneathone of the roos of the c os m i c tr ee. that was where rhe gods would hold therr daily meetrng As was also the casein Greekmythology.srn.l995 ) early sly god whose powers were later passed to Odin and Thor 6UNGNIR. was the Germanicwargod. growrng.may once havebelongedto Tyr. stronger andt'tercer the danger unttl all-seeing Odin reahzed and thegodsdectded to brndthebeast 1930 underground(luusrnerrrx By ) J HL)ARD.andhadhis rune engraved blades He losthrs nght hand in a t'ight with hrs with Fennr. left). was [o leap at Tyt't throat and they would hll each orher 239 . Although he bit off Ty'r's Tyr was in agony.

when the god asked the giantwhat he had whispered to his dead son BALDER before he lit the pyre on which he lay. "risen out of the water. in order to become wise.AN I-EE. in VnnrHnUDNIR.' 210 . w6 a wise frosr giant. whtre numbing coWfroze the muscla and paralyseilthe will (tuusrntnoN ByAr.ittmng icicles The Norse poets. Thialfi could nights on YGGDMSIL. UTGAu.ina'itably portrayed the ail gianu in just such aharsh realm. He was believed to have gained his where LOKI. It is implied in the story that Odin's forelano'.vledge allowed him to assure Balder of future resurrection and worship on the new earth. thought.whohnant all about the terorc oJ the ice of thar northern homes. w6 the huge mythology. rhe doom of rhe gods and the end of the world. their knowledge of rhe pasr. after MGNARoK. Possibly like contes$ against unequal oppo. Odin decided to old age.impressive store of wisdom byconvant THIALFIfound themselves in sulting rhe dead. pick up the sea died. wu cawed out of snowblocls and f.Nonsr MyrHoLocy ("Ourer place"). After an impressive display on the part of both Odin and Vafthrudnir. gians' stronghold in JOTUNHEIM. their greatestenemy. I9g1) Now Odin could pered Vafthrudnir recognized that no one and admitted tell what into the god had whis- the ear of the dead Balder.ODIN. UfCnRO in Germanic Germanic mythology. the giant was eventually defeated by a quite unanswerable question.the cosmic not keep pace as a runner with tree.When they lefr. the wisest. and Thor was unable to Vafthrudnir had also temporarily drink the sea dry. the chief of rhe gods.THORand Thor's ser. who nen6. The frost giant's last words were: "So I have alwap pitted myself against Odin. fresh and green". rhe present and the future. Seehng to test his knowledge serpent JORMUNGAND or wresrle againstthe gianr's. There he challenged the made by the frighrened frost grans gigandc "riddle-master" to match to deter Thor. theiq atadel oJ thefrost gwnts. Loh failed to consume more voluntarily hanged himself for nine food than wildfire. the gods journey to Vafthrudnir's land in realized that Uqard was an illusion disguise.

Jrom the undemvorldAt theendof his hJe.l. the Sampo He gave the task to his comrade Ilmannen and so Louhi's daughterwas manied to Ilmarinen instead. When he sought a bride from among the women of Pohja. was the son of a primal goddess.he was promised one of Louhi's daughters if he made the magic talisman.LUoNNoTAR. leapingbachtnto the iver and beJore Arro voya. set off to find the Sampo. in the form of a griffin. he joumqed across the hnown returned world and.he on a setsatlin a copperboat and embarhed VeluaiuotN rN helow) courtsreluctant Aino in herJathu's grwe Promisedto the old man againsther willby her brother. c 1890 ) 2+r . c 1890) TRlprycH av A GIIl.agrcal powers He was lesslucky in love.LLr.1 995 ) VnINRUOINEN. Vainamoinen built a ship and embarked on an endless voyage. (Seealso TREASURES AND TALISMANS SPELLS) : SORCERYAND VelrueuotNeN (above).only to wind up as a salmon onhis fishingline.aJter quizingeach other on €ve'ty aspectoJlrfeand death.NoRSE MYTHOLOGY the champion of the Kalevala (which means "the fatherland of heroes").l' CANVAS.she drownedhersefrather than marry. was alsoa gentle. who from birth possessed the wisdom of rhe ages. After several greatadventures. . I(aLLEt. But the bride was killed and the magic talismanstolen. but during the storrn rhe Sampo was lost to the winds When the storrn had passed. descended onto their ship. joined VarrHnuorutRsparswith Odin in a f"*dly contestoJwits Evu thirstyfor hnwledge. Odin emerged as thewisestoJthewise (lLLUsrRATloN By JAMES ALExAworn.Vainamoinenwas grfted with extraordinary m. however.ge without end (vel.a peerless mage. However. Only the swift action of Vainamoinen savedthem. so Vainamoinen and llmarinen. for he was in his mother's womb for at least thirty years. they succeededin recovering it. alone amongheroes.. Odinhad resolved to testthe wise Jrostglant andlearn any new snippets oJwisdom Yet.returning to her humanform (Tnr.ouorNEN ByA GATLEN.l'.N-I/. Vainamoinen collectedall the scattered pieces togetherand was able to restore some of the talisman's former power With his mission completed. Louhi raised a great storrn and. the chief hero of Finnish epic.humane hero A tireless explorer. cANvAs. As by LEMINKAINEN. He was always depicted as a vigorous and sensitiveold man.

242 .ft for thefnal bauleat Rognaroh (lrrusrncrroN svw B Dwcx. was built in the shimmenng grove of Glesir Encircled by strongouter walls. (above). Valhalla was enormous It had over five hundred doors.rhe regionswhere most of the raiding expedidons came from. or Valholl. The sameboar was eaten day after day through a processof resurrection.beauttful battlemaidens.Nonse MvrHoLocy The newly fallenjoining the residenrs in Valhalla had to enter by a door called Valgrind ("the sacred baned-gate of the slain").the HaII of the Slain. in Germanic mychology. they must pass severalobstacles. in a grear battle on the VIGRID Plain. Mead was provrded from the teats of a goat It was said that everyday the Einheqar pur on their armour.v By F voN srAssEN.aSGARo by Odin. the doom of rhe gods Then they were destined ro fall again. wasrhehall ("heroic dead").1900 ) vnlnellA. conductingthem to thefoot oJOdin's throne. including a fasr-runningnver of air Once in Valhalla"[he men hlled in war" were miraculously cured of their wounds and were able ro indulge endlessly in the pleasures of feasdngand fighting The meat of a magic boar was prepared as wonderful stew in an inexhaustible cauldron. l914) V AtnAttA' s V allzy nes. At midday they retumed ro Valhalla and started drinhng Such an existence for a Vihng heips ro expiain Odin's popularity in Denmark.whileOdinhimselfroseto greet the bravestVihingsat the gate 0uusrnqnor. Even before they reached this entrance.c. and meadand meatjwed Jreely The hutic round oJcombatensuredthatheroesstayed in fightingform. southem Norway and Sweden. went to the pracrice ground and fought each orher If hlled.its walls were built oJspearsand its roof of shiningshields This starlit scene aohes a sense oJ the untold wonders that lie within (llnisrnnrro. rheywere restoredto life.recavedthehrroes. c 1920 ) Veuanut was a Vihing's paradisewhue heroes chosan Jought andJeasted from dawn to dush Woundshealednernight.r BY EWALLCousrNs. Verueu. of the EINHER/AR those warriors slain on rhe battlefield and chosen by ODIN himself as his followers Buik in.welcomed the chosenslninwith openarrns At other times.alongsidethe gods. each wide enough to allow up ro eight hundred men to march through abreast These wide doors were designed to allow rhe chosen warriors to pour fonh ar rhe first sign of MGNAROK.Odin's sons. Hermod or Brag1.the magnificenthall glittered with precious metals.

personilyingclouds.Another Vali was one of the unlucky sons of LoKL V.lucnrrs (abwe). he grew from a baby to manhood in a single d^y and rushed off to hll Hodr. no matter how vain the attemptwould prove to be. They rode over battlefields and selected the elNHr4. Fulfilling a prophecy. Along with his half-brother wDAR. when he beheld a greatwitch on an island.on the battlefieldthe VallEnes becamesinister goadinghcroesto thar spiits of slaughter. lnValhalla the Vallcyries would carry food and drink for the Einherjar. Kirg Harold's victory over the Norwegians shortly before his defeat by the Normans at Bartle in I066. cANvAs. reachingmanhoodin a singleday and rushing of wrth uncombed hair to slay Hodr.NORse MYTHOLOGY Odin was known as the father of the slain and he was the host who presided over Valhalla. the camstrophe inwhich theywould die in mutual destrucdon with the frost gianm and the forces of evil The gathering of the "heroic dead" in Valhallawas the onlyway the gods could prepare to face their own fate. When asked about his habit of Sving luck to a warrior in a battle and then suddenly tahng rt away. Ragnarok was always given as the reason for creating Valhalla. MGNAROK) 243 . Odin said that "the grey wolf watches the halls of the gods": that is to say. ) stormyslE on magnificentpearly steeds.altghtedon the battlefieldto select the bravestwariors for Valhalla. wild Amazon-like creatures who rook great delight in the severed limbs and bloody wounds of battle. Hsre. Something of this early terror can be imagined in an account of the battle of Stamford Bridge.and whosesoahing manessprayedthe eanh with Jmile Jrost and dew Thq alsoscouredthe seas. the idyllic abodeoJOdin's ghostlyarmy Although quite charmingin Valhalla. By 1870 death GaevrLKyRrES G voN LEEKE. with a fork in one hand to rake up the dead and a trough in the other to catch the blood (Seealso rHE VALKIAIES. and must have originally been the goddessesof slaughter itself. 1995 ) choosersof the slain") were ODIN's battle. could be guaranteed to tear into the enemy ranks in one last bartle.he survived MGNAROK.he ts portrayed stridingdcrossthe nav earth aJtu Rngnaroh 0rrusrnenoru ayNrcx B::lrrc. (Seealso THEvALKTRIES) VEMOIT SCCVALHALIA VnU was rhe son of oDIN and RJND and was destined to hll blind HODRin revengefor his unwitting murder of nerprn. hegravat an amazng rate. Odin's martial V. snatchingsailors from ships. the gods were constantly threatened by Ragnarok. caught up in a benerk fury. A soldier in the Norwegian army dreamr of a Valkfrie before the battle. He thought he was on the hng of Norway's ship. c 1890) Tng Vnucrues ("female young Vett was one of the gods fu bnght to suwive Ragnarolz Destinedfrombirth to avenge Balder's death. and daily senr our rhe vALKYUESro add ro the numberof the dead.AR("heroic dead") who would go to uALHALLA.or shield-maidens.lrrrnrrs (below) rode through the maidens. Theyprobably derived from something more dreadful than the attendants of Valhalla. At least Odin's men.or sometimes the strand (TnrRroe or rne bechoningJrom VALKYRTE ByH HERMAN.

