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To: The Obama Administration Transition Team, Members of Congress
From: Samuel A. Worthington, President & CEO, InterAction
Date: November 2008
Re: InterAction’s 2008 Transition Foreign Assistance Briefing Book

n behalf of InterAction’s 172 member organizations, I am pleased to present you with
our Foreign Assistance Briefing Book. Our goal for this book is to present our commu-
nity’s best thinking and wealth of experience on the issues we expect you will face
during the first six months of President Obama’s Administration and the 111th Congress. This
briefing book identifies key areas and sectors in need of immediate attention and lays out sug-
gested actions. The book captures the lessons learned from our members’ decades of on-the-
ground experience, which guides InterAction’s work. The briefing book is presented in three
distinct sections: issues such as climate change, funding trends, and humanitarian priorities.
Each issue is outlined in a succinct one-pager and several sections have additional longer, in-
depth background papers.

InterAction is the largest coalition of U.S.-based international nongovernmental organiza-
tions (NGOs) focused on the world’s poor and most vulnerable people. Our members’ activities
are directly supported by over $6 billion of private funding from the American people, leverag-
ing the over $2.8 billion our members receive from the federal government.

Foreign assistance advances U.S. national interests. U.S. foreign assistance represents our
humanitarian values, and shows the best face of America to the world. Public attitudes show
strong support for poverty reduction, sustainable development, and humanitarian work.
More than 90% of respondents to a September 2006 Public Agenda poll indicated that, “help-
ing other countries when they are struck by natural disasters like the tsunami in Indonesia”
and, “assisting countries with developing clean water supplies,” should be top priorities of
U.S. foreign policy. Conversely, only 34% of survey respondents agreed with the statement,
“We should only send aid to parts of the world where the U.S. has security interests.”

At the heart of America’s foreign assistance portfolio is poverty-focused development as-
sistance, which is our country’s most important tool for reaching the world’s poor. The primary
goal of such assistance is to support the efforts of people, communities and countries to per-
manently lift themselves out of poverty, and to save lives in humanitarian emergencies. This
effort extends beyond the much-needed task of addressing the basic needs of the poor, such
as creating access to food, water and sanitation, and health care. It involves protecting the
most vulnerable from shocks, cycles, and trends that threaten their survival, equipping them
with the capacity and tools to advocate on their own behalf, enabling them to be stakeholders
in the systems and structures that govern their access to resources, and improving their ability
to support themselves and their families. For instance, the number of people living in abso-
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lute poverty has fallen by 500 million over the last twenty-five years. The number of deaths of
Suite 210 children under the age of five fell from 20 million in 1960 to 9.7 million in 2006. From 1960 to
Washington, DC 20036 2006, the disparity between primary and secondary education for boys and girls declined by
202-667-8227 60 percent.
While the U.S. NGO community involved in foreign relief and development has proven suc- cesses, its ability to partner effectively with the U.S. Government has declined in recent years.
Today, too few international development dollars are spread over too many federal agencies. U.S. foreign assistance is frag-
mented across 26 departments and agencies in our government, and aid programs are often poorly coordinated and/or
working at cross-purposes. This fragmentation has been exacerbated by recent initiatives like PEPFAR and the Millennium
Challenge Corporation (MCC) that were designed to work around, rather than with, existing development capabilities of the
U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID), the lead U.S. development agency.

For this reason, InterAction believes, as do a growing number of foreign policy and international development experts,
that the U.S. needs a single national strategy for global development, bringing all U.S. development assistance programs,
including MCC and PEPFAR, under a single unified framework, overseen by a Cabinet-level department focused on humani-
tarian relief and international development. We envision an entirely new department, with new capabilities to meet 21st
century challenges, that brings the government’s best development interventions together beneath one roof.

Our top three priorities for modernizing and elevating foreign assistance within our government are:

• Develop and promulgate a new national development a strategy that articulates the U.S. Government’s overarching
development goal, describes how the United States will partner with beneficiaries and other donors, and prioritizes
poverty reduction as a key goal.

• Elevate development to its rightful place alongside defense and diplomacy – as articulated in the 2002 and 2006
National Security Strategies – by creating a new Cabinet-level Department for Global and Human Development.

