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The Latest Issues and Trends in International Development and Humanitarian Assistance

in Development
The Five Stages
of Foreign Aid The Militarization
Reform Grief of Aid

Linking Addressing
Human Rights the Global
and Development Food Crisis

Climate Change Security Guard
and Conflict Management

July 2008
Vol. 26, No. 7

Managing Editor/Art Director
Chad Brobst

Kathy Ward

Advertising & Sales
Michael Haslett
Communications Department
Nasserie Carew, Public Relations 9 Linking Human Rights and
Tawana Jacobs, Public Relations Development:
Tony Fleming, New Media
Michael Haslett, Publications
A Twenty-first Century Approach
Margaret Christoph, Admin Associate
11 Climate Change and Conflict Prevention:
Editorial Committee Hope for the Best, Prepare for the Worst
Sam Worthington, InterAction
Suzanne Kindervatter, InterAction
Sylvain Browa, InterAction
13 Imperfect Storms: Global Warming and
the Need for International Cooperation
InterAction for Sustainable Development
1400 16th Street, NW
Suite 210
Washington, DC 20036 15 New Strategies in Agricultural
Tel: 202.667.8227 Development: Long Term Solutions to Global Hunger
ISSN 1043-8157
17 Addressing the Global Food Crisis
Monday Developments is published 12
times a year by InterAction, the larg- 19 Fearing for the Future of the
est alliance of U.S.-based international Humanitarian Enterprise
development and humanitarian non-
governmental organizations. With more
than 160 members operating in every 21 The Five Stages of
developing country, InterAction works to Foreign Aid Reform Grief
overcome poverty, exclusion and suffer-
ing by advancing social justice and basic Cover image composite by Chad Brobst
dignity for all.
23 Aid Effectiveness vs. Development
Effectiveness: A Paris Declaration
InterAction welcomes submissions of for CSOs?
news articles, opinions and announce-
ments. Article submission does not guar-
24 Think Locally in Guard Management Departments
antee inclusion in Monday Developments.
We reserve the right to reject submis- 3 Inside This Issue
sions for any reason. It is at the discretion 26 The Militarization of Foreign Aid
of our editorial team as to which articles 5 Washington Update
are published in individual issues.
27 Addressing the “Complaints Deficit” in 6 Inside InterAction
All statements in articles are the sole Sexual Exploitation and Abuse
opinion and responsibility of the authors. 7 Inside Our Community
Articles may be reprinted with prior per- 8 Southern Voices
mission and attribution. Letters to the
editor are encouraged.
29 Career Developments
30 Employment Opportunities
A limited number of subscriptions are
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INSIDE This Issue

Photo: Mike Flamm
Trendy Developments? one on our planet. They influence economies, jobs and fami-
lies in the developed world as well. And yes, they even affect

how much we pay for checking our luggage or where we will
n our society, well-educated, highly skilled (and highly take a family vacation. But at the most fundamental level,
paid) professionals monitor and predict what many con- these trends can mean life or death for the individuals and
sider very important trends: Will this summer’s blockbust- communities we work for. Some trends can’t be trivialized.
ers include more action films or romantic comedies? Does
the public continue to worry about trans fats in their french In this issue of Monday Developments, we are not necessari-
fries? Are more airlines charging for checked baggage? How ly offering predictions of trends in the development commu-
many people have chosen Macs over PCs? Are the length of nity. Instead, we’ve focused on hot topics that have appeared
skirts going to be higher this season? Is this the year ultimate on the radar and warrant increased attention.
frisbee replaces football as our favorite sport? Who will win
American Idol? Will we still care? This issue explores trends that require an immediate re-
sponse, such as the above mentioned food and climate cri-
Then there are the trends that we take more seriously, primar- ses. We also look at trends in the way we respond to these
ily because they directly affect us and the ones we love. Will crises, including the role of the military in delivering aid, as
the housing market continue to spiral downward while the well as the conduct of NGO staff in the field. In the broader
cost of fuel goes through the stratosphere? Will the economic picture, we investigate trends in dealing with aid effective-
recession grow worse? Are children’s test scores improving? ness and the movement toward U.S. foreign aid reform.
Will they be able to find a job someday? Will I lose mine?
Our commitment to overcoming the issues that face the
When it comes to humanitarian assistance and international developing world is more than trendy. Together, our com-
development, the events that shape our trends are extremely munity can make suffering, social injustice and poverty a
serious. Global warming and the growing international food passing trend.
crisis don’t just affect poor populations living in drought areas Chad Brobst
of the global South–they have trickle-down effects for every- Managing Editor