Consumed with hate .orcr envious oJanyonewho was goodandbeautlful. c.beJore Jrom its venom (THoR By B FOGELBERG.c 1890 ) . Jormungand. growingder more bitter and twrsted (Lor{ AND HODR By C QvARNsrRoM.MARBLE.1 the Norse myths . the threat of oJthe godsagarnst rymbolizedtheJoremostdeJence might the glantsand the doom oJRngnaroh Yet Thor's sustained to withstandthecombined provedultimatelyinadequate Thor id onslaughtoJ glantsand monstersAt the end.however. 1 highlights the heroism of gods and heroes. the i"'i'i" ::: . dytnghrmselJ the world of the glantmonster. p u r g e d b y flood and fire. Ragnarok casts a dark shadow over . Mjollnir. the godsallowed Inh. symbol of goodness and beauty. The inevitable climax was precipitated by a Sj series of disasters. q'! rcru AeJ). all the world's destructive forces burst forth in cataclysmic disaster. and the climax of the cosmic drama.F enmity of the hostile giants gathered momentum + until. Loki went on to slay Balder. the earth emerges fresh a n d g r e eD . Balder. Beyond Asgard. yet also . a catalyst of evil. q" *.d ' : : i one hopeful version. 1890 ) Tnn Mrcur or THon (abwe) andhtshammu. with a dart of mtstletoe The wantondestruction of the bestof the godsmarlzed a turning-pointin Inhr's downwardspiral oJevil Yet evenafter the cnme. some gods survive and . the i universe was beset by forces of destruction and flawed from the outset. but the Norse vision is ""*i starker than most and unique in the loss of its gods. Apocalypse is a common mythical theme.RAGNARoK AGNARoK wAS THE preordained doom of the gods. The seedsof doom were sown at the dawn of time when the world and its first creatures emerged from the violent extremes of ice and fire. MARBLE. at Ragnarok. spawned three {' fearsome monsters against whom the gods were o ultim ately powerless.guidedblind Hodr to slay his brother. In .Loki. Inherently fragile.i to roam unrestrained.

c .ii Jt'tt'nrtlncJ tr) ful tif I. . r l i t \ r t l l c L! .ftltrl lrrrnt fht f]ttt rhrtlJ rTtr. l t t .:lll. i l t . r * .rl . t t t .r 111 rrrlt rltlll\ Ll{c]lrl\. j 1r ' /. 1 n r /t ' r r q n r l / t J urtti ! ( ' n ( ) n rr n . li l . r r ^ 1 r \/ \1 r .tLtt. r h t ' s : \ t c l l l r ) I r t ' Jt h t ' t u n .r . 1 1 ( l t 1 r \ n l L i ! ' l i . rl-r l r ) ) l l r ' r t t t/l.. / f h t t c l r t h s t u t h h t r t t ' t t t ht h t f q r 1 f 1q fHf \. l t ' r t r r \ t ' c i . l r r h . . httr. t t r t t t l . U t L .i f i i r i L r l. r l c i: t ' r l t r t t /rrtrntrtttilrt. i l t ' h r sh r r n c / s Jcarh r ( ) L l r l r i ' rrih c t . 1 . r i / f l t t ' t t i t t t 11 11 1 .l c n . i t .i . t r . ll. rIt . \ f .il . r .r. s t t i t t { t s t r g r r c l st r t ' t t ' . / r r c r r f s q r r c j s l r t s c J r r r(l)tf t h r r l r r t r ' \f r r r n t f h t . t t l t l r . . t . .llr/r'tl\(ilthtrrJ anJ ltrntrl htrtfltlrclJ Iht'rr1 lLr l rrlh. i v r / { rh r ( ) ( ) ( l s . lir r 1 ' . r r . ' t l t t r L t . i l l J l t t ' t l l r t n r F t ' r t n t h r r .Nonsr MvrHoLoGY 111. /i h t . tl fJfrr' llr' t i r t l c l r t/ t r l r r t . l t ' \ i r l i r I l t r r t J l t .tl rrp rh. .t r r t t t t ' r l i q g c i r .f ) r l l L ]f ( ) f 14rstjr)r !i rr l I h i ) t ] t ' 1 1 ( ' d tI f t r r t l r r w t l i i t ' t u l i h r s \ | l r ' r .r t / l / l \ I tt 1 ( l l i .t t h . r h t \ r l ' r r . i q 1 4 f R f C .l r r t . l . :t 1 tt 'J t ht t fltt l i'tthlttt {t. t ( ) c l r n tltt rrrlhl \l{|\ f . l n ' t ' i l : i l t r l i r .tri. ' r t l t I } t f r r . l t .l l l \r r / l h .irtrl .r R i l ! i\ I \ 245 . t . r 1 . r t rr'otl.llrhr tt IJr . .r l i i l r ' \ ( ) l l l i t r .. l t t gl h t . l ) l r 1 1 . l n 4 r t g / r r r r nt h t \ ( r i t { n t ... l n r . r 1 ' 1 . l ff h t q r l r l S ) f f h t r. r / { r t t i l r l htrmr . J . 1 1 1 1 r \ . . r r t ' ' ! r { : .J rh. . t l r q h t i r S u r l r i t t / t r l t s r r r r l tl l r . i r . f i r . t f . '.a ( ) i .h 1. r th n r r w l t ' . . . l r .)/ Rr/(|r|rJh /'rr.lIRU{nrlrolr \ \ r .r . P t d l i C ft i l l q ( ) u f t 1 l l t ' \ 1 l /l r l n c l t . i r r h r r ' r r hh r s \ r . t t t n / . t i s .lrll htrsl rrhrlt htr w h t r l t r t q r t ' i t s l . t t 1 l n r ' r i t 1 c n t h r r r q 1 . h r i . ' .irri h L r r s l/ r r r r r ti h t f l t r 4 g c t n l t . il ) l r t r r r 1 t t h t r t ' r l t t t t f \ r t t r s t ' l . t t t t t r L r r h t r r t f l t l t t . l r r t l r l i ) 1 t .r 1 3 r r r ' / qw t 'r t \ \ r l . . t t t t .1 . t n t n t s f \ \ r / / h t r r r rt r t t / t l t 1r | 1 1 f 1 / lr r t t l t r r t r f lh t .Js r l h l t t : t l r t . : l t .lrtrrt(. ' . \lrlrlJ hrrrl c. t t i t .. lrghrrnq R] . r r t c l i l r r r g .i h . t t t g l t t t l l t / r . q t t l | r l r.ttXIRIF5'/C/f ) ()1jp1 1f1r11111iltthlr tnrlfr. t b r r r c rt h r r n r q h n r r r t / l r.l t f r \ \ li I i \ \()lr()!r '. r n J . X C n . r r t l t t .f'.ll ic a i l i i \ r l i ) i t t I .tnr/ nltrrlrtls t )dtrt lcurrtr fht' / r r r . r L ( . : i l t c 1 r n ( ) ( ) r l r l n r l t r t r t ) g q d r a i r l r t r t ' / / .. t . l r r r t n \ ( ) u r (( \ r r t t h r t ' t n f r r rtr h l t . 1 ' 1 1 1 'l l t h t r n t ( )clltl . 1 1 tr } 1 \ f()flll tlrllll R. r q r 1 1 . t ' r ll 1 1 i J . \ rtn(i I)lillrl \frhlrl( r t ' t ' fh r r r q r r t t ' c i l r .

ln some versiors of the creation myth.ucqtfor Oilinwho. Although this did not rekindle the conflict. At the beginning of creadon the primeval UMIA sustained herself cow AUDH by licking the ice and from her ample teats flowed enough milk to feed the frost giant Y /IR. were all gentle. in Germanic myrholory. and daughter FREYR who was believed to be also KVASIR. Although the blood of the frost gians and the gods intermingled. At first Honir and Mimir were welcomed and accepted by the Vanir.l9l4 ) .onD and his rwin son and and nnr1. daties oJJmility. Audhumla's lichng also uncovered BURI. ciloN Jair weatherand good hawests (lnusrn BvJAMES ALEX{Nonn. however. Myth relates how the Vanir and the Aesir fought for supremacy not long after creation.e. while the Vanir were originally inhabinns of the land by the River Don. and Ve added the ability to see and hear. was one of rhe sons of non and the brorher of oolx and vltt.Hue. arcr hrshnwiledge. wereworshippedbyfarmers The threemain Vanir gods. but the gods gadually came to the conclusion that theyhad got the worst of the exchange with the Aesir. Afterwards the three brothers found on the seashore two fallen rees.NORSE MyTHoLOGY THf VANIn were the older of the rwo branches of the Germanic family of gods and were fertility deities. All the gods were descended from Buri. Eventually. for it went right back to the killing of Ymir. there was speculation about the origins of the two groups. the gand-father of Ve. Odin breathed into them the spirit of life.the younger branch. their dislike tumed to hatred and they slew Ymir. and that IHOR was the grandson of King Priam of Troyand oonv his descendant in the rwendeth generation. When the sagaswere collected in the late rwelfth century. He is described as being utterly evil. these theories have been discounted. health. second to none in his wisdom The Aesir despatched to Vanaheim long-legged HoNn and wise MIMIR.Njord (centre) and his lwely twrns. (l-l:usrtAnoN ByF voN Sr ssEN. who were primarily war gods. From the wood they made first man and then woman. rapidty eager b incrense absorbed theVanirarts. so they slowly faded into the background The distinction between the older Vanir and the younger Aesir was uncenain even in Vihng times. because his son Bor married the frost grantessBestla and had three sons. Frryja and Frqr. rear. making the world (the "yawning in GINNUNGAGAP emptiness") from the giant's body. Today. They lived at Vanaheim.wealth and THE VANTR. After the Aesir had won. the first living creature. peacewas sealedby an exchangeofgods and goddesses. Ve is known as Lodur or Lothur. Vili and Ve. an ash and an elm. THE VANIR wreJamedfor magX and themacho Aesirwqe oJvvhxh a foraryht Iittlexspnous. The problem was the terrible indecisiveness of Honir. Odin. Vili gave them intelligence and emotion. The Vanir sent to Asgard the sea god w. it effectively caused a rift between the Aesir and the Vanirwhich greatly reduced the mythological significance of the Vanir.bnW spiits oJ nature. far from AscARD. the implacable enmity berween them could not be denied or resolved. who and granted nouished the earth and seas. formerly called Vanaquisl. which reached embarrassingproportions whenever Mimirwas absent To the Vanir it seemed that Mimir was not only Honir's voice but also his brain. However. The Icelander Snorri Srurluson thought that the name of the Aesir recalled their homeland in Asia. the fortified residence of the AESIR.Odin. 1995 ) VE. thefruitful VanirtwinsJollm OdinanilFiganq the withThorand Lohtin the BfrostBndge. so in anger they cut off Mimir's head and sent it back ro Asgard. Vili and Ve disliked Ymir and his growing band of frost giants.

folklore. when Russnnfarmm still honouredhim in the lawestfelfuby curlingthe earsoJone sheafof corn (seeight). smashed one of his well-shod feet against the wolf's lower jaw. rymbohzngthe god's atrly hair andbeard . he had a statue of Veles thrown ln into Russian the River Dniepner. who was a shepherd and martyr from Cappadocia.o stron& silent and solitary god. time the the god of flocla at hawest For insmnce.1995 ) 0[usrprnor rv NtcxBpcLE. Prayers offered to this to protect and saint are expected increase flocks of sheep and goats Vrrrs guarded cattle andJlocluJor the Slavs Espeaallypopular with farmers. and then with both hands he forced the upper jaw open till the ravenous beast's throat was tom asunder. and was one of theJew gods destinedto suwive Rngnaroh He slew the wolJ Fenir with his iron-shod foot (lr-r-usrnrroru Br. who was the thunder god. Vidar stepped forward. however. into ntler of Kiev. When had overthe terrible wolf FENRIR come Odin in a fierce and bloody struggle and swallowed him. ears of the last sheaf of com are still 217 . 1995 Bv NrcK ) woven into a plait }crown as "Veles' beard". He was the son of ODIN and the frost giantessGRID. lived alone in a leafypalacedeepin his pnmalJorest He personrfiedthe imperishable Jorcesof nature. and then Odinbreathedlrfeinto them. survives.fashionedhumanforms from two piaes oJdiJtwoodlyingon the cosmic beachat thedun of ttme Odin created a manJrom the ash. was the Russian over flocks to VELES. ) into the Christian fyt^S him with St Blasius.and lived in a place called Vidi. the doom of the gods and the end of the world.Vili and Vn (abave) Odin. or Volos. When Vladimir. Also in Russian Orthodox tradition. lt was customary swear oaths in the names of Veles and prRuruu.. It is more than likely that the meaning of Vidar's own name refers in some way to this ripping in half of evil. where all was quiet and peaceful.It was Vidar's destiny to avenge his father's death at MGNAROK. Veles was incorporated faith by idend- andhrsbrothm.whllehisyoungu brothmformd awomanfrom theelm.qtr.NORSE MYTHOLOGY Wpen (abave). the Onhodox was baptized faith in 988. VtOnn was rhe silent and solinry god of Germanic mytholory. he surwved into the nineteanthcentuty. god who had authoriry and herds. (r-r-usrpcnoN 1995 rvJeurs AuxrNoen.