• Rewrite and reauthorize the Foreign Assistance Act (FAA) to eliminate the legislative and bureaucratic barriers to
effective development. Take the opportunity presented by the reauthorization to reprioritize monitoring and evalua-
tion, local consultation, and flexibility in programming.

Taking these steps will help us create aid programs that are attuned to the needs of beneficiaries and dynamic enough
to respond to them. This can achieved by crafting a “grand bargain” between Congress and the administration that reflects
a shared vision of the role and management of U.S. foreign assistance, provides the Executive branch with the authorities
it needs to respond to a rapidly changing world, and ensures rightful and comprehensive legislative oversight. All of these
steps should take place in consultation with civil society, beneficiaries and other stakeholders.

This briefing book contains a wealth of information and policy recommendations on a range of pressing foreign assistance
challenges. Included is InterAction’s FY2010 development and humanitarian budget request levels for your information. If
you would like further information about these or any other topics related to U.S. foreign assistance, please contact my staff
at 202-667-8227.

This Foreign Assistance Briefing Book represents a robust collaboration involving over one hundred InterAction member
organizations working through and with InterAction staff, and in partnership with one another. Member organizations and
relevant working groups are credited in connection with particular policy papers. Nearly every interaction staff member
contributed in some way, by coordinating the work of members, writing and editing, developing ideas and concepts, and
reaching out to knowledgeable authorities. Leadership for this project came from three staff members: Chad Brobst, Senior
Publication Manager and Graphic Designer, developed design and coordinated production; Sarah Farnsworth, Senior Pro-
gram Manager for Government Relations, managed the project and coordinated the work of many members and staff; and
Lindsay Coates, Vice President for Policy and Communications, provided overall leadership. Many thanks to the InterAction
member organizations, their leadership and staffs, and the InterAction staff for their contributions, professionalism and dedi-
cation. We hope that our efforts will be useful to our readers.
InterAction is the largest coalition of U.S.-based international non-
governmental organizations (NGOs) focused on the world’s poor and
most vulnerable people. Collectively, InterAction’s more than 165
members work in every developing country. Formed in 1984 with MOVING FORWARD IN 2008
22 members and now based in Washington, DC with a staff of 40,
InterAction’s member agencies are large and small, faith-based and InterAction’s work is guided by the following priorities:
secular and are headquartered across 25 states.
Goal 1
In poor communities throughout the developing world, InterAction Promote a bold agenda to focus U.S. development and
members meet people halfway in expanding opportunities and sup- humanitarian assistance on improving the conditions of
porting gender equality in education, health care, agriculture, small the world’s poor and most vulnerable.
business, and other areas. To forestall or recover from the violence that
Engage with the U.S. government to advance
impacts millions of innocent civilians, InterAction exercises leadership
poverty alleviation and humanitarian relief as major
in conflict prevention, the peaceful resolution of disputes, and peace-
independent U.S. foreign assistance priorities.
building initiatives in post-conflict situations. InterAction members
Advocate for the creation of a cabinet-level
respond to natural disasters all around the world.
U.S. department that addresses development,
The U.S. public shows its support for advancing human dignity and humanitarian assistance, and other related issues.
peace in the world through contributions to InterAction members total-
ing around $6 billion annually. InterAction leverages the impact of this Goal 2
private support by advocating for the expansion of U.S. government in- Demonstrate and enhance NGO accountability and
impact in development and humanitarian action. Focus
vestments and by insisting that policies and programs are responsive to
on aggregating the contributions of the NGO community
the realities of the world’s poorest and most vulnerable populations.
towards achieving the Millennium Development Goals,
InterAction’s comparative advantage rests on the uniquely field and on broadening compliance with the Sphere Project’s
practitioner-based expertise of its members. InterAction works with Minimum Standards in Disaster Response, and on
its members to compile data on the impact of NGO programs, as aligning with other key global frameworks that advance
a basis for promoting best practices and for evidence-based public development efforts and enable humanitarian action.
policy formulation.
Goal 3
InterAction brings the values and experience of the NGO community Be the voice and prime representative of U.S.
into the broader development and humanitarian assistance community international NGOs in building alliances and common
through strategic alliances with key partners around particular issues agendas with NGO networks around the world and with
and objectives. These partnerships further leverage InterAction’s politi- other strategic partners.
cal, intellectual, and financial capital. InterAction believes its future is
one of strategic alliances.

