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MONDAY

DEVELOPMENTS
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The Latest Issues and Trends in International Development and Humanitarian Assistance

Using Sport
for Development
and Peace

USAID/MTV
Anti-trafficking Global Youth
Campaign Employment:
Crisis or
Opportunity?

Creating
CHANGE

Youth
on Campus

Downsizing for
Development

Realize Their
Potential
August 2008
Vol. 26, No. 8
InterAction
MONDAY
DEVELOPMENTS

Managing Editor/Art Director

33
Chad Brobst

Copy Editor
Kathy Ward

Advertising & Sales
Michael Haslett

Communications Department
Nasserie Carew, Public Relations
Tawana Jacobs, Public Relations
Tony Fleming, New Media
10

Contents
Chad Brobst, Publications
Michael Haslett, Publications
Margaret Christoph, Admin Associate

Editorial Committee
Cover photo by Darcy Kiefel
InterAction Communications Team
August 2008 • Vol. 26 • No. 8
InterAction
1400 16th Street, NW
Suite 210 Features Downsizing for Sold | 33
Washington, DC 20036 Development | 20 USAID and MTV take anti-
Tel: 202.667.8227 Global Youth U.S. teen inspires family to sell trafficking campaign to youths
publications@interaction.org most at risk.
Employment: Crisis or home to help others abroad.
ISSN 1043-8157 Opportunity? | 10
Improving a young person’s Using Sport for Building Youth Agency
chance of finding a job also Development and and Resilience | 35
Monday Developments is published 12 improves their chance of Peace | 22 Girl mothers in Sierra Leone
times a year by InterAction, the larg- working themselves out of If you want a fun and effective engage in participatory action
est alliance of U.S.-based international poverty. research.
development and humanitarian non- way to connect with youth,
governmental organizations. With more consider making sport a part of
than 160 members operating in every Outsourcing as your program. The Market for Private
developing country, InterAction works to Development | 13 Schools in Poor Areas | 37
overcome poverty, exclusion and suffer- Microschools of Opportunity
ing by advancing social justice and basic
21st century technology offers Creating CHANGE
dignity for all. youth in developing countries a on Campus and address the education gap for
global market for their skills and impoverished youth.
Beyond | 25
InterAction welcomes submissions of education. America’s college students
news articles, opinions and announce- Taking It to the
ments. Article submission does not guar- advocate on behalf of global
antee inclusion in Monday Developments. Public-Private poverty and injustice. Streets | 39
We reserve the right to reject submis- Partnerships for Youth Workshops reach Russian
sions for any reason. It is at the discretion Development | 14 street youth with lifesaving
of our editorial team as to which articles Youth Leadership
USAID works with corporate information.
are published in individual issues. Through Community
partners to provide professional
Development | 27
All statements in articles are the sole experience to young people.
opinion and responsibility of the authors. U.S. student volunteers make a
difference in the lives of others,
Articles may be reprinted with prior per- Electronic Mentoring | 15 as well as their own.
mission and attribution. Letters to the Disadvantaged youth in Departments
editor are encouraged. Brazil utilize the internet to Inside This Issue | 3
network with and learn from
A Helping Hand for
A limited number of subscriptions are
professionals. El Salvador | 30 Washington Update | 4
made available to InterAction member Manos Unidas project works to
agencies as part of their dues. Individual
decrease brain drain. Inside Our Community | 6
subscriptions cost $80 a year (add $15 Youth Employment
for airmail delivery outside the U.S.) Training | 17 Southern Voices | 8
Samples are $5, including postage. The Cost of
Additional discounts are available for What is working in youth Career Developments | 40
bulk orders. Please allow 4-6 weeks for job training and placement Knowledge | 31
delivery. Advertising rates are available programs... and why? Scholarships empower youth, Employment
on request. promote development. Opportunities | 42
INSIDE This Issue

Ah,Youth...
T
he great thing about being young is that
you can make a mistake and then laugh at yourself
for doing it. The accompanying photo is one of my
favorite submissions from InterAction’s 2008 Photo
Contest. Susan Hall’s image, entitled English Lesson, makes
me smile every time I see it. Giving a confident “thumbs-up,”
the young girl proudly displays a flashcard from her English
class. Unfortunately, the card is upside down. Truly, English
is not the easiest language to learn, so when you look at this
photo you simply have to think, “Awww... good effort, kid.”
However it’s the confidence that the girl displays that really
makes this image endearing. She seems eager to learn and
proud of what she already knows. And if after the photo was
taken, someone told her that she was holding her card upside
down, I’d like to think she would simply chuckle, shake her
head with a little embarrassment, and then turn it around and
get on with it. Within ten seconds she would have forgotten all
about it. Young people are good at overcoming obstacles.
The important thing is that she is making an effort. She
wants to learn. She wants to understand her world. She wants
to give herself more opportunities. She wants to be able to read
and write, not only her own language but those that she feels
will give her an advantage. She wants to earn a living and con-
tribute to her family, her community, her country. She wants
to feel good about herself. She wants to fulfill her potential.
Photo: Susan Hall

I know I’m reading a lot into this photo, and I can’t be sure it
is really how this particular young girl thinks. But the research
of numerous organizations has shown that these are common
thoughts for young people throughout the world. Those living
in developing countries, where opportunity and hope are not
always as common, deserve credit when they strive for the life
they deserve. Remember that among these youth are the fu- can immigrants and scholarships tied to community involve-
ture leaders who will lead their communities out of poverty. ment are effective tools in promoting education and eliminat-
In this month’s Monday Developments, we highlight the is- ing brain drain in El Salvador.
sues that affect the world’s youth and what members of the Also in this issue, InterAction’s own Sheridan Jones-
international development community have been doing to McCrae discusses the use of sport and physical activity as
address them. Bill Reese of International Youth Foundation development tools for children. Additionally, we look at how
begins by exploring what is being done to counter globally USAID and MTV have teamed up to inform youth about the
high youth unemployment. We then look at what agencies dangers of human trafficking, as well as what’s being done in
and NGOs, with the help of corporate partners, are offering Russia to stop the spread of HIV among street kids.
young adults in the way of training, education and funding. Finally, you’ll notice that this month’s issue features an ex-
Volunteering and social activism have long been success- citing and colorful new look. Monday Developments has been
ful components of development, and articles from AMIGOS providing excellent content from renowned authors for nearly
and Oxfam America reveal how America’s youth are working 25 years, and our new design aims to make the delivery of
at home and abroad to improve the lives of others. this information even better. We hope you enjoy it! MD
If your teenage daughter suggested selling your house and
giving the proceeds to the poor, would you take her seriously?
One family did. Check out their story on page 20 and maybe
they will convince you to duplicate their efforts. Chad Brobst
In addition, we investigate how the contributions of Ameri- Managing Editor

MONDAY DEVELOPMENTS August 2008 3
WASHINGTON Update

Supplemental Update
The House passed an amended supplemental funding (ap- FY 2009 Subcommittee Allocations: The Real Budget!
propriations) bill on June 19, following lengthy negotiations House and Senate Appropriations Committees an-
between leadership, Republicans, Blue Dog Democrats (a nounced their subcommittee (302b) allocations for FY
coalition of more conservative Democrats) and the White 2009 discretionary spending, with the State, Foreign Op-
House. The Senate, after some grumbling about the strip- erations number for both chambers coming out at $36.62
ping out of some emergency domestic funding they had add- billion, $1.6 billion less than the administration request.
ed previously, passed the bill unamended and sent it on to These allocations are in a sense the congressional bud-
the President, who signed it into law on June 30. The $225 get that really matters: while the budget resolution does
billion bill funds the war, foreign assistance, expanded vet- set a binding overall discretionary spending cap, it is the
erans’ education benefits, an extension of unemployment in- 302b allocations that decide how that money will be dis-
surance and Midwest flood relief in the U.S. government’s tributed among the various areas of spending (defense,
2008 and 2009 fiscal years (FYs). The bill largely splits the health and human services, etc.). The appropriations
difference between Senate- and House-proposed levels on chairmen decided this year to devote 3.6 percent of avail-
foreign assistance accounts and provides laudable funding able funding to international affairs spending.
for food assistance, refugee assistance, peacekeeping, devel-
opment assistance and global health. A Senate amendment
increasing funding to the International Disaster Assistance FY 2009 Markups
(IDA) account for Cyclone Nargis relief efforts and the food Once the subcommittee allocations were decided, the subcom-
crisis, which would have come from a $525 million rescission mittees were able to move forward with their bills, and the House
from the Millennium Challenge Corporation (MCC), was not (July 16) and Senate (July 17) both marked up their respective
adopted by the House. President Bush praised the bill for its State, Foreign Operations appropriations bills (the House at the
reflection of bipartisan efforts and for its war funding without subcommittee level and the Senate at full committee). Both bills
policy riders. are now expected to sit without floor consideration until next
spring – because of President Bush’s veto threats and refusal to
negotiate spending levels, Democratic leadership plans to fund
federal agencies for the first six months of the coming fiscal year
through a continuing resolution (CR) rather than try to pass the
regular spending bills. A CR is a joint resolution enacted at the
end of a fiscal year if the regular appropriations bills for the next
fiscal year have not been enacted. It provides budget authority
SIT Graduate Institute for federal government agencies and programs to continue in
operation at current funding levels until the regular appropria-
International Development tions bills are enacted. Democrats expect to work with a new,
Programs and they hope more flexible, administration to pass the regular
appropriations bills in March.
s-ASTERSDEGREESINDYNAMIClELDS The Senate’s bill includes a proposal to slash funding for the
including Intercultural Relations, MCC from last year’s $1.5 billion to $254 million – despite the
Conflict Transformation, administration’s request to increase funding to $2.2 billion –
and International Education claiming “few tangible results.” This would effectively freeze
any plans to sign new compacts with MCC eligible countries.
s**NEW**$EGREECONCENTRATIONS Defenders of the MCC have expressed concern over the freeze
Youth Program Leadership on new long-term agricultural development programs includ-
Youth Program and Social Justice Activism ed in many compacts, just as the world is scrambling to deal
with a hunger crisis. The House bill, in contrast to the Sen-
s3CHOLARSHIPSFOR&ALL
ate cut, proposes to continue the current $1.5 billion funding
up to $10,000for qualified
level. The new bills also include a significant House increase
Returned Peace Corps Volunteers in global AIDS funding, significant increases in both bills for
USAID Operating Expenses, and a large Senate increase in
WWWSITEDUGRADUATE the International Narcotics Control account, much of which is
WWWWORLDLEARNINGORG for the MERIDA Initiative to assist Mexico and Central Ameri-
can countries’ police and military forces efforts against orga-
nized crime and drug cartels. MD
If you have any questions, or would like to be added to the
email list for the weekly public policy update, please contact
Margaret Christoph at mchristoph@interaction.org.

4 MONDAY DEVELOPMENTS August 2008
The world sees one Africa.
We see so much more.
No two countries are the same. Every country in Africa has a different culture,
a different economy, a different way of doing things. We understand this.
With an established presence in 18 African countries, we not only know the
dynamics of each local market, its specialist sectors and its communities; we’re
also committed to every one of them. So when it comes to doing business in Africa,
you’ll know you’re dealing with the bank that truly celebrates unity in diversity.
www.standardbank.com
Inspired. Motivated. Involved.

SBSA113531-8/08
INSIDE Our Community

living and working in countries including Mali, Niger, Sen-
InterAction Wins Round in Fight to Protect Free Speech egal, Somalia and Tanzania. Her field work has included
A federal district judge in New York ruled on August 8 managing relief operations and designing and implementing
that the free speech rights of organizations receiving U.S. innovative programs in women’s village savings and loans
funds under the U.S. Leadership Against HIV/AIDS, Tu- groups, HIV/AIDS, and livelihood security. She has directed
berculosis, and Malaria Act continue to be violated by a field operations for non-governmental organizations, includ-
sweeping U.S. government restriction requireing them to ing grant management, advocacy, program quality and staff
pledge their opposition to prostitution in order to con- security. Ms. Farnsworth also has led institution-wide strate-
tinue their life-saving work to stop the spread of HIV. gic planning and budgeting processes while a senior manager
InterAction and Global Health Council (GHC), now plain- at CARE USA for almost a decade.
tiffs on the case, with the support of lawyers from the CEDPA is headquartered in Washington, D.C. and has offices
Brennan Center at NYU, won a motion to stop the U.S. in Egypt, India, Nepal, Nigeria and South Africa.
government from enforcing the anti-prostitution pledge
requirement on their members pending further action by
the 2nd Circuit Court of Appeals. Saving Lives Now: Female Condoms and the Role of U.S.
The Center for Health and Gender Equity has developed
and published “Saving Lives Now” for Prevention Now!, a
Susan Farnsworth Appointed COO at CEDPA global campaign to expand access to female condoms and
The Centre for Development and Population Activities (CED- other woman-initiated prevention methods. “Saving Lives
PA), an international non-profit organization that improves Now” presents an in-depth overview of the female con-
the lives of women and girls through education and health dom—the only available HIV prevention method designed
programs worldwide, recently announced the appointment of for women to initiate and control. The report explains the
Susan Farnsworth as its Chief Operating Officer. products, their many benefits and proven acceptability
Ms. Farnsworth has over 25 years of experience in the field among women and men, and the challenges to making
of international relief and development, including 13 years female condoms accessible to women and men.
The report also describes the U.S. role in the procure-
ment, distribution and programming of female condoms,
and identifies policy and financial barriers within the
U.S. government that inhibit successful integration of fe-
male condoms into reproductive health and HIV preven-
tion interventions. In conclusion, the report offers policy
and program recommendations aimed at improving U.S.
support for increased global access to female condoms.