Nor was anyone else able to pull out the sword. which in the forestsof northern and eastem Europe was the animal most feared. VOTSUNG was the subjecr of a late Germanic myth. SIGURD. He was said to be a descendanr of ODIN. Sigmund. chief of the Germanic gods.while Lohi and thefi. In one Icelandic poem Vili is given rhe name HONIR. 1995 ) JAMES waming. When Sinfiotli grew up. More a figure of folklore than mythology. There ar MGNAROxthe two sides and their allies would engage in mutual destruction. Even so. VfXOOIAKwas the Slavic wolfman. He may also have raped Nidud's daughter. godsandherocspouredover the BtJrost Bridge.tND was the smith god of the Anglo-Saxons. and had another son. bound to a fallen nee. it was predicted that the assembled hoss would cover it completely. Wayland's myth is a srory of revenge King Nidud of Sweden cur Wayland's leg sinews and placed him and his forge on a remote island. a one-eyed stranger appeared among the wedding guesrs. was married against her will to the Gothic king Siggeir. When they later created the first man and woman from wood. while Ve added the powers of sight and hearing. a warior with double Volsung blood. First.According to Germanic myrhology.built around a sacred wu thescene oah. the chief god ooll was destined to be hlled by rhe wolf FENRIR ar MGNARoK.Odin gave rhem the breath of life. Sigmund refused ro parr with it atany price. known in German legend as Siegfried. In Scandinaviahe was known asVolund. lt took a long dme to prepare a revenge. he was renowned for mahng coats of mail and swords. Theywere ambushed on the way and left in the forest.eryhost swarmedinfrom the swirlingseas qnory (It-t-usrR By Arcxeuorn. intothe geat oah Hechallengedthehroes to pull it out.of all Signy rried to have her own sons trained by Sigmund. except the youngest of Volsung's sons. was the name of a plain that was destined to be the sceneof the final conflict berween the gods and rhe frost gians.y succeededin rescuing him. Tnr Vtcnrp Pr.{ND WnYf-. ofa maglcal arcntwhen Odinappeared one night ond thrust a sword. was the son of noR and Bestlaand the brother of opll and yr At the beginning of creation he helped his brothers ro slay the frosr gianr yMtR and form the world from his carcass. Vigrid was said to stretch l20leagues in every direction.hilt-deep. The son of a sailor and a mermaid.cN (abwe) was mapped Our of counesyVolsung invited his son-inJawSiggeir to rryhis luck first. When Siggeir offered to buy the magic weapon. and sending their heads studded with preciousjewels and mounted on silver to King Nidud. Vili's contribution was sharp wits and feeling hearts. Signy slept with him and bore Sinfiotli. 1984) MLI. Volsung and his ten sons walked into Siggeir's trap when they accepted an invimdon to visit his coun.ofering thedivine glftto thewinner. in Germanic myrhology. bur they lacked courage A second attempt to reinforce her brother involved incest. A huge expanse of land. the warringhosts convergedJromall corners of the earth. This refusai made the Gothic king really angry. Afterwards Sigmund reumed home. Volsung's only daughter. he exists becauseof the ancient respect accorded to the ravenous wolf. VOIOS VELES SCC out as the battlefieldoJ Ragnaroh Wlrcn Hamdall soundedthe call tobattle. Sig. but this is not cenain. Signund wasthemuch-enwed champion (lrrusrpqnoru ByAtaN Lre. As a result. the maglc sword secured their release and allowed them to take revenge on the king and his sons. Whoever wielded rhe sword could never be defeated. Siggeir wrongly believed that no one had escaped the attentions of the wolf He relaxed his guard and Signy was able to brry her family and help Sigmund. VoruuD seewAYr.however. orVolundr. the doom of the gods.Despite Signy's Votsulc's fuelwv) great hall. Signy sent him to her brother to be trained as a warrior Although Sigmund and Sinfiotli were captured bySiggeir.NORSE MyTHoLoGY MCruO. Without his knowledge. 2+8 . He sruck a sword deep inro an oak and told the company that the weapon would belong to the man who pulled ic out. until only Sigmund was left alive. and in Germany asWielund. When Signy. who came to see his treasures. in Germanic mytholog/. Each night a wolf came and ate one of them. But Siggeirdid not succeed. The smith god avenged this mudlation by hlling Nidud's nvo sons. k was Odin.

his smrthy that of and is locally known as His lameness parallels the Greek Hephaistos.qX SCCODIN 249 . like the Greek inventor Daedalus.AlJhetm (lLLL. Near a long bar- row has ancient assoclations with Wayland.dx KocH.rly on the island of Lemnos how A second explanation tells was born a Hephaistos dwarfish figure wirh a limp Hera even tried to drown him. 8rH crxruRY ) on a desolate Werr-ctvp helow).ets noblewomen a craJtsman purestgold Waylandwas also a Jabulous designtng on thegrand scale.Nonsr MYTHoLoGY df .hnownas Volund'sHouse Icelandic 0VmrrnoruE cARVING. flew aJterhis wtJe.i WArLAND's (above)smithywasvrsitednot arms.I'lidud weapons Jor his oppressive Wayland oJSwedenLtheDaedalus. and wondrous ornaments fashtoning master.i? . andflew away toJreedom fashtonedwrngs 0i/ELqND By M.orrrttn. bankandkeptthemon earth Jor nlne unttl thq escapedFashromngwrngs Jor Wayland htmselJ.ury had two different explanations In one version it was claimed that his limp was the result of his har. to .q. i 904 ) Wen-aNp (abovenght) and hts brothers tn a bathtng upon threeVallrynes chanced lahe Thq tooktherrplumagelet'ton the years. uarrnc.rng interfered rn a \nolent quarrel between his parents. like volcanic island acto the remote rvhich way'and had been banished wtgHND see wAnAND WOPEN ODIN SCC WOT. captlve inhis underground tsland. but he was saved by sea nymPhs The lat[er version of the myth is most relevant to Wayland in Germanic the master crafrsmen mythology were mainly dwarfs. on wlngs he had made for hrmself Uffingron rn Wiltshire. / 900 ) Afterwards have flown Wayland is said to to vALHALt-. smith god whose in.srRA il()N sv H THEAxEn.but by lust by wariors seehing oJ wanttngdain\ tnnh. and Wayland's own mother was a mermaid It is interesting to note that Lemnos was an island with tivitv. maze. Zeus and Hera So annoyed did Zeus become rhat he flung his son out of Olympus and ler him fallhear.Alvrt.Iaboured Jorge.

8rn crNruny. the three fates. the last root was embedded nearaSGARD. Urd. Skuld and Verdandi. The parallel beween Odin's volunmry dearh on Yggdrasil and Yccppslr (nghl theWorldTree. cried out before he died. like Christ. close by rhe spring of Hvergelmir. the iq droplets fused toJorm a massive frost glant As he slept. the god of the hanged. It was thought of as the backbone of the universe. In lreland.oruruHEtM. Although always associated with otherworld splendour.r Niflheim. there is litrle doubt rhat his hanging on the cosmic tree had pre-Christian origins and derived from ancient pagan worship.NOnse MyTHoLoGY YGGOnAStt. the second ended in fogg. (which means something like "dreadful rnount") was the cosmic ash nee in Germanic mythology. the musical branches of Irish mythology acted as cures for 250 . or yggdrasill. his weat formed other frost glants (lnusrnnnory nyNrcxBry. thewhirling patterns of Vihingart stihingly capture the wirlingvitality at thecentre of life A stag brwseson its evergreenfoliagewhile a strpent nipsthestag's nech.t-t. beneath URD's well. the structural support of the nine worlds. Odin had long been the god of the spear. Its branches overhung the nine worlds and spread out above the heavens. who brought unpleasant commens and insults up from the dragon Nidhogg. Is name is a reference either ro the gallows or ODIN's horse. layat theheart of theuniverse Hqe. The corpse was so well presewed that it was possible ro deduce that he was a prisoner of war who had been sacrificed as a thank-offering after a batde. but sacrificial hangings from gallows trees were also a favourite Viking way of worshipping the god. The idea of a cosmic ree is common in the myrlrs of the nonhem parts of both Europe andfuia. Not only did Odin hang himself on Yggdrasil for nine nights in order ro leam wisdom. It was supported by three great roots: one descended ro. rhe land of the gians. Yggdrasil is described as the largest and most stately tree ever to have grown.) Yuln belou. sometimes refened to as "Vidoftrir the tree snake". and mixed wirh earth as a means of prevendng Yggdrasil's bark from rotting. Odin was also pierced with a spear and.) was theftrst creatureto anuge from the pnmal wastes oJice in theyawningabyss oJ Ginnungagapat the dawn of creation Asfirefrom the south mehedicefrom the north. found in a Jurland peat bog in 1950. where rhe dragon NIDHOGGgnawed the roor from belowwheneverit tired of chewing corpses. Another bird in its branches was a cock. where MIMIR'swell stood. reflectingthe ItJe anddeathstruggje at therootof hfe (Wooo ccnvlNc. 1995 ) the Crucifixion remains srriking. Although it is possible rhat the Crucifixion was known ar the time that rhe Odin myrh was recorded. Water was raken from the well each day by the NoRNS. the stronghold of the gods. however. where the gods held their daily assembly. An archaeological find that reveals the extent of this ghastly ritual is rhe Tollund Man. the sacreduee acquired a different role. An eagleperched on the very top of the cosmic tree was daily harassed by a squinel named Ratatosk.

slew the chaos-dragon Tiamat with raging winds and an alrow. 'ise withthe anddarhelves Jromtheocean. How much rees were once revered can be seen from the reactions to early Christian missionarieslike St Boniface.Asgard It roottouchedhell while itslowest heaven. his teeth and jaw rocks and boulders.Nonsr MYTHoLoGY -q*-. He was evil and the father and mother of all frost gians. who managed to escape by sailing on a hollowed tree trunk. his blood rivers. which was held up at its four corners bY dwarfs Sparks were used to make the sun. his unbroken bones mountains. His flesh became the earth.ln the eighth cenury he cut down sacrificial trees. One he pushed upwards to form the heavens. Only this magic fruit prevented the gods from gowing old. fing under dwarfs of mortak. The obvious example must be the apples belonging to the goddess IDUN. was oJasthestructural generalfthought of theuniverse support (lrrusrpcno^J Lw. Yc copasrl-(nght) Jtlled depths oJ darh notonly in the tahingroot in Midgard Niflham(bottom). the emPtinessat the bottom of the universe. lakes and the sea. Odin. to the telror of the Frisians.1984 sv At4N ) another sacred tree.He was slain by the brothers 1DIN.. Growing dred of the brutality of Ymir and his ever-increasing band of frost giants. Hins of such maglc are also present in Germariic mythology. YCCOMSILL YGGDRASIL SCC his armpit. which a beautiful lady took away after telling of the delights of her world beyond the sea.. Thus the fabulous voyage of Bran b"g* with the sound of music that caused him to fall asleep. Vili and Ve took up arrns They slewYmir and then drowned all the frost gianr in his blood. at theiq edge glanS'land frost 1847 (I[usrnnoN Ar. Marduk. YMIR. but also reached lts topmostboughs and. Ymir fed on the milk of the primeval cow AUDHUMIA. NORTHERN ) FRoM sickness and despair. in Germanic mythology. Vili and Ve then threw Ymir's carcassinto GinnungagaP. who were the gandsons of whom Audhumla had licked BURI..the other he used to make a floor above the deep.rnQumrs. They were clearly the gift from thehnwn world. until he himself was felled at Dockum by an outraged pagan. In a number of tales these magic branches of silver or gold were brought by messengers from otherworld lands. before sPlitdng her carcassinto rwo Parts. the moon and the stars' Such an extremelY violent creation myth is by no means unique The Babylonian chamPion of the gods. nact.wLJ and yE. and his skull the slcy. who first came from the sweat of 25L .theworlds bndge.-*-o-* upthe Yccoustt's mightylimbshe? Sean here oJtheNorsemen nineworlds (abwe) rmlmsoJgods are thethreehighest therainbow andlightelves. He was a frost giant who emerged from the ("the yawning ice in GINNT/NGAGAP empdness"). free of the ice. Odin. with the exception of BERGEI^fiIR and his wife. was the first living creature. lt came from a branch of silver with white blossoms.

