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The Latest Issues and Trends in International Development and Humanitarian Assistance

Leading Healthy
Organizations 2008 Election
in a Turbulent Results and
Environment Implications

Best Leveraging
Corporations Mission Drift
in Global to Promote
Development Innovation

The Trouble Organizational

With Aid in Africa Change

25 Years
of Monday

Wealth of Developments

Knowledge Case Studies in

Knowledge Management Nov/Dec
Vol. 26, No. 11/12

Managing Editor/Art Director

Chad Brobst

Copy Editor

Kathy Ward

Advertising & Sales

Michael Haslett

Communications Department
Nasserie Carew, Public Relations

Tawana Jacobs, Public Relations
Tony Fleming, New Media

Chad Brobst, Publications
Michael Haslett, Publications

Margaret Christoph, Admin Associate

Editorial Committee
InterAction Communications Team
November/December 2008 • Vol. 26 • No. 11/12
1400 16th Street, NW
Suite 210 Features The Weakest Link | 21 Special Section:
Washington, DC 20036 The state of humanitarian fleet What Separates the Best
Tel: 202.667.8227 A Wealth of management in Africa. from the Rest? | 34 Knowledge | 8 InterAction members nominate
ISSN 1043-8157
Case studies in learning from a The Trouble With Aid the Top Ten Best Corporations
PVO’s most precious assets. in Africa | 23 in Global Development.
Could increasing aid do more
Monday Developments is published 11 Leading Healthy harm than good?
times a year by InterAction, the larg- Organizations
est alliance of U.S.-based international in a Turbulent A Mixed Political Bag | 25
development and humanitarian non-
governmental organizations. With more Environment | 11 2008 election results and their
than 170 members operating in every Following these steps can implications for our community.
developing country, InterAction works to increase your likelihood of
overcome poverty, exclusion and suffer- survival... and success. Framing Your Message in Emergency Programming
ing by advancing social justice and basic
dignity for all. a Stressed Out World | 28 in Health | 37
Organizational Change When promoting your Workshop addresses the
InterAction welcomes submissions of in the Humanitarian organization’s work, it’s the challenges of integrating
news articles, opinions and announce- uplifting stories that often have longer-term health priorities
ments. Article submission does not guar- Sector | 13
antee inclusion in Monday Developments. Key messages from ALNAP. the most impact. into emergency response.
We reserve the right to reject submis-
sions for any reason. It is at the discretion One Mother’s Mission | 15 A New Vision | 29 25 Years of Monday
of our editorial team as to which articles
are published in individual issues. American Express’ Members Photography is critical to telling Developments | 39
Project helps save the lives of your organization’s story. A retrospective of article
All statements in articles are the sole malnourished children. highlights from the first
opinion and responsibility of the authors. Post-Disaster quarter century of Monday
Articles may be reprinted with prior per- One Step Forward, Communities | 31 Developments Magazine.
mission and attribution. Letters to the Two Steps Back | 16 International conference focuses
editor are encouraged. 2008 Global Hunger Index and on rebuilding sustainable

A limited number of subscriptions are

Indian State Hunger Index shed communities for children and D par n s
light on where the hungriest their families after disasters.
made available to InterAction member Inside This Issue | 3
agencies as part of their dues. Individual people live.
subscriptions cost $80 a year (add $15 Leveraging Mission Inside Our Community | 4
for airmail delivery outside the U.S.) Gaining Momentum Drift to Promote
Samples are $5, including postage. Inside InterAction | 6
Additional discounts are available for for Reform | 19 Innovation | 32
bulk orders. Please allow 4-6 weeks for MFAN works with government Planning and vetting are key to Employment
delivery. Advertising rates are available to reform foreign assistance. project expansion. Opportunities | 45
on request.
INSIDE This Issue

Reflecting on
InterAction’s First
25 Years
very day thousands of people in the United States
reach out to InterAction member agencies to create a
bridge between the world’s rich and poor. They reach
out because they want to help change the life of a child,
woman or a community in need – or to build a relationship
that can potentially foster increased understanding and
unity among people of vastly different cultures and levels of
affluence. These American values enable development pro-
grams to deliver lasting results and enable deprived children,
their families and communities to meet their basic needs and
increase their ability to participate in and benefit from their
As good stewards of American generosity, InterAction has
worked tirelessly the past year to redefine the role of the NGO,
at home and abroad. We have matured as a community and
are an integral part of an exciting international movement to
legitimize our role as key decision makers in the internation-
al development dialogue happening on the world’s stage.
Next year, InterAction celebrates 25 years of advocacy
on behalf of U.S. based international NGOs. We have gone
through many transitions during the last quarter century
but remain strong, vigilant and responsive to the needs of
millions of people around the world (turn to page 39 of this
issue for a compilation of highlights from the past 25 years of
Monday Developments).
We look forward to the next 25 years with anticipation.
Thanks to the work of InterAction staff, members and part-
ners, there is a deeper understanding of the impact of NGOs.
By evolving and embracing change, our value as decision
makers in international policies that affect where and how
we work is increasingly being recognized. (InterAction is com-
mitted to building on these successes.)
Our long history would not have been possible without
the pillars of our community, the people we serve and assist
around the world – and the millions of Americans who believe
in us and the work we do. They help define who we are.

Wishing you a New Year of health and happiness,

Photo: Jon Warren, World Vision

Sam Worthington
President and CEO

MONDAY DEVELOPMENTS November/December 2008 3

INSIDE Our Community

currently assists approximately 533,000 children and family

Congratulations to the members through community development improvements in-
cluding renovation and construction of schools, teacher and
2008 InterAction Congressional health worker training; and construction of health posts.
Service Award Winners .
Call for Nominations, “Millions Fed: Proven
Successes in Agricultural Development”
Learning from successes in agricultural development is
now more urgent than ever. Progress in feeding the world’s
millions of poor has slowed, while the challenge of feeding its
future millions remains enormous and is subject to new un-
certainties in the global food and agricultural system.
With this in mind, the International Food Policy Re-
search Institute (IFPRI), with support from The Bill & Me-
linda Gates Foundation, is leading the new initiative, “Mil-
lions Fed: Proven Successes in Agricultural Development,”
to document evidence on “what works” in agriculture—what
sorts of policies, programs, and investments in agricultural
development have actually reduced hunger and poverty.
Until December 31, 2008, IFPRI is accepting nominations
Congressman Senator for proven success stories in agricultural development to
Donald Payne Richard Lugar showcase in the Millions Fed project.
The Millions Fed project offers the development community
a unique opportunity to showcase agricultural development
International Housing Coalition Looking for Space success stories in a way that will reach a broad global au-
The International Housing Coalition (IHC) has an imme- dience, including policymakers, development practitioners,
diate need for 150 -200 square feet to house its three person donors, scholars, nongovernmental organizations, entrepre-
staff, preferably in D.C. and near a Metro. One room or sever- neurs, students, and citizens concerned about the future of
al offices or work spaces would meet the IHC’s need. The IHC global agriculture. A range of communications tools will be
is a 501 (c) (3) advocacy organization that supports giving developed, including a compendium of case studies, analyti-
higher priority and attention to improved housing and slum cal studies on success factors, an interactive website, audio-
improvement in the developing world in support of the MDGs. visual tools, and instructional materials, to convey the key
Its founding sponsors are Habitat for Humanity, the National elements of success in agricultural development.
Association of Realtors (NAR) and the Canadian Real Estate For more information about the Millions Fed project and
Association (CREA). The IHC also needs access to conference to access the online nomination application, please visit the
space and would prefer to also contract for the use of office website: www
equipment and support. Space near its current location near
Union Station is preferred. The IHC is prepared to occupy the
space immediately. Please contact Bob Dubinsky by phone at Time Article Acknowledges Food-Aid Program
202-408-8506 or by email at Time Magazine recently published a story featuring
International Relief and Development’s (IRD) Student
Christian Children’s Fund Employee Health Improvement Program in Indonesia (September
Killed in Afghanistan 22 issue of TIME). They described it as “a pioneering
Mohamad Shar, a Christian Children’s Fund (CCF) staff food-aid program using a business model that has since
member, was killed Nov. 30 in Kabul, Afghanistan, when a become a template for projects in Cambodia, Niger and
suicide bomber attacked a passing military vehicle. Shar was Sri Lanka.” The USDA supplied wheat to IRD, who de-
52 years old and had worked for CCF for 18 months. signed a program that would strengthen existing busi-
“We are deeply saddened by this senseless death,” said nesses through noodle production. Some of the noodle
Anne Goddard, President of CCF. “We send our heartfelt con- products were fortified and given to schools as snacks
dolences to Mohammad’s family and colleagues and to the for the children. The program began in 1999 and pro-
families of all the victims of the bombing in Kabul.” vided nutritious supplements for school children while
Shar was riding his bicycle in the area when the bomb simultaneously improving the local economy through
exploded receiving lethal shrapnel wounds. He leaves behind strengthened businesses and increased employment op-
a wife and six children. portunities. Read the article online at
CCF has worked in northern Afghanistan since 2001 under time/magazine/article/0,9171,1840577,00 html
the name of ChildFund Afghanistan. ChildFund Afghanistan

4 MONDAY DEVELOPMENTS November/December 2008

The world sees one Africa.
We see so much more.
No two countries are the same. Every country in Africa has a different culture,
a different economy, a different way of doing things. We understand this.
With an established presence in 18 African countries, we not only know the
dynamics of each local market, its specialist sectors and its communities; we’re
also committed to every one of them. So when it comes to doing business in Africa,
you’ll know you’re dealing with the Bank that truly celebrates unity in diversity.
Inspired. Motivated. Involved.

Mark E. Chiaviello Standard bank, 320 Park Ave., 19th Floor New York, NY 10022 (212) 4075000

SBSA113592 9/08
INSIDE InterAction

Building on Progress:
InterAction Expands
Its Annual Poverty
Week Campaign
By Margaret Christoph, Senior Administrative Associate
for Policy and Communications, InterAction

hat began last year
as a week-long an-
ti-poverty Web ef- PROGR
fort launched to correspond
with the United Nations’ an-
nual observance of the In-

ternational Day to Eradicate 2
0 0
Poverty on October 17 has
A 8
been transformed into In- ligning with
terAction’s Progress Against
Develope Millennium
Poverty Week, an annual ment Go
campaign to examine prog- als
ress in the fight against
poverty. A comprehensive affair that now includes both live,
in-person events and an interactive blog that streams film Oxfam and Mercy Corps on their work with adaptation policies
and live webcasts, this year’s event focused on better aligning and climate change as they relate to gender equality. Peterson
the work of the international development and humanitarian presented the government of Denmark’s MDG 3 Global Call to
relief community with the Millennium Development Goals Action campaign and its designation of the WFDA as a Global
(MDGs). The events, detailed below, covered a broad range of Torch Bearer.
initiatives by InterAction and its members. The week also included the dedication of InterAction’s main
The week’s first event focused on the Women, Faith, and conference room to honor the late Julia V. Taft, a two-time
Development Alliance’s (WFDA) work towards achieving MDG InterAction CEO (1994-1997; 2006) who worked tirelessly to-
3 on gender equality. Last April, at the official launch of the wards ending human suffering and believed that getting people
WFDA, WFDA partners announced commitments to empower together was key to achieving that goal. The upgraded confer-
women and girls that totaled more than $1 billion. The WFDA ence room offers a far greater capacity to convene InterAction
received 73 commitments made from more than 90 organiza- members and can now hold videoconferences, stream meet-
tions.  The event featured four of the 73 commitments. Vid- ings live over the Internet and record them for future use.
eoconferenced in from the field were Logy Murray, World Vi- The event on the 2008 DATA Report, jointly hosted by ONE
sion’s Africa Advisor for Faith Partnerships on HIV and AIDS and InterAction, noted that G8 countries have delivered 14
in South Africa, and Hatem Shurrab, Islamic Relief’s Public percent of the commitment made at Gleneagles. Joshua Loz-
Relations & Reporting Officer in Palestine. Live panelists were man, ONE’s Vote ’08 Policy Manager, stated, “Imagine what we
Rachel Harris, Women’s Environment and Development Orga- could do if the other 86 percent were delivered.” Lozman was
nization’s (WEDO) U.S. Climate Change Campaign Coordina- joined on the event’s panel by Michael Klosson, Chief Policy
tor, and Ib Peterson, Danish State Secretary for Development Officer and Associate Vice President for Save the Children, and
Cooperation, Middle East, Africa, Asia, Latin America and the Todd Shelton, Senior Director of Public Policy for InterAction.
United Nations. Murray discussed some of the projects World The full report can be found at
Vision is implementing in South Africa and how women and InterAction CEO and President Sam Worthington moderat-
girls are most vulnerable to the epidemic. Shurrab presented ed a lunch discussion on leveraging international frameworks
Islamic Relief projects in the West Bank and Gaza to improve to fight poverty. Panelists included Paul O’Brien, Director of
the living conditions of women with HIV and AIDS, and reduce Aid Effectiveness for Oxfam America, Erin Kolodjeski, Senior
the stigma and discrimination that accompany the disease. International Policy Analyst for Bread for the World, and Syl-
Harris discussed WEDO’s WFDA cluster commitment with vain Browa, Director of Global Partnerships for InterAction.