MIUSA Hosts International Exchange on Youth,
Disability and Civic Engagement
Mobility International USA (MIUSA) recently hosted the
2007-8 U.S./Bahrain: Youth Citizenship for Disability In-
clusion Exchange Program, a U.S. Department of State-
sponsored LINC program. The reciprocal exchange brought
together 15 to 17 year-old youth leaders with and without
disabilities from Bahrain and the United States to foster mu-
tual understanding and respect, build leadership skills, and
develop strategies for increasing youth citizen participation
in both countries.
U.S. delegate William Proudfoot reflected on his experience.
“When I think about this program, I get a feeling of security
and hope. By empowering the youth of today with the skills
to bridge the gaps of disability, personal differences and na-
tions, we’re building a future that we will deeply cherish.”
Youth with disabilities must have opportunities to be ac-
tive leaders in civil society. Engaging youth to take on these
responsibilities is profoundly important for building peace
and fostering respect for human rights. For more informa-
tion visit: www.miusa.org MD

6 MONDAY DEVELOPMENTS August 2008
SOUTHERN Voices

The Right to a Name
other obstacles that might be floating in the river. Our prower
is Nicolás Robelo, who is also the coordinator of the program
for the distribution of birth certificates among the local com-

and a Nationality munities. He has been working for UNICEF’s counterpart in
Prinzapolka for about a year. ¨Careful,¨ he says laughing,
¨there are many holes in the road.¨ Nicolás was born in Rosi-
By Alejandro Martinez, UNICEF Nicaragua ta 35 years ago, but he knows this river and its surroundings
quite well. His extroverted, almost child-like personality, has
won the confidence of many community leaders with whom

W
e are on a little motored boat, going he has worked to collect the birth certificate information that
against the current, heading for a town called Tung- we are about to hand out.
la, which is five hours away from Alamikambang, We arrive finally at the town of Tungla, where a civic cer-
Nicaragua. 17-year-old José Manuel holds in his arms his emony organized by the local school awaits us. The Master
baby, Marlene. She is two days old. They are both part of of Ceremonies is Nicolás. Behind him, a banner reads: ¨The
the 6032 babies and adolescents which will be registered in Right to a Name and a Nationality¨.
the civil registry of the county of
Prinzapolka thanks to a campaign
called ¨The Right to a Name and
to a Nationality¨. Mr. Hugo Rodri-
guez, a UNICEF consultant, tells
me that according to the com-
munities’ assessments, 95% of
all children are not registered and
thus have no legal existence. ¨It
is the obligation of the state and
of parents to register their kids,
and the process is free while the
child is less than a year old. How-
ever it is very expensive (about
$20) to do it afterwards because
it involves many legal steps” he
said. If you add to that the cost of

Photo: Marco Javier
traveling along the river, there is
little chance that people will ever
register children that lack a birth
certificate. UNICEF, with the help
of local institutions, including the
local judge of the town of Alami-
kambang, has managed to decrease the costs of birth cer- ¨Welcome to this special and happy party,¨ says Nicolás. ¨We
tificates for children older than a year to about $2. It has celebrate today the fact that every child here will enjoy the right
been a tremendous effort of inter-institutional coordination, to a name and a nationality, and from now on, you all legally
in which the good will of the participants has been decisive. exist. This way, you will have access to all of the other rights
The campaign has been so successful that there are plans to which are also legally yours.¨ Boys, girls, and parents all happi-
extend it to the entire Nicaraguan Atlantic Region. ly receive their certificates and the community leaders humbly
After the first phase of the project, some parents and com- thank all the people and institutions involved in the campaign.
munity leaders have travelled to the nearest city hall to reg- When the ceremony ends, I walk to the school garden with
ister their newly born children. An example of this is José my video camera in hand. Some kids are playing soccer with
Manuel, the adolescent father who travels in this small motor balls that had recently been donated. I approached a boy and
boat with us. While I begin to talk to him, he carefully hands asked if he wanted to be in a movie. He said yes and told me,
his daughter to Reina, his 19-year-old wife, who delicately through the camera lens, that his name was Ronaldo. Other
covers the baby in a blanket to protect it from the rays of the curious boys and girls began to circle us. It occurs to me that
sun. I ask José, ¨Why did you decide to register your baby?¨ the distribution of birth certificates that had just taken place,
He says, “It is the duty of every father”. and which granted these children a legal existence, was re-
Next to the river, children watch curiously as we pass with ally a way for the rest of Nicaragua to recognize these chil-
our boats. In the prow of our boat goes the prower, the person dren as people; as individuals with rights and with a scope of
designated to tell the captain about the trunks of trees and possibilities in life. MD

8 MONDAY DEVELOPMENTS August 2008
BRINGING THE WORLD INTO FOCUS
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all the world’s communities are linked is more than a point of view.
It’s a philosophy that informs our approach to helping organizations
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Employment

B
“ efore, I had no future; now I have a good job and
a much better perspective on life.” So says Celia Her-
nandez Vega, a single mother from Tehuacan, Mexico,
who now works at a local computer company and can

Global
support her family for the first time. For the 1.5 billion young
people in the world who are between the ages of 12 to 24 –
the most ever in the history of our planet – getting a decent

Youth
job is perhaps the most significant step in that often perilous
transition to adulthood. In fact, unlike Celia, some 85 to 90
million young people are unemployed, and thus face a far
more arduous path to success.

Employment:
There is no question that young people without hope for a
job, a decent education or a voice in their society are at risk
of falling prey to a host of social ills, from substance abuse
to criminal violence and even political terrorism. Yet today’s
historic “youth bulge” also offers us a rare opportunity to

Crisis
make meaningful headway in such critical areas as economic
growth, political stability and global citizenship. But only if
we act more aggressively to engage young people in address-
ing these global challenges.
Over the past decade or so, truly measurable progress has

or
been made in this field of youth employment, and you will

Opportunity?
read about some impressive
successes – as well as ongo-
ing challenges – in this issue
of Monday Developments. Just
two years ago, for example, the
World Bank’s Development and
the Next Generation – the first
ever Development Report to fo-
cus on youth – helped develop

Photo: John Ham
a global framework for these
discussions by highlighting the critical transitions young
people make to adulthood, including the transition to work.
In addition to offering innovative strategies and learning, this
report reflects a growing recognition that when young people
finish school, are prepared to join the workforce and get a
decent job, they will likely lead successful lives for the next
40 to 50 years. As a result, their children are also far more
likely to thrive. The benefits of enhanced education and job
training opportunities thus stretch over generations and can
have a positive impact on society as a whole.
Preparing young people to join the global economy is also
increasingly viewed as a vital element in the fight to combat
poverty, particularly in developing countries. As Juan Soma-
via, the Director-General of the International Labour Organi-
zation (ILO), has said, “It is an undeniable tenet – and now
one that is recognized within the UN as well as other inter- Improving a young
national organizations and governments – that only through person’s chance of
decent employment opportunities can young people get the
chance to work themselves out of poverty.” “Youth employ- finding a job also
ment strategies,” he adds, “are a key contribution to meeting improves their chance of
the Millennium Development Goals.” working themselves out
Steadily rising youth unemployment figures have also
sparked greater attention to effective school-to-work tran-
of poverty.
sition initiatives and second chance programs that target
out-of-school youth. One such program supported by the By William W. Reese,
Photo: IYF

International Youth Foundation has demonstrated the effec- President and CEO,
tiveness of combining employability, life skills and technical International Youth Foundation

10 MONDAY DEVELOPMENTS August 2008
The International Youth Foundation
and USAID have joined forces in
Indonesia to help young people get
back into the job market and help
rebuild homes—and the economy—in
impoverished communities.

MONDAY DEVELOPMENTS August 2008 11
Employment

job training with internships and job
placement assistance. Other key ele-
ments of the initiative are the partner-
ships created with private sector em-
ployers who identify the job skills they
need, advise on curriculum, provide in-
ternship opportunities, and ultimately
hire the trained youth.
These and other similarly successful
programs not only reflect the value of
an integrated, holistic and long-term
approach to youth development. They
point as well to the power of multi-
sector alliances. Real headway is being
made, for example, to expand job train-
ing and enhanced educational oppor-
tunities for at-risk youth in areas such
as the Middle East, South Asian, and
Africa as a result of these joint efforts.

Photo: IYF
Encouraging this multi-stakehold-
er approach is the ongoing focus of
USAID’s Global Development Alliance,
which is a real champion of collabora- A young man creates a classroom video for mitment to ensuring that more citizens
tive strategies and public-private part- an education and employment initiative in at the bottom of the economic ladder,
nerships aimed at boosting human and India that is being supported by the Inter- including young people, have the skills
economic development. The private sec- national Youth Foundation, USAID, global and opportunities to develop their own
tor, in particular, is stepping up to be- companies, and local NGOs. small enterprises and gain access to
come a significant partner with NGOs loans. “Preparing young people across
and local governments to raise youth Latin America as they grow up and
employment opportunities. The GE communities, companies like Laureate, seek to enter the workplace or begin
Foundation, for example, has joined us Nokia and Unocal are working with lo- their own businesses,” says Moreno,
to develop a life skills and employability cal NGOs to help young people get back “is part of our effort to reach out to the
into the job market and regenerate the majority at the base of the pyramid.”
The current generation local economy. While support for youth entrepreneur-
of young people Some young people have the drive
and entrepreneurial spirit to create
ship is growing, this area demands far
greater attention given the vast poten-
offers governments, and grow their own businesses. But tial for economic gains, particularly in

businesses and NGOs they need appropriate skills and guid-
ance to be successful. Responding to
developing countries.
In other words, the current gen-
an historic opportunity this growing demand, Queen Rania Al
Abdullah of Jordan made an impas-
eration of young people offers gov-
ernments, businesses and NGOs an
to move the sustainable sioned plea at the January 2008 World historic opportunity to move the sus-
development agenda Economic Forum for the private sec-
tor to get more engaged in supporting
tainable development agenda forward.
Countries gain a social and economic
forward. aspiring entrepreneurs through men-
toring, volunteering and internships.
bonus when greater numbers of young
people are engaged in the local econ-
curriculum that offers skills training in “Now is the time,” she said, for “more omy, make healthy decisions in their
effective communication, decision mak- private sector experts to share their lives, and possess the skills and con-
ing, financial planning and health – ben- time and talent.” fidence to give back to their commu-
efitting at-risk youth in Hungary, India, Youth entrepreneurship is gaining nities. Promoting effective job training
Mexico, Morocco, Pakistan and Poland. traction in other regions of the world and work placement programs and
Another corporate leader, Microsoft, as well. Consider Latin America, where supporting young people as they gen-
is supporting employability programs the informal economy represents up to erate their own economic opportuni-
among disadvantaged youth in Kenya, 50 percent of the gross domestic prod- ties helps open the door to this next
Nigeria, Senegal and Tanzania, with a uct and generates the largest share of generation of wage earners, taxpayers,
focus on demand-driven training in in- employment. In response, the Inter- and citizens. It is our collective task to
formation technology, life skills, entre- American Development Bank, under ensure more of the world’s youth can
preneurship and employment services. the leadership of President Luis Alberto benefit from these same life-changing
In South Asia’s tsunami-devastated Moreno, has made a significant com- opportunities. MD

12 MONDAY DEVELOPMENTS August 2008
Outsourcing

Outsourcing
tellectual talent that Bangladesh loses
through emigration.

Outsourcing as development
Outsourcing is transforming the

as Development
global labor market. In the U.S., out-
sourcing is often demonized for taking
jobs away from Americans. But there
is another side to the story. Outsourc-
ing offers hundreds of thousands of
people in developing countries a route
21st century technology offers youth in developing out of poverty. Opportunities abound
countries a global market for their skills and education. for young graduates in established
outsourcing centers like Manila and
By Jon Ferris, President, MyGlobalStaff.Com Delhi, and new opportunities are be-

Outsourcing offers

W
hile working with the ented young people who are unemployed
International Rescue Com- or underemployed. On a recent visit to hundreds of thousands
mittee and Church World
service in West Africa and
Nepal, I counted five young articulate
attendants in an otherwise empty hotel
of people in developing
Asia, every day I saw the hardships lobby. Three of them had university de- countries a route out of
we associate with these regions: dis-
ease, extreme poverty, malnutrition.
grees. All of them had relatives abroad.
In Ghana, almost everyone has a rela- poverty.
But it was unemployment that affected tive in Europe or the U.S. Anything out-
me the most. It saddened me when a side of Ghana is referred to as “outside.” ing created every day in emerging out-
young man in Guinea approached me And everything happens outside. What sourcing markets like Accra, Jakarta,
asking for work. “Hey Mister! Can you must it be like to grow up and watch your and Bogota. The competition for talent
find me a job?” He was not begging role models clamor to travel “outside?” in these cities is spurring employers to
or asking for a handout. He was sim- On a recent visit to Bangladesh, I provide employees with higher salaries,
ply looking for an opportunity, a job. learned that the Massachusetts Insti- healthcare and additional benefits.
Many of these young people are exactly tute of Technology offers 50 academic It is time to consider outsourcing as a
the types of go-getters who thrive in the scholarships to bright Bangladeshis form of development. Is there another de-
U.S. On a personal level, I identified each year. This is a great opportunity, velopment practice that single-handedly
strongly with these young entrepre- but how many will return home after decreases unemployment, fights brain
neurs and decided to do something to their studies? In all likelihood, drain, increases wages and expands
address unemployment head-on. many, perhaps most, will stay healthcare, all while augmenting the
Outsourcing first caught my attention in the U.S., where they will tax base of a country and encour-
in 2005 as a great opportunity to con- become tax-paying citizens aging investment in education and
nect bright young people in developing and contribute to the devel- technological infrastructure? MD
countries with opportunities overseas. opment of the U.S. While the
For the first time ever, the Internet gave remittances they send home
young talent in developing countries may help relatives survive,
access to the global labor market. they cannot replace the in-
As part of this dream, I founded My-
GlobalStaff.Com to provide outsourcing
services to small- and medium-sized
NGOs and businesses throughout the
U.S., Australia and Europe. As part of
our vision, our firm (currently based in
Seattle, but also opening an office in
Washington, DC later this year) is dedi-
cated to creating jobs for young people
in developing countries. I see outsourc-
Photo: Pooja Agrawal

ing as a form of development.

Unemployment, and brain drain
As I travel in the developing world, I
am always struck by the number of tal-

MONDAY DEVELOPMENTS August 2008 13
Partnerships

Public-Private
For example, in collaboration with the
International Youth Foundation (IYF),
USAID has reached out to youth across

Partnerships
the globe to provide them with job readi-
ness skills. In Latin America, USAID, IYF
and partners such as Alcatel-Lucent,
Gap, Merrill Lynch, Nike and Shell have

for Youth
contributed to entra 21 program. Over
five years, this $29 million program has
provided information technology train-
ing and job readiness skills to more than

Development
19,000 disadvantaged youth.
In the Middle East where youth un-
employment rates are soaring, USAID
and Save the Children’s Alliance for Ju-
nior Achievement seek to provide youth
with professional experience and know-
USAID works with corporate partners to provide how. The INJAZ Arabia program match-
professional experience to young people. es senior-level corporate volunteers with
Arab youth to share knowledge that
enhances students’ leadership, busi-
By K. David Boyer, Jr., Senior Advisor to the Administrator on Public-Private
ness entrepreneurial, problem-solving
Partnerships, U.S. Agency for International Development
and communication skills. Through this

T
partnership, more than 10,000 corpo-
oday’s global population orities. But we recognize that we can- rate volunteers have helped mentor over
is more than six billion people. not begin to tackle the job of educating, 300,000 Arab students.
Nearly half of that population is training and empowering the youth of In Indonesia, where more than half
under 25 years of age, constitut- the world without the contribution of of all primary and secondary students
ing the largest youth population rela- other development partners from the drop out of school to join the labor
tive to adult population in the history inception of our programs. In order to force, USAID has partnered with Intel
of the world. With an astonishing 200 achieve any degree of success, we must to train teachers to use information
million of these youth living in poverty embrace the resources, networks, ex- and communication technology (ICT)
and as many as 88 million unemployed, pertise and creativity of private sector in the classroom. By using ICT tools in
the case for immediate action is compel- partners including nongovernmental school, teachers are able to familiarize
ling. Our future depends on the success organizations, foundations and corpo- students with new technology while
of today’s youth, but sadly we find that rations as full and equal development also providing a stimulating classroom
they are often ill prepared to participate partners on development projects. experience. By 2010, more than 15,000
in the newly globalized society. teachers will have learned how to use
Youth unemployment not only de-
prives young people of opportunity, its
Studies have shown that technology to develop high-quality, ex-
citing curricula to keep students en-
cost to society is high. Studies have a “youth bulge” of 15–29 gaged, parents convinced of the value
shown that this “youth bulge” of 15-
29 year-olds is associated with a high
year olds is associated of school, and to provide students with
marketable skills.
risk of unrest in countries where there with a high risk of unrest USAID has more than 680 alliances
is little opportunity for employment or
skills-building. What is more, the dif- in countries where there with 1,700 individual partners in the
private sector. To date, we have lever-
ficulty of finding employment is com-
pounded by the worsening global eco-
is little opportunity for aged more than $9 billion in combined
private and public resources for devel-
nomic slowdown and changing trends employment or skills- opment through USAID’s Global Devel-
in technology. For youth trapped in the
cycle of poverty, debt and unemploy- building. opment Alliance model of partnership.
At USAID, we are committed to help-
ment, escape seems impossible. ing youth around the world achieve
As development practitioners, we This new model of partnership devi- success. Through partnerships, we can
must find innovative new ways to break ates from the traditional philanthropy/ create sustainable development pro-
this cycle of poverty and to invest in beneficiary model. Instead, the em- grams that provide the kind of change
youth so they may take up their role as phasis is on engaging with local and we need for a better, more secure fu-
future leaders. At the U.S. Agency for international partners to leverage the ture. The future of the global economy
International Development (USAID), in- unique assets of others for increased is dependent upon our success. To-
vesting in youth is one of our major pri- development impact. gether, we can meet this challenge. MD