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5 0 . 6 4 246 1 0 9 . 2 5 .171176. 48.231. 182. Aegrr 178.159 Caia 46 Cama 54 Carthage 14. 25I l l 5 . I 9 . I 3 4 . 18+.56 Il. Afi 2r9 163 r27. 238 r27. 5 I . I28 Banba 22. 15. r16.25.229.244. 15.i89. +2. r00. 43.140. 27. 5 4 Aillil OIom. 1 4 2 .202. I 32-133 ofplenry f04.83. I37. l16. 225.66. lI4.6 . r 1 4 . I84. 2 + 8 I75.I90. I'1. 2 9 . I06. 1 0 9I.r 0 1r. Atreus 6 . 236. 6 88 . Avalon 88 164. Arianrhod Alberich 237 and see Cad'Goddeu 96. ll8.73 Clytemnestra 10. 3 4 . 120. 59 Diarmuid Ua Duibhne 98. 3 8 .1+7. 32. Brokk 236.83 Colosseum 85 Colossus of Rhodes 46 Conaire Mor I I2-I I3. 142. 4 5 . 7 0 . I30.214 Culann 118. 4 8 .1. Agenor. 1. r29.54.2r3. 19. 28. I19 Conn of the Hundred Battles 99 Connacht 96. 126.6 I .21 Cronos L9. 3 2 . 89 Crucifixlon 215. Artemis Alcmene 16.250.199.126 E Eagor seeAegir Eber 97 Eber Donn 126.26. 28.30.I35.82. River 63 Cerberus 28. 74.56.37 Brigid 109. 127 . 139. r.109. 2 3 . 180. I83.79 73 8 8 .74 222 19.216. l13. 1 2 6 .67 Berling185 t 2 0 . 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T7L Daman 129 D a n al 2 I . King of Kamikos 34. 3 + . Alfrigg 185 IIl. Brown Bull of 96.r 0 5 . 71. n8.57. I02.1 3 0 . 2 8 .67. 98.71. 3/. l8l.50.16. 120 Culhwch 96. I0. IL4. 143. I5I Camulos I I1 Caradawc I I I Carbonek Castle 105. 8 3 . 14.67 Bran 97. 222.83 33. 22.26.6I Cyclopes 33.60-66 I . 99. 147.15. I29. I61 Crldydd l2O Cimon 83 Cincinnatus 29. 2 r 5 . 46.54. B 1 2 . t42.194 Christianiry 67.I 3 9 .7r.142.70 Arcadia Aglaia 44 196. Balder 96. 8 9 . r52 Delbaeth I27 Delbchaem 99 Delos 50.1 4 6 . 71. Asgard 85 Abana96 I 5 6 . Annwn97. 195 Dyfed 99. I12. 22. r 4 2I. Andvari Acrs74 Bodmin100 26 Astraeus 200. 72. 4 6 .8 5 0 . 1 6 7 .37. i48 C u c h u l a i n n6 .58. 66. r95. 83 Dian Cecht 109.221. 2 9 Andhrimnir2i3 I06. 84. 73. il9. 1 4 3I. 9 8 .203. li7 Comwall92.86. 26. 156.2 + .54. 65. 155.23 I89 Bolverk I5.82.+5. ll0.37.77. 3 4 .63 Edda 218-219 Eetion l7 Efnisien 107. 1 3 7. 160.I I 0 . Aetna. Billing. 1 0l3 AfagdduI 12 B r e s I 0 9 .82.123.87. I3I. Branwen 2 2 . I47 Corinth 23.22. 1 3 . ll2. 74.202.79. 17.34 Dazhbog 188.28.53. ' 153 Daphne 31.25.73 I84 Bolthur 24-25.7l ll7.28. 54. 14.4 9 .19.2+. 5 4 . I70 of rebinh 132.i I 0 .20. 2 5 . 46. Bron 88. 205 A n u9 8 . 2 3 . 1I0. I82-183. 179. Calydon 25 18I. 26. Athena 188. 1 3 l7 Attis 49 1 2 9 . I66 . 4 r . 5 4 . Admeus 16. l7l Cuailgne. 57 pelphic Oracle 13.33. I 3 . 62. I82.12.9 0 75. Andromeda 6 4 .222 Caswallon I I I CathbadlI2.r 7 I . 129. r44.45. 2 4 6 .60. c I03. Clotho 41. 15. A u l i sI 2 . 2 7 . r08.58. 5I. 1 5 . 103. f l l .I I 0 . 0 . 57.165 I8I.225. 13. magrc 93. t98.86 Cairbe lI7. IO3.r88. 148.34.122. 39 185. 56.73.211 Branthe Blessed Atropos 98.119. 7 r .60.41.54. I99. 48. 126. 6 1 .27 f3i. r 0 2 . 86 C o l c h i sI I . l5l Dublin 126. I03. Queen o[ Carthage 14. 43.84.76 A das 66. r97. 7 r . 202.28. I82. 4 7 .200.62 Cepheus l8 Cephissus.81 Celeno 73 Cellach I 17 Celdc otherworlds.237 Acrisius 3+. 7 . 2 2 4 Amphion 20 King l8a.77 Al{heim 191.7r 13. r 3 7 .17. Brynhild A r g 0 2 2 .h e 11. 33. t5. r07. tugus22.26-7 Boreas . 50.56. 8 2 .22.143 242. l+. 2 0 7 . 1 6 Q 5 6 . I I0 Brigantes BadbI02.185. Banshees Aino 24I B u r il 8 I .59 Castor 22. Balor Ares17. 1 1 8 .188.97.I03. 3 I . I84. l l I 2 6 . l+0. 1 2 7 . 5 4 .147 Donn I26. l13 Cian 102. 126. 158. 8l Coriolanus 32.5 8 .l t 8 1 3 I .64.83 79. 132. 126 Dons 86 Draupnir 197 . I22.+5. i66. I04- r 05 Celtic romance 140-141 cennurs 6.38. 84. nI.29. ll7. Amaethon 96.Mount 52 Antiope20 Aegle52 I 0 7 .I 1 6 I 7 . 150.36. 30.6 I . I32.64 Cassiope I8 Casde of the Fountain 156. 53. 9 8 . 2 3 .27.42. 4 0 .222-223. 2 3 .76.82 r 2 0 . 1 9 Deimos l9 Deirdre of the Sonows lI2. 150. Anchises Abundanti60 Sea I l. 53 Alan 139. ll6ll7.215. 70. l2-13.152. I 2 2 .43 4 7 . I53.67. l18. AurvandilI94 1. 12I.33.222. f83.106. 2 2 .98. t43. 120. 1 3 2 .40. 36. 2 4 .250 Cu Roi. 152. I43. 54. I23. Beowulf Anhur.79. l12. 10. 160. Aonghus T Aenad . 12. 1 7 . i5. 69 84. 3 4 . Amma2I9 246.88 r07.79. 4s. 120. 107. 2 6 . 22. 7 3 .242 25. I5. 1 2 3 .I33.24. ll6. 6+. 43. 1 8 l . r38 46. Aeolus 65 +. Arcas 20 Agravain. I27 Eber Finn 126 Echidna 28. j2 Cormac Mac Art. I 2 2 . I52 Conall Caemach 96.4 9 .82 Aethra Breg168 Autonoe13 Apollo13. I2I Blathnat r95. 136. 7 1 . I32.29. 139.84 I8.34.4 6 . 28.I80 ?l ?a 4) 4q 46 \4 I09. 1 9 .211. Achilles I03. Amairgen 97.89 Balius 69. 153 181. Beltaine Alcyone 73 Caladcholg I48 150 Beothach 57. L7.28.224. 56. +2.0 0 .96 228. r 7 1 .24 fucanius Amphitrite68.37.I 3 5 . 14. 120..184. 1 2 5l.87 Chiron I2. Alvis 178.147 r37. +0.168 Cemunnos I I2.60 Colonus18.23.I 5 2 futerope 73 i79. 15. 87 Curtius. t3. 2 8 . tuclepius 16. I16.34 Cybele+9.60 146.5 3 .6r 166 139.162 Dylan 99. i7I Conchobhar Mac Nessa. 1 5 . 13. 1 4 0 .38.81.137. lI8-119. 98.66.67 Charybdis 32. C a i l t el l l . 6 0 . 99. A o i f a L6+.2r2.37. 38.29. r 3 0 .s 0 . t42. 2 6 .102.98-99.236.24. King of Ulster I12.t 2 1 . 120. Athens 98. 6 2 . 6 5 .218. t2l.2+5 Bragr 178.236.27. 1 4 8 Amazons 17.78.245. 23 . 1 5 . 7 r .13.54. 5 0 . 168.42 Clymene 25.53.I9. 166 Queen139 99 Cneisgel Becuma 6. 158 20 Callisto 2L1.83. 2 2 .92. 1 5 7 .60. 2 8 . r35.52. C a m e l o tI 0 I . I13. I59.38. 198. I98. 7 1 . King of Tyre I l0 Brigrndo 184. 152.21. r88. llI. t66 Camlan. 18. I90 Domhall I I9 Domhring 236 Domnu 154 Don 97. 2 6 .136. I16. 8 7 8 92. 3 7 Bacchus 23 Apsyrtus 5+. 125. Aili r99. 135. 5 4 I70 Munster 96-97 t99. 29.64.147. 14. Brangaine r 8 5 .54 184. 122. LuciusJunius Brutus.64. Nvir249 Calchas 41.78 Cythera 28 D Da Chich Anann 98 Dabog see Dazhbog D a e d a l u s2 3 .r 5 .I78. 9 2 .28.25 Aulanta 185.22. 46.1 2 7 .119.4 . Areopagus 23.79. 4 0 . 2 7 . 183. 120.167 Bors.27 Britomartis 2t8. t2I. l16.King93.123.67. 2 5 . 21. 1 9 8 . 7 3 . Sir I42 27.f09.37 . t52 Conlai 6. 154. I09. 18.65 Chimaera 26.144.73. 133.73. 2 3 . I05. 7. 6 1 . r22.84. 109. 49. 98. l'+. Brendan 94. 159 103.33. 6 8 . 7 3 .1 7 . 120.I 5 8 . Andvarinaut Acaeon13. 162 28.f6. Aegeus i3. Belenus see Arion 50 Alcesds 16.184. 196 190.103. t29 Calypso 65 248 1. 91.97. Mount46. 178.120. I90. 18l BabaYaga 88 AppiusClaudius I I0 Briciu 1 1 . I16.I04 99. Angrboda Aeaea32.237 Adonis19.l 1 . r70.76. 23. r00.4 7 . 2 1 . 104.I 5 .4 8 . 148. t22.86 207.85 Cassandra 15. Battle of 100.67 Cocalos. 58. II2.2lI. 24. tugonaurc Nne 96-97. 227 Arcona Ai 2I8-219 208.19. 167 D e i a n i r a6 . ll2.54. 169 Coronis 24 Craiftine I I7 Creidhne ll7.46. 156. 36. I65. 16 39.79 Derbforgaille 122 Dia22. 45. 26. 8 68 .25. 13.34. 15 25r BeFind 13I 48. 1 3 2 .I80.123.228. 120.I07.39.83. L22.31.216. Baucis 56 60 Airmid 122. Audhumla of theTenible Aonghus Aesir178. 14. I 9 .23.60. 12l. 32. 3 0 .129.f08.2r7 .13.51" Andromache I. High King102. l6l. 2r8.I 9 3 . Marcus 34. 4 3 . 4 1 . Boann Asterius 39. zll. Calliope 63. 114.1 9 8 . 178. 126r 2 7 . 3 1 .62 Coeus 57. King of Colchis 236 2++ 25. ll2. 1 2 6 . 18. I36 Cormac.33.97.I 5 9 18l.238 Chrysippus 10.26. I29.205. 56. Bor l8I.207. 107. I t9.236.28.2 t .25r 18. I 1 2 .3r. r67 Dicrynna 27 Dicrys 2I Dido. Bnan. 14I.I I l .122.5+. 92. I 2 3 . f08. Baugi I89 15.66 Ciabhan II2. l l l 60 r 6 . Aegrsthus t85. I50. 3 9 . 4 7 . 7 4 . 7 9 . 47.248 r 6 6 . 94.227 D e c h t i r el 1 2 . 183 4 7 . 109. 2 0 . 122. 4 8 .32. 66. lB0. 185. 6 7.59 Christ I34. 2 67 . 1 3 7a n d r23. 3 4 . t27. ll7.i85. 103. King of 185.I 9 9 . 1. 9 8 . t57.I70 Cumae 80 Cumal 120. t47. Bellerophon tut 99. 2 8 .73. 1 0 4 .15.154 Diana 23.23.20t. 8 0 . Bergelmir I02.97. 106. 9 3 . 6. 14.5 7. 6 2 .249 Dagda7.243. 106.237 Diomedes. 31.5 I .23. 1 8 4 .23 Black I85. r43. I42. 1 0 3 . r44. 86 Demeter33. Bellona 79. r04. 60. 1I7.98.89 Creusa14. ur. 98 Ard-Greimne Aietes.26.140.17. 6 7 . I95.I79. I 5 I .85 Dietrich 220.7.48 Augeas I8-19. Bifrost 18l. 159 Cyprus 19. 86 I1.99 Alcippe 34 C a e r 9 8 . r+6. I52.105. Boyne. Brisingamen 1 9 I . 2 5 r 117 Spear I89. 7 5 .153. 6 7 .170 Cigfa I46.129. II5. l4I. 84 Anica27. 1 0 2 .lI0. 184.l 0 l .37. King of Munster 103. I30 Cupid 33. 4 2 .152.202. i16. 17.3 I . mares of 48 D i o n y s u sI l . l14. I58. 116. 1 4 7 Eibhir 159 r52 cauldrons. River 98. 3 9 . I99. 16. I80.144.132.165 l4 .76. I44.130.67. 72. Aurora38 Aeson 22. Ariadne AlbaLonga 17.73 Akka 202 Byrsa 85 Bebo.202 Calais22. I13 Cloelia 3I Clontarf 102 253 .+3. 1 5 3 . Il+.106-107. 104.86. l19. Caladn 194 1 0 0 . 42.42. I08. 13. II. 2 9 . 5 7 .87 13.I t l . 15. 1 2 9 . Ailill Mac Mam 96 27.INorx INDEX r87.25.32. t 9 9 . 6 1 . 2 5 . I09. 1 0 2 . 8l Echo 63.t12.I88. r 8 3 .4+ . 2 1 4 .1 2 7 .87 Cercyon 82 Ceres 36 Ceridwen tl2.2t0. r23. King of Ulster I12. 163 I78. I l 7 . 2 4 . lI7.I(ng of Annwn Agave 1I. 19.r43 Andvari Cadmus13. Sir 18.216 berserkers 1 3 6 1 3 7 . ll8.48.I75 Dvalin 185. 122. 5 6 .28. I04 2 5 .82. 2 4 6 . 3 7 . Aphrodite 2I0. Argos Ajax 12. Atlas. 1 6 2 r87. 191.59. 133.237 102.65 Clio 63 Cliodhna l12. Amulius A Blacklftight121. l 2 l . +9.r 3 6 Aerope 26 t47 18I. Battle of 39 Chaos 43 Chanclo 86 Charities see Graces Charon 28. I80.117.