6 MONDAY DEVELOPMENTS November/December 2008

Worthington cited the U.S. government’s responsibility to
engage in dialogues on policy frameworks, such as the Paris The UN Millennium Development Goals:
Declaration, and to become a multilateral player instead of bi-
• Eradicate extreme poverty and hunger.
lateral. Points of discussion included: the disturbing fact that
• Achieve universal primary education.
aid, trade, and finance often cancel one another out, hence
• Promote gender equality and empower women.
the U.S.-based international NGO community’s increasing
• Reduce child mortality.
advocacy for coherent policies to fight poverty; the differing
• Improve maternal health.
advocacy styles of U.S. and European NGOs and the result-
• Combat HIV/AIDS, malaria and other diseases.
ing culture clash; U.S. foreign aid reform and how it relates to
• Ensure environmental sustainability.
global aid effectiveness; and how NGOs can engage in effective
• Develop a global partnership for development.
advocacy with the U.S. government based on globally agreed
InterAction also unveiled its new Food Security Map, a pi- 12 African countries to advance food security. She also solic-
lot initiative to provide visual data on InterAction members’ ited feedback from the NGO community on how to improve the
field programs focused on poverty alleviation and food secu- map. The site currently provides project descriptions, staffing
rity, which is centered on contributions to MDG 1 (eradicating and participant coverage. InterAction hopes to expand the map
extreme poverty and hunger). Featured presenters were Rekha to include more in-depth information such as evaluations and
Mehra, Director of Economic Development for the Interna- best practices. The map is intended to help decision-makers
tional Center for Research on Women (ICRW) and Huntington in Washington better understand the projects, and to provide
Hobbs, Director of Agriculture for the Millennium Challenge information to InterAction members and the broader develop-
Corporation (MCC). Mehra explained that even though effec- ment community, and to raise awareness among the general
tive agriculture is a crucial factor in eradicating hunger and public. The map is available at http://preparedness.interac-
extreme poverty, international aid for agriculture has fallen
dramatically over the last 20 years. She called for increased Progress Against Poverty Week concluded with the screen-
investment in women and small farmers and for support of ing of a documentary, The End of Poverty? Think Again. This
countries’ initiatives to increase and improve spending on ag- film, written and directed by Philippe Diaz, was honored as an
riculture research. Hobbs noted the MCC’s approach of in- official selection at 13 international film festivals and builds
vesting in countries with good governance, but highlighted the a strong case for immediate action to eradicate poverty. The
lesser known fact that the MCC is a significant contributor attendees were also counted as a part of the UN Foundation’s
to agriculture and rural development around the world. He Stand Up Against Poverty event, which included over 116 mil-
encouraged the NGO community to bid for MCC compacts. lion people worldwide.
Suzanne Kindervatter, Vice President of Strategic Impact for
InterAction, gave an overview of the prototype map, which is Tawana Jacobs, Senior Public Relations Manager for Inter-
essentially a database showing who is working where within Action, contributed to this article. Please send questions and
comments to or tjacobs@interaction.
org. The blog for Progress Against Poverty Week can be found at

Gearing Up for 2009 G8 Summit

In the field of international advocacy, InterAction has
organized a G8 Summit NGO Coordination Group in
preparation for the 2009 Summit being held in Italy.
The Coordination Group of 25 members and other allies
has divided into working groups on four focus issues:
health, education, food/hunger/agriculture, and climate
change. They are drafting policy position papers on each
issue which will be presented to the US Sherpa (lead
administration staff for Summit) at the National Security
Council. InterAction staff also participated in strategy
planning workshop in Rome with the G8 Working Group
of the Global Campaign for Action Against Poverty, led
by World Vision International. The strategy workshop
included productive meetings with the Italian G8 Sherpa
and Sous Sherpa. MD

MONDAY DEVELOPMENTS November/December 2008 7

Illustration: ktsdesign -

8 MONDAY DEVELOPMENTS November/December 2008


magine if you and your colleagues The Challenge
had access to all of your agency’s documents Acting Chief Technology Officer at CHF International, Neeran
and institutional knowledge. Furthermore, Saraf, summarizes her agency’s knowledge management goals this
your work environment – at headquarters, in way: “Put yourself in the shoes of someone working on a project in a
a region or the field – encouraged all of you to developing country with relatively slow Internet connectivity. What
create, learn and share your collective knowl- tools and processes do we put in place so the person has access to
edge and experiences. the information they need? How do we give them the ability to con-
A growing number of international develop- duct research by themselves, rather than relying on e-mail and tele-
ment and relief organizations have embraced phone calls with headquarters? And how do we put lessons learned
this vision. They believe their most precious from past projects in a searchable platform that will benefit project
asset is the knowledge and capabilities of their staff in the future?”
people and therefore have made the discipline CHF International serves more than 35 million people in 30 coun-
of “knowledge management” a top priority. tries, carrying out a wide range of international development func-
They have dedicated staff and resources to tions including: economic development, emergency response and
finding the right tools and designing the best transition, global health and more. It uses two different tools to
processes for applying the collective knowl- achieve its knowledge management objectives. Microsoft Office
edge of the entire workforce to achieving the SharePoint Server™ is the agency’s platform for collaboration and
agency’s mission. file-sharing and the results of projects are monitored by a software
solution created by CHF International, the Web-based Project Re-
porting System (Web-PRS™). By linking the systems, staff can both
analyze data and generate reports about project activities for a vari-

ety of purposes, including learning and information sharing.
“We have improved the donors’ access to information and made
our projects more transparent to outside scrutiny,” Saraf said. For

example, CHF International can give major donors full access to the
latest data coming from their projects via WebPRS. Even more im-
pressive, donors can generate their own reports; information that
used to take weeks to produce can now be created and shared in-

stantly, according to Saraf.

By Gisele McAuliffe, Principal and Jindra Cekan, Ph.D., Principal, Data Harvest

Case studies in learning

from a PVO’s most
precious assets.

MONDAY DEVELOPMENTS November/December 2008 9


Information Sharing and Problem Solving content, Rich Site Summary (RSS) capability, e-mail, and per-
Food for the Hungry (FH) uses a web-conferencing, learning sonal user profiles. Mercy Corps also has enhanced Clearspace
and collaboration tool called Elluminate™ to train staff in the by linking it to the organization’s digital library and website.
field and the file sharing program Microsoft Office Groove™ to
help teams work together on documents more efficiently. Innovative Processes
“Elluminate is very helpful for carrying out training when the Although Clearspace provides many benefits as a knowl-
trainer can’t be onsite,” said Mitzi Hanold, FH Curricula and edge management tool, good content and internal practices
Training Specialist. “And it’s a great tool for linking a visual pre- are the vital ingredients for learning within an organization.
sentation with a group discussion.” According to Hanold, the A good example is Mercy Corps’ “Learning Documents Initia-
tool also has helped the agency to connect staff across coun- tive.” The collected documents are a mix of original research,
tries, sharing information and problem-solving in real-time. policy briefs and concise case studies that encapsulate sa-
At Mercy Corps, Ruth Allen, Global Advisor for Community lient issues from monitoring and evaluation data, donor re-
Mobilization, Governance and Partnership, envisions a knowl- ports and other resources. This re-packaged information can
edge management system that functions like a feedback loop, effectively be disseminated to staff working on a variety of
disseminating lessons learned and best practices, so that all of programs, and to other agencies, policymakers and donors.
the agency’s programs benefit from past experience. “Imagine if To further engage staff in the learning process and encourage
policymaking was based on knowledge about the most effective collaboration, Mercy Corps maintains a list of new “Learning
ways to utilize aid funding and activities proven to have lasting Documents” that staff want created. In the past two years,
and wide ranging impact,” Allen said. “Development strategies the agency has completed some 20 “Learning Documents”
would take advantage of research on emerging trends and the and 28 more are currently under development.
resulting programs would prevent local or global crises.” At Catholic Relief Services (CRS), the primary knowledge
Mercy Corps employs some 3,500 people in more than management goal is to facilitate the sharing of information
three-dozen countries working in communities recovering that comes out of country programs with all staff through-
from disaster, conflict or economic collapse. The primary col- out the organization. CRS is promoting sharing and learn-
laboration and knowledge management tool the agency uses ing among its staff worldwide through a variety of approach-
is Clearspace™, a software solution that integrates discussion es, including face-to-face trainings and workshops, virtual
forums, blogs, wikis, Instant Messaging and Voice Over Inter- meetings, communities of practice and “CRS Global”—a new
net Protocol (VOIP). It provides a search engine for retrieving interactive intranet open to contributions from all staff. Ac-
cording to David Leege, CRS deputy director of the program
quality and support department, a key challenge is staff par-
ticipation. “Incentives include: offering small grants to test
innovations through pilot projects; connecting people asking
questions with those who might have the answers; helping
staff to write an article for a journal or showcasing successes
to peer organizations and donors at conferences.”
Additionally, CRS is more systematically gathering, storing
and sharing information about programming in order to make
it more accessible to all. The agency has created new positions
in publications to help staff document promising and best
practices through techniques like collaborative writing work-
shops involving authors, editors and graphic designers. CRS
also uses non-traditional media, such as podcasts and nar-
rated PowerPoint presentations, to facilitate virtual learning.
Finally, CRS established knowledge management posi-
tions assigned to each program sector. Knowledge manage-
ment staff help technical advisors and employees in the field
to document experiences and good practices emerging from
projects so that these can be applied to other programming.

Enhancing Results and Support

The four case studies featured in this article outline the
knowledge management and learning systems of a small
cross-section of InterAction member organizations. They il-
lustrate how international development and relief agencies
today use knowledge management to improve project out-
comes, advance mission success and ultimately increase fi-
nancial support for future activities. MD
Contact to share your knowledge man-
agement case studies, lessons-learned or best practices.

10 MONDAY DEVELOPMENTS November/December 2008


them is an illusion. When credit tightens, jobs are lost and a re-
cession looms, development officers of non-profit organizations
are likely to see a decline in giving regardless of the effective-
ness of their development programs. Environment matters.
However, there are three steps that organizational lead-
ers can take in turbulent environments that dramatically in-
crease the likelihood of organizational survival and success.
One of these steps relates to the changing environment itself,
while the other two address internal issues over which orga-
nizational leaders have considerable leverage.

1. Learn the environments in which your organization

Leaders of healthy organizations tend to be students of the
environmental contexts in which they operate. They observe

Leading Healthy
and study the political, social/cultural and economic envi-
ronments in which their organization is nested and become
astute at predicting trends that might impact their organiza-

tions. Ten years ago, observant car manufacturers noted a
growing demand for energy efficient cars rather than SUVs.
Attentive university leaders saw the desire for on-line and hy-

in a Turbulent
brid courses to supplement traditional delivery mechanisms.
And astute NGO leaders anticipated rising fuel and food costs
and civil unrest in certain regions of the world.

As an organizational leader, become an expert in the pri-
mary environments in which your organization operates.
Many NGOs prepare context bulletins that describe key de-
velopments in areas where they operate. Study such reports,
Following these steps can increase your
likelihood of survival... and success.
By David Brubaker, Associate Professor of
Organizational Studies, Center for Justice and SIT Graduate Institute
Peacebuilding, Eastern Mennonite University
International Development

rganizational leaders face more pres- Programs
sures than ever before – particularly leaders of
not-for-profit and governmental organizations. Re- s %DUCATION FOR 'LOBAL 3OCIAL #HANGE
sources are declining, personnel are stressed, and master’s degrees/concentrations
the economic context continues to change dramatically and
Sustainable Development
sometimes daily. When an organization’s environment be-
Conflict Transformation / Conflict and Development
comes unstable if not chaotic, how do leaders navigate the
turbulent waters? Management/Development Management
Every organization exists in multiple environments includ-
ing geographic, political, social/cultural, and economic ones. s NEW for 2009 in the 3ULTANATE OF /MAN
The geographic environment refers to its physical location; -ASTER OF 'LOBAL -ANAGEMENT
the political environment to the local, regional and national focus in Middle Eastern Studies,
political structures under which it operates; the social/cul- International Organizational Development,
tural environment to the society and cultural milieu in which Social Entrepreneurship and Innovation
it is nested; and the economic environment to the economic
Photo: Erick Nguyen -

context in which it must operate – these days including the

global economic system. When an organization has a world- WWWSITEDUGRADUATE
wide scope with multiple regional offices it increases its envi- WWWWORLDLEARNINGORG
ronmental contexts exponentially.
Although organizational leaders must study and attempt to
understand these complex environments, they tend to have
little or no control over them. Organizational leaders might be
able to influence their multiple environments, but managing

MONDAY DEVELOPMENTS November/December 2008 11


but also pay attention to the multiple environments in which 3. Clarify and exemplify organizational values.
your headquarters operation is nested. The principle of natu- Since every organization has a culture, every organization
ral selection applies to organizations as well as to biological also possesses a set of values. Increasingly these values are
organisms. Organizations that fail to adapt to a changing en- codified and displayed in organizational values statements.
vironment tend to be selected out by that environment. Know Seldom, however, are the behavioral implications of these
your environment so that you can make adaptive changes values spelled out, and, more rarely, are they clearly lived
before it’s too late. out by organizational leaders.
Yet clearly developed and congruent organizational values
2. Build organizational health. may be the most important variable separating organizations
Every organization is both a social and an emotional sys- that thrive from those than wither. In 1965 organizational
tem. As a social system, it consists of a unique culture and psychologists Emery and Trist defined social values as “cop-
organizational structure nested in a particular set of environ- ing mechanisms that make it possible to deal with persistent
ments. As an emotional system, it encompasses numerous areas of relevant uncertainty.” In their 1994 classic Built to
individuals and subgroups that interact and develop func- Last, Collins and Porras found that organizations that pre-
tional or dysfunctional emotional patterns. Your primary re- served their core values and core purpose outlasted those
sponsibility as a leader is to pay attention to the function- organizations that shifted with the wind.
ing of the whole. How clear is your organization’s structure Are you struggling to know how to help your organization
and how effective are your decision-making processes? How survive in a time of turbulent change? Study the environ-
strong is your organization’s culture and how open is it to ments in which your organization is nested, build organiza-
newcomers to the system? How is the emotional dynamic tional health, and (most of all) clarify and exemplify the high-
among the members of the organization? est values of your organization. You won’t ever be able to
When we strengthen an organism, we increase its ability control the turbulence, but you are likely to survive it…and
to adapt to a changing environment. The same is true of or- perhaps even thrive in it. MD
ganizations. Healthy organizational systems will survive the
current turbulence while unhealthy ones will likely be pulled Questions and comments can be sent to David.Brubaker@
under. When you build organizational health you increase More information can be found at
the odds of survival.

12 MONDAY DEVELOPMENTS November/December 2008


Organizational Change in the

Humanitarian Sector
Key messages from an ALNAP study. machine metaphor. If organizations are machines, then they
can be changed “mechanically”: instructions can be rewritten,
structures and processes re-engineered, parts replaced. How-
By Paul Clarke, Consultant, Oxford Change Management,
ever, different views of organizations better explain their oc-
and Ben Ramalingam, Head of Research and Development,
casional irrationality and lack of internal cohesion, and may
Active Learning Network for Accountability and Perfor-
be closer to the lived experience of many people. An organiza-
mance in Humanitarian Action (ALNAP)

tion can be viewed as: a community, in which action is closely
rganizations involved in the humanitarian linked to an organisational culture; an organic system, with
field increasingly need to be able to change their complex interrelationships between its constituent parts; and
strategies, structures, procedures and activities a mind, with both emotional responses and the capacity to
to best serve the needs of beneficiaries and other learn. If these metaphors express even partial truths about
stakeholders. The 8th ALNAP Review of Humanitarian Ac- organizations, then there are important implications for how
tion included a study on the topic of change in humanitarian organizations change, and how they can be changed.
organizations, which questioned the efficacy of traditional
approaches to change and performance improvement, and Humanitarian organizations are diverse, but often share ele-
suggests alternative approaches and ideas. This article high- ments of structure, process and culture differentiating them
lights some of the main findings. More detailed coverage is from organizations in other sectors. The fact that humanitarian
available at organizations are distinct, however, does not invalidate the
considered application of approaches to organizational change
Many methods used to catalyze and implement change in the developed in the commercial and public sectors.
humanitarian sector have met with only qualified success.
Evaluations, training and learning programmes, knowledge
management initiatives, and strategy and policy design are of-
ten ineffective in creating sustainable change where it matters
most – in the actions of humanitarian staff on the ground.
Humanitarian organizations have tended to use a standard
repertoire of methods to identify how they should change, and
to ensure that the organization implements these changes.
While these methods have achieved some successes, they have
often failed to make the impact hoped for by their proponents.
The problem does not lie with the approaches themselves, but
rather with the assumptions that underlie their implemen-
tation. One particularly important and common assumption
is that organizations are unified and rational structures that
will respond in predetermined and essentially “logical” ways
to information (from evaluations, or knowledge-management
systems) and to instructions (in the form of new policies
and training on these policies). The standard approaches to
change within the humanitarian sector would be more suc-
cessful if they critically re-evaluated this assumption.