14 MONDAY DEVELOPMENTS August 2008
Mentoring

A Electronic
na Célia Arcanjo has a
special story to tell. The 22-year-

Mentoring
old works as an intern for a new
NGO in Recife and lives with her
parents. Her father receives a small in-
come from public health insurance and
her mother doesn’t work, so the family
relies heavily on Ana’s salary.
After graduating from high school,
Ana had few opportunities for a good
job or further education. Like most
young people in northeast Brazil, ra- Disadvantaged youth in Brazil utilize the internet
cial and economic and class discrimi-
nation closed many doors for her. But
to network with and learn from professionals.
in 2003, Ana’s prospects brightened
when she joined Programa Para o Fu- By Eric Rusten, Director for New Ventures Academy for Educational
turo, a pilot youth-employability proj- Development, and Tania Ogasawara, Executive Director, Academia para o
ect funded by USAID and implemented Desenvolvimento da Educação – Brasil (ADE-Brasil)
by the Academy for Educational De-
velopment (AED) and four Brazilian
NGOs. Bridging two worlds Cavalcante, structured the eMentoring
But that isn’t Ana’s special story. Now, nearly five years after she joined program with specific topics for discus-
Ana is unique because through Pro- Programa Para o Futuro, Ana says that sion to help the youth enter into pro-
grama Para o Futuro she learned em- one of the most important benefits she ductive conversations with the profes-
ployability skills and received guidance and the other youth received from par- sionals. The youth learned about their
and career counseling through the first ticipating in the eMentoring program mentor’s life and job, and the benefits
electronic-mentoring (eMentoring) pro- was the direct access they had to work-
gram in Brazil. Unlike conventional, ing professionals.
face-to-face mentoring, eMentoring re-
lies on email and instant messaging for
“Before the program, if any of us
were walking on the street and met one
“If any of us were
most mentoring activities. of these professionals, we would never walking on the street
In addition to the constraints of time
and distance, the social-economic di-
have the opportunity to start talking
with them, let alone have the kind of
and met one of these
vide between working professionals communication we had through the professionals, we
and disadvantaged youth is so large eMentoring program,” she said. “eMen-
in Brazil that traditional, face-to-face toring enabled us to bridge the gap be- would never have the
mentoring would not have been possi-
ble. Technology has made it possible for
tween our two worlds, build a relation-
ship and learn from each other.”
opportunity to start
people from two very different worlds to AED’s eMentoring Coordinator, Cida talking with them.”
overcome these challenges and create
effective mentoring relationships.
Conventional face-to-face mentor-
ing relationships rarely last more than
three months. But this was not the
case with the eMentoring program. The
eMentoring relationships in Programa
Para o Futuro lasted through the year-
long project and many continued be-
yond the project’s end.
Ana is just one example of the proj-
ect’s success. In 2007, she switched
sides and became an eMentor herself.
Ana’s ability to do so provides a tell-
ing example of the effectiveness of this
highly successful approach that has
greatly contributed to the social trans-
formation and economic empowerment
of the disadvantaged youth who par-
ticipated in the program.

MONDAY DEVELOPMENTS August 2008 15
Mentoring

and challenges in professional work.
The mentors grew to know the young “As an eMentor, I had tee, Ana knew that the youth would act
suspiciously about the relationship in
people well. They offered sensitive criti-
cism and were able to tell the youth
to meet someone’s the beginning. Soon though, she said,
she knew they would start asking her
what they needed to do in order to en- expectations, and I for advice and opinions. She felt a keen
ter a professional workplace. This kind
of information was not available else- had influence on responsibility to provide the best guid-
ance she could to the youth.
where, said Ana. “The environment of
a student is too restrictive to ask these
someone’s life.” Mentors “should be aware of the im-
portance of passing on real experiences
questions in class and no one from our to the youth,” Ana observed. “It is re-
communities could answer them,” she tions that happen in a workplace. This ally about knowing the importance of
said. “No one else knew us well enough gave the youth the opportunity to expe- helping youth learn to communicate
to enable us to ask these questions or rience what life is like in an office. And and interact professionally.”
to be able to answer them.” those invaluable lessons would not Though she was able to gain valuable
The youth gained more from the have been available to them otherwise. skills from her eMentor, Ana said that
hour-long eMentoring sessions than being an eMentor herself had the great-
just the opportunity to interact with a New lessons as an eMentor est impact on her. “As an eMentor… I
professional. They also learned impor- A year after completing the eMentoring had to meet someone’s expectations,
tant lessons on how to behave profes- program, Ana was hired as an intern by and I had influence on someone’s life,”
sionally. For example, they learned how ADE Brasil. She also completed an asso- Ana said. “I was helping to contribute
to ask good questions and be respectful ciate degree at a local technical college, to their career.” MD
of people’s time, how to transition from and recently passed the entrance exam
one topic of discussion to another, and for one of Recife’s private universities. This article is based on a longer discus-
how to tell when a topic has been thor- In addition, Ana mentored two young sion available at http://www.adebrasil.
oughly discussed. people who participated in ADE’s org.br/interview. Questions and com-
The eMentoring sessions were de- School-to-Career Transition Program. ments can be sent to erusten@aed.org or
signed to simulate typical conversa- Because of her experiences as an eMen- tania.ogasawara@adebrasil.org.br.

16 MONDAY DEVELOPMENTS August 2008
Training
Photo: IYF

Youth Employment
Entra 21 is an employability program of

Training
the International Youth Foundation that
has equipped over 19,000 young people in
Latin America and the Caribbean with life
and employability skills, with half of them
placed in jobs.

Essential elements for preparing and
placing youth in the job market
A labor market analysis. Gathering
market-sensitive data is essential to
designing youth employability train-
What is working in youth job training and ing and job placement services that
placement programs... and why? meet the needs of local employers and
have the flexibility to adjust to market
trends. It is important to identify the
By Susan Pezzullo, Director of Learning, International Youth Foundation hard and soft skills employers want in

T
their new hires and validate your find-
he rising number of un- to engage the private sector? What are ings with employers before finalizing
employed youth – up from 74 to the barriers to a successful workforce the curriculum. Organizations should
85 million in the last ten years development program?” are gaining also re-assess labor needs regularly and
– has generated increased in- more currency and urgency. adjust training sessions accordingly.
terest among policy-makers, elected In the hopes of contributing to this Strong programs regularly solicit feed-
officials, youth and communities. lively global debate, we offer some key back from employers to maintain the
Questions such as, “What is working lessons drawn from the International relevance of the curriculum. This con-
in youth job training and placement Youth Foundation’s (IYF) experience stant dialogue with the market enables
programs and why? What lessons in designing, managing and evaluating programs to overcome the perennial
from the past ten years can help us youth employability programs around problem of a mismatch between youths’
design more effective youth employ- the world, and in Latin America and the skills and market needs. In fact, youth
ment strategies? How important is it Caribbean in particular. employment programs need to focus

MONDAY DEVELOPMENTS August 2008 17
Training

More than 19,000 at-risk youth have
graduated from entra 21, an employability
program of the International Youth Foun-
dation in Latin America and the Caribbean
that is supported by the Inter-American
Development Bank and a consortium of
partners in the public, private, and non-
profit sectors.

on two sets of customers in order to be
successful: youth and employers.
Comprehensive training that includes
technical and non-technical content. An
integrated training program that in-
cludes life and job seeking skills, coupled
with technical training, is also critical.
A modular approach that allows a pro-
gram to accommodate the learning pace
and styles of young adults – particularly
ones who have been out of school – also
is recommended. Instructors must see
themselves as members of a unified
team building a common set of compe-

Photo: IYF
tencies – be they technical, attitudinal
or social – so that training is integrated.
An instructor in graphic design, for ex-
ample, can model active listening while
having youth work in teams to develop In addition to equipping tate youths’ access to information, per-
sonal and professional contacts, and
a product, thereby strengthening both
technical and “softer” skills needed in
youth with job-seeking individualized or group support.
Engagement by employers, particular-
the workplace. According to IYF’s sur- skills, programs need ly those in the private sector. Youth em-
vey data, employers appreciate the soft
skills (e.g., ability to work in teams, be
to facilitate youths’ ployment programs provide companies
with a business solution (identifying
responsible, manage emotions) as much access to information, qualified employees) while also promot-
ing a social good (engaging disadvan-
as the “harder” skills.
Selection mechanisms with a clear idea personal and taged youth). This alignment of strate-
of the target population. Beyond screen-
ing for demographic criteria (i.e. age,
professional contacts, gic purposes between businesses and
youth employment programs provides
gender and education), programs should and individualized or a framework for success. In develop-
carefully select participants based on
their motivation to improve their skills group support. ing working interactions with the local
business community, building one-on-
and become employed. For short-term one relationships with business leaders
training programs (5 to 10 months), ment. In one program, for example, 36 is most effective. However, it takes time
youth must be motivated learners in or- percent were offered jobs with the com- and patience to cultivate mutual trust,
der to keep up with new material being panies in which they interned. and requires ongoing communications
presented. Careful screening should not Job placement services. Job place- to produce good results.
disqualify youth at risk, but rather al- ment should be the goal of any youth A scan of related laws and incentives.
low programs to discern youths’ reasons employment program and not seen as Identify any legal and tax incentives
for applying and the program’s ability to a discrete set of services. It begins with businesses may receive for hiring or
meet their needs. ensuring the curriculum matches mar- providing internships to disadvantaged
Internships should be part of the ket needs and culminates with well- youth and be prepared to educate po-
training cycle. Internships allow par- trained youth who have the support tential employers about these laws.
ticipants to hone their skills and allow they need to find or create a job. Most A well-managed and competent ex-
employers to try out potential employ- organizations are stronger in training ecuting agency. Comprehensive youth
ees while also providing an immediate than in providing these essential sup- employability programs require col-
social service. An average internship is ports to ensure a successful transition laboration among a host of organiza-
about 200 hours, but can vary depend- from the classroom to the workplace. In tions to interpret market data, design
ing on local labor laws. Internships also addition to equipping youth with job- curricula, offer technical training, pro-
can be important pathways to employ- seeking skills, programs need to facili- vide job placement services and certify

18 MONDAY DEVELOPMENTS August 2008
Training

courses. Being able to negotiate and
manage a web of relationships is a vital Mobilizing society countries in Africa.
Engaging public, private, and NGO
asset for the organization responsible
for bringing all the necessary elements
around the cause of stakeholders also ensures more relevant
and market-driven training that meets
under one programmatic roof. youth employment is the needs of both youth and employ-
Systematic measurement of results.
The absence of rigorous evaluation is
critical for increasing ers. We have seen success in countries
like Egypt, Indonesia and Morocco in
a significant concern within the devel- and sustaining these cultivating multi-sector collaboration,
opment community. Programs should for example, around expanded employ-
define strategic questions they wish to opportunities. ment and education opportunities for
address at the beginning, and design young people. Clearly, mobilizing soci-
monitoring and evaluation systems ac- ployment to decent work. The fact that ety around the cause of youth employ-
cordingly. Increasingly, policy-makers the program operates in 18 countries in ment is critical for increasing and sus-
and development agencies are asking for Latin America and the Caribbean, dem- taining these opportunities.
impact data – evidence that employment onstrates that the model can indeed be Today we are facing a significant
outcomes were produced as the result of successfully adapted and implemented global challenge: 85 to 90 million young
the program, not simply due to outside in different societies by organizations people worldwide are without jobs, and
forces such as an expanded economy. with different mandates and competen- the vast majority of them are in devel-
cies. For example, entra 21’s executing oping countries. The good news is that
Adapting to multiple settings agencies range from vocational training there is a growing body of knowledge
There are promising signs that this institutes to private sector foundations and experience that can help disadvan-
is possible. One IYF-supported youth to youth development NGOs. The model taged youth participate in the economy
employability program, entra 21, has is also successfully operating in a wide – as salaried workers or through self-
equipped over 19,000 disadvantaged variety of economic contexts, and has employment. As a result, they increase
young people with a range of competen- proven transferable to other regions, their employability over the years as
cies that enable them to make a success- with a similarly designed program now adults, improving the quality of life for
ful transition from low-wage or unem- being implemented in a number of themselves and their families. MD

MONDAY DEVELOPMENTS August 2008 19
Downsizing

Downsizing for
Development U.S. teen inspires family
to sell home to help
others abroad.
By Anastasia Andrzejewski, Senior Research and Policy Associate, The Hunger Project

The Salwen family:
Hannah, Joseph, Joan and Kevin.

20 MONDAY DEVELOPMENTS August 2008
Downsizing

W
“ e’re driving down the if that guy didn’t have such a nice car,
highway and there’s always the man over here could have a meal.’”
this one stoplight that we This was the epiphany that began
come to before we get to our one family’s journey in redefining the
house,” recalls 15-year-old Hannah American dream.
Salwen of Atlanta, Georgia. “There are As Hannah’s brother, 13-year-old
always homeless men sitting at [this Joseph explained, “My family is selling
stoplight], holding up signs, begging our house to finance our version of the
for food. And, right in front of us there American dream.” The family plans to
was a Mercedes. I looked at the guy in sell their home and donate half of the
the Mercedes and thought ‘you know, sales price to help create opportunities
for people in Africa, because as Joseph
says, “we have enough while others “I didn’t want to be
have too little.” The family calls this
project “Hannah’s Lunchbox”.
a family that just sat
Hannah will enter the tenth grade
in just a few weeks and Joseph will
around and said ‘I
begin eighth grade. She plays on the
school volleyball team, is a member of
wish that I could do
student government, and likes to hang
out with friends, take pictures and
something.’”
watch movies. He is an avid Yankees
fan and is himself an outfielder and
pitcher. While Hannah and Joseph gender discrimination to a culture of
are two seemingly ordinary teenagers, responsibility, self-reliance and gender
their commitment to ending hunger in equality. It has proven successful for
Africa is quite extraordinary for people community development in eight Afri-
of any age. Hannah explained, “I didn’t can countries, mobilizing and empow-
want to be a family that just sat around ering communities to meet all of their
and said ‘I wish that I could do some- basic needs on a sustainable basis.
thing.’ I wanted to really get out there Hannah says of her experience, “I loved
and make a difference, even if it was a the hospitality of everyone we met…it
small difference.” was easy to connect with people.”
The Salwen family’s $1.8 million Hannah offered advice for other
home is currently on the market and teenagers who want to make a differ-
they are in the process of realizing their ence. “First, start with small things in
American dream. Joseph explains that your community, like working at food
“my family researched to see which or- banks or soup kitchens.” Additionally,
ganizations would be best to partner many organizations that focus on in-
with to end hunger in Africa.” ternational development, including The
The Salwens decided that the best Hunger Project, welcome the participa-
partner is The Hunger Project, a global, tion of youth. A number of opportuni-
strategic organization committed to the ties are available for youth to become
sustainable end of world hunger. In Af- involved and make a difference, for ex-
rica, South Asia and Latin America, it ample, by making a financial contribu-
empowers women and men to end their tion or by interning.
own hunger through low-cost, grass- Hannah suggests that when a teen-
roots, gender-focused strategies. Its ager takes action to make a difference,
work is based on mobilizing people to be their action may have an even greater
authors of their own development, em- impact than ever imagined. She says
powering women as key change agents, that the involvement of youth can in-
and strengthening local government. spire those in other generations be-
Photo: Salwen Family photo

In July, the Salwens traveled to Gha- cause “when your parents realize that
na to see The Hunger Project’s on-the- you are passionate about helping oth-
ground work in the country’s Eastern ers, they are likely to join in.” MD
Region. The Hunger Project’s Epicenter
Strategy is a holistic, people-centered For more information please visit
development strategy that works to www.hannahslunchbox.com and www.
transform dependency, resignation and thp.org.