I79.215. King of Sweden t92 Gymir191. I96. . III Ethiopia I8 Ethlinn I02.207. 218. 1 4 7 .215.7I Ellida I97 ElysianFields I6.139. 9 .243. 189.180. 4 1 . 36 202. 15. 2 8 . 16. 167 Fimafeng I78 Findbhair i3I Findchaem I 12 Finegas 130. 53 7+. 1 3 4 .200. 235.1 9 9 . I48. 4 4 . 158 Gowein I37.182.194.29. r62 Gwentls Coed168 Gwem107.3 6 . I52 Elcmar I06 Eldhrimnir 2I3 Elecrra 38. 6 3 . 5 4 . 193.3I. I29. 4 3 Garm 239 Gaul 92. 124. 102.127.2l4 J a r l2 I 9 . 106. I33. 9 . 224 Green Iftighr 135 Greip 192. ZO7.3 8 . 128.86. 163. 232 Grendel I3I.42 F a u s t u l u sI 7 . 199. 8 71 .50 5. 152 Erhal98. High King of Ireland 97.24r 2 5 . l0l. 54. 59 Hati 226 Havgan 99. r 3 7 . I30.154. 54.2r8.38.64 Hereydd 162 lman i37. r93. 6 t .I 3 6 . 39.230 Hugrnn 201. 2+6.66. 60 2 2 . 206 Fasolt 237 F a t e s1 6 . 9 2 . r 7 9 .I9I. 2 1 9 l 7 l L I L Hlora232 Hodr178. 9 0 . i 9 2 . 23L.46. sons of 194.l4l. 51.142.3 I . I29 Fergus Mac Leda I24. 5 9 Hippolyta 17.40. King of Tiryns 48 Eurytion 77 Everes 86 Ewawg 160 Excalibur I00.88. r30. 99 Erymanthian boar 48 Erytheia. l6I Gwynap Nudd 137 Gwynedd 137.+7.198. I29 Ethne 129. 6 3 . 203 Fjorgrn I9I. 8 0 . + 8 .248 Fer Cherdne 103 Ferdia I29.5 8 . 1 5 9 Flora 19. I30.124.8 9 . I50 Eteocles 33. 7 0 . 136. Io 53.r27 .236.198.I 5 3 . 99. Ilt. 215 Hunding 228 Hvergelmir 250 Hydra29. 7 9 . Iphicles I6 14.232-233 Geraint. 22. Helenus l7 225. I18. 193.89 23.151 F Fabulous voyages I64165 Fachtna Farhach Ii6 Fachma. 205. I54 Emin Oig I12 Etar I29. +4.247. 137.89. I30. 1 3 . I16. 17. 1 8 4 .20I. 98. 2 5 .5 0 . 137. 23r. 198. 3 0 . t29 . Hermes I0. II7.201. 188. 7 + .88 G Gabhra.237 HrimthursI80 Hrothgar. 192. 1 9 4 . 7 2 QuessI56-i57 Hespera lubdan.210. 60 Glaucus 26 Gleipnir 188 Glitnir I89. 79.96. I6. I08.I17. 134. I89 Goewin 99 Goibhniu 102. 8 3 . 38. Iolcus22.l9l.7I I . 8 4 . ll8. Iuchar 109 52 Iucharba I09 Hesperus 52.7 72.73. 5 + . 229. +7. I94.86. I 4 4 . 207. 189 FotlaI29 Founders 84-5 Founrain of Wisdom 2 0 9 . i93. 1 9 0 . I 3 4 . 19+ HrungnirI94. 53 249 Iolaus 48 Heracles 6. 5 2 .224. 169. t52. r68 Firbolg 109.192 Geinod I92. I88.216. 147 G i n n u n g a g a pi 8 l . 7 9 . 7 1 . I84.2 r8. 103. 3 0 . I39.246. Hogni 229 HonirI79. High King of Ireland I 13.2+6 Frithiof220. Indra 232.22r.2 15.19. Hephaistos 13. i70.77. 68. 26.79. 2 2 I . 188. 63 Ivaldi.I 4 . 1 0 6 .I 9 7 . 232 Glastonbury l0l. 4+. r12. r7. Kng27 Eremon.150. 4 2 .1 7 . I 7 . I05.26. I+7 GwionBachI 12. 196. 1 4 7 Forces of narure 68-69 Forsed I78. 127 Erichthonius 25.L + 3 . I9 Emain Macha l12. 229. ll. 55. I63. 7 8 .6 1 .237 Falias I70 Fand 128. 1 2 81 .86 llium 84. Ill. 13.224. 4+.7 249 Inachus 53 Hera 14. I02. 137.76-77 Gilvaethwy 99. Sir93. 148.82.239.214.2 2 t . 4 2 . 8 5 . 222. Hestia 33. 54. I2+. 19.52. 28.4 9+ . 1 2 6 .1 6 3 . 71. t 12 and see Taliesin Gwyddbwyll158 Gwydion 97.229 Fuamnach 96.r27.73.218 Horatius Cocles 31. 15. l0L.218. 53 Harpies14. 20t Hyperion 38. 48.32.179. 180. r88. 4 8 . 1+6. t98 Isle of Menimenr 106 Hermod I82-I83.1 6 . King I39. 4 5+ . 225.t h e I 1 2 .222. 7 0 .229 5 3 .5 2 . the I75.30.77.248 Iapetus 25.208. 3 0 .205. 215 HarbardI94 Harmonia 17.77. 38. 20020r.79 Eurus 26 Eurydice 19. 86 Hypnos 53.65. n0. l4l Emhain 146 Enarete 8l Endymion 38. 85 Hellawes I l5 Ilmarinen 196.129 Eogabail 96 Eorann 168 Eos 26. 2 I 5 .239.INorx Eileithyra 16. 82.228. 6 5 . 53. 5 0 . The 89 +6. I 4 3 .i82.37.246 Frigg I78.198. 2 2 8 . 228. 150.184.194 Gudrun I 8 5 . 215.25.r 3 8 . 137 Gordius 6l Gorgons 18. 82 Elis38. I88./_55 Goil I30. 19. 8 6 . 39 Enid 14l Enna I26 Eochaid 163 Eochaidh Mac Erc 168 Eochaidh.215.16. 5 3 .146 Fannell I 18 Farbaud 188.206.225. 136.246. 44.1 6 6 .+8. 242. I98-r99.1 5 . 4 4 . 3 4 .202. I00.I 2 3 . 6 0 .239. 2 3 . I62 Hebe47 Hecate45 H e c t o1 r 3 . 194. Ino 53.1 9 6 . 207 .6 2 . 1 6 0 .202.l 2 t . 237.209. + 3 . I 4 3 .60.2+1 199. 128. 143. t 9 I . 192. 18. I29. 2 1 6 . 105. I39 Fergus Mac Rorh 96. 2 7 . I83. t. 1 3 9I .I17 Graces 44. 1 3 7 . 7 5 . 13l. I67 Gram 219.6I.32. +9.50.75 Hel 179. 130 Finias I70 Finn MacCool92. I 3 7 . 6 9 . 150. 8 . 54 Hlidshalf i9l.49. 7 7. 182. 2 5 .: n o n2 8 . 48. 167 F i a n n a9 6 . Indech I54 2 0 . 2 2 . 5 7 . I39 52 Hesperides 25. 38. I9. I48 Gungnir194. 188. 35. 7 0 . 45. Il0. t22.T4Z . 200.49. 69 Floralia festival 69 F o g a l ll 1 8 . 208. 17.225. 49 lseult I08.4 5 .237 .I 3 6 r 3 7 .207.1 9 6 . 235 4 5 .28.5 0 . 4 3 . 52.t22. 6. r36.t4I.8 t . 69. 168 Fjalar I88-189. I26.I09.52 Hreidmar I79. 180.207 lasus24 . 126 En 109. ZII Fauni 42 Faunus 12. 7 I Hecuba 28.2 5 . l l I . 8 68 .1 6 7 Galar I88-I89.9 t . I 9 5 . r22. 48. r+7 Emer I 16. 52 Ismene 66 Heroes 30-31 Ith 139.r 5 1 Halicamassus 49 Wartooth Harald I75.I96. 48.I7I F o r b al i3 I .45 Graiae 73 Grail.7t. 58 Hylas69 Hymir178. I I 5 . 2 t 62 . 5 7 . I37.213 Eioneus 54 Eithlinn I43 Eiri222-223 Eirn 208 Elaine I59 Elarha 109. 56. 166 Glauce 54. 251 Helgi 2I3 Igraine 100.175I . 83 J Hippolytus 7. 8. 1 5 9 . 6 I . lsle of Women 106. 73 Electryon l6 Eleusian mysteries 72 Eleusis 36. 88 Eumenides see Furies Euphrosyne 44 Europa 20.199.67 Eurymome 44 Eurystheus. I24. I 9 2 . 3 8 . l5l Heroic I t h a c a2 5 . 2 r 8 I 2t9.214. 2.81. 194. 163 Erato 63 Erebos 39 Erechtheus. 13I. 130. t54-I55. 51.47. l+0. 4 6 . 138-139.15. ll9.242 t07 Hero52. 60 Golden Mane200. 198.1 5 5 . i44 G a w a i n . 203 Galarea 71 Ga\ada92 G a n y m e d e4 . 224.I 5 I I4 Gullinbursti I96 Gundestrup Cauldron 7 .2t8. 136. I40. 232 FIed Goibnenn 136 F l o o d .62 3 2 .1 3 t . Icarus 34.r 9 5 . I93. 7 5 . 127.+ 6 . 150 Furies 10. 4 7 . I89. I28 Ema 219.75 Heimdall I78. 3 1 .245 Icarius 72 Helen of Troy15. I23. 1 9 0 . the Salmon of Knowledge 106.109. 1 3 5 . 180.74.2+7 Griddylad137 Grimhild185. 152. 80. 122.7 t . I38. I36. r35. 193.78.4 2 . 77 Epidauros 24 Epirus l4 Epona 128. Holy seeSangreal Grainne 98. lt7. 159. 136. i37. Iliad. 2 8 . 137 Hermaphroditos 49. . 8 1 . 55 Einhe4ar. I89. Queen I 0 5 . 5 5 . 53. Iphigenia 12. 88 232 Hippodameia 26. t54. 197. 229 GunnlodI84.195. 220. I75. r 63 Golden Fleece I l. 3+ 33 . 4 7 .2 r 5 Fraoch I3I Freki2I4 Freya175.22t. 2 2 .237 Guinevere. 2 1 0 . 2 0 5 .222. r 3 I . 7 5 . 1 5 4 . I44. t 1 3 . I29. I88. lr7. r83 Grer185 Grid 192.104.7 Galahad. 62. 146.2 I 3 .+ 9 . 200.166.I92 H Hades 1 2 . 13l. I29 Etruscans 52.73. tZ5. Bartle o[ 159 Gae-bolg 166 Gaia 1 9 .246. 3 9 . 8 5 Febal 106 Fedlimid 129 Fenians seeFianna Fennr I75. 167. King183.+ 9 .216 Frey1 r 74. 218. 6 4 .3 3 . 137. 231. 4 5+ .I89.156 Gerda 190-19I. r 3 6 . 42. l 4 I .130. 236. 5 4 . 4+. 1 2 7 Foltor 96 Fomoni 102. t37. 194 Grendel's morher 183. l3I. Island of 77 Erytheis 52 Ecain96. 1 0 5 .5253. 230. 219 E r o s2 0 . Iapyx2l 183. High King of Ireland 96. 5 1 . 6 5 . King of Ulster 152 Fadir 2I9 Fafner 237 Fafnir 7.S i r 1 3 4 .73.68 Fintan I 12 Finnn.Id I42 6 1 .77 Giants 16. 120.5 t . 200.t84.6 4 . 1 3 2 .185 1. ll8. Jadhg I20 83 Janus 54. r24. l I 7 . 46.lngeborg 228. l l u s 4 3 . 66 Eterscel. 1 9 2 . 122. 4 7 . 122. 245. I30. Helios 19. I97. 198. I+6.I 9 8 . 199. 8 5 76.147 GwythyrI37 Gylfi.15I.129. I59. 15.25r GiollBridge 198 Gjalp I92.3 . 3 3 .74 Gorias I70 Goronwy 106 Govannon I23. 4 4 . 136.183 Gefion I92.r 9 1t .i84.2 1 6 .189 Gurtorm199 GwawlI25.237.+ 6 .208. 140.+8. Idun 178.178. L4O.76. 4 3 . 5 I .127 Elbha lI2. 1 6 7 .79 254 .237 Groa194. 2 0 7 . 1 6 9 7 3 . 38. 120. 39. 2 8 . 129. I 9 I . I93. 185. 182. rzr .73.22 Imbolc I I0 . Iarbus 85 202. 68.129.232-233 Hugr 20I. 189. 127.239 G u n n e1 r 8 5 . r29. 232-233. L49.32.2I5. 42-43. 5 1 .150.229 Geri2I4 Geryon18.218. 2 0 0 .3 4 .47 Erik Bloodaxe 176 Eriu I26.2 I .