The approach to achieving change within an organization is

determined by fundamental assumptions about the nature of
Our daily experience in organizations tends to suggest that
they are neither entirely unified nor entirely rational struc-
tures. Despite this, we often think of organizations as if they
were – as machines, which can be designed or programmed by
external forces to create predetermined outputs from a spe-
cific set of inputs. The language of organizations (inputs and
outputs, reengineering) often expresses and reinforces the

MONDAY DEVELOPMENTS November/December 2008 13


While they are similar in some ways to emergency services, Organizational change in the humanitarian sector seems to be
public-service welfare providers, military organizations and most successful where it is most closely linked to the impact
even private-sector construction companies, humanitarian of the organization’s work and to what motivates people in the
organizations share a profile that makes most of them more organization.
like each other than like organizations in any other sector. Most changes within humanitarian organizations aim, di-
This creates specific challenges to designing and implement- rectly or indirectly, to improve the lives of beneficiaries by pro-
ing change in humanitarian organizations. viding improved services or services to more people. Success-
ful initiatives make explicit this link between internal change
Successful change programs in the humanitarian sector often and external impact. As personnel in humanitarian organisa-
include: creating awareness of the need for change; marshal- tions are highly motivated to improve impact on the ground,
ling resources and planning for change; and putting systems demonstrating a clear relationship between the changes and
in place to support the change. impact in human terms can help to motivate staff members
Successful change processes in humanitarian organiza- to support change. In general, change programs in the sec-
tions vary in terms of the stated objective of the change, the tor are more successful when they recognize what motivates
context of the program, and the nature of the organization. people and build on these motivating factors. If incentives are
However, all tend to do three things well. Initially, they find used to support changed behaviour, they should be tied to
ways to create broad awareness across the organization of the what people really want to get from their work.
need for change. They then put time and energy into plan-
ning – creating plans supported by key actors, and which
are clear, flexible and relevant to the organization’s mis-
In general, change programs are more
sion. Finally, they look at all the elements required to enable successful when they recognize what
sustainable behavioral change (including personal support,
training and reward systems) and they support and institu-
motivates people and build on these
tionalize the change in the longer term. In conducting these
three activities, successful change programs in the humani-
motivating factors.
tarian sector feature high levels of participation, openness to Many organizational challenges in the humanitarian sector are
conflict, and clear internal communications. systemic, and cannot be easily resolved by any one organiza-
tion working alone. Coordinated action, involving groups of or-
ganizations working for systemic change, is also likely to ben-
efit from the principles applicable to individual organizations.
Sector-wide issues of coordination, funding and accountabil-
ity should not be used as an excuse for inaction at the level of
individual organisations. Nevertheless, there are problems that
need to be resolved within the humanitarian system as a whole.
Where groups of organizations come together to resolve these
problems, they may find the principles outlined here to be use-
ful. In particular, such groups might reach out further to en-
sure that the right stakeholders are involved in considering the
present situation and in designing solutions. They might also
lay more emphasis on solutions that aim to change people’s
behaviour, rather than solutions that aim to create products.

In most cases, the people driving change are also part of the
organization or system to be changed. This means that they
will themselves be affected, and will need to change their own
behaviour and ways of working.
It is easy to overlook this simple but important point. Where
change is driven from within the organization, the people in
charge of the process are also part of what they are trying to
change. As the changes take effect, their own behavior and
ways of working will be called into question, and in most cas-
es they will need to adapt to fit the new organization. If the
people leading the change fail to model new ways of working
early in the process, then it is unlikely that other people in the
organization will follow. Anyone leading a change process
from inside the organization will need to be prepared to ques-
tion their own assumptions about the “right” way of doing
things, and to work in new ways. Skilled and dynamic leader-
ship may be one of the most important elements here. MD

14 MONDAY DEVELOPMENTS November/December 2008

Members Project

One Mother’s Mission

so grateful to everyone who supported
this project and made it a reality.”
But the value of the campaign goes
beyond the children whose lives will be
American Express’ Members Project helps save the saved.
lives of malnourished children. “The Members Project gave Interna-
tional Medical Corps the opportunity to
raise awareness about this issue and
By Crystal Wells, Communications Officer, International Medical Corps our work in a nationwide, corporate

campaign to catch the public’s atten-
other Paige Strackman funding. Strackman’s made the cut. tion,” says Stephanie Bowen, IMC’s
has a cause: to save mal- American Express then selected communications manager. “It offered
nourished children through International Medical Corps as the an avenue for us to reach new viewers
nutrient-rich, ready-to-eat implementing partner because of the with our message and get more people
food. “As a mother of children who go organization’s experience and success involved.”
to bed with a full stomach every night, in treating malnourished children with Even the blogosphere, a much-
it is heartbreaking to consider the mil- ready-to-eat food. Together, Strackman sought after arena by non-profit or-
lions of children who do not have the ganizations, tuned in, with nearly 200
nutrients their little bodies need to sur- bloggers joining the effort and spread-
vive,” she says. “I know I can’t help all ing the word.
of them, but I can help some of them.” International Medical Corps’ feeding
She was able to help thousands in programs have a 90 percent recovery
partnership with International Medical rate, a track record that, even in the
Corps (IMC), which brings nutrition- most extreme cases, testifies to the lev-
rich, ready-to-eat food, like peanut- el of life-saving support that the grant
based Plumpy’Nut, to some of world’s makes possible. The funding comes at a
most food-stressed environments, in- time when global demand for food, and
cluding Afghanistan, Chad, Ethiopia, IMC’s nutritional support, could not be
Kenya, Somalia and Sudan. The two greater, as rising food costs have left mil-
came together in the American Express lions more vulnerable to malnutrition.
Members Project, a competition where The latest information coming from
card members nominate causes to re- IMC in the Democratic Republic of
ceive funding. Congo estimates that 35,000 children
Before the Members Project, Strack- have been admitted to our supplemen-
man became connected to child hunger tary feeding centers since July. Many
through a friend who runs a feeding centers are running over capacity with
program in Haiti. She alerted Strack- more children still waiting for treat-
man of the harsh reality that malnutri-
tion compromises the health millions of The American Express ment. The American Express fund-
ing will help IMC reach more of those
children around the world. Looking to
make a difference, Strackman reached
funding will help to children whose health and well-being
is being compromised because they do
out to friends and family, and even set reach more children not have enough to eat.
up a lemonade stand with her children
so she could send packages of rice and
whose health and Above all, this project shows how
people, when they come together, can
beans to her friend’s feeding program
in Haiti. When Strackman was intro-
well-being is being make a profound impact. Submitted by
one woman in New York who wanted to
duced to Plumpy’Nut, she tried to buy compromised. do something about child hunger, the
packets to distribute, but the quanti- project mobilized thousands who, as a
ties were too large and the logistics too and IMC promoted the project, trying result, secured $100,000 for malnour-
difficult for her to do on her own. to get as many votes as they could. ished children across the world.
Photo: Mary Jane Photography (CA)

That is when she submitted the When the voting closed on October As one IMC staff member in the
project, “Saving the Lives of Malnour- 13, they had rallied more than 14,000 Democratic Republic of Congo told
ished Children” to American Express. votes to finish in 4th place and receive Strackman recently, “It gives us more
An elite advisory panel that this year $100,000 in funding, making Strack- courage and more hope to know that
included CNN’s Dr. Sanjay Gupta and man’s project feasible. people like you are out there.” And
Nobel Laureate Dr. Wangari Maathai “This funding will save thousands with this campaign, it is easy to con-
narrowed down the 1,190 submissions of malnourished children around the clude that there are many more out
to 25 projects to be voted on by card world who otherwise may not have there, ready to get behind a cause they
members for a part of $2.5 million in been reached,” Strackman says. “I am believe in. MD

MONDAY DEVELOPMENTS November/December 2008 15

Global Hunger

One Step Forward,

of hunger. (A higher GHI score indi-
cates more significant hunger issues.)
The good news is that many regions

Two Steps Back

have made significant progress in low-
ering their GHI scores since 1990. Lat-
in America and the Caribbean, South
and Southeast Asia, and the Near East
and North Africa have all made notable
gains, driven primarily by improve-
2008 Global Hunger Index and Indian State Hunger ments in children’s nutrition.
Index shed light on where the hungriest people live. However, sub-Saharan Africa has
been slower in combating hunger. Not
By Blake Audsley, Communication Division only has it made the least progress as
International Food Policy Research Institute a region, it is also home to 10 of the

11 countries on the GHI that have ac-
he fight against global as German Agro-Action) and Concern tually seen their scores worsen. The
hunger has made some gains Worldwide. Democratic Republic of Congo has the
over the past two decades, but The GHI measures global hunger by worst 2008 GHI score, which has in-
the progress is slow coming. ranking countries on three leading in- creased 67 percent from 1990, worse
That is the central message emerging dicators and combining them into one than any other country on the index.
from the 2008 Global Hunger Index index: (1) child malnutrition; (2) rates Even though South Asia has been able
(GHI), released in October for World of child mortality; and (3) the propor- to reduce its hunger levels more quick-
Food Day for the third year in a row tion of people who are calorie deficient. ly, its GHI score remains high, at levels
by the International Food Policy Re- Of the 120 countries studied world- comparable with sub-Saharan Africa.
search Institute (IFPRI) in conjunction wide, the report found that 33 have The report reveals that hunger levels
with Welthungerhilfe (formerly known alarming or extremely alarming levels across these regions are driven by differ-

Graphic: Global Hunger Index, The Challenge of Hunger 2008

16 MONDAY DEVELOPMENTS November/December 2008

Global Hunger

ent factors. In sub-Saharan Africa, hunger scores stem from a the heightened volatility of the international food market.
high child mortality rate and a high proportion of people who Before the food price crisis hit, at least 800 million people
cannot meet their calorie requirements, while in South Asia in developing countries were food insecure. Some of these
the low nutritional and educational status of women are to people spend as much as 70 percent of their incomes on food.
blame for a higher prevalence of underweight children. People who were already food insecure have little or no scope
Poverty is a leading cause of malnutrition and food inse- for obtaining nutritious diets in the face of rising food prices.
curity, but the depth of poverty varies between regions. For Since 2003, global wheat and maize prices have more than
instance, the impoverished population of South Asia is com- doubled, and rice prices have more than tripled. While the driv-
prised of more people living just below the $1 per day poverty ers have been widely identified (such as increasing food con-
threshold. Sub-Saharan Africa, on the other hand, has a far sumption and changing food preferences as incomes rise, slow
greater predominance of “ultra-poor,” or those people living agricultural output growth, and biofuel expansion), what is
on less than $0.50 per day. This may explain why poverty is less clear is how severe the effects will be at the country level.
more entrenched in sub-Saharan Africa, and why reducing A major factor will be whether a country is a net importer or
hunger levels has been such a lethargic process. exporter of food. Of the 112 countries for which there are data,
Perhaps equally alarming are the findings of the first-ever 97 are net cereal importers and the remaining 15 are net cereal
Indian State Hunger Index. Also released October, it uses the exporters. As prices rise, net import countries are more likely
same GHI indicators to measure hunger levels in 17 major to struggle to meet domestic food demand. Unfortunately, the
states in India. The report revealed that all of these states countries with the highest GHI scores and the most food inse-
face an urgent hunger situation, ranging from “serious” to cure populations will be the ones hardest hit by rising prices.
“extremely alarming” in severity. Despite years of robust eco-
nomic growth,  this year’s GHI found that India as a whole Food aid flows from the World Food
scored worse than nearly 25 sub-Saharan African countries
and all of South Asia except Bangladesh. Programme are at their lowest level
All of these findings grow even more serious in the face of ris-
ing food prices. While the most recent GHI indicator data avail-
since 1961.
able (up to 2006) does not include the effects of the food price Most of the world’s poor people are net buyers of food. In
crisis, the report presents a picture of countries vulnerable to urban areas, inflationary pressures are likely to continue
to stoke political instability. In rural areas, the millions of
people who do not own land or do not produce enough food
to feed their families are likely to face increased nutritional
deficiencies. Meanwhile, the ability of international donors to
purchase food aid has been eroded by the rising prices; food
aid flows from the World Food Programme are at their lowest
level since 1961. Even those regions and countries that have
performed relatively well in reducing hunger thus far now
face the threat of slipping backwards.
A coordinated global response is urgently needed. IFPRI
estimates that the additional global public investment re-
quired to overcome the food crisis, and still meet the first Mil-
lennium Development Goal of halving poverty and hunger by
2015, is at least $14 billion per annum. For sub-Saharan Af-
rica, the annual additional investment is estimated at about
$5 billion, if African governments fulfill their commitment to
invest 10 percent of their national budgets to agriculture.
“Priorities for action at the national and global levels must
address the immediate food needs of poor people priced out
of food markets, and at the same time begin to correct previ-
ous failures in agricultural policy by investing in agriculture
Hundreds of millions of people around and food production, setting up reliable systems for assisting
the world look to PCI-Media Impact’s the most vulnerable people in a timely way, and establishing
a fair global trading system and a conducive investment en-
300 TV and radio productions to vironment,” said Joachim von Braun, IFPRI director general.
“The strategic way forward must be facilitated by interna-
strengthen their communities and tional cooperation and guided by a strong global governance
improve the lives of their children. architecture of agriculture, food and nutrition.” MD

The 2008 Global Hunger Index, including an interactive map

To learn more, visit of the report’s findings and the India State Hunger Index can
be found at:

18 MONDAY DEVELOPMENTS November/December 2008

Aid Reform

The MFAN signatories have joined together to support the
legislative efforts of the Congress and the Administration to
strengthen the United States’ foreign assistance tools. With

the June 2008 issuance of its penultimate publication A New
Day, A New Way: U.S. Foreign Assistance for the 21st Century,
MFAN engaged political leaders and policy experts in a lively
debate on the future of the U.S. assistance programs. Recog-

for Reform
nizing the fragmented and disjointed foreign assistance efforts
implemented by over 26 offices, agencies and departments
within the U.S. Goverment, MFAN calls for a total re-organiza-
tion of the structure: bringing disparate yet related assistance
funding and efforts together under one roof, all focused on
MFAN works with U.S. Government to similar common goals with common reporting and evaluation
reform foreign assistance. indicators and overseen by one nominated and Congressional-
approved individual who would bring focus to the overall U.S.
foreign assistance portfolio. The result would be a more effec-
By Sarah Farnsworth, Senior Program Manager, tive and more efficient U.S. international engagement.
Government Relations, InterAction Joined by several InterAction member organization repre-

sentatives including the CEOs of Bread for World, the Inter-
n a letter recently transmitted to the Obama- national Youth Foundation, Oxfam America, Save the Chil-
Biden Transition Team, representatives of the Moderniz- dren and Women Thrive World Wide, Sam Worthington and
ing Foreign Assistance Network (MFAN) made three im- the InterAction public policy team have been actively engaged
mediate major recommendations that would place the in the network’s efforts both on Capitol Hill and among policy-
goal of reforming the foreign assistance apparatus of the makers and other decision-makers in and outside Washing-
United States Government on track: ton, DC. MFAN’s leadership on the issue of foreign assistance
• Ensure that the Secretary of State nominee agrees that reform has been bolstered by the presence and assistance of
modernizing foreign assistance in an elevated U.S. devel- Lael Brainard at Brookings, Larry Diamond, Francis Fukuy-
opment agency is a top foreign policy priority;
• Empower an individual with responsibility for USAID, MCC
and PEPFAR; and
• Name a Deputy National Security and Economic Advisor
for Development with joint NEC/NSC responsibility for in-
teragency and White House coordination and coherence of
development policy.