Neither InterAction nor its members bear lightly the responsibility of For more information, visit:
the trust the American people place in us. As such, members adhere
to InterAction’s standards that help assure accountability in the critical
areas of financial management, fundraising, governance, and program

1400 16th Street, NW, Suite 210 Washington, DC 20036 USA Tel 1.202.667.8227 Fax 1.202.667.8236
InterAction Member Organizations

Academy for Educational Development Friends of Liberia National Wildlife Federation
Action Against Hunger USA Friends of the World Food Program ONE Campaign
ActionAid International USA Gifts In Kind International Operation USA
Adventist Development and Relief Giving Children Hope Opportunity International
Agency International (ADRA) Global Health Council Oxfam America
African Medical & Research Foundation Global Links Pact
African Methodist Episcopal Service and Global Resource Services Pan American Development Foundation
Development Agency (AME-SADA) GOAL USA PATH
Africare Goodwill Industries International Pathfinder International
Aga Khan Foundation USA Habitat for Humanity International PCI-Media Impact
Aid to Artisans Handicap International USA Perkins School for the Blind
Air Serv International Hands on Worldwide Physicians for Human Rights
Alliance to End Hunger Heart to Heart International Physicians for Peace
American Friends Service Committee Heartland Alliance Plan USA
American Jewish Joint Distribution Hebrew Immigrant Aid Society Population Action International
Committee Heifer International Population Communication
American Jewish World Service Helen Keller International Presbyterian Disaster Assistance and
American Near East Refugee Aid Hesperian Foundation Hunger Program
American Red Cross International Services Holt International Children’s Services Project HOPE
American Refugee Committee Humane Society International (HIS) ProLiteracy Worldwide
AmeriCares The Hunger Project Quixote Center/Quest for Peace
America’s Development Foundation (ADF) Information Management and Mine Action Refugees International
Amigos de las Américas Programs (IMMAP) Relief International
Ananda Marga Universal Relief Team INMED Partnerships for Children RESULTS
Baptist World Alliance InsideNGO Salvation Army World Service Office
B’nai B’rith International Institute for Sustainable Communities Save the Children
BRAC USA Institute of Cultural Affairs Seva Foundation
Bread for the World International Aid, Inc. SHARE Foundation
Bread for the World Institute International Catholic Migration Society for International Development (SID)
Brother’s Brother Foundation Commission (ICMC) Solar Cookers International
Campaign for Innocent Victims in Conflict International Center for Research Stop Hunger Now
(CIVIC) on Women (ICRW) Support Group to Democracy
CARE International Crisis Group (ICG) Trickle Up Program
Catholic Medical Mission Board International Housing Coalition (IHC) Unitarian Universalist Service Committee
Catholic Relief Services International Institute of Rural United Methodist Committee on Relief
Center for Health and Gender Equity Reconstruction United Way International
(CHANGE) International Medical Corps USA for UNHCR
Center for International Health and International Orthodox Christian U.S. Committee for Refugees and
Cooperation (CIHC) Charities (IOCC) Immigrants
Centre for Development and Population International Reading Association U.S. Committee for UNDP
Activities (CEDPA) International Relief & Development U.S. Fund for UNICEF
CHF International International Relief Teams VAB (Volunteers Association of Bangladesh)
Christian Blind Mission (CBM) International Rescue Committee (IRC) Winrock International
Christian Children’s Fund (CCF) International Social Service — United States Women for Women International
Christian Reformed World Relief of America Branch, Inc Women’s Environment and Development
Committee (CRWRC) International Youth Foundation Organization
Church World Service Interplast Women Thrive Worldwide
Citizens Development Corps Islamic Relief USA World Cocoa Foundation
Citizens Network for Foreign Affairs Joint Aid Management (JAM) World Concern
Communications Consortium Media Center Jesuit Refugee Services USA World Conference of Religions for Peace
Concern America Korean American Sharing Movement World Education
CONCERN Worldwide U.S., Inc. Latter-day Saint Charities World Emergency Relief
Congressional Hunger Center Life for Relief and Development World Hope International
Counterpart International Lutheran World Relief World Learning
Direct Relief International Management Sciences for Health (MSH) World Neighbors
Doctors of the World MAP International World Rehabilitation Fund
Educational Concerns for Hunger Medical Care Development World Relief
Organization (ECHO) Medical Teams International World Resources Institute (WRI)
Episcopal Relief & Development Mental Disability Rights International World Society for the Protection of Animals
Ethiopian Community Development Council Mercy Corps World Wildlife Fund
Floresta Mercy USA for Aid and Development World Vision
The Florida Association of Volunteer Action Minnesota International Health (as of 10/01/08)
in the Caribbean and the Americas Volunteers
(FAVACA) Mobility International USA
Food For The Hungry National Association of Social Workers
Freedom From Hunger National Peace Corps Association
InterAction Funding
Recommendations for
FY2010 Poverty-focused
Development and
Humanitarian Accounts

