I

BEAgiI EROSTO}T A}TD ACCRETION AIOI.G A PART THE WEST OOAST OF ]N}Ig.

OF

I

University of Kerala
.t

"K.P of Seology iepartrnent

br

,Thrivikra.nra j i

I

Ilnal Rcport Prepared Under Thc Auspices of the
State Cornmittee on Science and Te chnblogy Govt. of Kerala, Trivandrum,
1

gg2.

FORE}TARD.

assistant, and his stud.ents worklng for the degree of Ph-D. The study a,rea. fa1ls in the Alleppey Di-st., anc ertends over a length of about 12 ]cm. The beach volume changes have been estimeed to know the ultirnate loss or ga.in of the sediment in the shoreface either leading to erosion or acretion of the beaches, Tlre estimates of profi.le variation mad,e 6ave been anal-ysed to see the state of th.e shoreline, ie, whether lt js erosing or" acr"ting. The historical f-l-uctuations in the shor.eline of Kerala has a.lso been estlrrpted a-nd included ln this report, to gain the eorreet perspective of the current sta,tus of .this environnelrt.
resea.rch
The data colr-ected durlng thc one year study has been. processed and coded systematically to create a, computer based data base. The structure a::d di-sposjtion of the tiata base has been developed. by Dr,K,p.Thrivikrarnaji, :rnd it has been imple * mented 1n the Keral-a rJniversity Computer, r^rith the asslssance of the s-rrstems Engj-neerr llir.A.K.Pujari. The be ach d.ata subfile is now aetive.

This finar r"eport is based. on the detaired studies carried out by K.p.Thrivikraraaji and a team consi_sting of

a

i:r his orlginal project this study r,ror"rld incompl.etc, unless ihe sediment d:'ift pattern 1n the nca.r shore rerr.ains i-tr-dcciphered. Therefore a earnest request is ruade here tc the Goyernrncnt for sanction of the second instalment of thc research grant.

The author berievesr tha.t a.s proglpsed

A

cK

r\:

ggr. s pqElurj

Nrg

The suppo:rt a,nd co*oF€ra.tion of the State committee i-n scjence nnd fech.nology, Govt" of Ke ra-l-a is greatefully rckr"or*ledged,. the Dcpt. of Gcolory, LTnivcrstty of Kerale a:r d spc ci al].y Prof .K.K.l.le non and tr.p.Ir "R,llair gcnerously exte:rc1ed the physi cal facrlities and suppcr to

carry out thc

sbudy

My friends, f ellcvr sci c:rtists o.r:d doctoral d.cgrce stuccnts working under m;,/ supcrvision a.nd. thc Rcsearch Assistarrt ln thc projcct slnccrcly and strenuousl_rr wcrkcd
;

in the various stages of the exccution of this prrojcct add rcndere d anc c>ree ll-ent au.d jcnee to test and try rny icca:
"

to strcngth and hopc-instjlled by the scveral people in the fishing cornmunities in the study area rqithout which, thls work would not ha.vc trken off the grou:rd .

i
i
I

I i
t.

ItLqB0QgqgIgs

This report nay be reatj along r^rith thc tr^ro ee.rl-ler reports complled b3' ine, and. alongl with the abstracts of oyal pre sentations 1n thc conferences. Howcver, the te:rt jn the report would- stancl on its olin, if the ri.a,der,*q interest is confined to the monsoonal- processe s relati.ng to episocic erosion of tlre bcachcs of l(erala, especi^tlx in thc study ari)8., rn orcer to makc the pi-cture ccripletr:, fron a historjeal stand point, r hnve .also studied, thc topographic maps published by survev of rnd,ia. dr-rring 1912 (i:ftcr ili; first survcy of InC ja) and in 1965" The llandsat inagr,ries rclatlng to ilre Kerala reglon has also been exanj_ned. rn the; ligtrt cf the study of tho' tcpographic sheets Fjorle lntc::csting corclusions havc bcen dr"awn, r,r'hic)r- presumablSr rrould create an inte::est in the nind of pla.nncr and dcvcloperr The fj_rst part of thc rcport cntails the enalysis of stud-jes of th,e 15d beach pro_ f iles collccte;d fron 13 ste.ti,ons s.rpcr,f tcd, by a intcrvall of one le il,ornctcr. lrie j-thcr thc profile;s nor tllc surr.rc-,/ data are included- in thj-s rcport, in order to k-eep its sj-zc rcasonable and duc to the fact that the data r,r1l-] be of j_ntercst onlJr in the cvent of carry-ing out a dctailcd stucly. Iiowr,'ver, ny own 1dr'as have evolvcd during this pcriod j-n a certa-,in ftii,nncr rncr. nolr r havc strred the da.ta of this stucy in a Beach d"ata subf ile of an Earth Resou.recs }ata, Base (8.It.D.8.).
Beach Profiles