InterAction welcomes President-elect Barack Obama’s

nomination of Senator Hillary Rodham Clinton for Secretary
of State. Senator Clinton has been a strong proponent of for-
eign assistance and understands the power of development
and the role it plays in bringing peace, stability and economic
prosperity to recipient countries and to the United States.
It is hoped that with that understanding, Senator Clinton
will support the elevation of a U.S. development agency to
serve as an equal partner with the Department of State and
Department of Defense in the implementation of the 2006
United States National Security Strategy.
The Modernizing Foreign Assistance Network has called
upon the next Administration to seize the opportunity to re-
form the funding, programming, implementation and moni-
toring and evaluation of all foreign assistance programs insti-
tuted by the United States Government. Under the leadership
of the MFAN’s co-chairs, Gayle Smith (Center for American
Progress) and Steve Radelet (Center for Global Development)
– a coalition of international development and foreign policy
practitioners, policy advocates and experts, concerned citi-
zens and private sector organizations – has advocated for the
strengthening of the United States’ ability to alleviate extreme
poverty, to create opportunities for growth, and to secure hu-
man dignity in developing countries.

MONDAY DEVELOPMENTS November/December 2008 19

Aid Reform

MFAN has called upon the next been held with former USAID Mission Directors as well as
former U.S. Ambassadors, and discussions have been held
Administration to seize the with high-level military planners and strategists.
In addition to our outreach to Congress, InterAction has
opportunity to reform all foreign been actively engaging policy-makers, think tank experts, lead-
assistance programs instituted by the ers within the NGO community, leaders of the evangelical
movement and others to broaden support for the reforming
U. S. Government. and restructuring of U.S. foreign assistance. MFAN partners
have reached out to their respective communities to educate
ama at the Johns Hopkins’ School for Advanced International and invite others to join the network in bringing pressure to
Studies, Carol Lancaster at Georgetown University, and Mike bear on the incoming Administration to change the way the
McFaul at Stanford who have written numerous articles, edi- United States implements development assistance and these
torials and books as well as conducted interviews to call for a ideas are gaining traction. Recommendations from ConnectUS,
full reform effort of the U.S. foreign assistance structure. the ONE campaign and the Woodrow Wilson Center call for a
Since MFAN was launched this past summer, well over fifty reinvigorated and highly visible consultative role for U.S. for-
meetings with Congressional staff and Members of Congress eign assistance within the Obama-Biden Administration. MD
have been held. At the invitation of Chairman Howare Ber-
man, Sam Worthington, alongside former USAID Administra- All MFAN materials can be accessed through InterAction’s
tor Peter McPherson, briefed 13 members of the House For- Transition web page at, or directly at www.
eign Affairs Committee in a discussion of the reauthorization Please consider signing up
of the 1961 Foreign Assistance Act. At the behest of USAID for the network’s weekly monitor and e-mail alerts and joining
Administrator Henrietta Fore, Sam Worthington joined 15 the network’s advocacy working group to inform policy leaders
experts for an off-the-record briefing of over 60 senior-level and Congressional Members about the importance of reforming,
USAID employees on foreign aid reform. Briefings have also re-invigorating and re-structuring U.S. foreign assistance.

20 MONDAY DEVELOPMENTS November/December 2008

Fleet Management

sion coupled with spiraling commodity

prices, donor largess is likely to slow
forcing humanitarian organizations to
look internally for cost savings and ef-
ficiencies. The facts show that the fleet
is the perfect place to begin.

The Weakest Link

Rather than looking at each individ-
ual vehicle in a fleet, our methodology
looks at the aggregate of all vehicles
vis-à-vis the policies, tools and culture
of fleet management at national opera-
tions. Broadly speaking, fleets operate
in three generic phases throughout
their lifecycle: arrival, field deployment,
and end of lifecycle. Against this back-
drop, the operations we surveyed have
three general criteria that determine
the length of time and conditions for
decommissioning vehicles. This repre-
sents the proverbial fleet lifecycle. The
first criterion is age, typically five years.
The second is mileage, ranging from
150,000 to 250,000 kilometers; and
lastly condition, referring to a runoff of
maintenance costs or a heavy accident
record. Against any of these measures,
the state of the fleet is showing signs
of decay, making it the weakest link in
the humanitarian supply chain.
When looking at the national level, it
is not uncommon to see fleets where 50
to 60 percent of vehicles in operation

The Weakest Link

violate organizational disposal policies
and recommended industry standards.
Two aspects of this fleet profile are par-
ticularly damaging to the safety, pre-
dictability and effectiveness of opera-
tions. The first is that newer vehicles
The state of humanitarian fleet management in Africa. are used too much, hastening fleet de-
terioration. The second is that mainte-
By Dante A. Disparte, General Manager nance costs become unpredictable over
Marketing & Solutions Development, Kjaer Group A/S time and grow exponentially when uti-

lization patterns are not harmonized.
rojects, people and vehi- light on the state of humanitarian fleet Needless to say, the safety and environ-
cles are uniquely intertwined in management by partnering with 16 mental impact of these fleets degrade
the humanitarian sector. As the national offices for leading NGOs and dramatically over time. For these rea-
resurgent crisis in the Democrat- international organizations. Compre- sons organizations that decommission
ic Republic of the Congo reminds us, hensive fleet assessments have been vehicles in a timely manner are able to
reliable transportation is mission criti- carried out in eight countries in Africa reduce fleet size by up to 40 percent
cal to humanitarian work. For decades and the findings impact thousands of without impacting program delivery.
Photo: Kris Tahiti -

agencies have focused on so called “up- humanitarian vehicles. The central fi-
stream” supply chain activities when it nancial objective of a humanitarian or- Fragmentation and Disappearing
concerns their fleets. Few have gone be- ganization (and therefore humanitarian While we have not encountered an or-
neath the surface to understand what fleet management as well) is to maxi- ganization that is 100 percent in compli-
happens to vehicles after they clear mize the percentage of financial sup- ance with its own fleet disposal policies
customs and are put into service. port that reaches beneficiaries. With or recommended industry standards, we
Kjaer Group endeavored to shed the world on the verge of a deep reces- have identified several areas that make

MONDAY DEVELOPMENTS November/December 2008 21

Fleet Management

this practice complicated. The first is an rows from our knowledge sharing with predictable nature of long-term finance
internal bureaucratic process, in which INSEAD’s Social Innovation Centre. and it is hard to imagine agencies be-
entire management teams are engaged Rather than allocating transport ca- ing in compliance with responsible fleet
in a 9- to 14-step disposal procedure, pacity to field projects from a centrally standards without leveraging flexible
wherein vehicles are sold “as is” to the managed fleet, entire vehicles are al- financial tools.
public or donated to local partners. The located to field operations indefinitely. Many humanitarian agencies are
second internal factor is inertia, where This stems from the project-specific boastful about the size of their fleets. It
organizations are reluctant to part ways funding pattern that is prevalent in the is taken as a sign of impact and reach.
with a vehicle even though it is the re- sector through which vehicles are pro- There is no doubt that a vast fleet of
sponsible thing to do. cured to support a specific activity. This vehicles is required to tackle the vast
Two structural factors make respon- makes sharing resources complicated development challenges the world fac-
sible fleet management complicated, because it is difficult to “untie” the ve- es. Yet fleet management receives a
but not impossible. The first is that hicle from the project, thus making cen- strikingly low priority: often five or six
vehicles are typically expensed when tralized fleet management complex. The reporting lines from senior manage-
procured, thus they functionally “dis- power base for fleet decisions is com- ment. Going beneath the surface of a
appear” from the balance sheet. This pletely undermined by this structure, subject as complex as humanitarian
makes the long-term financial con- as field projects that “own” the vehicles fleet management is a difficult task and
sequences of operating a fleet nearly are able to veto any centrally mandated while there are unique pressures at
impossible to ascertain. The second policy – e.g., routine maintenance, re- play in the humanitarian sphere, agen-
structural factor stems from the frag- cord keeping, and, eventually, disposal. cies cannot afford to be passive. Action
mented nature of humanitarian work Replacing 50 to 60 percent of a fleet to address the major obstacles outlined
where there are “too many agencies, using conventional procurement meth- above will free up scarce financial re-
financing too many small projects, ods would bankrupt a national office sources for core activities and create
using too many different procedures. and would meet the disfavor of donors. operations that are safer and more ef-
Fragmentation is the opposite of effec- For this the gradualism embodied by fective. In purely financial terms, if or-
tiveness.” (A Scramble in Africa, Sept. asset finance or leasing is appealing. ganizations can afford vast, aged fleets
4, 2008 The Economist.) This trend is Add to this the freed cash flow that can with high mileage, the alternative is
noted at national operations and bor- be applied to core activities and the possible as well. MD

22 MONDAY DEVELOPMENTS November/December 2008

Trouble with Aid

way in which it is structured and de-

livered.” According to Siapha Kamara
of the Social Enterprise Development
(SEND) Foundation of West Africa:
“[M]ainstream African civil society,
especially the emerging independent
grassroots based development agen-
cies, think tanks, research and policy
advocacy organizations are justifiably
asking what is different in the present
day international aid architecture. Offi-
cial Africa tends to be more enthusias-
tic about the anticipated increase in in-
ternational aid than civil society . . . the
more African governments are depen-
dent on international aid the less ordi-
nary citizens such as farmers, workers,
teachers or nurses have a meaningful
say in politics and economic policies.”
Why? We can divide the impacts of
aid into four categories. Direct impacts
are the easiest to measure and are the
ones we hear about most in the media:
how many people have been vaccinat-
ed, how many schools have been built
and so on. But also in this category,
and perhaps not publicized quite so
much, are the harmful side-effects of

The Trouble With

aid such as when people are displaced
by large projects like dams and mines.
Even more controversial are the policy
conditions attached to aid, which have

Aid in Africa
arguably had greater consequences
in the lives of Africans than the direct
consequences of the way the money
has actually been spent. Within two
decades the whole economic direction
Could increasing aid do more harm than good? of a continent has changed, largely
as a consequence of aid; and while
By Jonathan Glennie some people have gained, many more

have suffered as a result. It is gener-
ub-Saharan Africa is poor. achieve growth and development. ally agreed that shortcomings in the
If rich countries send it money it In a literature review, Moses Isooba accountability and effectiveness of Af-
will be less poor, and people liv- of Uganda’s Community Development rican governments in recent decades
ing in poverty will be better off. Resource Network found that, “A ma- have been a major part of the problem
This seems both logical and fair. More jority of civil society actors in Africa see of low or negative growth and insignifi-
aid should mean less poverty, more aid as a fundamental cause of Africa’s cant poverty reduction.
schools and hospitals, fewer children deepening poverty.” He goes on to ac- Thirdly, what is less discussed but
dying of preventable diseases, more knowledge that aid can make “a last- is becoming increasingly clear, is that
roads and infrastructure to support de- ing difference in helping people to lift dependency on aid from foreign donors
veloping economies. But the optimism themselves out of poverty,” but calls has undermined the development of the
that a big aid push will make a big dif- for a radical rethink about the purpose basic institutions needed to govern and
ference to the lives of poor Africans is and nature of aid giving. Charles Lwan- the vital link of accountability between
Photo: Anna -

not shared by most analysts on the ga-Ntale of Development Research and state and citizen. This has retarded Af-
African continent. It is hard to find a Training (DRT), a Ugandan NGO, de- rican development in fundamental and
single example of an African NGO that scribes what he perceives as “almost long-lasting ways. It is what Kamara
is actively campaigning for aid increas- unanimous pessimism among African was referring to when he talked about
es, while many explicitly reject the idea civil society and academia about the ordinary people not having a meaning-
that huge aid increases are the way to unworkable nature of aid, given the ful say in decisions about how their

MONDAY DEVELOPMENTS November/December 2008 23

Trouble with Aid

countries are run. Finally, receiving

large amounts of aid also has macro-
African civil society, should take right now in order to help
Africans reduce poverty and improve
economic consequences because large while heavily criticizing human rights. For example, far more
inflows of foreign money affect prices money flows out of Africa each year
and incentives. If they are not managed aid, is not sitting on its than arrives there in aid, but where are
well these effects can be very damaging
to poor people.
haunches in despair, and the campaigns to stem illegal capital
flows going through tax havens? Rich
Rather than accepting the simplistic nor should anyone else. countries need to overhaul the rules
notion that more aid equals less pov- on international property rights and
erty, we need to look at the evidence. an ideological anti-aid position in the foreign investment. They should act
All the evidence. In contrast to aid op- face of the rights and urgent needs of on climate change and invest more in
timists and aid pessimists, who selec- millions of people. It means carefully transferable technology. They should
tively use evidence either to support or analyzing the overall impact of aid on regulate better an arms trade causing
dismiss aid, we need to recognize that Africa, firstly to see how it can be im- turmoil in Africa.
the impacts of aid are complex. Only proved and secondly, and more impor- In fact, it will be almost impossible
when we assess these impacts dispas- tantly given that improving aid will be a for African governments to reduce their
sionately and systematically can we very hard job, questioning aid’s impor- reliance on aid without the internation-
have any real expectation of making tance in relation to other policies and al community taking a range of sup-
a positive and sustained impact on factors that influence development and porting measures. If the first reason to
human rights, development and pov- poverty reduction in Africa. stop campaigning for aid increases is
erty reduction in Africa. This approach We should emphatically not con- that aid may be doing more harm than
could be termed aid realism. Aid real- clude that the West should somehow good in some countries, the second is
ism means not getting swept away by leave Africa alone. African civil society, that all the emphasis on aid is obscur-
the ethical clamor to “do something” while heavily criticizing aid, is not sit- ing the far more important policies the
when a proper analysis shows that ting on its haunches in despair, and West should be adopting to help Afri-
what is being done is ineffective or nor should anyone else. There are many cans out of poverty. The fact that aid
harmful. And it means not bowing to positive measures that rich countries continued on page 44

Brandeis University
The Heller School of Social Policy and Management Knowledge Advancing Social Justice

Focusing on the intersection of human rights

with economic & development policy
x Over 150 students in residence from 65 countries form-
ing one of the largest programs of its kind in the world.
x M.A. in Sustainable International Development
x Alumni are employed by U.N. agencies, bilateral and
multilateral aid organizations, and NGOs throughout x M.S. in International Health Policy and Management
the world. x Dual M.A. programs in Sustainable Development with Coexistence
x Generous financial assistance for Peace Corps and other & Conflict and with Women & Gender Studies
service organization volunteers.