56.6 1 .1 2 7 . I53.46. 71. 9 6 . 153. t42 Laenes 61.16.25r I53 Maeldun 104. 23.250 Math.190.246 Pnapus 49.170 Nennius I00 fint Battle of I09. Mycenae 2L3.162.24+ bull of 13. 1 6 . I89. l6I Llyr I07. 11+. 6 0 .5 I .2 1 9 KiedKieJubmel202 Kipu-Tytto238 Klotho2I I Knightof the Kestrel L+9 Knossos I3.170 Lugus 144 Luned t.1 9 4 . I58. 1 5 2 I70 wellof 245 Nessus 6. Jupiter Leto i9.46. 136. I39. 4 2 . I. 2 3 .60. 7 3 . the I79. M Ma Greine I28 Mabinoglon 16l Mabon 144.54. I84. 223 o 53 3 I . I70 65. t6l. Orpheus 22. 150 I-aeg I Il. Mount 19. 180 Potnmpo 216.167 Moming Smr 208.7r. 28. 1 9 2 .38.l+4 maenads 96. 6 6 . 5 0 .3 0 .1 3 5 .87 1 5 9 . I43.114. 2II I+3. 193. I10. Myrtilus . 8 6 Peibaea 72 O e d i p uIs l .6 17 7 1 .75. 2 0 I . Norse Heroes 204-205 9 9 .L53 Nature spiris 186-187 r52 M i d a6 s1. 119.I 2 9 .63.208.52.208.73. MuriasI70 I99.L + 5 . T7T 5 I . 6 6 . 30. Kingof Phthia 12.1 5 . r 5 . 19.166. High King Fates 13I. 68. 7 0 . I2r. Mimir I99.2 I 1 .201. 1 4 6 . 5 0 .73 151 P e r s e u IsI . Pollux 38.1 7 .62. Perkons. Leinster 14+. Battleof 38. 4 2 .200. 2+6 Modgud198 I 0 8 .235. Milesius 97.85. 62-63. Jason 2 4 . 142.207. 198. 148. 163.143. I00.16. + 71 . 2 2 5 . 1 2 3 . 99 2I8 Lindisfame I7I.217. King of Alba Connach 9t2 . + 6 . 2I0 2 2 7 . 225.209.82-83 Nibelungs 205. Nemain I02.2I9 202 Scotland I0I Jumala leprechauns 143 J u n o1 4 . 1 3 6 . 8 2 . 5 0 . King16. 5 6 .154 . I 9 .251 O d u rI 9 0 . 48.I+4.r44I . t5I. +2. 2ll. 85.156.83.43.154 . I-andof Shadows It6. 6+-65. 68. 2 0 I .22.I l . l .2+5.4 4 . 8t Pandion. 58. l Z 9 . r40.73 N a o i s eI 1 2 . 4 5 . I 4 3 . Morgan Numitor. 1 6 . Curse o[ I19. 1 4 9I. Lavinium 24 of tuimathea Joseph Leander 52 100. 48.3 2 . 6 0 . 4 5 . 7 t . 12. 102I . 38.I5. 1 8 .233 Niflheim 202. Nenhus2I0. t97. r79. Medea 13.239 III. I2l.71. 5 6 .237 MaimedKingsee Pelles 6.25.64. 159.26.I09.83 Kreimhild 229 Kullervo 220.King ofThebes 33. 7 7 . 71.89 Pelias.79. I 2 9 .I 4 0 . 19.106 l l.86. 29.I 8 8 .232 Lif 206. 8 5 Pamassus 58 Partholon II2. 98.5 5 . + . 113.7 1 . I 0 I . I53. t 4 1 . Modir219 '55. 68. t I. 97.206. 33. lsland of 46. 4 8 . 3 1 . Latium 50 202.2+8 London 100. Miach109. Minomur Nidavellir 202 Man. 63.Kingof Gwynedd 137. 1 2 . I49. Menelaus 198. 8 7 Polybus. 7 0 .2I6.176. Laurin 237 235. 6 9 .2r2. 42 1 8 0 .+.56 I65 Jasconius Laoghaire II0. 206. 1 2 7 .3 I . 203.79. Melicenes 53 Muninn 1 8 4 .86 Pax60 Pegasu I8 s. 8 2 . 1 4 6 . I13.146.67. t 7 9 . 203.+0.82 otherworlds 92.67 39 Phosphorus 63 Orthnit236 P h r y g i a4 3 .2I0. 1 3 9 Kalevala 24I I Q r l 2 l 9 . Longa 17.2r2 65. 01 9 . 82-83. 12I. 240.23. 182.+1. 77. 1 7 4 . 6 6 .23. 16. 2 .251 93. 4 9 .176.3 8 . 6 3 . 18I. r52 Madder-Akka 202. I I 5 .Muses 63 202. 6 1 .165 98. Phleyas 54 3 8 . 64. Jukakka 207 249 Caesar 24.t 3 9 . I52.16l 6 + .51.85. 45. 19. 152 NY)'nkki 230 152. 70. 6l Rrver Pallas 82 Pan 2 1 . 109. 155 Maia49.22L Kumarbi43 Kvasir 188-189. PlatoI0. 160-16t.233 3 4 .162.85 Muspell226. 208.230-23r.34.7 8 .7 8 .226. l5l Nuada o[ the Silver Mongan 117 Monsters and Savage Hand I53 MathonwvI23 58-59 Nudd 123 Beasts 4I Mad Syrabmlya2oe.+ 2 . Sir 100 P e l o p1 s0 . 7 5 . Queeno[ Melanion 24. 228. King of Troy 18. 69 143.75.88 Lugaide Mac Con 99 Lugh 7. 2r0.6I. t. Kng 26 Pryden137. I26.5t. t22. 1 3 4 .1 4 2 . 7 9 .32. Modred.221-225.2r5.223. t 2 I . 160.3L.79 Leshy.248. 144 89 Narvi 207. 50.246.I48.96. 3 1 It4.24r 2I 7 Judaism Lemnos.72. 20I. 156. 154.250 N e s s aI 1 6 . the 206. 2 9 . Lars 3l P o s e i d o n7 . 1 3 7 .I 8 8 .37.I I6. 5 5 . 162. I80. 84 220. I4l. 50. 2 5 . I+1 Lopt sec Loh Lothus see Ve Lotophagi 65 Louhi 221.38. I66.7 0 . t67 Odysseus ll. I t 7 . 2 3 9 i5l.207 . 33.I59.92.142 l. 15 Polydeuces 22.60 Pelles 159.226.237 r 5 5 . 122. 69 I 0 9 . 69 Medus 13.33. 206 zL9. 233 Jamsaxa Laocoon 56.1 6 6 Jormungand Latinus. 1 9 .54.1 4 6 .+4. Mist Calf Mokkuralfi 170.202. L7+. I-ancelot.167 Neptune 10.1 6 l Nimue 9+.208.67 .10.r 7 9 . 13.94. r 2 5 . 3 1 . 40.202.86.+.44. 180. Narcissus 63. 1 2 5 .207 . ++.209. I88.100. KingI3 Pandora 70. 45. 4 5 . 116 Liriope 63 Llaser 133 LIeu 99. Minos.209. 16l cnd see Lir Loddfafnir 206 Lodur seeVe Loki I75.196. 6 1 Orthos77 Orthus 8l Piorun. 109. 215. 6 7 Phobos i9 Oion73.214-2t5. 143.46. 49 Magrc andenchantment Minerva 25. I5 2r.60.71 second Baule of I02. 1 8 l .129. Ogham 154 Ogma I28.45.151 75 . 235 . 88 99 . I39.I 6 5 209. 66 P o l y p h e m u s6 5 .207 I 8 4 .144 Llud see Nudd Lludd LIaw Ereint I37 Llwyd la6. Morholt Nyx 39. I6. Corinth 56. P e r e d u rI 3 9 .I 4 2 . 1 4 0 . 2 8 .53. 1 6 9 2I8 Nodens I53 M a n 1 0 .244. l . 58 I-adyof the Fountain l.73.239.247 Olwen 96. 7 t .88 74. L63 2 0 9 .77. I98 Merope 34. 7 4 . 241 L y c o m e d e s1 2 . l+6. Krng of Owain l2I.8I Nechnn I06. 89.200. 7 1 .202. 2r8. 1 9 3 .55. 1 7 . 1 9 .60.66 156. 206-207 . Oceanos 11. 2Il kdon 52.77 Porsenna.l 3 i .225. I54-155.71 r5z. 73. Sir I42 1 8 0 . 218 Lir 109. I05.79 I 1 6 . 6 0 . 23.3r.77 rndeDe ) / 27 Orithy'a P h o e n i c i a1 4 .6 0 . 27.85 255 . I53 MorfanI l2 Medb.1 2 8 . 