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Charecterestics of OB 1. Behavioral approach to management OB is that part of whole management which represents the behavioural approach to management.

. The basic aim of this approach is to increase the organizational effectiveness by increasing the effectiveness of its human resources, which could be achieved by properly taking care of human needs. OB has emerged as distinct filed of dtudy because of human behaviour in organizations. 2. Cause and effect relationship human behaviour is generally taken in terms of cause and effect relationship and not in philosophical terms. It helps in predicting the behaviour of individuals. It provides generalizations that managers can use to anticipate the effect of certain activities on human behaviour 3. OB is a branch of social science. It is heavily ifluenced by several other social sciences Viz. Psychology, sociology anthropology etc. It draws theories from these disciplines. 4. Three level analysis. OB includes the study of three levels of analysis namely individual behaviour, inter individual behaviour and the behaviour of organizations themselves. The field of OB embraces all these levels as being complementory to each other 5. Science as well as art - OB is an applied science with an element of practical focus. The basicobjective of organizational behaviour is to make application of researches tosolve the organizational problems, particularly related to human behaviour.Organizational behaviour can also be called as science as well as art. 6. beneficial to both organization and individuals- OB creates an atmosphere whereby both organization and individuals are benefited by each other. A reasonable climate is created so that employees may get much needed satisfaction and the organization may get its objectives. 7. Rational thinking . OB provides a rational thinking about people and their behaviour. The major objective of OB is to explain and predict human behaviour in organizations so that result yielding situations can be created. Key Elements of Organisational Behavior The key elements in organizational behavior are people, structure, technology and the external elements in which the organization operates. When people join together in an organization to accomplish an objective, some kind of infrastructure is required. People also use technology to help get the job done, so there is an interaction of people, structure and technology. In addition, these elements are influenced by the external environment, and they influence it. 1. People. People make up the internal social system of the organization. They consist of individuals and groups, and large groups as well as small ones. People are the living,

thinking, feelings beings who created the organizations. It exists to achieve their objectives. Organizations exist to serve people. People do not exist to serve organizations. The work force is one of the critical resources t hat need to be managed. In managing human resources, managers have to deal with: i) Individual employee who are expected to perform the tasks allotted to them ii) Dyadic relationships such as superior-subordinate interactions iii) Groups who work as teams and have the responsibility for getting the job done, iv) People out side the organization system such as customers and government officials 2. Structure. Structure defines the official relationships of people in organizations. Different jobs are required to accomplish all of an organizations activities. There are managers and employees, accountants and assemblers. These people have to be related in some structural way so that their work can be effective. The main structure relates to power and to duties. For example, one person has authority to make decisions that affect the work of other people. Some of the key concepts of organization structure are listed as below: a) Hierarchy of Authority: This refers to the distribution of authority among organizational positions and authority grants the position holder certain rights including right to give direction to others and the right to punish and reward. b) Division of Labor: This refers to the distribution of responsibilities and the way in which activities are divided up and assigned to different members of the organization is considered to be an element of the social structure. c) Span of Control: This refers to the total number of subordinates over whom a manager has authority d) Specialization: This refers to the number of specialities performed within the organization. e) Standardization: It refers to the existence of procedures for regularly recurring events or activities f) Formalization: This refers to the extent to which rules, procedures, and communications are written down g) Centralization: This refers to the concentration of authority to make decision. 3. Technology

Organizations have technologies for transforming inputs and outputs. These technologies consist of physical objects, activities and process, knowledge, all of which are brought to bear on raw materials labor and capital inputs during a transformation process. The core technology is that set of productive components most directly associated with the transformation process, for example, production or assembly line in manufacturing firm. Technology provides the physical and economic resources with which people work. They cannot accomplish much with their bare hands, so they build buildings, design machines, create work processes and assemble resources. The technology that results has a significant influence on working relationships. 4. Environment All organizations operate within an external environment. A single organization does not exist alone. It is part of a larger system that contains thousand of other elements. All these mutually influence each other in a complex system that becomes the life style of the people . Every organization interacts with other members of its environment. The interactions allow the organization to acquire raw material, hire employees, secure capital, obtain knowledge, and build, lease or buy facilities and equipment. Since the organization process a product or service for consumption by the environment, it will also interact with its customers. Other environmental actions, who regulate or over see these exchanges, interact with the organization as well (distributors, advertising agencies, trade associations, government of the countries in which business is conducted) Philosophical concept of OB 1. 2. 3. 4. Caused behaviour A whole person Individual difference human dignity

Non-financial methods of motivation and empowerment: 1. Job rotation 2. Job enrichment 3. Job enlargement 4. Flexible working 5. Team building 6. Team working 7. Work councils 8. Goal and targeting setting