A community of activists and scholars on the front lines of social policy.


24 MONDAY DEVELOPMENTS November/December 2008

Election Results

A Mixed
Senate Appropriations Committee
Thad Cochran (R-Mississippi), Ranking Was not up for
Member re-election

Political Bag
Not up, but stepping
Robert Byrd (D-West Virginia), Chairman
down as Committee Chair

Senate Appropriations Subcommittee on State,

Foreign Operations, and Related Programs
2008 election results and their Republicans

implications for our community. Mitch McConnell (Kentucky),

Arlen Specter (Pennsylvania)
Not up
By Ken Forsberg Judd Gregg (New Hampshire)
Not up
Manager for Legislative Affairs, InterAction Ranking member
Richard Shelby (Alabama) Not up

his year’s election results provided a Robert Bennett (Utah) Not up
mixed bag of hope and disappointment. On the hope Kit Bond (Missouri) Not up
side of the equation, the biggest news may be the as- Sam Brownback (Kansas) Not up
cendance of a President who pledged during the cam-
paign to double U.S. foreign assistance spending to $50 bil- Lamar Alexander (Tennessee) Won
lion by 2012. While President-elect Obama and his campaign Democrats
began to talk about a slower ramp-up timeline as the economic Patrick Leahy (Vermont), Chairman Not up
crisis intensified, they have made it clear they are not backing Not up, incoming Full
away from the doubling goal itself, and campaign statements Daniel Inouye (Hawaii)
Committee Chair
about the need for strengthening our civilian foreign affairs
Tom Harkin (Iowa) Won
capacities seem to suggest they mean what they say.
On the other end of Pennsylvania Avenue, this election Barbara Mikulski (Maryland) Not up
brings the departure of a number of Republican champions Richard Durbin (Illinois) Won
of the foreign assistance community. Senators Gordon Smith Tim Johnson (South Dakota) Won
(R-OR), John Sununu (R-NH), and former Peace Corps Vol-
Mary Landrieu (Louisiana) Won
unteer Rep. Chris Shays (R-CT), each defeated, as well as
Senator Chuck Hagel (R-NE), who is retiring, have all been Jack Reed (Rhode Island) Won
leaders in various ways in pushing for more resources and Robert Byrd (West Virginia) Ex-officio Not up
a higher priority for foreign assistance programs. Rep. Joe
Knollenberg, member of the State/Foreign Operations Ap-
Senate Foreign Relations Committee
propriations Subcommittee who defended funding for the Republicans
Millennium Challenge Corporation, was also defeated. The Richard Lugar (Indiana), Ranking member Not up
departures of these allies will present a challenge to the In- Chuck Hagel (Nebraska) Retired
terAction advocacy community in its efforts to keep support
Bob Corker (Tennessee) Not up
for our work overseas bipartisan. New champions will have to
be found in a shrinking pool of Republican Members of Con- Johnny Isakson (Georgia) Not up
gress. Some likely candidates have already been identified, Still undecided as of
Norm Coleman (Minnesota)
however, and the current (Republican) Secretary of Defense 12/3/08
Robert Gates continues to state repeatedly and clearly his George Voinovich (Ohio) Not up
support for increased spending on diplomacy and develop- David Vitter (Louisiana) Not up
ment. The outlook is thus hopeful in this regard. John A. Barrasso (Wyoming) Not up
The departure of Senator Joe Biden (D-DE) from the Sen- Lisa Murkowski (Alaska) Not up
ate and from his chairmanship of the Senate Foreign Rela- Mel Martinez (Florida) Not up
tions Committee is also of note, of course, as he moves up to Democrats
the Vice President’s office in the White House. Senator Biden
Joseph R. Biden, Jr. (Delaware), Chairman Resigning
has been a strong ally. There are hopes that his successor at
the helm of Senate Foreign Relations, Senator John Kerry (D- Christopher Dodd (Connecticut) Not up
MA), will be equally favorable and enlightened in his exercise John Kerry (Massachusetts) Won
of that position, especially with the prospect of a once-in-a- Russ Feingold (Wisconsin) Not up
generation overhaul of our foreign assistance architecture on Barbara Boxer (California) Not up
the horizon. Senator Richard Lugar (R-IN) will continue as
ranking Republican on the committee – one strong Republi- Bill Nelson (Florida) Not up
can champion we are NOT losing, thankfully. Barack Obama (Illinois) Resigned

MONDAY DEVELOPMENTS November/December 2008 25

Election Results

House Appropriations Committee Another important congressional development is less about

the election and more about the passage of time: Senator
Jerry Lewis, California 41st (R – Ranking Robert Byrd’s (D-WV) relinquishment of the chairman’s gavel
of the Senate Appropriations Committee. While not neces-
David R. Obey, Wisconsin 7th (D – Chairman) Won sarily an opponent, Senator Byrd was not quite a champion
of foreign assistance either – his priorities generally lay else-
House Appropriations Subcommittee on where. The chairmanship of the committee passes to Senator
Foreign Programs Daniel Inouye (D-HI). Senator Inouye, while not particularly
Republicans known as a champion for our community, has been serv-
Frank R. Wolf, Virginia 10th District (Ranking ing on the State, Foreign Operations Subcommittee and has
Won signed a number of letters over the years expressing support
for the international affairs budget, so there is some reason
Joe Knollenberg, Michigan 9th Lost to Gary Peters
to be optimistic about his attitudes toward foreign assistance
Mark Steven Kirk, Illinois 10th Won as appropriations chair.
Ander Crenshaw, Florida 4th Won That’s a brief first cut on the changes in the federal advo-
Dave Weldon, Florida 15th Retired cacy landscape we face heading into 2009. The tables provide
details on who is in and who is out on the committees and
subcommittees most directly relevant to our work. Stay tuned
Nita M. Lowey, New York 18th (Chairman) Won in the new year for further analysis, as the nuances of the
Jesse L. Jackson, Jr., Illinois 2 nd
Won landscape begin to fill in. MD
Adam Schiff, California 29th Won
Steven R. Rothman, New Jersey 9th Won
Steve Israel, New York 2nd Won Democrats
Ben Chandler, Kentucky 6 th
Won Howard L. Berman, California 28th,
Won (Uncontested)
Barbara Lee, California 9 th
Betty McCollum, Minnesota 4th Won Gary Ackerman, New York 5th Won
Eni Faleomavaega, American Samoa,
House International Relations Committee Won (Uncontested)
Not Voting
Republicans Donald Payne, New Jersey 10th Won (Uncontested)
Ileana Ros-Lehtinen, Florida 18 (Ranking th
Brad Sherman, California 27 th
Robert Wexler, Florida19 th
Christopher Smith, New Jersey 4th Won
Eliot Engel, New York 17th Won
Dan Burton, Indiana 5th Won
Elton Gallegly, California 24th Won William Delahunt, Massachusetts 10 th
Dana Rohrabacher, California 46th Won Gregory Meeks, New York 6th Won (Uncontested)
Joseph Crowley, New York 7th Won
Don Manzullo, Illinois 16th Won
Diane Watson, California 33rd Won
Edward Royce, California 40th Won
Adam Smith, Washington 9 th
Steve Chabot Ohio 1st Lost to Steve Driehaus
Thomas Tancredo, Colorado 6 th
Won Russ Carnahan, Missouri 3rd Won

Ron Paul, Texas 14th Won (Uncontested) John S. Tanner, Tennessee 8 th

Won (Uncontested)
Gene Green, Texas 29th Won
Jeff Flake, Arizona 6th Won
Lynn C. Woolsey, California 6th Won
Mike Pence, Indiana 6th Won
Sheila Jackson-Lee, Texas 18th Won
Joe Wilson, South Carolina 2nd Won
Ruben Hinojosa, Texas 15th Won
John Boozman, Arkansas 3rd Won
David Wu, Oregon 1st district Won (Uncontested)
J. Gresham Barrett, South Carolina 3rd Won
Brad Miller, North Carolina 13th Won
Connie Mack Florida, 14 th
Linda T. Sanchez, California 39th Won
Jeff Fortenberry, Nebraska 1st Won David Scott, Georgia Won
Mike McCaul, Texas 10th Won Jim Costa, California 20th Won
Ted Poe, Texas 2nd Won (Uncontested) Albio Sires, New Jersey 13th Won
Bob Inglis, South Carolina Won Gabrielle Giffords, Arizona 8th Won
Luis G. Fortuno, Puerto Rico Won (Uncontested) Ron Klein, Florida 22nd Won
Gus Michael Bilirakis, Florida 9th Won Barbara Lee, California 9th Won

26 MONDAY DEVELOPMENTS November/December 2008


“No pessimist ever

discovered the secret
of the stars, or sailed
to uncharted land, or
opened a new doorway
for the human spirit.”
   Helen Keller
programs that have lifted many out of
poverty, the growth of a fair trade in-
dustry, and a global effort to ensure
primary education for all. At an indi-
vidual level, there are many accounts
of sacrifice and compassion. Telling
these stories − and being able to touch
the heart with them − are among tech-
niques that can empower audiences to

Framing Your
get involved with the global concerns
that will affect everyone’s future.
These are among ways that communi-
cations professionals at NGOs can tailor

Message in a
their messages for maximum impact. In
addition to this “big picture” framework,
engaging readers via some tried-and-
true writing strategies is critical.

Stressed Out World

In framing discussions about in-
ternational topics, my own work has
been informed by research done a few
years ago by U.S. in the World: Talking
Global Issues with Americans (
When promoting your er side to the story, and I suppose it’s
why I have spent the better part of my This research, which I
still find relevant, shows that how or-
organization’s work, career working for international non- ganizations introduce topics, the tone
it’s the uplifting stories governmental organizations (NGOs).
These organizations are by no means
used, and the big ideas in their com-
munications all play a critical role in
that often have the most perfect, but their work often touches how readers respond − either by giving
impact. what is most human in us and invites
us to see the possibilities in a world
them an opportunity to see an issue in
a new light, or by triggering mindsets
that often seems to be teetering on the that cause them to tune out the infor-
By Zarrín T. Caldwell
edge. NGOs can use these strengths to mation. While the research is oriented
Global Dreams Consulting
their advantage, and how they frame toward American audiences, I’ve found

their messages matters. Part of that that many of the guidelines remain ap-
’ve never been the most opti- framing is being positive. plicable to any organization working on
mistic person in the world. In fact, I Now, don’t get me wrong. I’m not global topics. Here are some:
have often been the “glass half emp- saying that NGOs should ignore the 1. Put your arguments and facts, espe-
ty” kind of gal. And, who can blame scale of the many global problems we cially in your introductions, into the
me? Just check out some of the lat- face. When these problems are the context of big, cross-cutting ideas
est headlines: “Wall Street Slides after dominant frame of the organization’s and values familiar to your audienc-
Photo: UN Photo/Martine Perr

More Losses in Global Shares,” “High message, however, that message may es, e.g. talking about environmental
Food Costs a Global Burden,” and “UN be less effective. Conveying a positive problems in the context of safeguard-
Sees Risks Mount for Global Warming vision and problem-solving attitude ing the planet for future generations.
Fight.” Of course, if everyone dwelt on often has more influence. And NGOs 2. Don’t overwhelm listeners with the
this depressing news, we might as well have an important role to play in telling enormity and complexity of prob-
just crawl into a cave, throw in the tow- uplifting stories: about student move- lems, and don’t use fear or guilt as
el and call it a day. But, there is anoth- ments for sustainability, microloan entry points.

28 MONDAY DEVELOPMENTS November/December 2008


A New Vision
3. Offer success stories, examples of
what works, and systemic solutions.
4. Show the benefits of approaches you
propose and the cost of alternatives.
5. Avoid partisan attacks and an “us-
versus-them” way of thinking. Ques-
tion others’ assumptions if appropri- Why your visual image is critical to telling (and selling)
ate, but not their integrity. your organization’s story.
In line with these guidelines, I think By David Snyder, Independent Photojournalist and Writer

it is important for NGO profession-
als to avoid the “blame game” in their et’s take a simple test. whose work comprises the bulk of what
communications and to take a proac- Open a newspaper or a magazine most NGOs do. The pictures and stories
tive position when they can. And, if and pay careful attention to where that relay that work to wider audienc-
the organization has made mistakes or your eye first falls on the page. Is es often don’t factor into the baseline
learned some valuable lessons, be up- it to the blocks of text, or the ads for thinking of project staff. Back in head-
front about them. This approach can which agencies pay thousands of dol- quarters, communications and media
help to establish credibility. Some oth- lars? No. Studies show – and your eyes budgets are frequently the last to make
er good writing techniques to consider will confirm – that photographs, above the list for the new fiscal year, and the
include: all else, attract the greatest notice in first to suffer cuts.
• Establish context. If a reader isn’t any print or electronic publication. Perhaps more critically, many NGOs
told why the topic is important, they But in the NGO world, professional suffer from a culture in which the think-
may lose interest quickly. Set out the photographs are too often the orphan ing is that the work we do as an agency
problem that needs to be solved and children of the creative process – un- speaks for itself. It’s impolite, our moth-
the solution offered. derappreciated, underutilized, or writ- ers taught us, to brag, and self promo-
• Use numbers sparingly. If the article ten off as extravagant or unnecessary. tion in the form of photography is seen
calls for statistics to make important In a media age when a teenager with by many as too close to that line.
policy points, then put them into a a laptop can design slick, profession- But those days are passing. Quickly.
visual form, e.g. bar or pie charts. al quality publications with ease, too Today’s NGOs need to be prepared to
• Make it human. There is nothing many NGOs depend upon photos gen- compete harder, and smarter, for do-
like a compelling personal story to erated by untrained staff or volunteers nor dollars. While programming should
bring abstract concepts and policies to provide them with the most visible always remain as the bedrock of NGO
to life. part of their agency’s public face. values, that work can only exist as long
• Watch transitions. Readers should The answer to why lies often within. as donors fund it. To be interested, do-
be taken smoothly from one idea to Aid agencies, by their nature, are com-
the next and not have to connect the prised largely of people with program- By getting close to your subject, you eliminate
dots themselves. ming backgrounds: the water experts, dead space on either side. Your viewer will
• Keep it simple. Long, academic logisticians, nutritionists and engineers know exactly what the subject is as soon as
words and phrases may impress they look at the photograph.
some, but probably not most of your
As obvious as the above advice would
seem to be, I’ve seen plenty of written
work that is depressing at best and/or
offers little context, too many statistics,
and is so complex or abstract that it
makes readers’ eyes glaze over. But,
let’s not be negative. Rather, remember
that there are many ways that NGOs
can improve their communications,
demonstrate integrity, and keep an
open heart about their work and the
many inspiring stories they have to tell.
How’s that for optimism? There may be
Photos: David Snyder

hope for me yet! MD

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Contact Michael Haslett at 202-552-6548