61. Perkonis.1 7 8 .1 7 Penrheus 11.81.82.208.28.+I Ladyof the l-ake100. 74. 38 4 4 . 36.86 Njord 178. 7 5 . I2. t 5 l nymphs 68 138. 57.57. 122. 1 9 . Pluto seeHades 216. 26. JokulI87 176. I44. Mess Buachalla i 12. 167. Phaea 82 114.r 5 2 .lll. r 2 0 .Z5l 208. 6 2 . 1 6 .152. 2 2 8 Percival. Penthesilea I7 2 + 5 .234.57.1 6 3 OIcgtheViking217 Perunu174. 7L . 4 9 .73. 150 Marathon.72 240.153 of I52. I68 |erun see Perunu |gmalion 78.2I8.24I Lovers of Zus 20-21 Lucan 168 Luchnr Il7. 246. 98. Menglad194 Menu208. Kingof EIis 7t. 196. Polydectes 73 l7I Polydegmon see Hades P Pactolus. I26-127 r .25 UlsrcrI i8 1 7 5 . Noms.+9. I4. 6 2 .50. I9I.207 .r 5 t .I I l . King of Macedon 40-41 39 Philyra 29. 2I0.73. 1 3 8 . l 1 6 . MistCalf200. Niamh 153. 23. 159. 62. Nudd of the Silver Mopsus 208 Hand I53. 7 0 .I 1 9 .180.204. Oenomaus.209 Meliagaunt. 25.I 8 5 . 14.236.7 5 .I 8 5 .230. 7I 234. 8 6 . 238.82 Monigan Oceanids Medusa I8.4 6 . i20.216 Otrer179. I. I 8 9 . 1 9 5 . 67 10 . 8 2 Morpheus Oath Ring236 92. 1 9 2 . 1 6 4t. 82. I25. sonsof sse Milesians Nereids 18. 82 Patollo 216. 83 248-219 u 3 .216-217. 5 5 . 103. King t5.75.147 Nuada 102. 57. 142. 6 5 . I30. r53 I84.2+5.72 65 laestrygones Laius. .153 150I .I 2 I .l0l.1 9 5 .73 6 7 . 7 5 . 1 3 3 .2t6.1 3 . i l 4 . 6 0 .240.76. 13.218.23. I95. 1 6 8 I0I.166 I89. 39. 15. 8 I .8 3 .205. 50. 2i8.237 Merlin9. 139.222.2+4. 5 6 .216. 10.38. 2 6 .lI4. 1 4 6 . 3 2 .7 1 .158 see Matholwch. King of $los 64 t24-125 62 Niam of rhe Golden Magni 208.25. 2t7 P n a mI 4 .222 Polyhymnra 63 Polynices I8. 250. 1 3 9 . 201.I 9 6 . 73.I09. 6 1 . 1 . I 5 7 . 7 5 Pwyll 97. King of Sweden r02. 67. 5 7 . 1 8 .21. 203 L labdacus56 Labynnth 13.1 0 6 . 1 9 6 . 6 2 . 154 Pleiades73 t'lur nam 5an I)J Ottar 190.5. 7 3 .57 5 6 .23.206.168 P s y c h e3 3 . 56.I5I. 4 8 .180 Jocasta Larissa 54.96. Julius Leodegraunce. 137. 8. I04. 138. 3 84 .210. 2 + 6 . 160. 4 2 .163. 82 62. 23. Phaedra Olympus. 166 Pellinore.17.6 1 Mil. Neoptolemus l7 I 2 2 .245. 246. 2 3 12 .12. 3 4 . Penelope 51.r 5 0 .217 Patroclu 1s 2 .206.22. i3I. l 1 2 . Mnemosyne Marduk25I Mochaen I09 2t0-2r r. Mercury 14. Maximus 56 K K a i1 0 3 .r 8 0 . 1 8 . the 93.86 z+7. 48. 8 2 Laomedon.I70 7. 2I8 JupiterOptimus Lifthrasir 206.6 2 . 5. 56. I20 Melpomene 63 Munster 1 9 4 . I 5 . 2 4 0 .1 5 .I 4 3 . 160 Notus 26.seePerunu Pittheus. King of I03. I29. 63. 32. MeliotI I5 215 1 9 0 . 7 T Peneius J+. 229. 231 . King of Comwall 225 . 7 1 .7r 222 P e r s e p h o n eI 6 .73. 4 9 .Queenof Le Fayl0l.73 24 Philemon 56 Ophiuchus Oracles and Prophecres Philip. Oisin 92. Mjollnir 250. I63 2 0 . 61. Il I04-I05.r r 7 .1 2 0 . Madder-Atcha 207 198. 107.24t. 57. 3 9 .179.72.209.25. I52. i06. n2.68. 5 4 . 7 3 . r52. 2I4. MaghTuireadh.56.I 3 5 . 16I. r 3 6 . 67.20+.66 I:ke Regillus.58.218.223. + . Hair 153 2I8.222223. 4 J .62. 190 Pnde o[ the Cleanng I6I Procopius 2 I 7 P r o m e t h e u sl Z . 2 1 6 . Jotunheim Leib-Olmai 203 t9I.232.60.251 r 4 6 . 33. 211. Modron144. I50 Nemean lion 48. t99. 37.31.74 Peleus . 2 6 .144.72. I I 4 .60. 137.1.86.122. 238. I5 153.l18. 1 3 . 3 1 . ]67 Midgard I79. 159 Luonnohr 207. Perkunas seePerkuno 86 Perkuno 208. 237 .178. I43. I88. Lema 48 60. 49 1 4 4 . 1 9 3 . 1 8 .200. Mile see Milesius Nemed ll2.206.70 19.160 knd of homise I09. 24 z+5. 250 220. t3l. 237. l18.72. 2 6 . 1 3 5 . IIl. 1 8 . n9.54 Orestes I0. 53 L++. 8 9r . Lavinia I5. 7 9 . Sir I34. I19.239.154.I 9 l .6 0 .217 . 3 2 .209. Noatun 2I I 1 4 6 . 158. I02.55. t12-L+3. 102.83 l:cedaemon 84 Lachesis 41. 1 8 .22. Modi208. 8 3 . Moerae sec of Ireland 107.144.200.78 Paphos Pari1 s 2 . I 8 2 . 46.I I 1 . Manawydan I09. 1 2 .lsle of92.22.82 lamfhada seeLugh Sir I0I.l l I .216 26.206 I4. r r 2 .2t6 Podarge 88 O u r a n o1 s9 . I06. Leminkainen 203. I03.I34. I 8 3 . 1 1 7 . Phaeacians 65 I58.6 7 . I1.t29. l5I. 63 Mac DaTho I16.153. 137. Mundilfari 209.5 4 .t 9 8 . Pericles 84 5 6 . 98-99. 217.153 r52 Mac Cecht I44 Metis 25. I 7 I Nanna I82. L25.6 2 . 159 Pasipha 7e .l 3 l .167 knd of Wonder 99. 2t5.63. Phaethon+6. t28.22. l5l. r44. I 1 2 . 7 2 .92. l6I. 224-225 Macha 102.1 5 4 r .66. 6 2 . 6 I . Niebelungenlied2L2.207. 102. l 0 I . 7 3 . 2 5 .147. Mark. 20r . 159.32. I52. O d i n7 . 8 5 . 6 0 . .152. 71.168.30.86 Milesians Nemesis 63 Maga 122 102.209. 216.235. Minthe45 146. 6 0 . l 1 9 . 206.141. 2 3 0 .2II.3+ . I 6 0 .242-243. 6 6 .43.r 3 I . 2 5 .3 7 . I 5 6 . Nidud. 3 0 . I05.48. 1362rr. 216.I2. 3 7 .1 8 5 .78.26. 136 L u c r e t i a2 7 . 1 9 l .8 I Last Supper. I9. i50. 5I.54.2 6 . 1 8 . 250 Manannan MacLir 96.L46 2 2 .232.65. King of Oscar I59 Osins 183 Troezen 13. Laufey I88. I46. 202. 7 t . I2l. 7 1 . 1 1 2 .208Mani218 209. Nestor. 7. 232. N I 5 0 . 7 5 Proteus. Nemglan I l2-l13.128-129. Nineve 150 Batde of 70 233.88. 37.89 Meitikki 230 Mughain. 7 4 . Miletus79 Nereus 86 I 2 9 .65.34. I60. Midir96.61. Leda32. Battles 127.72. Sir94. 7 r . 8 6 .22. 1 1 7 . Nidhogg 2I0. 7 6 . I 2 5 .37.65.98 Myesyar 26. I 9 7 . 3 3 . King7.202.INorx landvaettir L86 208. I52.