nterAction, a coalition of 172 U.S.-based international development and humanitarian
private voluntary organizations, respectfully submits the following funding
recommendations for FY2010. We strongly urge the Administration to request these
amounts, and urge the Administration, Budget Committees and the Appropriations
Committees to request and provide allocations sufficient to allow the recommended total
increase of $9.9 billion dollars (over FY2008 enacted levels) for these poverty-focused
development and humanitarian accounts.

Success in the global fight against poverty requires quality investments across a number
of sectors: HIV/AIDS, education, nutrition, clean water, skilled health workers, good
governance, functioning health systems, economic empowerment, and gender equality,
to name just a few. Sustainable progress in any one of these sectors is intertwined with
progress in the others, and if investments are not balanced across sectors, our ability to
effect sustainable change, including in the prevention and treatment of HIV/AIDS, will
be diminished. InterAction celebrates the exponential increases in support for HIV/
AIDS and malaria programs over the last several years, but urges the Administration
to request and Congress to provide adequate funding across all these sectors and

We fully understand the tough budget climate. While our recommendations may seem
aggressive to some, their total remains an exceedingly small portion of the overall federal
budget, and the returns on the investments we recommend – in increased global stability,
prosperity and good will, reduction of suffering and enactment of American values – will
be many-fold. In the coming years, those returns will be needed more than ever. The time
to make the investments is now.
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The table on the next page provides our numerical recommendations by account,
Suite 210 with comparison to FY2008 enacted levels (given the incomplete status of FY2009
Washington, DC 20036 appropriations). The pages that follow provide justifications for our recommendations,
202-667-8227 explaining the numbers and where useful breaking them down by “sub-account.”
Questions and requests for further detail are welcome: please contact Ken Forsberg at InterAction at 202-552-6564, or
InterAction Fiscal Year 2010 Funding Recommendations
($ in thousands)
FY08 Enacted
InterAction FY2010 Δ from FY08
Account (including all
Recommendation Total Enacted
Global Health and Child Survival Programs (non-HIV) 3,347,500 +1,865,513 1,481,987
Development Assistance 3,756,300 +2,132,678 1,623,622
International Disaster Assistance 1,128,200 +478,461 649,739
Office of Transition Initiatives 65,000 +20,365 44,636
Migration and Refugee Assistance 2,051,000 +712,822 1,338,178
Emergency Refugee and Migration Assistance 200,000 +124,364 75,636
International Organizations and Programs:     316,897
UNICEF 135,000 +6,000 129,000
UNFPA 65,000 +58,000 7,000
UNIFEM 7,000 +3,400 3,600
UNIFEM Trust Fund 5,000 +3,200  1,800
UNDP 110,000 +11,840 98,160
Center for Human Settlements 2,500 +1,500 1000

TOTAL CORE ACCOUNTS 10,872,000 +5,418,142 5,454,358
Millennium Challenge Corporation 2,200,000 +713,612 1,486,388
Global Health and Child Survival Programs (HIV) 8,500,000 +3,490,905 5,009,095
Contributions to International Peacekeeping Activities 2,327,845 +263,628 2,064,217