MONDAY DEVELOPMENTS August 2008 21
Sport

Using
mendations for national
governments in conjunc-

Sport
tion with the 2008 Bei-
jing Olympics. As result
of this process, many
governments and devel-
opment organizations
are already using sport
in their approaches – as
evidenced by the inclusion
of sport and physical activ-
ity in the Poverty Reductation
Strategy Papers and national plans

for Development
of several developing countries such as
Ghana, Papua New Guinea, Sierra Le-
one and Tanzania.
Interest in S4D is also likely to in-

and Peace
crease during the next three years with
a series of high profile sporting events
being hosted in developing countries,
including the 2008 Summer Olympics
in China, the 2010 Commonwealth
Games in India, and the 2010 Football
If you want a fun and effective way to connect with World Cup in South Africa.
youth, consider making sport a part of your program. Sport offers a unique means for the
private sector, NGOs and governments to
form valuable partnerships in developing
By Sheridan Jones-McCrae, Advisor, Strategic Impact Team, InterAction
countries. According to the Internation-
al Business Leadership Forum (IBLF),

H
sport attracts companies in a way that
ave you ever considered Why is sport relevant to NGOs? other social issues do not. Because sport
whether sport could assist your The United Nations has recognized is a subject that business people can
organization to meet develop- the potential benefits of sport through empathize with, it creates an unusually
ment objectives? If your pro- the appointment of a Special Adviser in effective means of engaging companies
grams involve children, youth, gender 2001, the establishment of the UN Of- in development issues. Example initia-
and/or disability and seek to produce fice on Sport Development and Peace tives include Standard Chartered Bank
changes in knowledge, attitudes or be- (UNOSDP) and General Assembly Reso- investments to empower women in India
havior, then it’s probably time to start. lution 58/5 of 2003 entitled “Sport as through netball and British Airways us-
Sport and physical activity have been a means to promote education, health, ing soccer to improve social cohesion in
used informally in development work for development and peace.” From an op- South African communities.
several decades, but have largely been erational perspective UNICEF, UNAIDS
underutilized as a potential instrument. and UNHCR have established strong How is Sport for
Today, however, there is growing recog- partnerships with sporting bodies such Development delivered?
nition within the development commu- as the international governing body for Fundamental approaches used in
nity that systemic application of sport football/soccer FIFA, the Internation- S4D programs include:
offers a legitimate vehicle for achieving al Olympic Committee, International • Fun, local delivery of messages and
Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). Cricket Council, the National Basketball skills. Games-based methodologies
Known collectively as Sport for De- Association and Manchester United. impart educational information such
velopment (S4D), well-designed, sport- Created in 2005, the Sport for Devel- as HIV/AIDS or life skills. The in-
based initiatives are a practical and opment and Peace International Work- formal, interactive model overcomes
cost-effective tool that can make impor- ing Group (SDP IWG) brings together barriers to discussing sensitive is-
tant contributions to public health, uni- national governments, UN agencies sues related to HIV and sex, and
versal education, gender equality, pov- and civil society to develop practical typically increases retention of mes-
erty reduction, HIV/AIDS prevention, recommendations that support the sages. Community and youth lead-
youth development, social inclusion, integration of sport and physical activ- ers are trained to build skills as peer
peace building and conflict resolution. ity into domestic and international de- educators and mentors who deliver
This article addresses S4D’s relevance velopment policies and programs. The appropriate curriculum through par-
and potential uses and also provides SDP IWG will culminate by presenting ticipatory activities with groups of
resources for taking the next step. a comprehensive set of policy recom- children and youths.

22 MONDAY DEVELOPMENTS August 2008
Sport

Photos: Sheridan Jones-McCrae
School sports, Lusaka, Zambia 2003 (left) and Children’s Disability Race, Addis Ababa 2006.

• Celebrity sports people as role models. and NGOs have utilized well-known ath- ment skills through involvement in the
Idolized by young people, they bring letes with disabilities to challenge stereo- soccer program’s decision-making, op-
credibility to messages, allow sensi- types, create awareness of the rights of erations and board representation.
tive issues to be aired and educational people with disabilities, and provide an Social integration and peace build-
messages to be widely disseminated. array of resources for adapting physi- ing. Sport plays a role in helping chil-
• Social mobilization of communities. cal activity to ensure their participation. dren recover from the effects of crisis,
Capitalizing on the strong attraction of When applied effectively, sport programs discrimination and marginalization.
sport, the promotion of an organized for people with disabilities can promote At a grassroots level, sport can foster
sporting event can increase turnout social integration, foster tolerance and social integration among different eth-
and provide exposure to an associated help decrease discrimination; while the nic groups and offer an opportunity to
development program that people may physical activity itself improves health engage in collective experience. Sport
not otherwise be motivated to attend. and builds confidence. and play are used in refugee and post-
conflict settings to help provide a sense
How does S4D contribute to There is growing of normalcy and as outlets to trauma-
development goals?
S4D contributes to developments recognition within tized youth as seen in Mercy Corps
programs, Yes to Soccer in Liberia and
goals in a number of critical areas.
Health and disease prevention. Sport
the development Sports for Peace and Life in southern
Sudan. Sport-based programs can help
can support health initiatives such as community that former child soldiers to make the shift
HIV/AIDS education in which youth-
focused programs positively influence
systemic application from “normalized violence” by offering
socially acceptable and structured pat-
knowledge and attitudes towards pre- of sport offers a terns of behavior. For children lacking
effective parental figures, such as street
vention, treatment and stigma. In Le-
sotho, the Kick4Life program provides legitimate vehicle for children, orphans or other vulnerable
a point of access to health services by
connecting soccer tournaments with
achieving Millennium children, games-based programs can
address anti-social survival norms by
educational information and onsite Development Goals. using structured activities to create
voluntary testing and counselling fa- trust, security, teach new skills and
cilities. Similarly, the presence of a Gender. The participation of girls and methods to communicate, establish
national soccer hero and sporting ac- women in sport can produce signifi- personal discipline and re-integrate the
tivities significantly increased turnout cant results. It can enhance girls’ self- children into families.
during the 2003 Zambia national mea- esteem, self-empowerment and sense Disaster response. As a non-medical
sles vaccination campaign. of personal freedom, and contribute to approach to building the resilience of
Education, child and youth devel- positive behavior changes such as fewer people affected by disasters, games-
opment. Sport-based programs have sexual partners, delayed marriage and based activities can be a beneficial in-
been successful in decreasing school fewer births. Importantly, it offers op- strument to support the wider response
drop-out rates and improving academic portunity to alter gender norms, as wit- framework. They can provide a stable
performance. They can also instill im- nessed during the Population Council’s social background in which to channel
portant values of teamwork, fairness, Ishraq program in Upper Egypt where emotions, frustration and aggression
inclusion, cooperation and communi- female sport participation challenged and promote values such as teamwork
cation, and develop youth leadership. traditional concepts of gender-appropri- – as was done in the Swiss Academy for
Inclusion of people with disabilities. ate behaviors. Additionally, Moving the Development’s pilot project following the
Partnerships amongst International Par- Goalposts Kilifi empowers Kenyan girls 2003 earthquake in Bam, Iran. Similarly,
alympic Committee, the United Nations by developing leadership and manage- The Moving Forward Initiative, a collabo-

MONDAY DEVELOPMENTS August 2008 23
Sport

ration between Mercy Corps, Nike and ferences, identify suitable synergies and mining other programs.
CARE, uses sport to help youth emerge link you to appropriate S4D resources. • Recognize that sport is not a pana-
from emergencies in their communities. Think long term and integrate. To cea, but instead one of many com-
Economic development. Sport is in- avoid a short-term “halo” effect (in ponents that contribute to achieving
creasingly contributing to development which positive benefits disappear soon overall goals.
of local economic markets in several after the initial program ends), S4D pro- The International Platform on Sport
ways. First, athletes invest earnings grams should: and Development has become the home
from international competitions into • Combine sports participation with for the S4D community and serves as the
their local communities through farms, educational elements and/or link to main resource for sharing and learning
new businesses and real estate – as other services. via case studies, policy documents, eval-
witnessed in Eldoret, Kenya, home to • Be integrated into suitable struc- uations, tools and advice on the practi-
many of Africa’s leading distance run- tures (e.g. existing NGO, community cal implementation of S4D projects.
ners. Sporting events staged in develop- or government networks) that en- Now that you’ve read about it, check
ing countries have had a similar effect. sure sustainability and avoid under- S4D out and get the ball rolling! MD
Beyond the Scoreboard, a report by the
International Labour Organization, doc-
uments the positive economic impacts Additional Resources
of such events on the local economies,
noting the potential gains from sales of Key Websites
event-related products and the possibil- International S4D Platform www.sportanddev.org/index.cfm
ity of increased tourism in the future. SDP IWG http://iwg.sportanddev.org/en/index.htm
Local manufacturing of sporting
The Next Step Conferences www.nextstep2007.org
equipment can also strengthen local
Kicking Out AIDS Network www.kickingaidsout.net
economies. While most sporting equip-
ment in Africa is imported, the Alive
and Kicking program uses a business Key Documents and Manuals
model for the African manufacture of From the Field: Sport for Development and Peace in Action (2007)
sporting balls and exemplifies the re- http://iwg.sportanddev.org
lated potential local economic benefits. From Practice to Policy, Preliminary Report of the SDP IWG (2006) www.righttoplay.com
In Kenya, South Africa and Zambia, The Magglingen Call to Action (2005) www.magglingen2005.org
stitching centers designed to be self- Shared Goals through Sport: Getting a Sustainable Return for Companies and Communities
financing after one year, use local raw www.iblf.org
materials and labor to produce cheap, Grassroot Soccer’s various evaluations and partnership model www.grassrootsoccer.org
tough, repairable footballs, netballs Live Safe, Play Safe Manual www.coreinitiative.org
and volleyballs, each of which carry a A Play Book for Practitioners in HIV, Youth and Sport www.mercycorps.org
message about HIV/AIDS and malaria.
Resources on specific themes:
How can NGOs start to utilize S4D? Sport in the United Nations: Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disability
NGOs can use a number of approach-
www.sportanddev.org/index.cfm
es to begin to use S4D in their work.
Collaboration with S4D experts. Giv- Fun inclusive! Manual (Disability) www.sportanddev.org/index.cfm
en the considerable evolution of the Beyond the Scoreboard, 2006 (Economic Development) www.ilo.org
S4D field, this is a valuable step. As re- Sport and Play for Traumatized Children and Youth in Bam, Iran www.sad.ch/en/
lief and development NGOs may often
have different perspectives than sport- S4D organizations
focused NGOs it is also important to: Grassroot Soccer www.grassrootsoccer.org
• Ensure each entity shares and under- Right To Play www.righttoplay.com
stands the context, history and key Mathare Youth Sports Association (MYSA) www.mysakenya.org
issues in program implementation. Moving the Goalposts Kilifi (MTGK) www.mtgk.org
• Determine together how best to in- Kick4Life www.kick4life.org
tegrate S4D within the existing NGO Sport Coaches’ Outreach www.score.org.za
structure, the specific aims and forms Alive and Kicking www.aliveandkicking.org.uk
of intervention so sport can be adapted
to achieve positive outcomes in differ-
Relief & Development NGOs using S4D
ent contexts for different populations.
Mercy Corps www.mercycorps.org
A practitioner with sport and interna- CARE, Sport for Social Change Initiative www.care.org
tional development experience can help Population Council, Ishraq Program in Egypt www.popcouncil.org
bridge terminology and contextual dif-

24 MONDAY DEVELOPMENTS August 2008
Advocacy

Creating CHANGE
On Campus and Beyond
America’s college students
advocate on behalf of global
poverty and injustice.
By Gabriel Barreras, Lead Student
Organizer, Oxfam America

I
n early April of this year, as
the week’s classes drew to a close,

Photo: Laura McFarlane / Oxfam America
Vassar College junior James Kelly
and four classmates squeezed into
his small, four-door sedan for a road
trip. Their destination: Washington,
DC, where Kelly, an Oxfam America
CHANGE Leader, had organized a
student-led day of advocacy on Capitol
Hill. Upon arrival, the students would
meet with U.S. legislators and ask
them to respond to the international
effects of climate change in vulnerable
communities, and to prioritize global Somdeep Sen (center), 2005 CHANGE cent campaigns include: converting
climate change as a legislative issue. Leader from St. Lawrence University jokes campuses to source fair trade goods;
After two months of strenuous plan- with fellow students during a campaign creating equitable solutions to the cli-
ning (and one minor breakdown en strategy planning group. mate crisis; and protecting the rights
route) Kelly’s carpool arrived in DC. They of communities affected by oil, gas and
joined a total of 51 students from 11 uni- mining. CHANGE Leaders support the
versities in 29 states, who met with 34 campaigns by building networks, or-
U.S. Senate offices in a single day. for U.S. college students to actively ganizing their peers to take political
“We had fewer attendees than we engage in the fight against global pov- action, and hosting campus events
expected, but we were very well pre- erty, hunger and injustice. This highly like teach-ins, panel discussions and
pared,” Kelly said of the day’s work. “We competitive national program selects speakers’ tours.
pushed for targets that would improve 50 students per year. Once accepted, Like Kelly, many CHANGE Leaders
the Lieberman-Warner legislation [a these students, known as CHANGE have also taken their campaigns beyond
climate change bill then up for debate Leaders, come to Boston for a rigorous
in the U.S. Senate]. In one meeting, our
student was so well received that she
week-long training that blends group
activities, expert panels and workshops
“In one meeting, our
was praised as the best environmen- with a multimedia teaching curricu-
lum. The training builds students’ lead-
student was so well
tal lobbyist they had seen in terms of
preparation, and they even mentioned ership skills, advocacy skills and famil- received that she was
they would look at including our pro-
posal in their legislation.”
iarity with Oxfam’s mission, while also
introducing them to sophisticated and
praised as the best
Kelly’s story is just one of many suc- powerful models for social change. environmental lobbyist
cesses to emerge from Oxfam America’s
CHANGE Initiative. Oxfam America,
Once their training is complete,
the new CHANGE Leaders are tasked [the Senator’s office]
a Boston-based international relief
and development agency, created the
with implementing at least one Oxfam-
specific public advocacy campaign on
had seen in terms of
CHANGE Initiative in 2000 as a means campus during the year ahead. Re- preparation.”
MONDAY DEVELOPMENTS August 2008 25
Advocacy

Facts about CHANGE Alternative School Breaks
Since 2000... By Leah Kaplan Robins, American Jewish World Service
• 475 students have taken part in
the CHANGE Initiative Few people associate college spring break with manual labor in a rural
village in Central America. Yet hundreds of American college students each
• 230 U.S. campuses have been year are embracing an “alternative” week off with American Jewish World Ser-
represented vice’s Alternative Breaks program. The grassroots development organization
sends Jewish volunteers
Since 2007... to poor communities in
• CHANGE Leaders organized 33 Africa, Asia or the Ameri-
separate legislative advocacy cas to work side-by-side
efforts with local community
• CHANGE Leaders held 231 members and activists.
community awareness events Projects expose young
volunteers to the daily
lives of people overcom-
ing poverty, injustice
campus and have begun to influence na- and natural disasters in
tion-wide social movements. Today, as the Global South. The
the CHANGE Initiative enters its ninth experience has lasting ef-