Dat3 The bse.ch profileis co1lesf,cd during the study i:eriod numbey 15e . The profites t,.icre surrreycd. by the stake erd borj-zon ne rne thori of Ernery (1961 ). The ficLd procedr.rre il co1leeting the profiles are givcn in the nid-ycar tccl:nical rr pcrt ( t 929) . Fig.1a shows flrE: locatj-cn of profile stations ::r=rd- cvcr th.e stud}' 33s fr.on Al-Ieppcy to !.nitalapuzha, at ::: i::t:rrral lf 1 krn, erch. Thc profiles ui-ru collected fron -.:.78 tc i'iov.?9 a.t nonthly pericdiclties rt a11 the 1j (cond"..)

stations. The eurnulative vari-ations of be a"eh volune begining with the base nonth cf Dec.?B over cvery followi-n,s rnonth at arl the stations Lrarre bcen t1ia.gr"a_nniatical ly sk+tch cd in f igs . 1 to 13 ,urd ii:. Tahlc .1 .
$h

QI ef

ace,p-rp,fi I€_ qre a J_q qtg.J +_ag

cstinnt.;s cf the shorcfacc profile arca by '$uperposing profiles of a sta.tion can be r:ade succesrlivcly f or cach rcontj: r,lith re,ferencc: to thc ba"se llne profile, ie. Dec.78 profile. The prcfilc rccords were a*alysed ernd the e:sti na,ted of shor:cf ace are rrarintion in the profiles for s-1.1 the 13 stations hrve be en nadc and a_re giv<;r in Table 1. Thc data rir-sr: plotterd, as hj_sto65r.ans in Fig.1 tc 13" Alf t}:.e figures shor^r a gap for the month of oct"79. Thls na.)r be due to thc ccriplction of r cycle of crosion ai-.d d*position in the shorcfnce i_e. the diffe rence brtr,reen ttre Dcc. ?B and Oct. ?9 profllcs in te rr:s cf the area is practicalty nil. rn the histogr€lr:ls the ero$iona1 phase, has nat be en narked separatcly from that cf dcpr,.* sitional phase. Flowevcr, increase in il-r.e shorrfacc area. is shonn by the incre a.se in the hcight of the ba_rs, The :.e is a cllstinct birrod.ality in the graph, and it is due tc presence of tlie erosional phase :rnd dccreasc rn tho sh.orcfacc er(ra" The appearence of the trcugh in thr: various f igures (t-t3) ind"icates the cnsct of er.csi-onal pha.sc. 0n1y d jfference js thet the exa.ct ti.r:c cf occurrencc of the; crosional phase d jff e::e s fv'cn statiln tc staticn" For exanple in the figures, bnr 1, srrovls thc incrcase in th.e beach .rolnne betwcen Dec.?B and Jan.?9, and _bar 2 for Dec.?8 and -qeb.?9, and. ber ] fc.r Dc.c.?B e-nd }rarch 79 :,nd so on. Bir l,ta;r Juner Jul}r and Aug. fl:c va.ricus stations rcccrdcd beac?r-profile 'a.rea decrease lnd jcatin.g thc arrival rf prenonsoonal storns, ronsoona.l stcrr,s ancl the e rosiurn&l 'f,fe cts re;sulting thr,;re fron. Thc scconc node a.ctually *:i-i ce tes the considereble ercrsion the be aches h.a.ve
The;

-aJ-

undcrgone. By Ncv.?9 a-fter the Oct.?9 EaFr e"11 thc statjons indicate cnset of depcsiticn and- bcach growth. I,ig.16 is a- p1,ot of the area cf the profiles betl^reen Dec.?8 J:r.n.?9 and }ec.?8 IIov.?9, fcr al 1 the 13 stations ' This plct is veq/ instructive in thrt r,ctun-l- sand aceunu* lation or loss at thc vnriouc stn,ticns a'Tt vcry clear1-y indicated a* e*e#*ez+* 4;5v86*2 l"icst of tlre statj-cns bhor* 'the snoreface seaward. The consj_dey.a.ble inprovel,r.cnt of efcepticns 31rL' statj-ons 6 and 7 which has actua'1-1-y re cereded landward. The r:ar.inur sand gai::L is ird'; eated. a't s ia'tions sand 4r5r}r12 and 13. StationS 112, and 3 dicl not loose rnuch over the stud.y !'rriod' but the situation only inprcved narginally. But the gain at stations 9r1Or11 lle re reasonably
gcod..