EMPLOYEE COUNSELLING. In every organisation, a large number of employees work together. Their attitudes, feelings and needs differ from each other. Such individual difference cause different problems in an enterprise. These problems may relate to the organisation, working condition, supervision, remuneration, or technical aspect. Some times these problems may result in emotional conflicts. Such conflicts may arise between employee and employee, employee and supervisor, employee and employer, supervisor and manager or between supervisor and supervisor. Such conflicts are against the interest of all, and the enterprise. So the need is to get rid of these conflicts and the best way is to counsel the concerned parties. Employee counselling is a discussion with the concerned employee on an emotional problem so that the problem may be solved. Under this technique the problem is listened carefully and the suggestions are given to him to reduce the problem. In the words of Keith Davis, counselling is defined as discussion of an emotional problem with an employee, with general objective of decreasing it. Emotional problems cause tension and confusion in the minds of an employee. He may find it difficult to discharge his duties properly due to such tensions. Emotional upsets can reduce the productivity, or it may make them leave the Co. it may lower the morale of the department they belong to. Such tensions should be removed at any cost because these adversely affect the achievement of organisational objectives. Types of employee Counselling. The objective of counselling is to help reduce emotional problems of employees. A reduction of such problems will benefit every one- the employee, his family, supervisor and the organisation. Basically there are three forms of counselling. 1. Directive counselling:- This is the process of hearing a persons emotional problems, deciding what he should do, and then telling and motivating him to do it. Under this method the counsellor listens to the problems of the employee very patiently and analyses this problem in his mind. Then he advises the employee, what he should do. Thus this method of counselling stresses upon the suggestions by counsellor to the employee. Directive counselling mostly accomplishes the counselling function of advise, but it may also communicate, give emotional release and to a minor extent clarify thinking. But this method is subject to certain limitations such as The counsellor may not be able to in understanding the problem of the employees The employee may or may not agree with the advise The success of this method depends upon the ability and efficiency of counsellor. 2.Non Directive Counselling:- Under this method, the counsellor listens to the problems of employees. The employee is encouraged to explain his problem in detail. This method concentrates upon the employee rather than the counsellor. Under this method the employee himself controls the direction of discussion and he himself tries to

find out the solution of his problem. The counsellor does not give his suggestions. This method is more effective because the employee gets the status equal to the counsellor. He feels complete freedom, and tries to find out the solution of his problem. But this method takes more time and can be effective only when the employee have self confidence. 3. Co-operative Counselling:- This method is a combination of both directive and non directive method of counselling. Under this method, both the employee and counsellor co-operate each other finding a solution of the problem. Here both discuss their views on the problem in detail and try to find out the solutions based on mutual consent and co-operation. This form of counselling is worth a serious notice as this appears to b more practically applicable and more readily suitable to managerial attitude and temperament in Indian organisational situations than the other two. Contingency theory of leadership Contingency theory is a class of behavioral theory that claims that there is no best way to organize a corporation, to lead a company, or to make decisions. Instead, the optimal course of action is contingent (dependent) upon the internal and external situation. Several contingency approaches were developed concurrently in the late 1960s. In the 1960s, Fred Fielder advanced the first theory using the contingency approach, the contingency theory of effectiveness. The main idea of this early theory is that leadership effectiveness (in terms of group performance) depends on the interaction of two factors: the leader's task or relations motivations and aspects of the situation. The leader's task or relations motivation is measured through the Least Preferred Coworker 1scale (LPC).

This scale asks leaders to recall a coworker (previously or currently) they work with least well and to characterize this individual with ratings on a series of 8-point bipolar adjectives (e.g., distant cold). High LPC scores reflect more positive descriptions of the least preferred coworker, whereas low LPC scores evidence more negative perceptions. Fielder argued that an individual with a high LPC score is motivated to maintain harmonious interpersonal relationships, whereas an individual with a low LPC score is motivated to focus on task accomplishment.

The model says that task-oriented leaders usually view their LPCs more negatively, resulting in a lower score. Fiedler called these low LPC-leaders. He said that low LPCs are very effective at completing tasks. They're quick to organize a group to get tasks and projects done. Relationship-building is a low priority. However, relationship-oriented leaders usually view their LPCs more positively, giving them a higher score. These are high-LPC leaders. High LPCs focus more on personal connections, and they're good at avoiding and managing conflict. They're better able to make complex decisions. PathGoal Theory Pathgoal theory was originally developed by Martin Evans in 1970 and expanded by Robert House in 1971 into a more complex contingency theory. Drawing on expectancy theory and the Ohio and Michigan leader behavior studies, House suggested that a leader should help elucidate the path for followers to achieve group goals. This involves the leader employing particular behaviors in specific situations to increase follower satisfaction and motivate efforts toward task accomplishment. The theory identifies four types of leader behavior that include supportive (relations oriented), directive (task oriented), achievement oriented, participative leader behavior, as well as two aspects of the situation, namely, follower characteristics and task characteristics. In situations where the task is dull or taxing, the theory predicts that supportive leadership behaviors may increase followers' interest in task accomplishment and encourage followers' expectations of a successful outcome. In turn, this may motivate followers' efforts to achieve the task. In situations where the task is ambiguous or complicated, directive behaviors such as clarifying the task at hand and stressing rewards contingent on good performance could increase followers' positive expectancies. This may consequently motivate followers' efforts to achieve designated goals. Path goal theory proposed following four leader behaviour. 1. Supportive leadership Considering the needs of the follower, showing concern for their welfare and creating a friendly working environment. This includes increasing the follower's self-esteem and making the job more interesting. This approach is best when the work is stressful, boring or hazardous. 2. Directive leadership Telling followers what needs to be done and giving appropriate guidance along the way. This includes giving them schedules of specific work to be done at specific times. Rewards may also be increased as needed and role ambiguity decreased (by telling them what they should be doing). This may be used when the task is unstructured and complex and the follower is inexperienced. This increases the follower's sense of security and control and hence is appropriate to the situation.

3. Participative leadership Consulting with followers and taking their ideas into account when making decisions and taking particular actions. This approach is best when the followers are expert and their advice is both needed and they expect to be able to give it. 4. Achievement-oriented leadership Setting challenging goals, both in work and in self-improvement (and often together). High standards are demonstrated and expected. The leader shows faith in the capabilities of the follower to succeed. This approach is best when the task is complex.