Photo: AJWS
year, over 450 CHANGE alumni have fects, as noted by the two
gone on to work in a variety of organiza- following comments from
tions, including The ONE Campaign, the individuals who partici-
UN Office for the Coordination of Hu- pated in reconstruction ef-
manitarian Affairs, National Public Ra- forts after devastating El Salvador earthquakes and in building a sustainable
dio, the U.S. House of Representatives, agricultural training center for Nicaraguan coffee growers.
the California Environmental Protection
“As a Central American country that had been ravaged by a series of natural
CHANGE is poised disasters, plus a conflict exacerbated by U.S. intervention, there was a lack
of infrastructure and a density of poor populations in El Salvador that
to become a global was different from what I’d seen elsewhere at that point. I was already set
model for student on working on international human rights and justice issues, but the trip
strongly deepened my own spiritual commitment and involvement. In my
engagement. work today, I try to bring mind, heart and spirit to what I’m doing. When
we’re up against such huge obstacles and injustices, you have to bring a lot
of spirit.” —Joanna Levitt, co-director of International Accountability Project, San
Agency and Oxfam America. CHANGE Francisco, and former
Leaders have founded two different inde- participant in AJWS
pendent national student organizations: Alternative Breaks, El
United Students for Fair Trade and the Salvador
Student Trade Justice Campaign. Oth-
ers have attended World Trade Organiza- “Living in El Horno’s
tion meetings and G8 summits, worked community center, sleep-
as journalists in Sudan, taken part in ing on the floor, taking
presidential campaigns, designed pros- showers with a bucket of
thetic limbs for land mine victims, and cold water, doing manual
Photo: AJWS

worked for Fair Trade companies. labor at the work site and
Today, CHANGE is poised to become eating meals alongside
a global model for student engage- chickens, pigs and dogs
ment. Inspired by Oxfam America’s was an amazing experi-
success, affiliate Oxfams have since ence that opened my eyes, first hand, to a country in the Global South and
launched their own CHANGE initia- let me have a taste of the lifestyle. It was an experience I will tell to many and
tives in Australia, Canada and Great never forget. I hope to become more involved in heightening awareness and
Britain. MD creating stability in developing regions.” —University of Michigan student and
For more information on the CHANGE participant in AJWS Alternative Breaks, Nicaragua
initiative, please visit www.oxfamamer-
ica.org/change.

26 MONDAY DEVELOPMENTS August 2008
Volunteering

Youth Leadership
Through Community
Development
U.S. student volunteers
make a difference in the AMIGOS volunteer and community
members participate in a nutrition
lives of others, as well as class in Mexico.
their own.

By Emily Untermeyer, President,
Amigos de las Américas

S
ince 1965, Amigos de las
Américas (AMIGOS) has trained
more than 20,000 young peo-
ple from throughout the United
States to take active leadership roles in
community health and development.
Through their experiences, volunteers
gain close-up perspectives of interna-
tional development and insights about
working effectively in other cultures.
Many participants go on to pursue aca-
demic studies and professional careers
in international development.
Instead of working in large groups
with other U.S. students, volunteers
work for up to eight weeks in teams of
two or three in more than 250 rural or
semi-urban Latin American communi-
ties. Volunteers live with local families,
working collaboratively with partner
agencies, local youth and community
leaders.
Youth participants are trained in a
range of community development meth-
odologies, such as asset-based com-
munity development and appreciative
inquiry. Rather than focusing on what
a community lacks, volunteers facilitate
dialogue about community strengths
and opportunities, thereby adding en-
Photo: AMIGOS

ergy to a priority-setting process that is
determined by the community and con-
tinues once the volunteers return home.
Year after year, hundreds of teenag-

MONDAY DEVELOPMENTS August 2008 27
Volunteering

“Local youth often
Spotlight: continue with projects
long after volunteers
Youth Leadership in Action
have left.”
Name: Katie Morris, 28
ers and young adults have transfor-
AMIGOS Experience: Volunteer in mative experiences through their par-
the Dominican Republic (1998) and ticipation in the program. For example,
Bolivia (1999); Project Supervisor in the 2007 Volunteer Experience Survey,
Paraguay (2001); Project Director in which was conducted anonymously
with 585 participants, found that:
Panama (2004) and Uruguay (2006);
• 87 percent of survey participants
Albuquerque Chapter Training
noted growth in their personal confi-
Director (2002-04); Albuquerque dence and improved communication
Chapter board member (2000-06); abilities;
Senior Staff representative to the • 91 percent reported improvement in
International Board (2006-08) their ability to plan, implement and
different from my own. I thought evaluate projects; and
Current Position: International about equality and sustainable • 90 percent reported increased lead-
Development Fellow for Catholic development,” Katie explained. ership skills.
Relief Services in Malawi, Africa
“I am not aware of many other Leadership Ladder
Instead of maintaining a full-time,
Katie Morris recently earned her organizations that engage
year-round staff in each Latin Ameri-
Master of Public Health (MPH) youth with the same amount
can country, AMIGOS promotes stellar
from Emory University. Upon of responsibility, and AMIGOS volunteers to serve as project manag-
completing her thesis, she was demonstrates such respect for ers (see sidebar). This model of proj-
one of 25 young international individual and collective creativity ect management, which AMIGOS has
development professionals selected and innovation,” she said. used for decades, empowers young
from among hundreds of highly adults to take on remarkable levels
qualified applicants for a prestigious An important development lesson of responsibility. The team of well-
international development fellowship. that Katie has learned is that trained project staff is tasked with the
She will work for one year in Malawi, beneficiary community collaboration challenge of locating host communities
Africa on HIV/AIDS programs with and input is essential to the success for volunteers, defining and monitor-
ing projects, updating health and safe-
Catholic Relief Services. of a project. That is a lesson she plans
ty protocols, managing a budget, and
to take with her to Africa.
collaborating with partner agencies,
Her rise up AMIGOS’ Leadership government officials, and local com-
Ladder inspired her interest in “It has been amazing to see the munity leaders.
international development. “AMIGOS shift in international development
pushed me in a different direction organizations from prescriptive, Partner Organization Involvement
personally and professionally. My prefabricated programs to those that Youth engagement activities are
first year, at age 17, was also my first focus on capacity building and the conducted in partnership with orga-
time leaving the United States. It needs and interests of the community,” nizations engaged year-round in local
reconstructed my worldview. I began Katie said. “Those are the type of development efforts, such as fellow
to think critically about a way of life projects that are truly sustainable.” InterAction member Plan in the Do-
minican Republic, Honduras, Nicara-
gua and Paraguay. The partnership
is a natural fit because both AMIGOS
InterAction’s and Plan use training techniques that

New Online engage youth in dynamic learning and
focus on use of multiple intelligences.

Job Board!
Visit: careers.interaction.org
Interested in advertising in
Monday Developments?
Contact Michael Haslett at publications@interaction.org

28 MONDAY DEVELOPMENTS August 2008
Volunteering

AMIGOS volunteers determine what projects will be most
appropriate and effective. Projects
partnered with an AMIGOS vol-
unteer in another Latin American
are first and foremost are community-centric, meaning that
the host communities determine the
country.
The involvement of Latin American
community service specific work activities to be done. As youth ensures project sustainability
partners and catalysts such, community activities span a wide
range: from building school kitchens,
and provides an excellent forum for cul-
tural exchange. “The cultural exchange
for positive civic latrines and playgrounds, to teaching is life-changing, but the most amaz-

engagement of local health education and creative expres-
sion classes for young children, to fa-
ing aspect of the interaction is that
AMIGOS volunteers are inspiring local
youth. cilitating trash pickup programs with
local youth.
youth to become agents of change,”
said Kristin Kaper, AMIGOS Director
of Latin American Programs. “The local
For several years, Plan – Dominican Latin American Youth Engagement youth often continue with projects long
Republic has supported the participa- AMIGOS volunteers are first and after volunteers have left.”
tion of local youth in AMIGOS’ projects foremost community service partners For over 40 years, AMIGOS has dem-
in Central America. and catalysts for positive civic engage- onstrated that young people are capa-
“Youth leadership is a top priority for ment of local youth. There are three ble of accomplishing almost any task
both AMIGOS and Plan,” said Virginia categories of local youth participation: laid out before them. They are flexible
Saiz, a Participation Adviser with Plan • Youth counterparts, who participate enough to face the challenges that in-
– Dominican Republic. “We get young within their home community; evitably arise in international develop-
people leading real development pro- • National volunteers, who are part- ment situations. They have the energy
cesses, getting adults and authorities nered with an AMIGOS volunteer and idealism to take on big projects
involved,” Saiz explained. within another community in their and to inspire others to actively and
Extensive planning with the partner home country; and collaboratively engage in community
agencies and host communities helps • International volunteers, who are development. MD

MONDAY DEVELOPMENTS August 2008 29
Education

A Helping
Hand for
El Salvador

Photos: PADF
Manos Unidas project works Salvador created a unique program
that finances education-related proj-
to decrease brain drain. ects throughout the country. It offers
matching funds through a competitive
By Amber Lupin, Program Assistant, grant process that encourages Salva-
Pan American Development doran immigrant groups in the United
Foundation States to support education projects in
their communities of origin.

U
Since Manos Unidas began, more than
ntil recently, Corina Mejia 50 communities and 20,000 students
Acevedo’s desk was a flattened have benefited from a wide range of
boulder. As the director and educational projects, including renovat-
teacher of the only school in the ing classrooms, building computer labs,
small town of Los Marines, El Salvador, providing supplies and training teachers.
she had to make do with available re- Projects are proposed and designed by
Corina Mejia Acevedo, standing behind
sources. Her students, some of whom Salvadoran immigrants in coordination
the boulder that served as her desk (above)
walked from miles away, studied in a with community groups in El Salvador.
and at her new desk, in her new classroom.
crumbling adobe building and used an
outdoor latrine missing two walls.
Unfortunately, Corina’s situation is
“Our young people
typical in some parts of rural El Salva- emigrate to the United Mirna Rojas, president of the Unidos
dor, where there is little funding for in-
frastructure and educational programs.
States because...they por Lolotique hometown association lo-
cated near Washington, DC, said, “When
Inadequate classrooms add to the like- don’t see an economic I was a little girl in El Salvador, my mom
lihood that a child will quit school, be-
come unemployed or underemployed, panorama that permits had a desk built for me so I could have a
place in our school’s classroom. When I
or leave the country to find opportuni-
ties elsewhere.
them to achieve their found out about Manos Unidas, I asked
myself, ‘how could I not help out?’”
Indeed, as many as 80 percent of goals.” Because of Manos Unidas, Los Ma-
students leave some areas of the coun- rines’ school teacher Mejia Acevedo
try after completing a minimal level of “Manos Unidas is making a major now sits at a real desk, inside a class-
schooling. “Our young people emigrate impact on the education of Salvadoran room constructed from solid building
to the United States because they don’t youths, who will grow to have an im- materials. The walls are painted bright
see a future; they don’t see an economic pact on the nation itself. The program blue and white, the colors of the Salva-
panorama that permits them to achieve now serves as a model for other coun- doran flag. The bathroom is now fully
their goals,” said Rafael Mejía, the direc- tries that have recognized the positive enclosed and has a toilet.
tor of the Central American Technologi- changes in El Salvador,” says Banco The Pan American Development
cal Institute in La Unión, El Salvador. Agícola’s Director of Communications Foundation, which prioritizes education
Manos Unidas por El Salvador is Joaquín Rivas. as part of its mission to empower dis-
working to change that trend. In The program forms the cornerstone advantaged people and communities in
2004 the Pan American Development of Banco Agrícola’s corporate social Latin America and the Caribbean, has
Foundation (PADF), a non-profit af- responsibility portfolio, facilitating the recently begun exploring the possibil-
filiated with the Organization of Ameri- bank’s efforts to support Salvadoran ity of expanding the program to Haiti,
can States, and Banco Agrícola of El society in a priority area for its clients. Mexico, Honduras, and Colombia. MD

30 MONDAY DEVELOPMENTS August 2008
Scholarships

I The Cost of
n El Salvador, a high school
education is not free for all school-
aged youth, nor is transportation
provided free or at a reduced cost.

Knowledge
These two expenses, plus the cost of
school uniforms (which are required in
all public schools in El Salvador), school
supplies and lunch, make a high school
education something that youth from
poor families can only dream about, es-
pecially if they live in rural areas. In a
recent study done by the University of
Central America’s (UCA) Public Opinion
Institute (IUDOP), only 26.3 percent Scholarships empower program is important because, “We feel
of youth polled who lived in rural supported and that motivates us to keep
areas had or were receiving a high
youth and promote working. It drives us to keep working for
school education. development. our communities so that in the future, El
This reality has lead some rural Salvador becomes a developed country.”
community development organiza- By Erin Yost García, Grassroots Besides providing scholarships, CRIP-
tions to seek support for scholarship Program Officer, SHARE Foundation DES San Vicente works to organize com-
programs to help youth continue munal youth committees in Tecoluca. As
their education when their parents noted by participant and youth organiz-
cannot finance their studies. Part of that respond to the community’s needs er Amilcar Henriquez, one of the biggest
the CRIPDES National network, CRIP- and work with local government and aid challenges in youth organizing is the ef-
DES San Vicente is a community de- agencies to secure funding for develop- fect that the mass immigration of youth
velopment organization that focuses on ment projects. Javier recognizes the im- from El Salvador to the U.S. has on com-
working with rural communities in the portance of community organizing and munity organizing. “Immigration affects
municipality of Tecoluca (in the Depart- the role of youth in local development. “I our work directly. Young people who
ment of San Vicente) in their efforts to like it when I see that young people are have grown as leaders are compelled to
organize, implement development proj- involved in development, because right choose between the organizing process
ects and to advocate for their rights as now there are adults who can promote and their family’s survival. Young people
established by the Salvadoran Consti- community development, but in the fu- need opportunities to finish high school
tution and other laws. ture when those adults are no longer in and to further their studies through vo-
Through donations from solidar- positions of leadership, we are the ones cational training or college. Then they
ity groups, churches, universities and who will be promoting this work.” need to be able to find employment.
high schools, the SHARE Foundation Javier thinks that the scholarship Youth go to the U.S. thinking that may-
has been able to provide funding for
CRIPDES San Vicente’s innovative high
school scholarship program, which also
receives funding from Sister Cities. In
this program, the directive councils in
the communities where CRIPDES San
Vicene works nominate young people
from their communities who have shown
strong leadership skills and demon-
strated a serious commitment to partici-
pating in local development initiatives.
CRIPDES San Vicente then reviews the
applications and approves a scholarship
for the student if he or she has indeed
demonstrated a community commit-
ment and the need for the scholarship.
Photos: Patrick Nau

At 19, Javier Moza Arevalo knows a
thing or two about community devel-
opment in El Salvador. In 2007, Javier
was elected by his community to serve
as president of the community direc-
tive council. As president, it is his job to Maria Isabel (left) explains the importance of the scholarship program for Tecoluca’s youth
guide the council in producing proposals and Javier talks about his experience as President of his community, Brisas del Volcan.