gycqp-Ztle
Th.e cnvel opc
.f

Chqnses

r;frcd by overlaying thc serial prof 13-e s at a. steticn is dcsignated as ttre sweep zone" In cther wordso i-t is an ar a dcfined.by the profiles rt:l-eting tbe maxinur ad.fencc and retrr:a.t of thc shorefa.ce frcr. the rcfcrnnce or baseline profile . In the pri;sent stud-;r tlie llec.?8, profil'l is taken as th-c baseline " Thc ar€'e cf the E;I^ICCp zonj. in f t2 is cstjnatecl fcr el-L thc 13 stations. The s\{ecp %cn€ arca is a sig.nificant inde:i cf the relati-rc cxtent r:f sand voli;r'e novcr.ent or shorefacc adrrantec oI retr"eat of the statione in question. For gxa'"'p}e the slilee iJ %one a,rca is p}otted' the aga.inst tlre stati ons (p:-g '1 5 ) ' The plot dcriron€itratr;s point that in tlic fj.rst plecc th.e sa'nd novcnu'Irt tla.d cccured and it renged betwecn ?80 ft' to 154'0 ft7 ' Stations 1 '2'?'B'9 f t-"ea to the ar-.d l l lrad r*gistcred snnd nrcverrcnt in tht' shorc ti;nr., of about 13OO ft. or rore' 0r c]-e se tl-l'cse stations of underwerrt rc1-a.ti-vc1y sevcrc i-rosion and tenporary loss BOO ft' b=p=cn. $ta.tions 3 and, 5 hacl v6'gistcred nnly n'bout :f sa-nd rrovcrlent, whe;re as \he rest of trre staticns had' an ::.tcrireciate loss rate. Thus .s1'Iecp zcTle area vnrlation is i]luppropiiateT^iayofanalysingtlresevcrityofnonsacnal

.4-

'rcsion of the beaches and. pcrhaps,it se:rqes as a roliable le cord of e piscd ic erosi on associate i! rrrith thc nonsocns. It i 5 so b<:causc af tcr tlte, cessa.tlon cf the ronsoona'l lrave c1in,:-te the bcrer"es rcfcrr- to -bhe,ir criginll c:itcnt. Iis tor:Lc glroreline.Mg During the stud,lg of bcach erosion p::cl acrcti-on phenonena along thc Kcrale- cor.st, tlris investi-ga.tor hacl rcalised the need for undcrstanding the. extent of bea.cll sed.inent novei:,ent durlng the rlonsocnal ECascn c've;r th€ entir c extent shoreline of Kerala as well as fluctuations in the slic::eline positicn, if &oX, durinq thc lr.istoric tine . The sccond repcrt (Tirrivikramaj i,1 981 ) lr.ad er>'arri-ned" thc variaticn i-n shoreline r:rosion and the assoclntcd sanr,l rovcr:ent fron Cape conorin tb i\riangalore . Since then, a rcsearch lras carried out tc investigate the historical ch.angcs in tlrc shcreline, whether it be landw.s.rd or seal.rard. F'or thjs Furpose, seve r"a1 ra-ps publishcd by survey of India s ince 1912 we;Te s tud i-ed., along with tl: e !gn$gg! ina.ge ries supplied by thr: lTatlonal Renote sensing Agency. Survelr of fndirL tcpr-.graphic sh.e ets of 1t6536C, 1 :50r000, 12250r000 and Landsa't ina.ge rics of 1x25O,000 sca.les were analyscd. I{erein follcwing, tlie rcsults of thc conpa,riscn of raps i,:u.bJ-ished, by sur"vcy of India, j.n 1912 and 1965 in ttre scalr; of 126336O anrl 1 '" 5O,OCO e,rc T'nesen,ted..
Ms

tlpd

slad y 0n the survc:)r of Lndia tolcgrai,hic *oli-ct,:ts transects
c1f

to thc lntitude at 5 rrinute in-t''rvils T.'ICrc "*1sstrid. The distp.nce to the hig:t': watcr rark frrl a unique rcfcrence point r:n land (en interscction cf e. 1-ongitud,: lj-ne and P,. 5 ninute letitude h-nc) was nee-gure"4 p.r:ii;ciscl;r by an engirrcrcrs divid.er a:rd ccnvcrtcd intc d.jstance i.n re tcrs on the 1912 anrl 1965 topcgra.i.hi-c sheets._ The d,istanccs l,rcr'i, re ccrdcd in a centinetcr mlt:r accuratcly upto half a r:iIli-t'cter befr'rre conversion j-nto nctcrs. For exanple , )f atonS'' the sarc latif,ude, thc distancc to the high wnter nark sh.owed a longcr Cistance in the larallel