TOTAL OTHER KEY ACCOUNTS 13,027,845 +4,468,145 8,559,700
GRAND TOTAL 23,900,345 +9,886,287 14,014,058
FY10 Funding Level
Account Justification

This amount for the Global Health Account (not counting HIV programs) would allow the following:
• a maternal and child health investment of $900 million which would expand effective programs to save
the lives of children under 5 and their mothers who die from preventable causes;
• a bilateral family planning and reproductive health investment of $935 million which would constitute
an appropriate U.S. share of the resources necessary to meet the need for contraception of the estimated 201
million women in the developing world whose contraceptive needs go unmet;
• a TB investment of $650 million which would provide the USAID portion of the U.S. share of what is needed
GHCS – non-HIV in 2010 based on the Global Plan and the MDR-TB and XDR-TB Global Response Plan;

$3.348 billion • a malaria investment of $800 million which is targeted to meet the President’s Malaria Initiative (PMI). PMI
(Global Health and Child pledged $1.2 billion to combat malaria at the end of five years;
Survival, non-HIV)
• $50 million for neglected tropical diseases which would keep the U.S. on track to meet what the President
has pledged toward fighting those diseases; and
• $12.5 million for child marriage prevention (with the same amount in Development Assistance) which
would help reduce a practice associated with greater poverty, lower levels of girls’ education, higher rates of
maternal and infant mortality, and greater incidence of domestic violence.
New investment in global health is also vital for expanding health workforce capacity and working against
gender-based violence. Overall, the recommended amount for this account would constitute a significant and
much needed increased U.S. investment in a healthier world.
FY10 Funding Level
Account Justification

This amount for Development Assistance would allow the following:
• $1 billion for basic education – the foundation for human and economic development – which would
amount to 1/3 of the U.S. share of what is needed annually to ensure that all children have access to quality
basic education by the internationally agreed upon target of 2015;
• $750 million for agricultural development which is consistent with the authorization in the Lugar-Casey
Global Food Security Act of 2008 (which will be reintroduced in the next Congress) and reverses a steady
decline in funding for these programs. Some estimate the U.S. share of the global needs for programs to
increase agricultural productivity at $1.2 billion;
• $500 million for water and sanitation which is the realistic amount required in FY 2010 to continue to
implement the Senator Paul Simon Water for the Poor Act (P.L. No. 109-121), and to work partially toward the
goal stated by Congress therein to “reduce by one-half from the baseline year 1990 the proportion of people
who are unable to reach or afford safe drinking water and the proportion of people without access to basic
sanitation by 2015.” This amount would cover the cost of bringing adequate water and basic sanitation to
5 million new people each year (or 5% of the total number of people annually needing access to reach the
relevant Millennium Development Goal) in countries that have increased internal funding for the sector and
that have sound water and sanitation policies;
• $304 million for microfinance which would make a significant contribution toward poverty reduction by
$3.756 billion enabling microfinance institutions to leverage billions of dollars in private investment capital to promote
Assistance) dramatic growth in outreach to the poor and very poor, an estimated 500 million of whom could benefit
from enterprise credit, as well as the hundreds of millions more who do not have access to insurance or a safe
place to save their money;
• $283 million for trade capacity-building programs which would help the agrarian-based economies of
developing countries pull more people out of poverty and help ensure that more people have what they
need to feed their families and communities;
• $275 million for biodiversity, a modest increase from $195 million in FY 2008, which would enable more
work to be done on conservation for the benefit of people and nature. Scientists estimate 1/10th of the
world’s biological diversity is in danger of extinction, including at least 25% of mammals, and by the end of
the 21st century as much as 2/3 of the world’s species could be in danger of extinction. 3/4ths of the world’s
species reside in developing nations that depend on sustainable natural resources for their livelihoods;
• $212 million for climate change mitigation and adaptation;
• $195 million for clean energy programs, both of which recognize our need to act on our steadily increasing
understanding that protecting our environment and promoting human wellbeing and development go hand
in hand, and that one cannot proceed without the other;
(continued on next page)
FY10 Funding Level
Account Justification