MONDAY DEVELOPMENTS November/December 2008 29


nors must be familiar on a personal By framing your subject in

level with the beneficiaries. This is the right or left third of the
where photography has no equal. photo, rather than directly
Websites and fundraising appeals in the middle, you allow
are common ways to reach out to pri- yourself two thirds of the
vate donors. But agencies often over- image space to put that
look other ways to connect. NGOs to- subject in context - like this
day need to think about calendars and religious pilgrim praying at
coffee table books that present their Christ’s tomb in Jerusalem.
work powerfully and professionally.
Slide shows of powerful images deliv- ject too far from the cam-
ered to high school and college audi- era, placed squarely in the
ences help attract a new generation of center of the frame – a virtual recipe of that you can use for years to come on
youth to your agency’s network. Simi- what not to do when shooting dynam- calendars, web sites, donor presenta-
lar presentations delivered to groups of ic and professional photographs. Yet tions and promotional materials. To cut
high-end donors provide what no other these are the images that often popu- costs, seek the services of professional
medium can: the chance for them to late NGO web sites and publications. photographers in the NGO world who
see, first hand, the impact their dollars Staff themselves are not to blame. travel often. The next time they are in a
are having. Most, if not all, who are sent to the field country where you have a project, tack
Having edited newsletters for a ma- with a camera have never had train- on a day or two of shooting – and save
jor U.S.-based NGO for more than two ing in even its basic use. A few simple yourself the cost of their airfare.
years, I saw the same mistakes repeat- techniques can go a long way towards
ed time and again in the photographs increasing the usability of photographs
– such as turning the camera vertically
Far too often, staff
I reviewed. Invariably, staff would re-
turn from weeks in the field with pho- to capture vertical subjects, like people. submit photographs
tos that were wholly or largely unus-
able. Most commonly, subjects were
Framing subjects in the left or right
third of the photo is also an essential
of large groups of
too far away in the photograph. Far tool that allows the photographer to beneficiaries, posed
too often, staff would submit photo-
graphs of large groups of beneficiaries,
place the subject in context, be it in a
refugee camp or a clinic for clients re- awkwardly around
posed awkwardly around some distant
and indistinguishable sign or meeting
ceiving AIDS medicines. Simply taking
two steps towards your subject, rather
some distant and
house. As a rule, every photograph was than two back, will dramatically im- indistinguishable sign
a horizontal composition, of a sub- prove the quality of most
photographs. As famed or meeting house.
World War II photograph
Robert Capa said, “If your Second, seek training for your staff
photographs aren’t good on how to take better photos. While you
enough, you’re not close can use professionals for major events
enough.” Never was like large-scale emergency response,
that more true than in important anniversaries, or high-level
relief and development delegation trips to project sites, your
photography. staff are a vital photographic resource.
For both smaller You’ve given them cameras. Now give
agencies who may not them the basic training they need to
have a photography use those cameras effectively. A half-
budget and larger day training, right in your office, might
ones who do occa- run several hundred dollars – and pay
sionally use profes- immediate and long-lasting dividends.
sionals, there are concrete The work your NGO does is impor-
steps you can take to vastly increase tant in the lives of others. Short of tak-
the professionalism of your photo base. ing your donors to the field personally,
First, include a line for professional pho- nothing is more powerful in conveying
By far the most common problem with most tography in your budget for 2009 – how- a sense of what you do than the visual
photographs taken by amateurs is that the ever small. While photographer fees vary image. It’s time for NGOs to start think-
photographer is too far away from the subject. tremendously, you don’t need to break ing differently about what they want
The eye of the viewer does not know where the bank: $2,000, for example, would their donors to see first the next time
to go when they first look at the photograph. probably be enough for several days to they look at a page you have sent them.
Without a subject, you have no photograph. perhaps a week of shooting – photos MD

30 MONDAY DEVELOPMENTS November/December 2008


ters. Iraqi-Canadian lawyer Ghina Al
Sewaidi outlined international law rel-
evant to women and children refugees

and spoke of the feelings of loss and
isolation they suffered.
Compounding the damage done by
disasters is the fact that the most sus-
International conference focuses on rebuilding ceptible communities are those already
suffering from chronic problems such
sustainable communities for children and their as poverty and underdevelopment.
families after disasters. Within communities, “those most af-
fected by disasters are disproportion-
By Muna Killingback ately the most vulnerable: the poor,

the disabled, women, and children,”
gnes is one of the suc- observed Angela Devlen, president of
cess stories. A child soldier Mahila Partnership.
in Sierra Leone, Agnes was Strengthening children’s participa-
reintegrated into the commu- tion in decisions that affect them was
nity and completed a Masters degree in another recommendation echoed by
law. Despite heavy stigma suffered by many: “Children need to be recognized
returning child soldiers, her father took as valued partners in community heal-
the lead in accepting her back with the ing, future leaders, and potential peace
words: “Agnes you are my daughter and builders,” said Grace Oyebola Adetula,
will be forever.” Her mother, and then an international expert in crime pre-
her community, soon welcomed her. vention and youth and child matters
But most former child soldiers Professor Diane Levin of Wheelock
are not so lucky, finding themselves College spoke of risk factors that affect
shunned by both family and society. how severely children are impacted by
At the International Conference on disasters including witnessing violence,
Rebuilding Sustainable Communities devastation or death; being orphaned;
for Children and their Families after losing one’s home; and separation from
Disasters, hosted by the University of Professor Adenrele Awotona, Conference parents. She noted that in Iraq today,
Massachusetts Boston from November Chair and Center Founder and Director. many adults caring for traumatized
16-19, presenters discussed strategies children are themselves traumatized,
for working with these children. Based suffering from chronic anxiety or de-
on studies done in Colombia, Nepal “recipients of help should be happy pression, which makes them less avail-
and Sierra Leone, strategies ranged with what they get,” social scientist Dr. able to the children.
from preventing recruitment by lever- Evelin G. Lindner called for, “The spirit “Education has the potential to keep
aging international law, prioritizing the of human rights, with an emphasis on children alive and increases the pos-
specific needs of girl soldiers, prepar- human dignity,” to be “mainstreamed sibilities for children to recover from
ing communities for their return, and into disaster management.” mass trauma,” observed Hofstra Uni-
organizing programs to educate, care Many speakers acknowledged that versity Professor Denny Taylor. Among
for and reintegrate them. gender inequality remains a serious the many ways schools can help chil-
The conference brought together obstacle to sustainability. Researcher dren heal after disasters, said consul-
scholars across many disciplines and Elaine Enarson charged that lack of tant Beryl Cheal, was to provide them
field practitioners from governmen- knowledge is not the issue: “We know with “many opportunities to tell their
tal agencies and NGOs. Together they about gender, but we don’t use it… stories.”
identified broad challenges to rebuild- Women are on the ground at the grass- The conference also highlighted ways
ing sustainable communities after di- roots level caring for families, but not of creating sustainable and resilient
sasters, and shared a wide range of in the lead, sitting at policy tables, communities. Xavier Castellanos of the
analyses and practical solutions based managing funding, setting up research International Red Cross and Red Cres-
on research and best practices that pri- projects. But we can’t get to sustain- cent Societies said, “Our challenge is to
oritized human rights. able recovery without women.” transform vulnerability into capacity.
The need to honor and respect the Others looked at specific gender di- Get human beings to recognize they
dignity of disaster victims was a recur- mensions of disasters. Consultant Alisa can do something.”
Photo: Harry Brett

ring conference theme, an acknowl- Klein said that a public health frame- Experts from the fields of psychology
edgement that insensitive treatment of work was needed to prevent and re- and sociology spoke about post trau-
disaster victims can compound initial spond to sexual violence, the incidence matic stress disorder and other psy-
injuries. In contrast to an attitude that of which rises during and after disas- continued on page 44

MONDAY DEVELOPMENTS November/December 2008 31

Mission Drift

Leveraging Mission Drift

to Promote Innovation
Planning and vetting are
key to project expansion.
By John E. Burg

rom 2003 to 2006, I worked
with an NGO in West Africa help-
ing microentrepreneur bicycle
dealers develop their businesses
by introducing them to better products
and improved business skills. The core
mission of my NGO, the Institute for
Transportation and Development Poli-
cy (ITDP), was to promote sustainable,
equitable and affordable transporta-
tion. The idea was an innovative one:
to meet market demand for bicycles
by working at the wholesale level to
increase the number of retail options
easily accessible to the general popu-
lation. The project plan also stressed Course instructor Mammadou Diop teaches dressed in the planning process. As
the importance of social, economic and Adama Sene how to make brake adjustments a result, the project did not have the
environmental issues in private sector on newer style brakes. ITDP started these level of impact that we worked so hard
development (PSD). courses in Senegal, Ghana to ease a transition to attain. In due course we realized our
The primary problem was that we, from older English-style roadsters to more misdirection and modified our strategy
the seven-person project staff, didn’t modern mountain bikes in the market place. to bring appropriate PSD assistance to
fully appreciate the implications of our our clients, but before this was done
strategy. We knew the intricacies of the time was lost and precious resources
transport world in our own non-profit could have achieved more if we had rec- expended ineffectually.
way, which is to say we had institu- ognized the degree to which our mission The difficulties we encountered are
tional expertise on policy formulation had drifted into unfamiliar territory. not isolated examples of the difficulties
and analysis as well as the ins and Where we went wrong can be traced that beset such projects. While working
outs of grassroots activism, but none back to the planning process. Our in the field I met several development
of us had any experience delivering the mission drifted away from sustain- practitioners facing similar situations.
type of private sector technical assis- able transportation into PSD when Although none would join this dialogue
tance required to improve the business our project proposal was designed to publicly, privately they all shared the
skills of the microentrepreneurs, espe- incorporate microentrepreneurs as same concerns about their own orga-
cially at the level they would need and project clients. The core mission could nizations experiencing mission drift. In
want. And what was worse – it took us have been bridged beautifully with a fact, many small, private, voluntary and
too long to realize this situation. By the PSD side mission if we had planned non-governmental organizations whose
time we did, it was almost too late in to implement PSD specific technical core mission is non-financial in nature
Photo: John Burg, courtesy of ITDP

the project cycle to affect an adequate assistance, but we didn’t recognize are expanding their core missions with
positive impact. at the time just how little expertise finance-related activities such as mi-
Despite the difficulty we experienced we had in this field. Coping with the croenterprise and private sector devel-
in achieving our objectives stemming demands of unanticipated complex- opment. This poorly planned, if not un-
from unexpected mission drift, our cli- ity pulled our focus off course and planned, expansion is called “mission
ents and partners benefited substantial- efforts became bogged down in time- drift.” It can sometimes foster innova-
ly from their involvement with the proj- consuming and expensive mid-term tive solutions to alleviating poverty, but
ect in many measureable ways. Still, we adjustments that could have been ad- it also risks project outcomes that fall

32 MONDAY DEVELOPMENTS November/December 2008

Mission Drift

short of what could be done to help in-

tended beneficiaries.
Donors are now providing more What can NGOs/PVOs Do?
funding for private voluntary orga- A good source for free microfinance material that is easy to adopt and adapt is the
nizations (PVOs) interested in PSD Practitioner Learning Program (PLP) of the Small Enterprise Education Promotion (SEEP)
projects. These PVOs often submit Network, developed in partnership with USAID. It includes projects and techniques
project proposals to funding sources field tested and found to be effective by practitioners and organizations engaged in
that are committed to the same core international development.
mission (such as the environment, SEEP is an international network that works to develop and promote best practices
health care, post conflict resolution, in enterprise development and financial services, and is committed to reducing poverty
and gender equity), and to make their through the power of enterprise. Their materials are available at no cost from their web-
applications more attractive they in- site (
tegrate microenterprise development
into their projects. This type of activ-
ity best exemplifies mission drift and croenterprise or PSD, these plans are sist. That is a far costlier outcome in
is beset with difficulties. The central frequently approved and receive fund- human terms.
problem with these applications is the ing without adequate reviews. So the The best approach to avoiding mis-
fact that smaller PVOs without PSD plans become projects and the proj- sion drift is for donors to assume re-
experience do not have the resources ects eventually encounter a wide va- sponsibility for identifying and dealing
to bring PSD experts into their plan- riety of unanticipated problems that with potentially ineffective practices as
ning process. Compounding the poten- deflect them from their goals. The in- they screen proposals. Each proposal
tial for future complications is the fact adequately planned projects with their must be examined for the tell-tale signs
that these PVOs typically submit their associated mission drift invariably re- of mission drift, especially in private
innovative and creative project propos- sult in ineffective resource utilization. sector development. The donor organi-
als to donors that do not have PSD More corrosive, however, is the loss of zation’s proposal reviewer (in the case
expertise either. Because of the cachet trust in the organizations by the very of USAID a Cognizant Technical Officer
associated with anything involving mi- microentrepreneurs they hope to as- continued on page 44

MONDAY DEVELOPMENTS November/December 2008 33

Corporate Partners

C ompanies are increasingly

working alongside govern-
ments and development
organizations to fight global pov-
erty. They have become important
partners in improving the lives
of people around the world by
creating jobs, livable communi-
ties, educational opportunities and
access to medical care. Many major
corporations are changing the way
they operate by expanding beyond
traditional business practices, to
bringing in nonprofits as key part-
ners in growth.
The InterAction Best Corporations

What Separates the

Listing recognizes companies that
prioritize investing in people and
demonstrate a commitment to the
fight against global poverty.

Best from the Rest?