E -)-

i965 raf iri cor:r,"'ri-s.lr', wlth the 1g1z irap, it was taken as ease cf acretion and rriec vcrsa
As the naps r-.ubli,shed by survey of rndle in 1g1z anc 1955 werc in diffcrent scalL=s, suitable ccrrcetinns wcrc applicd to bring the neasurcd distanecs to a connon sca.1c ic. 1z5o,oo0, It was also found tl:lat the transects wcre irrva,riably not pcrpendlcular to the shorerine, but always trere at an anglc. Howevcr, when suitabrc corre bticns were appliecl the varia.tion in shoreline position was found to bc r,yithin- flre reasurerient error ouly
R

csuft

s

At the outset I potnt out that the reslrrts cnerging fron the investiga.t-i,ons arequite intcrestlng, fn the Fer1-rea.ble shorelj'ne of Kerala tlrere has been a strcng tcnclenc"y for fluctu* ation of the shoreline eithcr ]enriwa.rd or sr-.awarcl . The lanC loss by erosion ancl tlr-e' land gain by acrction occur altcrnately along the scctors of ttrc shorc,llne in a sa-ndniicrrr:d pattcrn. Table a gives thc Cjstribution anC extent of Inpcrmcable shoreline, Table J. glvcs a sunna-ry of flre rcsults. In the case of inperrreable shorelinc, ncasuring a length cf about 90 l,:n. the erosional hazp.rc has been infu.-,al" rn fact thc c1.cca.y of the shoreline along these sectors ere i-nfluenced cnly i.nd j-rcctly by the war./e aitack. tr'lhere sedinenta.ry rocks .r rcsir]ual latcrite arc exposed, suba.erj-ai l..rccesses of sl[)"pc dcstrr.rction a]sc flay a vcry i:rportant rolc j-n the rec,L-1ssi()n rf cliff facc e.nd hcnce loss of lanC. Thc, crystalline rocks c:rposr;c']. along, the cliffs arc lcast arrenable to the erosional lroccsses"Tt has been synoptically estina-'ced that th.r; statc ha-s .a.incd a,bout'41 kn2 of lanrr alcng thc coe.stal- a.rce anri lost n.bout zz kn2 during the periocl hetwe'en 1912 and. 1965,

-6-

D+qo ._ r''' ""' tl \?' 'r"11'1t .r.. "
\:o;.--t'.:t'.-t'
i'i6.-.
!

;

|'.-

i."

BeaCh Data SUb-flle.{'*;-;:;;:**L';;*"'iFr'"'

use of by j;,lenncrs, i-e. jts a-birlty tc stcrc largc volune of ri.ata. Tlic ab,ilit1r of the conputerr to rcprod.uce ttre; data fron its ner:cry ert coi:trand anr-l in the quickcst tine shoulC be utilise6 for thc planning prccesscs. fn ccvclopcc countrics ccnputcr bascd daia, stcragc, re'brieval a.nd upilatc frcil_ities have been used by sevi':ra.l agenci-es of Govt. This has nac,c i,.ossible "}a.e thc creetic::. and u.i;e d.ata basect-.
0n tho ba.sis cf ny knowlcdge anc, errpcsurc tc applj-ca-tion of corputcrs in resea"rchn it has ron bc-.en lassiblc to ceslgn, fornul-atc a:rcl inplener.t a clata basc fcr" tl"e Liati;lral re sources of Kerala. The c'iata basc is designa.tccr:rs E,F,,D.B,(Earth F-esources Data Base). The Ce ajls of thc clatr. basc i:-r glivc;r in lnig.14 I he.vc ccr] eiL and, re fincd the c:-",.ta ccllc'cted iruri ng the survey of a bt:ach, erosj.cn and acretion sturiy, tc cree.te a. Beach. cata $nbfj le in tlre licral-a- Unive rrity Ccrrlrut,'r: :rt Trjrraadrlr.'- . The Bea.ch clata subfile j.s now active. rt is ho1.r.:d tc nctivate all thc Ciffi:rcnt boxes of tbe fig.1{ in r,lur-' co.Lr.rsc. Currently thc cata bn"se i.s crcatei:l in Tapc ancl tt:re ln:.rguagc usec-l 1s coBol. As the slzc of ttre cls-ta basc increasc tlie tnpe necliur: r+i--t_l be substitutec fnr Disk. llr.A.K.Pujar:i, trre systcrrs Engineer of tl:e conputer contre cnl.laboratcs in this rcsearch llrc{Iranr,c l;'ith n<; . Cur:^ently beach survev cratt. rurning into e.bcut 9OO