• $185 million for a new line item to address gender-based violence which would scale up current U.S.
Government and other model programming to address violence against women internationally, addressing
the fact that one in three women will be a victim of abuse in her lifetime;
• $20 million for women’s economic opportunity (with $20 million in ESF) which is needed to enhance
economic opportunities for poor women in developing countries as a key component of reducing global
poverty rates; and
$3.756 billion
(DA continued) • $12.5 million for child marriage prevention (with the same amount in Global Health). The widespread
practice of child marriage in many developing countries is associated with greater poverty, lower levels of
girls’ education, higher rates of maternal and infant mortality, and greater incidence of domestic violence.
Therefore, it must be fully addressed within U.S. development programs for girls’ education, income
generation and gender-based violence, in order to for these programs to be most efficient and cost-effective.

The International Disaster Assistance account reached a level of $649.7 million in FY08 through regular, bridge and
emergency appropriations. Additional funding is required to respond to the increasing pressures of the global food
crisis and the worsening situations in the Democratic Republic of the Congo, Somalia, Chad and Sudan. At least $185
million is needed to meet the needs of internally-displaced and other vulnerable Iraqis without drawing resources
away from emergencies elsewhere. Contingency funds are also needed to ensure that the Office of Foreign Disaster
Assistance (OFDA) is not forced to scale down ongoing programs when unexpected emergencies arise. Additional
$1.128 billion funding was also built into this calculation for response in the critical areas of emergency education and violence
(International Disaster
against women and girls.
USAID has been forced to rely on mid-year supplemental appropriations in order to address a long list of disasters
and famines, a funding practice with serious human costs. Adequate funding in the regular budget is critical in
meeting the needs in ongoing and escalating emergencies, while maintaining a small contingency fund to respond to
unexpected emergencies.

This amount for the Office of Transition Initiatives would allow OTI to continue its work as a key civilian instrument
OTI on the ground providing fast, flexible, short-term assistance targeted at key political transition and stabilization needs
worldwide. OTI normally looks for matching funds from USAID regional bureaus and local USAID Missions to support
$65 million portions of their work. One of the regions where their activities are most needed – Africa – is also the region where
(Office of Transition
Initiatives) USAID regional bureaus and local USAID Missions have the least funding available to support match arrangements. A
small increase would allow for more effective programs in Africa.
FY10 Funding Level
Account Justification

This amount for the Migration and Refugee Assistance account would allow the U.S. to continue its strong leadership on
humanitarian assistance and help improve the international response to the basic needs of displaced persons—the majority
of them women and children. The number of refugees and internally displaced persons is rising, and many lack access
to essential, life-saving services—health care, safe shelter, clean water and education. Efforts to prevent and respond to
violence against displaced women and girls are inadequate and underfunded. Conditions have significantly deteriorated
MRA for displaced persons in several African countries and in Afghanistan, Pakistan and Sri Lanka. Several million Iraqis are still
displaced. The Colombia displacement crisis remains one of the largest in the world.
$2.051 billion
(Migration and Refugee
Assistance) The recommended funding level includes $1.425 billion for overseas assistance. This reflects funding available in FY
08 for overseas assistance adjusted for inflation and $125 million to address new and unmet humanitarian needs. The
recommended funding level also includes $556 million for the United States to resettle 125,000 refugees and an additional
5,000 Iraqis and their accompanying family members under the Special Immigrant Visa program. It is vitally important that
the U.S. continue to revitalize its refugee admissions program to help protect highly vulnerable refugees and to provide a
long-term solution to some refugees trapped for years in protracted humanitarian crises.

The Emergency Refugee and Migration Assistance account provides an important safety valve during times of
emergency. The ERMA ceiling of $100 million has not been raised since the mid-1990s and given the increased costs of
$200 million providing emergency assistance, we recommend an increase in the ceiling to $200 million. Additionally, the current
(Emergency Refugee and
presidential certification process is cumbersome. To ensure an agile response to immediate emergency needs, the Secretary
Migration Assistance) of State should be authorized to certify ERMA drawdowns.

UNICEF (United Nations Children’s Fund): $135 million, which would help support this agency’s expanding efforts to
ensure the survival and well being of children throughout the world.