MONDAY DEVELOPMENTS August 2008 31
Education

be there they can have the opportunities that were denied to
them here. Lack of educational and employment opportunities “Youth go to the U.S. thinking that
are structural problems – both political and economic. Creating
these opportunities is the responsibility of the state, but there
maybe there they can have the
is a lack of political will to support education for youth, espe- opportunities that were denied to
cially for those living in the rural areas.”
Currently, the Salvadoran Constitution only guarantees a free
them here.”
education through ninth grade. On June 26, 2008, the Salva-
doran Legislative Assembly passed a constitutional reform that tion. Maria Isabel explains, “The funds we receive through the
would guarantee a free high school education for all. In order to program help our parents with the weight of paying for our stud-
take effect, that reform must be passed again by the next legis- ies. This program has benefited many youth in this sector who
lature, which will take office in 2009 after a new round of elec- live with just their mothers. It is very difficult for single mothers
tions. The landmark 2008 legislation was passed with support to provide for their children and that is why the scholarship is
from members of all of the political parties in a system marked important.” CRIPDES San Vicente takes this kind of family situ-
by extreme political polarization and in the context of the 2009 ation into account as it reviews scholarship nominations.
elections in which all elected offices will be up for grabs. The SHARE Foundation and its donors believe that provid-
Even though students would no longer have to pay tuition ing funding for a scholarship program that focuses on con-
under the new legislation, high school may still be out of reach tributing to the personal development of youth who are ac-
for some students. According to Maria Isabel Renderos, a CRIP- tive in their communities will, in the long run, contribute to
DES scholarship student and community leader, getting an sustainable development. Through their studies, these young
education is challenging in the rural areas because, “Schools people are acquiring the skills and self-esteem they will need
are located far from some communities and transportation is to participate in community decision-making structures and
very expensive.” Families will still have to provide uniforms, to push forward their community and municipal development
lunches, school supplies and transportation in an economy goals. SHARE also hopes to encourage a sense of civic respon-
where food and gas prices are constantly increasing. sibility through the scholarships and other activities funded
In this economic context, scholarships will still be a key factor by the project that help the youth develop a critical awareness
in determining whether young people can continue their educa- and analyze issues of local and national importance. MD

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32 MONDAY DEVELOPMENTS August 2008
Trafficking

In Manila, U.S. Ambassador to the Philip-
pines Kristie A. Kenney says the MTV EXIT
campaign will reach some of the people
most likely to be trafficked: young, inquisi-
tive individuals who are eager to make a
better life for themselves.

fic,” for the Asia Pacific. More are be-
ing made. Each tells the tale of three
people who have been trafficked as
well as the traffickers, police, and so-
cial activists working to end trafficking
in persons (TIP). Real-life victims and
traffickers agreed to be interviewed on
camera for the films.
Each movie is narrated by a pop,

SOLD
rock or film star in his or her native
language. Rain made Hangul/South
Korean version; Christian Bautista
filmed the Tagalog/Philippine version;
Lucy Liu recorded the English-language
version. The campaign capitalizes on
their images and MTV’s brand appeal,
transforming people’s views about traf-
ficking and exploitation and providing
a platform for NGOs, governments and
law-enforcement agencies to prevent
trafficking and assist victims.
“Traffic” and “Sold” are funded in a
public-private partnership with $3 mil-
USAID and MTV take their “Sold” is shown as the human- lion from the U.S. Agency for Interna-
anti-trafficking campaign trafficking component in Ralte’s child tional Development (USAID) and $10
rights and domestic violence work- million in air time from MTV Networks.
to youths most at risk. shops, which are popular in this Since late last year, the films have been
sparsely settled, mountainous province seen by more than 18.25 million people
By Hal Lipper, Development Outreach – the kind of place that young people throughout Asia on MTV Networks and
Communications Specialist, yearn to leave. other broadcasters.
U.S. Agency for International Residents jostle to view the film There is an MTV EXIT – End Exploi-
Development, Bangkok about country folk who have been traf- tation and Trafficking – website in 27

A
ficked to India’s largest cities to toil in languages at www.mtvexit.org with in-
ngela Ralte packs a copy sweatshops and brothels and as slaves formation about the prevention of hu-
of “Sold: An MTV EXIT Special,” in people’s homes. They whisper among man trafficking as well as downloads of
a documentary about human themselves about the victims’ mistreat- all MTV EXIT programming.
trafficking, whenever she visits ment and the odd clothes they wear. USAID and the MTV Europe Founda-
villages in Mizoram, an isolated Indian “We dress and act so differently that tion (MTVEF), a U.K.-based charity that
province knuckled between Burma and before and after the movie, we discuss uses the power of MTV to educate youth
Bangladesh. how this isn’t just somewhere else. It’s and adults, are looking for additional
“We’re taking the message to the happening in Mizoram,” says Ralte, funding to launch their on-the-ground
village level where there are no televi- who shows a Mizo version of the film, component of the campaign. This will
sions. We’re taking the movie to young originally narrated in Hindi and Eng- take “Traffic” and “Sold” to rural ar-
people, those most at risk,” says Ralte, lish by Lara Dutta, the film star, social eas, as Ralte has already done, where
the founder of the Centre for Peace and activist and former Miss Universe. people might otherwise not see the film.
Development, a Mizoram NGO focusing There are 13 versions of “Sold,” for USAID and MTVEF plan to work with
on women’s and children’s rights. South Asia, and its sister film “Traf- NGOs to maximize their impact.

MONDAY DEVELOPMENTS August 2008 33
Trafficking

Migration Economics (HOME) in Sin-
gapore.Lew’s home for trafficked and
abused women is featured in “Traffic,”
and her observation – “If everyone is
aware that we are part of the prob-
lem and part of the solution, then we
can exercise our responsibility to up-
hold social justice for all” – is one of
the most compelling statements in
the film. “‘Traffic’ now must go beyond
MTV,” says Lew. “It should be brought
to the grassroots: NGOs, community-
based organizations and churches.”
That’s the plan. The next phase of the
campaign is to “use the power of music
to reach and educate our audience,” says
Ehr of MTVEF. He envisions a series of
concerts in major Asian cities, filmed and
aired with an anti-TIP message on MTV
affiliates, followed by smaller cultural
and music events in the countryside, all
Media crowd around film star Lara Dutta, we are to empowering young people to promoting the anti-TIP message.
MTV Europe campaign director Simon Goff protect themselves and each other from With the help of NGOs, the goal is
and U.S. Consul General Michael S. Owen trafficking and exploitation,” Ehr says. to reach youths from at-risk commu-
at the launch of “Sold” in Mumbai. “And we think USAID has found the nities, as well as people who represent
same in us.” Carduner says he’s pleased the demand that underlies trafficking,
with the public-private partnership and and the general public to inspire them
“This documentary gives NGOs like the growing MTV EXIT campaign. to take action against this modern form
Ralte’s the ability to reach poor com- In May, the U.K. rock band Radio- of slavery.
munities, from where victims are traf- head joined the drive by focusing on “MTV EXIT has distributed ‘Traf-
ficked, with the same reality-based child labor through a music video set to fic’ and ‘Sold’ to more than 100 NGOs
message that the well-off watch in their their single “All I Know” from the album across the region and beyond,” says Si-
living rooms,” says Olivier Carduner, “In Rainbows.” The video, contrasting a mon Goff, Campaign Director of MTV
Mission Director at USAID’s Regional day in the life of an affluent child with EXIT Asia. “During the next year, we
Development Mission for Asia. “By rais- a youngster making shoes in a sweat- plan to increase the number of NGOs
ing awareness on both ends of the la- shop, sent the message that everyone we work with as we roll out our on-the-
bor-market chain, using celebrities who plays a role in trafficking and exploita- ground events produced in conjunction
establish local ownership of the issue, tion into as many as 560 million house- with MTV Networks in Asia.”
holds worldwide. Justine Wang of the Taipei Women’s
“Instead of cautious Currently, while the on-the-ground Rescue Foundation in Taiwan is already
government bureaucrats, campaign gets underway, national and
local broadcasters are airing new ver-
using “Traffic” in training sessions with
junior and senior high-school teachers.
MTV found passionate and sions of “Sold” and “Traffic.” These are
provided rights-free by MTV. A Lao ad-
“I like that the film contains all aspects
of human trafficking, particularly labor
committed professionals.” aptation will be released this month. trafficking, which too often is ignored
Nepalese and Bangladeshi versions are in Taiwan,” Wang says. She is consid-
we create a more powerful dynamic for on the boards. ering showing it to communities where
change.” Partnering with MTVEF lever- Regional public service announce- there are high concentrations of foreign
ages MTV Networks and the skills and ments are currently being broadcast workers and spouses. “They probably
techniques that MTV brings for reach- on MTV. TIP-oriented animated film have heard of people in similar circum-
ing mass audiences, Carduner says. shorts are being readied for release on stances, but might not even know the
“The key to the partnership between MTV in the Asia-Pacific. A live-action people are trafficked,” she says.
MTV and USAID, frankly, is its some- movie dealing with trafficking is being Wang is looking forward to receiving
what risky nature. Who would have put planned for production in India. a new version of “Traffic” with complex,
the two of us together?” says Tom Ehr, “‘Traffic’ is an MTV film, so it speaks rather than simplified, Chinese char-
Chief Executive of MTVEF. “Instead to young people in their language” with acters. She calls the film an excellent
of cautious government bureaucrats, a visual style they can relate to, says public awareness tool, saying it can
MTV found passionate and commit- Bridget Lew, the founder and presi- reach the general public as well as
ted professionals – just as dedicated as dent of Humanitarian Organization for young people. MD

34 MONDAY DEVELOPMENTS August 2008
Girl Mothers

Building Youth Agency
and Resilience
Girl mothers in Sierra Leone large in size and stature, and are will- formerly recruited girls, many of whom
ing to take risks most adults would re- are mothers, face much greater stigma
engage in participatory ject. Girls are often recruited not only than do formerly recruited boys, and
action research. for exploitation as sex slaves, but also have gendered needs such as reproduc-
for their abilities to fight and to carry tive health care and need to support
quietly heavy loads over long distanc- their children. Their children may also
By Mike Wessells, Sr. Child es. Inside armed groups, girls often be- carry the double stigma of being “reb-
Protection Advisor, Christian come mothers despite their dangerous el children” and born out of wedlock.
Children’s Fund living conditions. Most formerly recruited girls are invis-

T
Following armed conflict, the integra- ible and left out of formal processes of
hroughout the world, tion of formerly recruited young people disarmament, demobilization and rein-
many youth grow up in con- into civilian life is a high priority. This tegration. Not uncommonly, they are
texts torn by war and chronic task is crucial for supporting not only written off as a lost generation. Even
poverty. In armed conflicts, human rights but also peace, because if girls have access to reintegration
warring groups often recruit youth youth who fail to reintegrate may en- programs, the supports tend to be de-
because they have significant cogni- gage in crime and banditry or continue signed and implemented by adults and
tive competencies that can be used for living as soldiers. A persistent question, do not respond adequately to the girls’
military or political purposes, they are however, is how to effectively integrate own perspectives or expressed needs.
To build on girls’ perspectives and
strengthen their ability to make chang-
es in their families and communities,
Christian Children’s Fund (CCF) Sierra
Leone has invited girls to lead the pro-
cess of developing reintegration sup-
ports for themselves and their children.
The process is one of participatory ac-
tion research (PAR), which is a fam-
ily of methods that empower groups
of people to make positive changes in
their lives through participatory plan-
ning and action to address social prob-
lems such as exclusion or exploitation.
PAR puts the power in young people’s
hands, promoting very high levels of
responsibility and strong capabilities
to make changes in their families and
communities. In this sense, the project
promotes the girls’ agency.
Using a multi-step process, CCF Sier-
ra Leone implemented the PAR project
in Kailahun and Koinadugu Districts,
areas hit hard by the decade-long war.
The first step was to select vulnerable
girl mothers, half of whom had been
recruited during the war and half of
whom had not been recruited. The ra-
tionale for this group composition was
Photo: CCF

that if supports were available only to
formerly recruited girl mothers, it could

MONDAY DEVELOPMENTS August 2008 35
Girl Mothers

create jealousy and increase stigmati- emergencies on an ongoing basis, they of being alone or different, offered emo-
zation. Initially, vulnerable girl moth- established an emergency fund, con- tional support from others, and gave
ers were identified through extensive tributing a percentage of their monthly them trusted peers to whom they often
consultation with community members earnings into a cash pot that could be turned for advice on how to address is-
such as elder women. After that, the se- used to deal with emergency situations sues such as family problems or chal-
lected girls themselves identified other such as an urgent need for health care lenges in their small businesses. Most
vulnerable girls. The selection criteria in one’s family. Seeking also to help of the girls reported that they are ac-
were that the participants were highly their communities, the girls performed tively earning income and saving mon-
motivated to engage in a self-help proj- community services such as cleaning ey, and they beam with pride that they
ect, were mothers between the ages of up alongside the main road and pro- can now send their children to school.
13 and 28 years, and were viewed as viding breakfast for children at the As one girl said, “Before the project, I
being at greater risk than most young community school. All of these activi- was low and people paid no attention to
women in the communities. In each of ties were designed to not only help the me. Now they do because I have goats
the two project sites there were a total girls but also to end their isolation and and groundnuts and do my business.”
of 40 girl mothers. enable positive social relations. Another girl mother said, “Before, I had
Next, the girl mothers reflected on Using media such as drama, song no confidence and could not speak in
their situation and defined their key and stories, the girls have document- community meetings, but now I do and
priorities for successfully integrating ed their activities and are now seeing people listen to me.” Similar sentiments
into their families and communities. positive outcomes on their lives and were echoed not only by most other girls
To do this, they talked about their war those of their children. For example, but also by chiefs, who confirmed that
experiences and current difficulties. the girls reported that being part of the the girls’ status has risen significantly.
In the process, they made the impor- group helped them overcome feelings continued on page 40
tant collective realization that they
are not alone. Also, they decided col-
lectively when to meet and set To help mobilize communities on behalf of children during and
the ground rules for the group. after emergencies, Christian Children’s Fund has developed a
They identified priorities such child protection approach that utilizes diverse tools, includ-
as boosting their income so ing Child-Centered Spaces (CCSs) to promote the protection
they could pay for health care,
and psychosocial well-being of children during crises. This
send their children to school or
approach engages communities to create safe spaces for
eat higher quality food. For many
girls, literacy was a high prior- children and youth to play, socialize, learn, and express
ity since they had missed out on themselves in a caring, supportive, and normalizing envi-
formal schooling and felt ashamed ronment.
and at a disadvantage due to their
inability to read or sign their names Starting up Child Centered Spaces in Emergencies: A Field
and keep track of finances. As they Manual (May 2008) draws from the knowledge and expe-
defined their priorities, they realized riences of CCF child protection specialists who have im-
their common needs, learned to work plemented CCSs in 12 countries since 1999. This manual
as a team, and created a norm of sup- offers guidance to child protection workers to help meet
port within the group.
children’s physical and emotional needs, as well as their right to educa-
The crucial third step was to plan and
tion, which can go unmet in the aftermath of a war or natural disaster. CCSs can
implement social actions that would
address their defined priorities, par- protect children from harm, help fulfill children’s rights, and create an environ-
ticularly income generation. The girls ment that ensures children’s well-being and healthy development.
elected to engage in small-scale busi-
ness, which they knew from experience The CCS manual follows 13 practical steps for implementing CCSs, including co-
could reliably boost their income, and ordination, selecting a location, visiting and mobilizing a community, recruiting
also to rear goats. To purchase their animators, training, start-up activities, monitoring and evaluation, and tips for
initial supplies or goats and support transitioning out of the CCS model. Annexes provide supplemental resources
their business activities, each girl re- and methods of application for working in CCSs.
ceived a small cash grant of approxi-
mately $60 together with some training
The manual can be downloaded electronically from the CCF website at: http://
on basic business skills. Since the girls
www.christianchildrensfund.org/content.aspx?id=514
lived in rural areas where farming was
one of the main means of livelihood,
they decided also to grow groundnuts, A few hard copies still exist and can be requested from the CCF Headquarters
the land for which was donated by child protection unit.
the chief. Recognizing that they faced

36 MONDAY DEVELOPMENTS August 2008
Microschools

The Market for Private
Schools in Poor Areas
Microschools of
Opportunity address
the education gap for
impoverished youth.