Data ba.ses inportant part of planninpl frocesses of every :ration, Jn our country planning and Cevelopi:ent ere basecl on base line crta ccllccted by cifferr,,nt a.gencics clealing with natrrra.l. rii.i(iurccs. In fact, the datn pirtherrjC anC used by plarrners in i? Trai/ ar€. Catabases" Howetvcr, the only rrraw ba.ck of such data base s are thnt they at:c containe cl 1n leilgcrs, files, and sj,r:ilar records in pape r. This the r,.fc-re has rcsulted, in cfficicnt handl-ins' use and retrieval ar"d ulxr,nte of thc dater,. lAiith the advcnt of ccr.i:uters j.n research anC dcvclol:n.ent activitics, onc aspect c,f .tho co:,rputcr" hes bcen renainj-ng untapped in col'u.rtrics like Inllia" Only re ccrntly the capability of the corputi:r tc hr,nclc, large volur:cs cf clata has been prrperly nade

+7*

I'

in th e algorithrns fcr pr,,oc,essing thc datr, rctreiving it, elC upCating it e.nrr testins of thc-se ire to bc taken up cluring thc srutrer of trris yetr.
process:; o'A designi-ng
J*ow wc rr-ru

of furthcjr

carcl i-nages have been etored.. Facilltjes errist for inelusi-cn
beFch

'i

cata in this subflle.

activ{tinn

BY 1 984, 1t 1s holrcd tl e.ch i,: vc , ocnp,lc,tc of all the subf ilc,s in the EHDts
"

Cunule:tive Beach-?rofile-area changes (Ft2)
a a aa. caaaaa

Tab]-e-I

Stoti-on

?eriod
$ec,78-Jan.
79

II
24.19 342.76 354.86
572.51 77 4 .24

III

IV
141

V

YI
66.55 67.51 86.69 64.52

VII
766,95 80.65 12"09 60.48 50,49 68;55 70J .65 778,27
483.9A
161 .3O

187.51

Teh.

?9

l[arnl-TQ v-a-e1 J

,[,pri1-79

15.11 477.60 217.75 4O7 .28 225,82 92.74 282.27

56.45 217.75 112.91 423.41 1 00.81

.13

685.52 24.5.98
487 g1

HaFn ?9
Jurte r?9

96.?8 487.94
133,A7 354.69 762.14 ?.25,82
1

,93 147.18

t11.31
1

Julyr?9
Aug. 7c]
Sept. ?9

100.8 983.9 gg?.1 5
6,1..52

008"1 521 .CO
572,61 19?.59
191

48.39 54A,35 ZjZ.O3 645, t 8 2gO.74
661
P

9.41

88.?? 52.42
433,51

778.27
1

,33 tt15 .33

83.47

Oct.
De

79

-!iov,79

.15

64.52

858.92 586.7

39.30

lle. ?9

to

c. ?B
1

5.+4,.+1+31

,5 806.5 1104.9 786.35 1088.?

1399.2

Table I (contd". .)

Wwlrf d.
ffiflry6.?F-Jau.?9
t
t
I
I

VTII
1

XIT

XIII
48 17 )2. z

2.0

frFa*, ?C 4 bva t

118"q
153 .3

18q,5 235.9
3O3,2

125.Q

.1

t

?
.4

175.3
121

21' .7
'72
q

Ao
a4 a*.1

.'l

t

t
r I
I

March ?9

4

24,1 143.1

129,A 44.7
277,A 208. O

-{.pril

?9 79 79 79
1

298.4
754,.O

245,9

90.6
141

24.1

May
"I"{-nr",.e

i

677.i
426.'nr

.6 530.2
455

.g 64 t5

177.4 2c.1
658^.1

.3 2a9.6
28€:

July Sert. I ct.
-!.i^a Jl. ? t
O :

1262 .1
1

746tA
667 483

901.2 863.76
655.A

927.4 584,7

C.uEu,79
'79

1151 .2
B5g_.2

002

.0

i7 i9
.1

951

,6

697.6

56|-.5
4YO. *

813.3
1197.6

79

572.6
1 52Q

350.8

1 ,+1

c'7

A

6,

I€c.78 to
Iov.79

.2

1356 .c.t 1 O72 ,6

1

135 ,1

1231

.g

i 524.2

Table 2" C]-iffeC shoreline ' ( I:rpcrraeable shoreli-ne of Kerala.