Congratulations to those on the
2008 Top Ten List for using their
technology and innovative exper-
tise to enhance the lives of millions
InterAction members nominate the Top Ten of poor people and communities

Best Corporations in Global Development. around the world.

compiled By Margaret Christoph, Senior Administrative Associate for Policy and Communications, InterAction

American Express selected by vote by its cardmembers. Of Citigroup

In 2007, American Express gave $5.4 these five projects, two will work to feed Citigroup’s Citi Foundation has
million to international organizations in children in the developing world (one made a significant and lasting impact
the areas of leadership, cultural heritage for Indian school children, and one for on shelter issues worldwide, having
and community service, in addition to malnourished children), and one will provided over $22 million in funding
matching $6.1 million in personal dona- create a platform allowing ordinary peo- to date. Beyond providing funds, the
tions from their employees to non-profit ple to become “social investors” in en- Foundation has reinforced the impor-
organizations. It also has a history of trepreneurs around the world. In July tance of homeownership by engaging
funding humanitarian relief to natural of 2008 American Express called on its more than 22,000 Citi employees who
disasters, such as floods in Argentina, members to submit ideas that would have contributed to the completion of
Bangladesh, Canada, China, Hungary, make a positive impact on the world. more than 230 homes in 40 locations.
Romania and South Korea, famines in They then created a panel to review the As well as providing significant fund-
Africa, and earthquakes in India, Taiwan submissions, chose 25, and asked their ing to address shelter needs in rural and
and Turkey. It has delivered aid through members to vote which mattered most urban settings, Citi Foundation also
Ilustration: Akhilesh Sharma -

non-profits for over 50 disasters in 35 to them. This is expands the program recognizes the need for the long-term
countries. Over the last decade, Ameri- from previous years, when only one sustainability of these programs. To this
can Express has also started giving project was selected each year. Howev- end, Citigroup sponsors an initiative to
“pre-disaster” contributions to the Red er, last year many cardmembers were increase homeowners’ abilities to better
Cross, which lessens the fundraising passionate about all of the finalist proj- manage their finances. Through the Fi-
crunch during disasters. ects. This year in response, American nancial Literacy Initiative, which began
One project in particular is the Mem- Express increased the amount of mon- in 2005, Citigroup trains potential ho-
bers Project. In 2008, American Ex- ey to be donated and decided to fund all meowner families in the roles and re-
press is donating $2.5 million to be five finalists in varying amounts based sponsibilities they will face when enter-
divided between five separate projects on their members’ votes. ing into the credit agreement. The work

34 MONDAY DEVELOPMENTS November/December 2008

Corporate Partners

supported includes training workshops of students form schools across three ing basic education in Africa, Asia and
in the fundamentals of “good” family fi- continents have participated in a collab- Latin America. About three years ago
nancial management with a specific fo- orative project to research, brainstorm, GE reorganized its corporate giving
cus on credit management. present and implement ideas to help to focus on quality partnerships with
Places and dates of Citi’s impact on combat the effects of climate change NGOs, and made longer-term, larger
poverty housing are too numerous to list in their local areas. Students were in- commitments to improving education-
in this space, having spanned 10 years. spired to “think globally, act locally,” al systems and increasing access. GE
Highlights include sponsorship of the and they responded with local projects also regularly supports humanitarian
Jimmy Carter Work Projects in Mexico that have had a tremendous impact on relief wherever it is needed most.
and India, financial literacy programs both their school and community. Proj- The Girls Education in Africa pro-
in various countries in Latin America, ects have included the development of gram supports organizations working
and support of Habitat for Humanity’s organic gardens in remote parts of Bra- to improve access to and the quality
rebuilding efforts in Lebanon. zil, litter prevention programs in one of of primary education for girls. In addi-
Africa’s poorest capital cities (Maputo, tion to educating students on life skills,
Coca-Cola Mozambique) and student campaigns hygiene and HIV/AIDS prevention, the
Over the last several years, the Coca- in Ontario, Canada to educate drivers program also specifically targets math
Cola Foundation has partnered with on the negative impacts of idling car en- and language skills.
USAID and many non-governmental or- gines. On November 1, 2007, students GE also provides training beyond
ganizations to improve the communities from three continents showcased their primary education. The Medical Best
in which it works all over the world. One projects online from their remote com- Practice Exchange program funds U.S.
of its biggest impacts is in the area of wa- munities in front of a global audience, minority medical students to do rota-
ter stewardship. Coca-Cola works hard using Elluminate Live!. On November 7, tions in various hospitals all over Gha-
to find innovative ways to reduce its im- 2007, Elluminate’s Fire and Ice was rec- na, allowing Ghanaian doctors to learn
pact on the environment, such as ways ognized by the prestigious Tech Awards new modern practices and exposing
to clean its bottles in the factories with- (Education Laureate) in San Jose, Cali- the American students to the medical
out using water. It also partners with fornia for “technologies and projects environment of the developing world. In
communities in developing countries to that benefit humanity.” Uganda, GE sponsors a health worker
make sure that they have clean water As part of the Fire and Ice program, capacity building program, teaching
and a basic knowledge of water sanita- Elluminate management and employ- proper infection prevention and stan-
tion and hygiene. In addition, it has pro- ees personally donated over $10,000 dards-based management practices to
grams on watershed protection, expand- towards the purchase of the “Fire and improve productivity and raise the con-
ing community drinking water access, Ice Leadership Award” materials for the fidence in local health care services.
rainwater harvesting, reforestation, and schools in Brazil and Mozambique. The
agricultural water use efficiency. award consisted of an electronic “Class- Google
Coca-Cola also supports impact- room-in-a-Box” hardware station for live As of May 2008, Google’s philan-
reducing recycling programs that also collaboration, which includes: a laptop, thropic foundation,, has
create local jobs. For example, a pro- LCD projector, speakers, webcam, elec- committed over $85 million in grants
gram in Colombia turns old bottles into tronic whiteboard and writing tablet – all and investments to further their five
clothing, and other projects turn old la- packed in a protective carrying case and initiatives. One of these initiatives is
bels and colored plastic into roof tiles powered by Elluminate Live! Software. disease prediction and prevention. Over
and brooms. The Classroom is ideally suited for the the last several years, diseases have
The Coca-Cola Foundation also helped developing world: portable, easy to use started spreading at record speeds be-
with the short-term relief in 2005-2006 and a fraction of the cost of traditional cause of faster and easier travel and
for the tsunami, hurricane and earth- video conferencing systems. Elluminate trade, because of climate change, and
quake victims around the world. Cur- plans to bring its Fire and Ice events and because of the trend of urbanization
rently, it is helping rebuild long-term Classroom-in-a-Box solutions to hun- increasing peoples’ proximity to each
infrastructure and communities in In- dreds of schools, health centers, cyber- other. Google has started to study in-
donesia that were particularly hard-hit cafés, and telecenters in the developing fectious diseases worldwide, but espe-
from the tsunami. world over the coming months. cially in Southeast Asia, which has the
In addition to Fire and Ice, Ellumi- most hotspots for new diseases. Most of
Elluminate, Inc. nate also runs community partners the countries in the region lack the re-
Despite its small size (only 100 em- programs that make Elluminate avail- sources to detect threats early enough
ployees), Elluminate has made a sub- able to organizations doing important to keep local events from erupting.
stantial impact on global development work in the social service sector. Google’s aim is to improve the condi-
in a short period of time. In August tions and infrastructure for this in
2006, Elluminate launched an award- GE Southeast Asia and then apply the les-
winning, non-profit initiative called “Fire Through its foundation, GE is mak- sons learned on a global scale. Some of
and Ice.” In just 15 months, hundreds ing long-term commitments to improv- the ways it is doing this are: studying

MONDAY DEVELOPMENTS November/December 2008 35

Corporate Partners

the way diseases spread from animals programs and technical support to around the credo, “People, Profit and
to humans, especially in rural poor ar- midwives and medical staff in two Indi- Planet.”
eas that depend on farming; equipping an states with very high maternal and Kjaer and its insurance partner, Cle-
local laboratories with basic diagnostics newborn mortality rates. The program ments International, unveiled new war
and record data electronically to im- has doubled the percentage of women risk insurance last August. While both
prove reporting and analysis, improv- who are able to give birth with skilled have worked with organizations operat-
ing local capacity to detect and identify caregivers in attendance. ing in high-risk areas of the world, this
the causes of threats; developing sim- new policy would “provide protection
ple platforms for reporting, analysis, Kjaer for vehicles should a loss be incurred
and information sharing; and looking The Kjaer Group is involved in the form a declared war, act of terrorism,
into the use of technology such as mo- Fleet Forum’s Fleet Safety Project, riot, strike or civil unrest.” This type
bile phones to report threats as soon as which is dedicated to reducing the of risk is excluded in most auto insur-
they’re discovered. The ultimate goal of number of traffic-related fatalities ance policies.
the program is to make responses pro- and injuries in the developing world –
active rather than reactive. where 80 percent of all traffic fatalities McKesson
Another Google’s initiative fuels the occur, and 96 percent of those involve In addition to its many financial gifts
growth of small- and medium-sized en- children, despite the fact that the de- through the McKesson Foundation and
terprises (SMEs). SMEs, which bridge veloping world accounts for only 40 product donations through McKesson
the gap between large- and micro-en- percent of the world’s vehicles. An- Medical Surgical, the McKesson Cor-
terprises, are the backbone of many nually, developing societies bear the poration has been an integral partner
developed nations’ economies. Cur- burden of $65 billion in damages from in a very unique program to provide
rently, most developing countries sup- road crashes and resultant deaths and necessary care for individuals with
port both large enterprises and micro- injuries – which is more than the an- HIV/AIDS.
enterprises, but are startlingly bereft nual development assistance these The Caregiver Kit Program was
of SMEs. Google is working to make it countries receive. The Fleet Forum launched in October 2006. Family
easier for investors to sponsor SMEs has developed a road safety training members and local volunteers around
and to educate investors on their po- toolkit, among other materials, specifi- the world are providing compassionate
tential profitability. They also help con- cally targeted at aid and development support and care to people living with
nect investors with local entrepreneurs organizations in order to increase road AIDS. Yet too many of these courageous
who know the kinds of things their safety awareness and training. It has caregivers lack the basic supplies they
countries need to grow and lift people also put together a list “10 Road Safety need to safely and effectively care for
out of poverty, and have solutions on Principles” and has the list available in the sick. The McKesson Corporation
how to provide them. several languages spoken in Africa to entered into a partnership to help pro-
facilitate use by local staff in develop- vide these desperately needed supplies.
Johnson & Johnson ments organizations. The partnership allows the total cost of
Johnson & Johnson is involved in Kjaer also founded a group called the kits to be substantially lower than
many programs around the globe to MyC4 to raise capital for African en- retail. Approximately 90,000 Caregiver
improve community health and edu- trepreneurs. This organization uses Kits have been assembled by over 300
cation. One such program is Children the Internet to give ordinary people groups (churches, corporations, com-
Without Worms, which not only donates access to African entrepreneurs seek- munities, and community groups). The
deworming medicine to needy children ing microloans who would otherwise kits are currently sent to countries in
in several developing countries, but be unable to get these loans because Africa, Asia, and Latin America. The
also works to establish partnerships to they are too poor for banks to be will- goal for the 2008 fiscal year was to pro-
implement hygiene education programs ing to take a risk on them. MyC4 fos- duce 180,000 kits.
and improved sanitation facilities. ters an environment of transparency,
Johnson & Johnson has also pro- openness and trust, and is therefore Working Assets
vided the technology, copyrights and only involved in ethical investments; it Working Assets donates one percent
training to a local company in Kenya neither endorses nor finances the sale of its profits to organizations geared to-
to produce one of its drugs to treat sec- of toxic products, weapons, health- wards positive social change, including
ondary infections resulting from HIV/ hazardous or illegal products, tobacco, Action Africa, Amnesty International,
AIDS. It also sponsors a program that alcohol and drugs. It is also a member Doctors Without Borders, the Global
offers home-based care, counseling, of the UN Global Compact, a frame- Greengrants Fund, the Global Fund for
testing, food and medicine to families work businesses can use to align their Women, Human Rights Watch, Mercy
with parents who suffer from HIV/ operations and strategies with ten Corps, Oxfam, the Rainforest Action
AIDS-related infections. universally accepted principles in the Network, and Women for Women Inter-
Johnson & Johnson is also involved areas of human rights, labor, environ- national. It donated over $1.4 million
in a program called Safe Motherhood ment and anti-corruption. Through last year to organizations working with
Partnership, which provides training this compact, MyC4 has centered itself continued on page 44

36 MONDAY DEVELOPMENTS November/December 2008


Emergency Programming in Health

Workshop addresses the challenges of integrating needs and interventions in the relief
and transition phases. Panelist Fiona
longer-term health priorities into emergency response. Campbell, Head of Policy at MERLIN
noted that the distinction between re-
By Elizabeth Bellardo, Program Strategy Manager for Fragile States at lief and development approaches is of-
Manager for Humanitarian Policy International Medical Corps discussed ten overdrawn at the operational level.
and Practice, InterAction four overarching challenges: (1) the She explained that while humanitar-

funding timeframe is often wrong; (2) ian agencies use a number of models
n October 29th and 30th there are different perspectives on what of engagement, in order to ensure that
almost 100 representatives constitutes health; (3) conflict does not their work also strengthens the local
from NGOs, the U.S. govern- go away in post-conflict settings; and (4) health system, agencies must adopt a
ment, the UN, academic insti- political and social relations are contin- long-term view and be open to opportu-
tutions and think tanks met to discuss gent, not certain. Dr. Rick Brennan, Se- nities to strengthen the system as early
how emergency programming in health nior Health Director at the International as possible. Dr. Nevio Zagaria, Coor-
can be better implemented to facilitate Rescue Committee (IRC), discussed dinator for Recovery and Transition
a smoother transition to recovery and the shift in IRC health programming to Programmes at the U.N. World Health
development. InterAction and the U.S. more work in post-conflict or protracted Organization, challenged workshop
Agency for International Development’s emergency settings. Panelists noted that participants to ask whether humani-
Office of Foreign Disaster Assistance finding the right balance between health tarians have a recovery imperative.
(OFDA) co-sponsored the event, which service delivery and strengthening She noted that strengthening health
was hosted by the American Red Cross. health systems is a primary challenge in systems is the only way the humanitar-
The first panel covered the current transition/post-emergency settings. ian community can address the long-
state of play in emergency and transition The second panel addressed simi- term health needs of the population.
health programming. Steve Commins, larities and differences between health Dr. Hervé Le Guillouzic, Senior Public