By Makonen Getu, Director of
Strategic Alliances, Opportunity
International

E

Photo: Opportunity International
ducation for all children
is a fundamental building block
of sustainable economic and
social development. In welfare
terms, the evidence of the positive ef-
fect of education, including technologi-
cal innovation, increased productivity
and higher employment, is empirically
indisputable. Yet public school systems
in the developing world aren’t always Microschool Client Success Story: Vivian Adama
able to meet the needs of all children,
especially in countries with rapidly- In 1990, Vivian Adama’s husband passed away, leaving her with an infant child. She
growing populations. Opportunity Inter- suddenly found herself needing to work to support her baby. She turned to a neighbor-
national is helping to address the need hood church to provide daycare for her baby while she worked. But they would not take
for supplemental private schools that her because she was of a different denomination. Vivian had no other childcare options
serve poor families and their children near home. Although frustrated, she turned her experience into a business idea. Why
by launching a series of loan programs not take care of her own child and provide the same service for her neighbors? Viv-
aimed at education entrepreneurs.
ian started running an infant daycare service out of her home, expanding to toddlers
Substantial research illustrates the
and moving into a building as she saved up money. Over the years, she has turned her
need for micro-level private schools that
offer affordable quality education to poor daycare into a full-service school. She started a primary and junior secondary school,
children in developing countries. A viable adding grades as she was able to save the money for classrooms and teachers.
private education industry that serves
the poor requires capital to build better In 2001, Vivian became an Opportunity International client. Her loan enabled her to
schools and to provide financial sup- purchase a deep freezer and food to provide meals to her students. Today she has 360
port for the families and their children students, 19 permanent teachers and five visiting teachers at Providence Educational
in order to increase enrollment and en- Complex. With her current loan, she is building a second floor to one of the buildings as
hance educational quality. In 2006, Dr. part of an expansion plan that will grow the school to serve 560 students.
James Tooley published award-winning
research on the impact of private schools
The school is self-sustainable, making profits from the school fees and by selling food.
for the poor in five developing countries.
Vivian’s school fees are lower than other schools because she says the neighborhood
He found that, “Contrary to previously
held beliefs, schools for the poor are is “looked down on.” By providing a good school right in the neighborhood, she has
superior to government schools, school captured a good deal of business. She has a canteen that provides food for students
teachers are more committed and edu- and teachers. Her ambition, after she completes the expansion of her school, is to also
cation outcomes are better. All this is ac- own a farm.
complished for a fraction of the per-pupil
cost of government schools.”

MONDAY DEVELOPMENTS August 2008 37
Microschools

Inspired by Dr. Tooley’s research, Op- Ghana, Opportunity International is launch pilot programs in India, Kenya,
portunity International launched its Mi- conducting a special loan pilot pro- Malawi, Mozambique, the Philippines,
croschools of Opportunity™ program in gram, which has disbursed more than Rwanda and Uganda to develop full
2007. Microschools is an initiative that $183,000 in loans to Ghanan edupre- programs that translate into sustain-
provides loans to “edupreneurs” to es- neurs to help fund 43 private schools. able businesses with acceptable risk
tablish small and medium-sized private Through the pilot program alone, 8,170 characteristics. The initiatives in these
schools for the poorest of the world’s poor poor children have been enriched by sig- countries will be implemented in accor-
in high-demand areas. Through Micro- nificant improvements to the quality of dance with the lessons learned from the
schools, Opportunity International uti- their education as a result of attending analysis of the pilot in Ghana. In addi-
lizes its core strength as a microfinance a Microschool. By the end of 2007, 200 tion, Opportunity Dominican Republic
schools were in the process of receiving received $100,000 to begin feasibility
Private schools for the loans from Opportunity International. work on launching a full Microschools

poor are often less Private schools for the poor are often
less expensive in total cost than public
project to help existing loan clients who
operate private schools for the poor to
expensive in total cost schools and offer more flexible payment
terms, which enables parents to keep
increase their quality and outreach.
“Transforming the precarious lives of
than public schools. their children in school during chal- the poor requires three elements: banks
lenging economic times. Parents save that provide loans and savings accounts
organization to help provide education on transportation costs since Micro- that allow the poor to buy food and
to underserved children in Africa, Latin schools are usually located in neighbor- shelter, microinsurance so a death in
America and Asia. Microschool loans hoods where the poor are concentrated. the family or illness doesn’t throw them
are higher than small business loans A key component of these schools is right back into poverty, and education
typical of microfinance institutions, be- that they offer girls an equal oppor- – the element that has the most hope
cause school operators need more funds tunity for education, which in many of eliminating the cycle of poverty with
and longer repayment terms, usually to countries has been lacking. Parents of- their children’s generation. This is truly
build or expand school facilities. ten feel safer sending their daughters to value-added microfinance,” said Chris-
With the cooperation of the govern- neighborhood schools. topher A. Crane, President and CEO of
ment and the education ministry in Opportunity International plans to Opportunity International. MD

38 MONDAY DEVELOPMENTS August 2008
Street Youth

Taking It to the
Streets
Workshops reach Russian
street youth with lifesaving
deliver a range of interventions, in-
cluding rapid testing and medical care,

Photo: Credit: Tanya Grichanova
crisis intervention, overnight shelters,
information. and supportive housing for youth with
no place to go.
In partnership with public and pri-
By Daniel Kricheff, Communications vate donors, DOW designed and im-
Manager, Doctors of the World- plemented a series of HIV prevention
USA, and Tara Ornstein, Program workshops to give clients like Tanya
Associate, Doctors of the World-USA the knowledge and skills they need to
stay HIV-negative, and to promote tol-
Street youth in St. Petersburg, Russia, meet

A
erance and fight the stigma and dis-
t the age of fourteen, crimination experienced by those living with DOW’s mobile outreach team, which
brings HIV testing and prevention services
Tanya had already spent many with HIV/AIDS. The workshops have
to youth and helps those living with HIV
years living on the street. She been developed with input from street
access treatment and other services.
had left an abusive home and youth in order to create a program that
now spent her nights in the basements engages them and addresses the spe-
of housing blocks and her days try- cific needs and concerns they deal with
ing to survive. When she first visited a on a daily basis. avoiding activities that may place them
Drop-in Center (DIC) run by the health at risk for infection. The workshops also
and human rights organization Doc- Street youth in Russia improve their knowledge of reproduc-
tors of the World-USA (DOW), Tanya
was not attending school, was sexually have one of the highest tive health and gender issues. The final
session is devoted to tolerance, teaching
active, and regularly used drugs and
alcohol.
HIV infection rates in participants to recognize stereotypes
and adopt non-discriminatory attitudes
Although a test at the time revealed the world. towards others, particularly people liv-
that she was HIV-negative, Tanya was ing with HIV/AIDS.
still at risk of contracting the virus. In Street youth, reached both at DICs A recent independent evaluation
fact, street youth in Russia have one and through mobile outreach teams, of the workshops showed that par-
of the highest HIV infection rates in are encouraged to participate in the ticipants significantly improved their
the world. A study conducted in 2006 workshops, and incentives – includ- knowledge of HIV and its transmission,
by DOW, the U.S. Centers for Disease ing food, clothes and an MP-3 player while also gaining the skills and as-
Control and Prevention, and the St. Pe- – are offered to youth who attend the sertiveness they need to preserve their
tersburg City AIDS Center revealed that sessions. During the workshops, fa- health. Youth who completed the pro-
as many as 37.4 percent of street youth cilitators use lively dialogue and group gram reported an increased readiness
in St. Petersburg are HIV-positive. activities to overcome the barriers that to refuse to engage in risk behaviors,
Recognizing the urgent need for pro- have often prevented social service pro- while also reporting a greater confi-
grams specifically designed to prevent viders from reaching street and at-risk dence in their ability to protect them-
new infections among street youth and youth in the past. selves from becoming infected – a fate
to assist those living with HIV to access In addition to raising awareness of many of them previously thought was
treatment, DOW has established part- HIV/AIDS, its transmission and the inescapable. DOW will continue to de-
nerships with local non-profit and gov- risks associated with drug use, the velop and expand the workshop series
ernment organizations. With support workshops help youth develop refusal and hopes to reach more youth with
from DOW, these organizations now skills and understand the importance of life-saving information. MD

MONDAY DEVELOPMENTS August 2008 39
CAREER Developments

Thoughts on Youth
and Development
By Michael Haslett
Senior Communications Associate, InterAction

Photo: Ashley Clements
Y
outh in development covers a number of
areas such as working with children’s programming
in primary education, maternal and newborn health,
or adolescent services. It can also relate to showcas-
ing young people who are engaging one another and their NGO (I often tell young adults who pose this question
communities to make a change in society; the Internet has to me to get on the InterAction website and link to the
helped young people collect and communicate with each oth- websites of NGO members to get a feel for the varied or-
er in many ways. ganizations, and try to meet folks in the ones they’re in-
My experience with youth is both domestic and interna- terested in.)
tional. As a teenager, I was involved with groups such as the • Networking is important for finding out about job oppor-
Eracism campaign and the Dalit Solidarity Campaign where tunities. Ask people who they know, ask for 15 minutes
I spent my energy learning and spreading awareness on is- from professionals to get their advice (and build a new
sues of race in the U.S., and caste issues in India. I worked relationship, etc.). Asking “how did you get started?”
directly with youth both domestically and internationally opens doors.”
spending many years as a camp councilor near my home- —Emily U.
town in New Jersey. I also spent a summer teaching English
at a small primary school in southern India. However, I feel I “Internships at an international organization[s]…both in
might have been lucky, as many of these opportunities were the headquarters office or taking on a specific project in a
presented to me though adults I knew. program during their Sr. year or during their masters pro-
This month at InterAction we held an event for our interns gram. Young people also have to remember that starting
to help them get a better idea of what the options are and from the ground up is a good thing and provides them with
what experiences have proven to be advantageous for people a greater perspective of what it takes to run an internation-
wanting to break into international development. To prepare al non-profit. Making copies, doing research and helping to
for this event, I reached out to several human resources pro- edit reports and proposals are all very important.”
fessionals, asking them, “What are the best ways for entry —Patty K. MD
and junior level people to start a career internationally? What
ways can people recently out of school find engaging field Girl Mothers
work?” Here are some of the responses that I received: continued from page 36

“These days, I think students need to start early in get- To be sure, the girls and their children face ongoing chal-
ting international experience - e.g. participate in American lenges, not least of which are lingering stigma and jealousies
Field Service Intercultural Programs at their high school, expressed by other youth who did not participate in the proj-
spend a semester abroad during college, do a summer in- ect. However, the girls are managing these issues, working in
ternship overseas, etc. Of course, Peace Corps is a good conjunction with community advisory committees composed
choice if folks can spare two years. Also, learning a foreign of adults selected by the girls. And the challenges are small
language is very important.” in comparison to the large strides the girls are taking to build
—Ann W. positive lives under difficult conditions. In many respects,
the project illustrates the power of girls’ agency and the resil-
“Here’s what I hear [is important] from early career profes- ience they achieve through collective action. Clearly, adults
sionals: have much to learn from the girls about how to support re-
• Graduate school (becoming essential – also provides integration. MD
great networking)
• Peace Corps The efforts in Sierra Leone described in this article are part
• Fellowships (Catholic Relief Service, Population Fellows/ of a PAR project involving ten agencies in Liberia, Sierra Le-
Univ. of Michigan, USAID, Rotary, Fulbright, etc.) one and Uganda that is coordinated by Susan McKay, Angela
• Volunteering or interning in entry-level positions for a Veale, Miranda Worthen and the author.

40 MONDAY DEVELOPMENTS August 2008
MONDAY
Human Rights

DEVELOPMENTS
M O N D A Y M
Chec

DEVOND
Out Ouk

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r
JOBS

D
ON MENTS
Sectio

PM AY
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E N T S
Page 30

E L O PM
M D E V ELO Trends in International
Development and Hum
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and Tren e !
and P velopme
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Issues

Trends
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Th
eace nt

tion’s in Development
USAI
InterAFcorum
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Anti- /MTV
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Cam rafficking
2008 hts paign

Highlig The Five Stages
of Foreign Aid
The Militarization
of Aid Glob
Reform Grief a
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loym
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Addressing C
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Linking the Global rtuni
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Human Rights Food Crisis

Meet h
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and Developme Crea
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Climate Change Management Dow
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July 2008
2008 Vol. 26, No. 7
June 6
, No. InterAction
Vol. 26 ion
ct
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Augu
st
Vol. 26 2008

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InterAction members around the world and keeps readers up-to-date on legislative action in
Congress that could impact U.S. foreign assistance to poor countries. Monday Developments
also describes new resources for relief and development workers, professional growth
opportunities, upcoming events and employment listings.

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MONDAY DEVELOPMENTS August 2008 41
MONDAY Developments

Employment Opportunities
Executive Director ness to travel extensively in the United States. Go to http://www.
Washington, DC savethechildren.org/careers/index.asp for a detailed job description
The Women’s Environment and Development Organization and to apply; reference Job #3725. EOE M/F/D/V.
(WEDO), an international organization that advocates for gender
equality and women’s human rights in global policy, seeks a new Communications Director
Executive Director. Created in 1991, WEDO has built a reputation Washington, DC
as a trailblazer on international women’s rights in the areas of sus- RESULTS Educational Fund (REF), a nonprofit citizens’ advocacy or-
tainable development, economic and social justice, and gover- ganization, seeks a full-time hands-on media and communications
nance. WEDO is in a process of reorganization and change, and is specialist. The candidate will supervise communications and me-
seeking a candidate with the vision, leadership, and skills to over- dia staff and work directly with senior program staff to develop and
see and manage the transition process with the active guidance implement media and communications strategies. There will be
and support of WEDO’s Board of Directors. A full description of the significant focus on REF’s global tuberculosis and health advocacy
position can be found at www.wedo.org. Applications can be sent campaign while overseeing organizational-wide communications
to ExecDirSearch@wedo.org by August 31, 2008 to. and media activities. Salary and benefits package are competitive
and based on experience. To apply, email résumé, cover letter, and
Senior Advocate four writing samples to nwilder@results.org or fax to (202) 783-
Washington, DC 2818. Visit www.results.org for more information. REF is an EOE.
Refugees International; Masters degree in political science or
equivalent with emphasis on Human Rights required. 2-4 years Resident Advisor
of experience in combat/conflict zones required. Proficiency in Rabat, Morocco
English and two other languages necessary. Frequent traveling The Rule of Law Initiative, MENA Division seeks a Resident Advisor
required. Duties include conducting assessments of humanitar- for programs in Morocco. Applicants should have a JD or equiva-
ian crises; assessing impacts of crises, conducting interviews, lent degree and at least seven years of legal experience. Periodic
preparation of organizational publications, frequent meetings travel within the region may be required. Responsibilities include:
with US government offices, UN agency personnel etc., report reporting to donors; providing financial reports and documenta-
writing, developing media contacts, conducting interviews, co- tion on program activity to DC headquarters; seeking additional
ordinating meetings. $ 62,000 annual salary. Send resume and funding for new projects; maintaining local partner relationships;
writing sample to: jobs@refugeesinternational.org. Please specify and supervising volunteer legal specialists and local support staff.
Senior Advocate 7.08 in subject line. Closing date to receive ap- Professional proficiency in French is required. Application: please
plications will be August 22, 2008. send a cover letter, resume, and a list of three professional refer-
ences to jobs@staff.abanet.org.
Associate Vice President, Deputy Managing
Director, US Programs SENIOR ASSOCIATE FOR RESEARCH AND ANALYSIS
Washington, DC Takoma Park, MD
Save the Children, the leading independent organization creating The Center for Health and Gender Equity, a U.S.-based advocacy
real and lasting change for children in need in the U.S. and around organization that promotes sexual and reproductive health and
the world, seeks an Associate Vice President and Deputy Manag- rights within U.S. international policies, seeks a Senior Associate
ing Director, US Programs, who will have the central responsibility for Research and Analysis to oversee the planning, implementa-
for ensuring the highest quality implementation and greatest pos- tion and tracking of field and policy research. This position will ex-
sible impact of the USP long-term development and emergency amine U.S. policies and programs related to sexual and reproduc-
programs and for the effective and efficient operational support. tive health and rights of women and girls in developing countries,
Qualified candidates must have a Master’s Degree in an area related and monitor international evidence regarding maternal health,
to management, public policy or related field and at least 10 – 12 family planning, HIV/AIDS, and violence against women. At least
years experience with senior management. Extensive experience in three to five years experience in designing research and conduct-
managing and directing field operations, both emergency and long- ing analysis in related field. See www.genderhealth.org.
term development, including supervisory experience, and experi-
ence in developing and monitoring program, operational and finan- Associate Director, PROCENI Program
cial processes and systems is required. Must have a demonstrated Managua, Nicaragua
commitment to addressing the education, health and well-being of Save the Children, the leading independent organization creating
children in poverty; a strong understanding of and an ability to work real and lasting change for children in need in the U.S. and around
within a multinational, culturally diverse environment and a willing- the world seeks an Associate Director who has overall responsibili-
ty for the management of the PROCENI Title II USAID food security
Advertise in Monday Developments project in Nicaragua, which is currently going through a close out
plan and will end in March 2009. The Associate Director is respon-
Contact Michael Haslett at publications@interaction.org
sible for administration, fiscal management, and management of