2 l r . 226 Svalin I86 Svantovit 227. 176. 5 3 . 136.2I. 6 8 .66. I50 Storyunka 202 Strymo 75 Sturluson. 168. Sigyn 207. I6. Sadb I2.235. 235.58.6 3 . 230.169 TeirtuI58 Telamon 15 Telemachus 32. 232 Tanngrisnir 230.226.225. 48. Scathach 207.38.sonof Vespasian 85 Tiw 239 Tory Island102.220.226.216.24L Vainamoinen 203. 1 9 5 . 7 6 . 109. 3 8 . r68 226-227 Surr .1 9 3 .22L. 2 0 9 .247 Venus 14.243.27. 216-217. 2 3 1 Thomasthe Rhymer t04 Thoosa 74 T h o r7 .25r Vingir 232 VirgrlII.4 7 . 238.200.222.2+8.5 t . 246 Stymphalian birds 48 Sryx.2+9 Vali I8'1. 5.207.28. t8'+. 240.85 Trold Tindteme187 Tros43.227 Svarazic 188.215.2 1 9 Samhain.87. +1 205.2r9.88 Tiberius. 7 1 . 1 4 . 2+9 Vanaheim I80. l. 4 6 .I 9 2 . Z + 2 . 250 UrienI59.+1. r06.1 6 . 2 + O .152. Island of 12.179. 8 . 16.230-23r Ruadan163 Shidbladnir l9l.125. r80. 138t39. 8 I . 238 I84 Thrudgelmir ThrymI85.215.12 Volund 196 and see Wayland Volund's House 249 Volupms 33 Vonigem I7I. 63 Thanatos 53.222 ShmirI9l. 7 6 .28. $thagoras 154 $thon 19.28.2r0.75. 87 T y r1 7 8 . 83 Ratatosk 210. 58.+ 0 .34. 246. 7 4 . r 5 6 .60. 2 I 8 . 63 79. Yggdrasil 195. 5 6 .250.168. r05. 63.250 85 Vespasian Vesu 88 Vidar178. 2r+.1 8 . 7 3 . l 1 5 .60. Skadi 2lO. 2 3 9 .+6. I78. 1 9 3 .River 12. I70 see Sol(Classical) Helios Sol(Norse) Samildanach see Lugh 186.25r Yecha222 Veles I74.237.. 168 T a r p e i a8 I .28. Seriphos. L19.2 . 205. 2 r 8 . IIl.217 VrgridPlain175.167 Suibhne Geilr. 163.238. 138.167. 166.56.205.204. 2 4 . 163 222 Rusalki.8r. 8 5 . 162.88 w Waveof CliodhnaI 13 Wayland 183. 163 Silenu 6s 1.+ 6 .39 Terpsichore 63 Tethys63 Teucer I5 Teumtes 168 Thalia. 166. 220. 2 0 0 . 222-223. 6 0 229.241 Valhalla I75.9 . 250 Sages and Seers I 14II5 Sleipnir 182. 52.202. I19.198. 231. 168.1 7 + .80.1 0 9 . 3 9 .201. 4 r . 2 0 I .23+. 7 8 . 7 9 . I 7 I . 8 r ..126.88 ktes22. 23t. 1 5 9r. 3 7 . 250-251. 222.200.202. I38. 211. r52. 8 . 5I. 19. 18. 2 82 . Sinon56 Il4. l0l. 3 1 .2L5. 213. 163 S k u l2 dl I .8 4 .i 8 8 . 232 Tantalus 54. 56. 147 oJI75 Ukter. 2+7. Sigurd 7.1 9 7 .220. 230.32. 215.6+. I88.6 6 . +8.218 2.202.237 Sicily Riesengebirge 187 5 0 .30. 248 Scylla 32.206. 5 66 .209. 60.10. 5 1 .189.3I. 168 Stheneboea 26 Stheno 44 Stonehenge ll4. I I I. 1 2 . 17. Il3.25r Ymir18I. 183. 48.243. l 5 l . 7 3 .239. I8I. I58. Searbhan L67. Zephyrus 69. 2+6 Ve I78.79 Sera Island of 21.239 TuireannI09. 237. l0l. 7 7 . 1 8 9 . 113 Treasures and mlismans t96-197 Triglav238 Triptolemus 36 TrisranI08. 82. 40. 6 5 .250 wellof 184. I8.3 2 . 232. 241.75.226.64.82.218.237. Ruadh163.+3.180. 65.48. 2 I 9 Siegfried see Rind I84. r29.85 T r o yl l .23r.28.206. I78.150. f78.227. 18l. Sisyphus 54.71 Tapio 230.2 I 9 . 2r0.t 2 8 . 7 2 .60-6r.81 S a n g r e a l9 3 .2+8. 1 7 4 .37.8 3 .235 163.144. 215.225.22t.87. t87.56 Thyone2I Tiamat 25I Tiber.96. 217.7+.1. 2 7 .180. 1 7 5 . 249 Wolfdietrich 236.5+. 2 r 5 .208-209. I7l Scota I67 226. 17. 185.5 8 . r 8 7 . 207. +6.26. 225 85 Ronan llI. t97 . Sigmund theVolsung I 2 8 . Rhea 29.2+8 VokungSaga2I2 Volsungs 205 Volumnia 32.199.14. 7 5 . 45.INoex r32. r93. 200.2LL I28.19. sonof Brutus 27 Irbemus/u Tinugel Casde i00 Tiresias 16.1.1 4 .37. 216.38. 2+.198.t0.246. 5 0 .2+5. I46. 2+7. 50.98.215.223. 7 9 .249 256 .79 Ra81 satyrs 20.1 5 7 .19.130.236. 239.230.22r. 100. 9 2 .232235. I 17. f08.20-2r. 2+2.239 Tyre37.200.8 9 Thialli 20I. I79. + 9 . 187 Scyros. 82 T a r t a r u s5 + . 52. I29.202. r32.7 9 . I00. 39. I34.2r5. 15.1.+.31. 1 5 8 .3I.27 7 : u s 7 .210.84.1 Signy 223.3I.Scotland 92. 49.140. r99. Spana x X a n t h u1 s3 . r70.150. 204.170.t 5 4 .47. 65 I35. 1 8 8 .23L.43. l l l .152.49 Sno2 r I 9 . 50 Virginia 88.29 . 6 3 . 207.58 64 Tphon 28. 2lr.78. +9. t l0 St Patrick 92.146.239. verdand 239.224 Remus 17.8 4 .39. t51 Taranis 168.I35.85 Woundrous Cauldrons r32-I33 Wyrd 21 1 and see Urd 66. 58. 8 1 . 8 2 . r69 Triton 74 War 10. 224-225. 7 0 .226. t 9 1 . 190.230. 39.208.229. 6 5 .79.228. 2 1 1 . r98. 230 Tara 96.202.248-249. 58.134. 76 Tammuz I83 Tanngnost 230. 46. 188. 6 . 65.2r2. 58. 6 2 .I 1 2 R Satum 33.I 6 3 .25. 223 River75 r99.2+8. 6 9 . l7l Uaithne U a t h9 2 .194.r39.232. r22. 7 8 .65 Telephassa 28.2r5. Snoni 175.rka 207 QuestingBeast. 7 5 .2l9 ThrudI78.50. 33.231. I 5 3 .2I8 Samos 47 Sorcerers and spells 220-221 Sampo. 79. 2 + 3 .122.236 Roc I29 Siggeir 205.8l Rosliva Sindn236 201. Yspaddaden 170 z 19. Saule 208. 209. 19. 6 7 .206. 43.218. 8l Thebes 18.I85. Sigurd Ring228.222. 2r8. Shining I68 Shiva 2I5 RhineMaidens 176. 6 . ll2. Ragnarok 8l 178.228 Ringsof power I79. 142. 8 7 .184. 238. 19.8I.225.48. 230. 17. l7f Voyagers 50-5I Vulcan 46.6 0 . Sarpedon 39.r 9 6 . r05. 60.69 Thrall2l9. 7 + .2+6.8I.206. l7l Usna152 Utgard201. 5 1 .215 Suttung 188-I89 Svadilfari 180. 7.229 Skoll 226.237 Wooden Horse II. 8 08 .37. 175. 8 5 . 200-20r.r 9 3 .7 0 .212. 214. 39.I39. 2 1 5 . I5.26.2r8.226.+2. I 2 9 . r88. 2 + 4 . 15.r 8 0 Titans 25.2+0 Thiassi 196. 2 0 6 . I66. 8 6 . I97.230. 201. 133.2r3. 176. 38.202.61.6 .t 9 l . 242-243. 88 2il l .215. UtherPendragon 1 5 I .88 Virginius 88 Viviane150 MadimirofKiev174. I01 219. r88. + 5 .238 swanof 203 Tumus 87 Tuulikki 230 Twrch Trwyth l4'+. 175.+6.5 8 .6+.55 5 7 . l5'+. 4 2 .4 1 .229 7 8 .2 1 8 .86. 9 4 . Sestos 52 Silvia Cuchulainn 79 Setanta see William I24.87. Kingof Aetolia 56 Thetis I2. Sirens 32. r 9 1 .2+8 .2+7 Vlkodlak2'18 VolossccVeles Volsci32 Volsung 223. 104. l7l Talos 39. 4 5 .28. 184. 238.248 Rome 34. 8 8 . 211 S p a r tIa 5. 222.238 236-237. Spurius 8I Tarquinia 27 Tarquinius Collatinus 60 Tarquinius Sextus 60. 53 I59 Rhadamanthys 39.210. 2t8. King 92. 190.Knighrcof Sinis 83 the 94. 166 225. 207. I29.2r5. Il. 6 3 . I79.2I I. 76.167 Seige Perilous I34 200.239. 36. 234.52. 85 U I7l. 8I Skrymir 201.70-7r. Mane186 162. 2+6 Vanir178. 87 s TaurusI5 Taygere 73 Teimon I6I.0. 9 2 .38:.0.227 Salmacis 49.36.23.185. 1 2 .200.136I .57.52.5+. 67.51.72. t93.127.I 8 0 TuachellI 18 96.247.86 Tiryns16. 17.26.36. 8 8 .78.228. 168.209.29. 8.25.202.l8l. 89 Rhea 17. 33. 7 5 .82 Tarquinius Superbus 27.39.86 Sualtam Mac Roth I I8. 2 3 I . + 23. 163. I 2 0 . 6 2 .247. 1 9 6 .5 0 .225. 73 I90 Sessrumnir 87. 89 98 . r55 St Ronan 92.38.222. s i f r 7 8 . 8 5 .246 ThorkillI92 Thorstein I97 Thrace 26.I9'+.222.230.166. 239. 8 1 .169 o the 100 Saral. 2+3 Valkyries I85.218. 45. 1 9 0 .80 14. 4 6 .21. Trojan r7. 66.2r0.215.l . 203. 1 9 .23r T h o k kI 8 3 .216.208.80.2+r.33. 32.85.248.2r7.62 6 .64 Urania63 U r d2 I 1 .2+0 I00.Jonathan I39 Sychaeus 85 T Tacitus 2I0 Tailtu I68 T a l i e s i nI 1 2 . 59. 58. 209. l l 4 . 65. L39. 167. 13. 14. 67.24. 3 7 .218 vili 178. 225. 2 I l .43. 1 3 t .535 .218 I48-I49 Rosterus 184 Single combat RoundTable. 9 7 .t I 0 .River 15.226 Sabine women 79. 33. 230.197.2 1 8 .2+8 R o m a nIs l0.250 Regin 7.1 3 .2+6. 1 5 7 . Sphinx 33.208. ll9. Sieglinde 228 243 Siegmund 213.167 2+5.1 5 .3 Thessaly I2. + .87 Tithonus39 Titus.6 2 . 8 3 . 13. 1 7 1 119.3+. r63. 5 9 Thesdus. 8I 1 4 2 . 8 6 . 4 6 .169. 17. 44. 8 8 . 176.129.79. 97.2t2.1 5 . 2 r 5 .l9l.70. feast of 98. 1 5 0l .rhe 222.88.7 r . 1 4 . 82. 8 4 .2 0 8 . 88 13 .208.7 9 . 15. r 0 9 . 9 57.8.248 Romulus 17.79 Quirinus 79 S a t a4 n5 .78.22. II7. 1 7 0 l(ng of Tyndareos.53. 8 2 .221. 7 5 . 136.79. 6 8 .133.226.2+6. l l 2 . 170 Tuonela238 Tuonetar238 Tuoni238.t7I Uathach Ukko 202 207 UksaLka 92. I18. I 19.235.232-235. 8r 46 . 202. 98. l0r. 2 t 3 .49. 33. r02. 22+. 1 2 7 . the 2. 8 7 Sigurd R i gI 9 5 .32.I 7 0 . 2 3 9 . 7 3 .34. 67. 8 9 Y 174.2+2. Uu222 V Vafthrudnir 240.79. 8 6 .+3. Scamander. 33.2'23.192. t 7 l 150. I75.167.5 I . l8'+. Ulster r22. TuathaDe Danann 97.15. 4 5 . 224.87.85 Semele 21. Rhiannon Shakespeare.227 Svarog I88 Svaroz 227 Svanalfheim 202 Sviagriss 236 Svipdrag I94 Swift. S i b y1 l a. 222-223. r 8 6 .223.23.20+.238 Thyestes 10.22.I 7 l . 7. 196.60.198. 42. 8 68 .86. 188.213. 226. 46. 240.25r I20.223. r71. I2I. 159. 1 0l. I60.1 9 4 . I 5 2 . I. r85.sonof Brutus27 Titus. foundadon of I'1. 8 l Tarpeius. 2 4 2 .r 6 r .27.50. 78Selene 38.250.24r. 8 9 . 65 RanI78. 188.2r3. 8 6 Sacred Bandof 39 Theia38 Theseus 6. Annals Ulpses. 2 r 8 .78.8r StBlasius 247 St Boniface 251 St Bride I I0. L43.231 Sinfiotli 223. r 5 6 .