)

Lceation Chappath, - Vizhinjan'r
Kovalan Vetcor-Thangess eri
B
W-e

lithology
sedients; PGcr:rstallin Terti.ary sediner ts

Extent
10
es

krr.

rtiary

57

,5

eyorpc

prinary l,n,tcritc

1 .25

Putlriyappa

?rlnar;r Ira.te;rite
P g crystall::nef Resnary l,r.terj-tc P g Crystalltr:ef

2.75

Quilandi
l.tahe

7.5
12,75
12
1

Carnanorc AzhikoCe Bzhina.l a
S . of

prinary lat'.:rite Warkalli la.t cri-te

.75 .25

l(asaragccl

e

Prinary la,tt+ritc P g cryst:rlline F g cr.rrsta115-ne f PrinD.rl' li t" ri te

P S brystall::nef

3.75
71q

Totel lergth of Cliffed ( h,rpe rreable ) S hore line

92.75

Table 3. Shcreline fluctuation durinF h+q-tffir9J1Ug

I

I

r
I

f.,ocatr on (Sector)

Nature of fLuctuation
Acre

I t l I
I

i

I

- 80 0O') to Fanikutar (j76 ZCt i*txo.e (fn'i 75' .. 90 'co')
?covar t77' 55' - 80 1 ot ) 10') Era.vipure.r: (77o 05' - 80 N " of I'tekkad to ;;n*k;" (7do 1r, 10o I 0')
lleerkt-nnna.rn (?Co

I

ti

i,

on
{

Erod ing EroC"ing

l

ErilC'ing

25' - 90 25'\ 10o 10t) ElarkunnaPuzha (?ro 2ot f 3'r $;illt-jl tltr-Ei"v?b? r 1 0o 45' ) ?allthuru-thu ft Ao 00 to ??Yth of North of Va.Cakkekad11 ;;.;;h"; 1,7r" tb'! - o 1 5' )
North cf Elathur to Ba.ir.agar (t5o 40t * 11o 50')
110

Acretir:g Acreting
EroCing
Acr.-

ting

Erocii r,gf

Acrcting
Acre

ting

35') Krrnnanka.re (l5o 4-0' > 05') 12e Thekkecllea'a (?5o 15'
No. of Kunjathur
I{an

to

Ercd.ing
Acre

ting

jesh'rrar tT tro 55'

120 45')

Ircd ing

D

ls t ribut j- qn- -I, i€-L

Kera.la circle
Trivand rui:.

Dire ctcr Geol-ogical- Su-rvey of InCia

Trivand rur:r.59501

Director Centre for Ea.rth Science Studies, F.8.2235
O

Kerala Uty. Library

The

librarian Trj-var-'d rrLr.rl . 59 5001

Thc Librari-an The Legistature T,ibrary Secretariat n Trivand,run

Dlrector Mining & Geclory Dept.
Trivand.nrn.

Kerala Engg.Research

Dircctor,

Institute,

Peechi

Director
Gon

ITatior:a1 lrrstitute of Occna.ogrcphy, Dona Paula

Professor of Marine

Dept.of Harine Scienccs
Foreshore Road,
Cochin

Geolcgy,

Dept"of Earch Sciences
Dr.Dipa,nkar }iiYogi

Dr.E.I{.Sphu

IIf ,Por'rai, BonbaY. 4OOO?6

Dr.I.B.Sinsh Dept.of Ge6lcgy'
Lucknow UtY.
Irucknow

Iept.ef GecloEY & GeoPhYsics IIT, Kha.ragPur, W.Bengal
Roorkeer Ur: lve,:rsif,y, Roorkc e , U.?.

Schcol of Invrionnental Stud.i-cs, Jawaharlal Nehru UnivcrsitY

The Dean,

The Profe,ssor

of

GeologSr

Prof.A.K.
Calcutta

Presi i-d ency College ,

Saha,

Dept.of Geology
JnnabharathiBa"nga.lore

Dr. C.ltaganna

The Dean cf Science-' Univcisit;r of Kerala Trivand rtln.

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