UNFPA (United Nations Population Fund): $65 million to restore U.S. leadership in the key multilateral organization in the
family planning and reproductive health field by providing a contribution at a level comparable to those of UNFPA’s other
leading bilateral donors.

UNIFEM (United Nations Development Fund for Women): $7 million, to provide financial and technical assistance for
innovative programs and strategies promoting women’s political participation and economic security in over 100 countries,
IO&P We recommend an
particularly where they face the highest levels of insecurity.
amount for the IO&P
(International account that would UNIFEM Trust Fund: $5 million, to help fund the only multi-lateral grant-making mechanism that focuses support for local,
Organizations and allow the following national and regional efforts to combat violence against women internationally.
Programs) levels of funding:
UNDP (United Nations Development Program): $110 million to support the UN’s primary development agency as it works
to encourage democratic governance, plays a lead role in coordinating the international long term responses to disasters
and conflict around the world, and focuses on energy, environment, and health issues as they relate to human development.
UNDP strives to ensure that all of its programs support gender equality and respect for human rights.

UN HABITAT (Center for Human Settlements): $2.5 million. Habitat, as the sole U.N. organization concerned with human
settlements, plays an important role in focusing worldwide attention on housing and slum conditions in the developing
FY10 Funding Level
Account Justification

The Millennium Challenge Corporation is an innovative development program working directly with countries
MCC who have quantitatively demonstrated a commitment to ruling justly, providing economic freedom and investing in
their people. The MCC has made determined progress over the last year in shifting its focus to implementation and
$2.2 billion subsequently progress is being seen on many of the Compacts. An FY10 appropriation of $2.2 billion would allow
(Millennium Challenge
Corporation) the MCC to sign 3-4 Compacts currently in the pipeline, as well as cover possible threshold agreements with countries
seeking MCC eligibility and minimal administrative costs.

The PEPFAR reauthorization bill authorizes $37 billion over five years, which works out to $7.4 billion a year if evenly
distributed, assuming no further increases for the Global Fund aside from the $2 billion authorized. If we assume
$8.5 billion the increase is more gradual, and starts with a 15% increase over the previous year, and assume that some of the
(Global Health and Child
$37 billion will go towards the Global Fund, the authorized level for 2010 for AIDS is about $6.5 billion for bilateral
Survival – HIV/AIDS)
programming, plus $2 billion for the Global Fund, for a total of $8.5 billion.

$2.3 billion for the Contributions to International Peacekeeping Activities account represents the U.S. share of
projected peacekeeping costs for FY10. The U.S. share, agreed to by international treaty, is currently 25.9% of the total
UN peacekeeping budget. As a permanent member of the UN Security Council, the U.S. has given its support to each
and every one of the UN peacekeeping missions deployed. As such, a failure on the part of the U.S. to pay its bills
represents both a failure to follow through on its international commitments, and a betrayal of those countries that
have made troops and equipment available to support peacekeeping efforts.

$250 million of this amount can be attributed to the U.S. leading a push for a new peacekeeping deployment in
CIPA Somalia. This comes in spite of a warning from NGOs and peacekeeping experts that a peacekeeping mission can only
be successful when there is a peace to keep, and that conditions are not currently conducive in Somalia.
(Contributions $2.3 billion
to International Some of the most expensive UN peacekeeping missions are those that have been given numerous complex tasks
Peacekeeping Activities) beyond their core civilian protection mandates, or that face significant logistical hurdles. The MONUC (Democratic
Republic of the Congo) force, for example, is also responsible for providing massive logistical and combat support to
the Congolese Army (the FARDC). UNAMID (in Darfur) has faced a number of both political and logistical roadblocks
to deployment, but is expected to reach full deployment of 26,000 troops in FY10.

By FY10 it is also expected that a number of missions will have begun to draw down, reducing the overall cost of UN
peacekeeping. Among these is UNMIL (in Liberia), which will have reduced its size by 10% in 2009, and is expected to
continue to downsize at roughly that rate in 2010. Also, UNMIK (in Kosovo) is already in a rapid state of drawdown and
is expected to maintain just 30% of its civilian resources and a maximum of 500 UN police into 2010.