MONDAY DEVELOPMENTS November/December 2008 37


Health Advisor at the Office of the U.N. include: translating theory into prac- ing systems; and not ignoring positive
High Commissioner for Refugees (UN- tice; tracking indicators; the fact that local initiatives. Dr. Valerie Bemo, Se-
HCR), discussed camp-based issues progress is gradual while results are nior Program Officer for Emergency Re-
and local integration. In the typical expected immediately; governance is a sponse Special Initiatives at the Bill &
refugee camp setting, service deliveries sensitive topic; this approach is com- Melinda Gates Foundation, noted that
have become routine and standardized. plex and requires a shift in stakeholder while the Gates Foundation has had
Local integration, one of three durable thinking; and coordinating the large limited involvement in emergency re-
solutions identified by UNHCR, means consortium of partners involved. sponse, global health programs account
not only integration into the health sys- Homira Nassery, Health, Nutrition, for 50 percent of the foundation’s bud-
tem, but also the guarantee of freedom and Population Focal Point for Fragile get, largely focused on research activi-
of movement, access to the labor mar- States at the World Bank, focused on ties. The foundation has started a global
ket, property rights, freedom of religious fragile and post-conflict states. She said development program to complement
belief, and, in some cases, citizenship. the essential building blocks to facili- health activities with agriculture and
Health services cannot simply target tate transition include: advance plan- financial services. It is also beginning
refugees, but must also target local ning and early investments in analyzing to examine how to launch development
populations to avoid creating tension. the health sector; addressing deep-root- activities after emergencies.
Responding to the panelists was Dr. ed distortions first; introducing ratio- Drawing on the panel presentations,
Tanu Duworko, Health Management nal drug procurement and distribution roundtable and plenary discussions,
Specialist for USAID/Liberia, empha- systems; coordinating cost sharing, es- participants drew up three recommen-
sized that planning ahead for develop- sential drug lists, contracts with private dations. A Steering Committee of work-
ment is worth the investment and work- providers, procurement, civil works, job shop participants and InterAction’s
ing within existing health structures is description and training, data collection Working Group on Health in Crises will
advantageous. He said NGOs and do- tools, service packages, and monitor- take the recommendations forward. MD
nors should provide services in facili-
ties run by the local ministry of health
to ease transition. In complex emergen- Recommendations
cies, NGOs and donors should lay the Humanitarian interventions predominately focus on activities to minimize mortality and mor-
foundation for systems strengthening, bidity, many times in absence of a coordinated national response. In contrast, many times
development interventions must work within national policies, focusing on health systems
and not merely provide services.
strengthening and capacity building in order to reach targets such as the Millennium Develop-
A panel of donor organizations dis-
ment Goals (MDGs). However, there are significant areas where the two approaches overlap
cussed financing and the difficulties
and complement each other. The recommendations of this workshop focus on key interven-
when the funding stream shifts from tions implemented in the health sector during the emergency phase, and approaching these
emergency to development. Dr. Heath- interventions in a manner that could better set the stage for a smoothened transition towards
er Papowitz, Public Health Specialist recovery and development.
at OFDA, identified the key building
blocks of crisis response and challenges 1. Enhance donor coordination and commitment for health activities in the relief phase
that OFDA has faced in transition set- through improved funding mechanisms and strategies by:
tings, including: the lack of a USAID • Mobilizing members of the Good Humanitarian Donorship Initiative and other donors to
mission in some countries; the short- adopt a “recovery imperative” to prioritize and provide funding for health;
term nature of projects and funding; • Developing recommendations on U.S. government funding mechanisms for the incom-
poor political capacity during protracted ing administration; and
complex emergencies; and difficulties • Exploring options to regulatory mechanisms that would allow for greater flexibility in
in coordinating with all the partners. funding timeframes to better fill the gap related to recovery activities.
Bryan Schaaf, Health Officer in the U.S.
2. Prioritize health systems strengthening, including human resource development, during
Department of State Bureau of Popu-
the relief phase by:
lation, Refugees, and Migration (PRM),
• Drawing from lessons learned* develop an advocacy strategy around health system
urged participants to include refugees strengthening in relief settings to impact health policy and practice; and
and internally displaced people (IDPs) • Exploring the creation of guidelines on health human resources in relief settings.
in existing health programs. He noted
that PRM currently requires the inclu- 3. Integrate disaster risk reduction into health sector activities in the relief phase by:
sion of a transition strategy in all pro- • Establishing linkages with International Strategy for Disaster Reduction on risk reduction
posals. Elizabeth Kibour, Africa Region- activities related to the health sector;
al Specialist for USAID/Global Health, • Developing a position paper promoting the integration of disaster risk reduction activi-
described USAID/Guinea’s experience ties by NGOs, the UN and government ministries in the relief phase; and
in a fragile state setting as a classic ex- • Developing of clearing house for existing disaster risk reduction training curriculum for
ample of transition needs, noting that the health sector in the relief phase.
the government’s inability to adequately * Sources include: the Global Consultation on Health Recovery in Transition Situations, Montreux 2007; Health Cluster Guid-
provide basic services has led to ques- ance Note on Health Recovery 2008; and recommendations from the Health in Fragile States Network and the Workforce
tions about its legitimacy. Challenges Alliance, Human Resources: An Essential Element for Health Recovery in Transition Settings, Joyce Smith 2007.

38 MONDAY DEVELOPMENTS November/December 2008


25 Years of
Monday Developments
At times humorous and ironic, and often eerily prescient and sadly similar to
today’s world , the following is a sampling of items covered in the first twenty-five
years of Monday Developments Magazine.
Compiled by Chad Brobst, Managing Editor

MONDAY DEVELOPMENTS November/December 2008 39


40 MONDAY DEVELOPMENTS November/December 2008


MONDAY DEVELOPMENTS November/December 2008 41


42 MONDAY DEVELOPMENTS November/December 2008


MONDAY DEVELOPMENTS November/December 2008 43

Mission Drift small-scale economic activity that will, the International Resilience Program
continued from page 33 over time, positively impact GDPs in at Tufts University, social psychiatrist
(CTO)) can be assigned this duty. And, most of the world’s economically de- Mindy Fullilove noted that local com-
although it is neither wise nor feasible prived areas. MD munity bodies can play critical roles in
to suggest boiler-plate solutions, CTOs helping their constituents recover.
can provide corrective suggestions for Mr. Burg worked on microenterprise The conference was the inaugural
proposal drafters to incorporate in re- projects for the Institute for Transporta- event of a new Center for Rebuilding
vised, resubmitted applications. tion Development Policy in both the Ca- Sustainable Communities After Disas-
Ways to revise projects that have ribbean and West Africa, and recently ters, affiliated to UMass Boston’s John
unintentionally drifted into PSD can supported projects in Haiti, Mexico and W. McCormack Graduate School of
be found in microfinance technical lit- the Middle East. He can be reached for Policy Studies. Pushing beyond stan-
erature and tools. An example is the comment at dard thinking about restoration and
Framework for Reporting, Analysis, rehabilitation, the multidisciplinary
Monitoring, and Evaluation (FRAME) Trouble with Aid Center will be unique in positioning
2.0, a computer program designed to continued from page 24 sustainability and human rights at the
run on Microsoft’s Excel software and dominates our thinking is one of the center of disaster preparation, mitiga-
which can be used by both finance- reasons that these other, more impor- tion, response, and recovery. The Cen-
project implementing organizations tant actions are not being taken – rich ter defines disasters broadly to include
and microfinance institutions. The tool country leaders are not feeling enough conflicts, poverty, bad governance, and
is intended to address sophisticated political pressure to make the impor- HIV and AIDS.
microfinance accounting needs, but it tant changes. Aid is easier and it ben- The Center invites alliances with lo-
can also be a powerful tool for project efits donors, never mind all the prob- cal, national, and international agen-
management. The FRAME program is lems it brings with it. cies, government and academic institu-
widely available, has a proven track re- Government-to-government aid will tions, NGOs, other not-for-profit
cord, and has benefited from frequent always have an important supporting organizations (NPOs), and private sector
improvement and updating. role to play, a role it has played with institutions interested in post-disaster
An additional benefit of using microfi- occasional success over the years. In reconstruction. The Center’s next con-
nance tools for planning and managing some countries, depending on their ference in July 2010 will focus on re-
non-finance projects is that PVO staff economic and political contexts, aid in- building sustainable communities for
and clients can be familiarized with the creases may be appropriate and help- the elderly and persons with disabili-
tools of the microfinance industry and ful. But most countries in Africa, rather ties. More information is available at:
thereby learn the valuable role that lo- than seeking more aid, should be set- www
cal microfinance institutions can play to ting out strategies aimed at reducing For specific queries, contact Center Di-
PSD with small business growth loans. the amount they accept. MD rector, Professor Adenrele Awotona at:
Training staff and clients to use tools MD
like the FRAME 2.0 program may not Jonathan Glennie is the author of The
be quick or simple, but it can contribute Trouble With Aid: Why Less Could Mean Muna Killingback is a Boston-based
greatly to ensuring the development of More for Africa. He is presently Christian freelancer and a former Communica-
business acumen. Familiarity with mi- Aid (UK and Ireland)’s country represen- tions Director for the World YWCA in
cro-finance concepts, procedures, spe- tative in Colombia. The views expressed Geneva. She specializes in writing and
cialized language and reporting require- here do not necessarily  represent the editing for and about non-profit organi-
ments will also bolster the chances of views of Christian Aid or any other orga- zations.
potential entrepreneurs for getting the nization for which he has worked.
loan amounts and terms they desire to Corporate Partners
engage in business expansion. continued from page 36
In sum, vetting proposals more ef- international development – nearly half
continued from page 31
fectively and guiding resubmissions is of its donations in 2007. Since its
not a particularly difficult process, and chological responses to disaster such founding in 1985, the organization has
its effectiveness can be greatly en- as depression and anxiety. Yale Uni- made $60 million in donations. Last
hanced by incorporating microfinance versity Professor Emeritus Kai Erikson May, Working Assets implemented a
technical information into the process. noted that, “People who believe that program for all of its customers to be
Well-designed, non-finance programs a disaster was manmade have much able to call Burma for free after Cyclone
can enable PVOs to give microentrepre- more difficulty recovering than victims Nargis, enabling people both to find
neurs a more thorough and structured of natural disasters.” Two factors iden- their loved ones and to contribute to
education about appropriate account- tified with psychological resiliency were the relief efforts. MD
ing methods and business procedures strong social support and the extent
without being deflected from their core to which community cohesion could Please send questions or comments
mission. Their success will eventually be maintained, particularly following to Margaret Christoph at mchristoph@
lead to the expansion of the sort of displacement. In a panel organized by

44 MONDAY DEVELOPMENTS November/December 2008

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Country Director

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World Concern is seeking a Country Director to lead an
alliance of 6 Christian relief and development organizations in
responding to humanitarian needs in Eastern Chad. The program
is an integrated approach in wat/san, livelihoods and health.
The Country Director will be responsible to provide overall in-
country leadership, policy, strategy, program design, support, to renew your subscription
implementation and reporting, and budget management as Monday Developments provides in-
well as supervise Chadian and international staff. The Country depth news and commentary on global
Director will represent World Concern and the alliance to the trends that affect relief, refugee and
Chadian government and donors. Requirements: 5 years of development work. Monday Developments
also describes new resources for relief
proven success in int’l program management, managing a multi- and development workers, professional
cultural team, experience in complex emergencies, program growth opportunities, upcoming events
design and report writing. Experience on food- or cash-for-work and employment listings.
programming a plus. Intermediate French or Arabic, fluency
*To receive a 15% discount on renewed
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index.htm. Knowledge

Did You Everyone has the right to rest and leisure, including

reasonable limitation of working hours and periodic
holidays with pay. MONDAY
Article 24: Universal Declaration of Human Rights

Enriching Lives and Opportunities Around the World

The American Institutes for Research’s (AIR) International Development Program seeks to enhance the
quality of life in developing countries through education and social development. Over the past three decades, we have col-
laborated with local partners around the world to ensure children’s equitable access to quality education and to empower
individuals, communities and institutions as agents of social and behavioral change.
Our International Development Program provides services and expertise to clients including USAID, World Bank, UNICEF
and the US Department of Labor. Our core competencies include:
• Research, monitoring and evaluation • Educational systems management and policy planning
• Curriculum development and teacher training • Community mobilization and behavior change strategies
• Education to combat child labor • Youth empowerment
• Secondary and vocational education • School health and nutrition
• Girls’ and women’s education • HIV/AIDS prevention and mitigation
• Educational testing and assessment • Inclusive education

If your passion is education and social development, we have excellent opportunities available in the following positions:
Regional Directors • Project Directors • Project Managers • Technical Assistance
For more information and to apply, please visit 1000 Thomas Jefferson St., NW Washington, DC 20007

An equal opportunity employer.

To advertise, call 202-667-8227 ext 548 or email MONDAY DEVELOPMENTS November/December 2008 45
“Any intelligent fool can make things bigger, more complex,
and more violent. It takes a touch of genius— and a lot of
courage—to move in the opposite direction.”
—Albert Einstein, at whose suggestion the IRC was founded

Security and Logistics
DR Congo

It takes the best to prevail against the worst of crises.

To join us, please visit:

46 MONDAY DEVELOPMENTS November/December 2008 To advertise, call 202-667-8227 ext 548 or email
Did You
AND In Sub-Saharan
Executive Director, Cambridge, MA, USA
Africa, the $1.25
a day rate was
An Executive Director is sought who will continue the CDA
tradition of organizing collaborative learning research proͲ
AT WORK 50 percent in
2005—the same
jects around important international issues to enable internaͲ
tional actors to become more effective.
Current as it was in 1981, The Executive Director: Oversees all CDA projects, CDA adͲ
Openings after rising, then ministration, facilitates, reviews program planning, activities,
budgets and special events.
falling during the
Governance and Rights Is responsible for developing and maintaining relationships
period. The num-
Program Coordinator with institutional donors through visits, regular communicaͲ
Afghanistan ber of poor has tion, presentations and reporting.
almost doubled, Requirements:
Reintegration Coordinator from 200 million Field experience and principles of operation are of primary
Afghanistan importance to CDA. Experience and familiarity in a range of
in 1981 to about
field settings in poor or troubled situations, and abiding apͲ
Operations Coordinator 380 million in preciation for the wisdom and capacities of people trying to
Central African Republic 2005. If the trend improve conditions in their own societies, are the basic qualiͲ
persists, a third fications. Must be willing and able to travel up to 1/3 time.
Violence Against Women Please send a full Curriculum Vitae and letter explaining faͲ
of the world’s
Coordinator miliarity with CDA and interest in the position, by December
Kurdistan, Northern Iraq poor will live in
31, 2008, to CDA, Deborah Zawalich, 17 Dunster Street, Suite
Africa by 2015. 202, Cambridge, MA 02138 USA.
Senior Gender Based Violence Average con-
Program Coordinator
sumption among
Kinshasa, DR Congo
poor people in
Primary Health Care Advisor Sub-Saharan
Kinshasa, DR Congo Africa stood at a
meager 70 cents
Monitoring & Evaluation
Manager a day in 2005.
Liberia Given that pov-
erty is so deep
To learn more about working
in Africa, even
with us, please visit
higher growth will be needed
than for other
regions to have
the same impact
on poverty.

Source: World Bank

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latest information
in international

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To advertise, call 202-667-8227 ext 548 or email MONDAY DEVELOPMENTS November/December 2008 47
1400 16th Street, NW, Suite 210
Washington, DC 20036
Phone: (202) 667-8227
Fax: (202) 667-8236

InterAction is the largest alliance of U.S.-based international

development and humanitarian nongovernmental
organizations. With more than 170 members operating in every
developing country, we work to overcome poverty, exclusion
and suffering by advancing social justice and basic dignity for all.

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