42 MONDAY DEVELOPMENTS August 2008 To advertise, call 202-667-8227 ext 548 or email publications@interaction.org
the PROCENI project; the direction of PROCENI staff, and the anal-
ysis of program activities. Master’s degree or equivalent in a food Development
security related discipline plus five years experience in a manage- Manager,
ment capacity in development work outside the United States is New York
required. Demonstrated experience in financial and grants man-
agement and budget control, personnel management, and food Concern Worldwide is an international humanitarian organization
security program management is important. Knowledge of USAID dedicated to the assistance and advancement of people in need in
rules and regulations; understanding of program development the least developed countries of the world.
cycle is critical. Knowledge of basic administration, HR and man-
Concern Worldwide (U.S.) Inc is the US affiliate of Concern World-
agement skills. Proficiency in Spanish, fluency preferred. Quali- wide. Our mission is to support the work of Concern Worldwide by
fied candidates should apply for position #3729 on-line at: www. financially supporting overseas programs; representing Concern
savethechildren.org/careers/index.asp EOE. with national and international organizations; raising the organiza-
tion’s profile; and engaging in development education within US
High Schools.
VP of Operations
Davis, CA Concern Worldwide US is recruiting a Development Manager to
The VP of Operations is responsible for the leadership, oversight play a key role in planning, implementing and managing a diverse
and organizational direction of Finance, HR, General Services, IT development program. This is a great opportunity for an experi-
enced fundraiser to join a talented, motivated team.
and Knowledge Management. The VP leads a management team
to ensure that resources are allocated and administered for optimal The successful candidate is responsible for leading a four-person
impact in favor of the organization’s strategic objectives, including team to plan, direct and implement a diverse program to generate
support to international operations. The VP oversees financial ac- support from the private sector, including foundation and corpo-
countability, resource administration and internal controls to meet rate gifts, major gifts, special events, direct and online marketing.
statutory compliance and ensure the integrity of data and financial To view the full job description pleas visit:
statements. The VP participates in decisions on strategic planning,
Monday
organizational policy, capital allocation,Development Ad for
and operational budget- AFSC Regionalwww.concernusa.org/vacancies
Director of the Middle East position:
Please submit resume, cover letter and salary expectations to info.
ing. Visit freedomfromhunger.org for the full job description. Sub- usa@concern.net or fax it to 212-557-8004. Concern Worldwide US
mit resumes to jobs@freedomfromhunger.org. MD is an eOe.


Research Assistant American Friends Service Committee
Washington, DC
Regional Director for the
The Aga Khan Foundation, USA (AKF AGA KHAN FOUNDATION U.S.A.
USA) is seeking a Research Assistant
¼ Page Display Ad Middle East
to aid the Director, Strategic Partnerships in implementing a framework to Based in Amman, Jordan
diversify and deepen relationships 3with
½ "a variety
wideactors who could become
The Regional Director is the official representative of the
funding or knowledge partners. AKF 4 5/8"
USA is height
a, non-profit organization
AFSC in the Middle East and oversees the
committed to alleviating poverty, disease and illiteracy, in Africa, Central and
South Asia. representational functions of other AFSC international
The Research Assistant will conduct research related to international
and national staff. Broad responsibilities include:
philanthropy and development trends relevant to AKF and write briefing x Speaking on behalf of the AFSC when
papers, proposals and other communications materials for the Director and interacting with Quaker organizations and
AKF USA’s management team to better understand the sector, develop communities, government officials, United
strategy, deepen existing relationships and build new ones. The RA will Nations representatives, other international or
develop procedures for managing information and communications relevant regional bodies, and other partners.
to these objectives; maintain correspondence files, foundation/corporate
x Ensuring adherence to organizational policy,
profiles and contact databases; attend meetings and keep notes; track
action items related to emerging relationships; prepare quarterly and annual and seeking opportunities for program growth
progress reports on issues related to the Strategic Partnerships unit; and x Managing the AFSC’s financial, material, and
manage the administration of AKF USA’s Policy Externship Program. The RA human resources, including staff development
may become involved in and possibly manage special projects. and supervision, and delegating to members of
Candidates must have a Bachelors or Masters degree in international affairs,
the regional team as needed.
international development, business or economics; at least three years The Regional Director for the Middle East is considered
relevant experience. Other important skills are: excellent communication with a member of AFSC’s senior management team.
significant experience in producing written products; advanced research skills;
and the ability to prioritize and handle multiple tasks under tight deadlines. To view the complete job description and submit a
Send resume, cover letter, professional references and salary requirements to resume/CV, go to www.AFSC.org/jobs. Click on “Current
HR@akfusa.org no later than September 5, 2008. For more information about Openings” and then the job title for this position. Contact
AKF and the Aga Khan Development Network, visit www.akdn.org jobs@afsc.org with questions. Apply by Sept. 30, 2008.

To advertise, call 202-667-8227 ext 548 or email publications@interaction.org MONDAY DEVELOPMENTS August 2008 43
Regional Director: West, Director,
Central and Island
Africa (based in South Planning and
Africa) Budget
Habitat for Humanity International (HFHI) has an Westport, CT
opportunity for a seasoned NGO professional to provide
Save the Children, the leading independent organization creating
strategic planning and operational leadership for our
real and lasting change for children in need in the U.S. and around
work in the West, Central and Island regions of Africa. the world, with headquarters in Westport, CT and Washington,
Responsible for developing and implementing key D.C. seeks a Director, Planning and Budget to ensure the Agency’s
strategies and budgets for the region in order to budget is developed in line with strategic and operational plans.
S/he manages the Agency’s planning & budgeting processes,
maximize the mission impact and development of our
including review and analysis of financial performance against
national organizations and directors. In addition to budget to ensure the maximum amount of money goes to the
nurturing relationships with other entities, the position Agency’s programs and an optimal amount is spent on overhead.
guides HFHI’s sustainable expansion into other Responsibilities include: coordinating the Agency’s strategic
and operational planning processes; providing key support to
countries in the region.
the implementation of the Agency’s new budget management
The successful candidate will possess at least seven system; helping guide Agency staff through the annual planning
years of experience with an NGO or in the housing and re-forecasting processes; supervising and performing ad hoc
analyses for senior management; conducting various monthly and
sector and at least five years of direct supervisory
year-end analyses; and supervising 1-2 staff. Requirements: MBA
experience. Must be fluent in French and English and in Finance; minimum 7 years’ experience in planning, budgeting,
have professional work experience in Africa. and financial management and reporting; proficient skills in
management of databases and financial management systems;
If you are ready to join our ministry and help eliminate strong communication skills, both oral and written; and quick
poverty housing from the face of the earth, we welcome learner with the ability to prioritize and multi-task. Not-for-profit
you to apply online at: http://www.habitatjobs.org/ and grants/contracts experience a plus. Please go to http://www.
HFHI is an equal opportunity employer. savethechildren.org/careers/index.asp for detailed job description
and to apply; reference Job #3718. EOE M/F/D/V

Senior Director:
Humanitarian and Emergency Affairs (HEA)
World Vision
Based in Washington DC, the Senior Director will provide overall leadership and support for
the World Vision United States’ Humanitarian and Emergency Affairs (HEA) portfolio. Provide
leadership to World Vision U.S. engagement with rapid on-set and complex emergencies:
coordinating resource mobilization efforts; donor and partner networking; strategy development;
innovation, and provision of technical assistance for field operations. Strong networking
skills required, experience w OFDA funding strongly preferred. Master's degree or equivalent
experience required. Minimum of 10 years international experience working in 2 or more
Complex Humanitarian Emergencies (CHE) responses, preferably on more than one continent.
Strong management/leadership skills and experience in managing multi-million dollar USG
portfolio. For full job description and to apply, go to www.worldvision.org, Job # 1837

44 MONDAY DEVELOPMENTS August 2008 To advertise, call 202-667-8227 ext 548 or email publications@interaction.org
Brandeis University
The Heller School of Social Policy and Management Knowledge Advancing Social Justice

The End of Poverty ...
One Degree at a Time
Over 150 students in residence from 65 countries forming one of x M.A. in Sustainable International Development
the largest programs of its kind in the world. M.S. in International Health Policy and Management
x
x M.B.A. concentration in Sustainable Development
Alumni are employed by U.N. agencies, bilateral and multilateral
aid organizations, and NGOs throughout the world. x M.P.P. concentration in Poverty
x Dual M.A. programs in Sustainable Development with
Generous financial assistance for Peace Corps and other service Coexistence & Conflict and with Women & Gender Studies
organization volunteers.

A community of activists and scholars on the front lines of social policy.
781-736-3820
heller.brandeis.edu HellerAdmissions@Brandeis.edu

To advertise, call 202-667-8227 ext 548 or email publications@interaction.org MONDAY DEVELOPMENTS August 2008 45
“Any intelligent fool can make things bigger, more complex,
and more violent. It takes a touch of genius— and a lot of
courage—to move in the opposite direction.”
—Albert Einstein, at whose suggestion the IRC was founded

GILLIAN DUNN
Director, Emergency Preparedness & Response Unit

It takes the best to prevail against the worst of crises.

To join us, please visit: theIRC.org/Jobs

46 MONDAY DEVELOPMENTS August 2008 To advertise, call 202-667-8227 ext 548 or email publications@interaction.org
SKILL
AND
PASSION
AT WORK Legislative and Program Associate Positions
in Public Policy and Advocacy
Current BASIC FUNCTIONS:
Openings InterAction seeks to fill at least two associate positions on its Public
Policy and Outreach team. Depending on his/her experience the
Health Coordinator candidate will be considered for one of the following positions: Associate
DR Congo for Advocacy and Outreach, Associate for Legislative Research, Associate
for Campaign Coordination, Associate for Poverty Focused Development.
Advocacy & Communication Each position will support InterAction’s public policy strategy and
Advisor facilitate the advocacy of relevant subject area working groups. This
DR Congo includes advocacy on U.S. foreign assistance policy, budget and
appropriations issues related to international development programs,
Sen. Gender Based Violence coordination with other poverty-focused networks, as well as on aspects
of U.S. relationships with the United Nations, the World Bank and other
Program Coordinator
bodies. Some positions may be more research focused, depending upon
DR Congo
particular needs and demands.
Country Director The associate positions will be part of InterAction’s Public Policy Unit
Chad and report to the Senior Director for Public Policy and External Relations.
Associates will work closely with Senior Legislative Associates and
Deputy Director of Programs Managers on the Policy team and are expected to work with other
North Sudan InterAction units that relate to their subject matter areas.

Deputy Director of Operations QUALIFICATIONS:
North Sudan Depending on the position, ideal qualifications could include
congressional experience and/or advocacy experience, grassroots
Education Technical Advisor training and organizing, issue campaign management, strong
Middle East quantitative and analytical skills, at least a bachelor’s degree (master’s
work/degree preferred), experience abroad, experience with or interest
in development work, good people skills, research and organizational
To learn more about working skills, strong writing and communications skills as well as the ability
with us, please visit to juggle multiple tasks and prioritize in a fast paced, changing
environment.
theIRC.org/Jobs To apply, please email a cover letter, resume, and writing sample to
advocacy@interaction.org. Applications will be accepted until the
positions are filled.

Senior Manager, Gender Integration
Building on InterAction’s long commitment to gender equality, the Senior
Manager will serve as a technical resource for InterAction staff and member
agencies in advancing the integration of gender in policy and programs.
Qualifications: At least five years practical experience in gender integration
in development or humanitarian assistance organizations, including field
work, training, and policy advocacy. Excellent writing and oral presentation
skills. Master’s degree or Ph.D. in relevant field. Please submit resume and
cover letter to tcao@interaction.org. Deadline is September 15, 2008.

To advertise, call 202-667-8227 ext 548 or email publications@interaction.org MONDAY DEVELOPMENTS August 2008 47
1400 16th Street, NW, Suite 210
Washington, DC 20036
Phone: (202) 667-8227
Fax: (202) 667-8236
publications@interaction.org
www.interaction.org

InterAction is the largest alliance of U.S.-based international
development and humanitarian nongovernmental
organizations. With more than 160 members operating in every
developing country, we work to overcome poverty, exclusion
and suffering by advancing social justice and basic dignity for all.

Program on Forced Migration and Health
HEILBRUNN DEPARTMENT OF POPULATION AND FAMILY HEALTH

MASTER OF PUBLIC HEALTH
The Program on Forced Migration and Health is committed to improving the health and well-being of people in crisis-
affected settings. The Program offers a Master of Public Health (MPH) through the Heilbrunn Department of Population
and Family Health at Columbia University's Mailman School of Public Health. The MPH curriculum is intended to prepare
health professionals for the practice of public heath in complex emergencies and post-conflict settings.

The Program's teaching and research components emphasize pragmatic, inter-disciplinary, and human rights-based
problem-solving in the health and social sectors. Upon completion of the degree, graduates will be able to:

x Lead the field of humanitarian response in the 21st century;
x Define the nature, impact, and determinants of health and social sector problems in complex emergencies;
x Develop effective policies to alleviate problems in the health and social sectors;
x Design, manage, and evaluate health and social sector programs;
x Undertake population-based research to improve humanitarian response policies and practice.

For information about the Program on Forced Migration and Health: www.forcedmigration.columbia.edu
For admissions information: www.mailman.columbia.edu/dept/sph/experience

MPH Student Practicum Photos: (L to R) Juan David Gastolomendo (1 & 3); Victoria Foster; Carinne Meyer