Supplemental Appropriations Modernizing Foreign Assistance Network
The House (on May 15) and Senate (on May 22) passed distinct The Modernizing Foreign Assistance Network, a new coalition
versions of the “War Supplemental” funding bill, with humani- of think tanks, foreign policy experts and NGO leaders (includ-
tarian accounts receiving more in the Senate than the House ver- ing InterAction CEO Sam Worthington), released a proposal
sion. Thanks to two amendments during committee consider- entitled, “New Day, New Way: U.S. Foreign Assistance for
ation, the Senate also pledged an extra $525 million emergency the 21st Century.” The proposal’s four key recommendations
assistance to victims of Cyclone Nargis, victims of the food crisis are: (1) develop a national strategy for global development;
and Jordan. The extra money was taken (“rescinded”) from the (2) reach a “grand bargain” between the executive branch and
Millennium Challenge Corporation (nearly a third of its budget Congress on management authorities and plan, design and en-
for this year), unfortunately cutting into long-term development act a new Foreign Assistance Act; (3) increase funding for and
programs designed to alleviate the need for just this kind of crisis accountability of foreign assistance; and (4) streamline the or-
response. As of June 17, the bill was still in limbo. ganizational structure and improve organizational capacity by
creating a Cabinet-level Department for Global Development.
FY 2009 Budget Resolution The full report is available at
The budget resolution conference report, reconciling the dif- detail.php?id=6288, and InterAction’s endorsement at http://
ferences between the proposed House and Senate versions
of the budget, was passed by the Senate on June 4 and the Development_Assistance.pdf.
House on June 5. The House’s proposal of $38.3 billion was
adopted for the International Affairs account – $1.5 billion less If you have any questions, or would like to be added to the
than the administration proposed and the Senate passed. This email list for the weekly public policy update, please contact
is $1.6 billion over U.S. government Fiscal Year (FY) 2008 Margaret Christoph at
funding appropriated to date (i.e., including funds designated
as “emergency” in the FY 2008 omnibus but not including FY
2008 funds expected in the pending war supplemental).

FY 2009 Appropriations
New from
The House and Senate have released tentative schedules for their
appropriations processes. The House committee consideration
(“markup”) of the State, Foreign Operations appropriations bill
will be July 16, the Senate July 17. The funding allocation for
this account from Appropriations Chairman Obey is disappoint-
ing: $36.63 billion ($1.6 billion less than the administration’s re-
quest, and only 3.6 percent of total proposed discretionary spend-
ing). Appropriators will most likely again rely on supplemental Approaches
funding to bolster humanitarian accounts in 2009, again leaving
USAID and its partners with an uncertain funding stream. Learning Project
House Approves Interagency Advisory Panel Based on the findings of a collaborative Learning
The House approved an amendment to the defense authoriza- Project between CARE USA and Oxfam America,
tion bill to create a standing interagency advisory panel in- this book identifies the ‘best practices’ and lessons
that could be used to improve the application of
cluding the Department of Defense, the State Department and
rights-based approaches in programming.
USAID. The panel would analyze the roles and responsibili-
ties of the three agencies, offering advice, guidance and rec- Also available in Arabic, French, and Spanish.
ommendations to Congress and the executive branch on stabil-
ity operations, non-proliferation, foreign assistance (including September 2007, Paperback, 134 pp,
security assistance), strategic communications, public diplo- 978-0-85598-607-0, $23.95
macy, the role of contractors and other issues. The 12-member
panel would be selected in 2009 by the three agencies: three
by the USAID Administrator, three by the Secretary of State, DISTRIBUTED IN THE US BY

and six by the Secretary of Defense (three of which would be
Order by Phone: 1 800-232-0223 By Fax: 703-661-1501 Online:
selected in consultation with the Joint Chiefs of Staff).

INSIDE InterAction

Modernizing the Structure of U.S. about what a new department would look like. The reports re-
Foreign Assistance leased on Tuesday clearly articulate the “why” and the “how” of
On June 24, InterAction hosted “Designing a New Cabinet-Lev- InterAction’s position supporting a Cabinet-level department.
el Department for International Development: Modernizing the
Structure of U.S. Foreign Assistance,” to launch two concept pa- The first paper launched at the event, Why the U.S. Needs a
pers. Nearly 120 people attended the launch, where InterAction Cabinet-level Department for Global and Human Develop-
President and CEO, Sam Worthington, led a panel that included ment, articulates the rationale for a new Cabinet-level agency.
Dr. Lael Brainard of the Brookings Institution and Tony Gambi- The second, Proposed Major Components and Organization
no, an expert on the topic and a former USAID Mission Director. of a Cabinet-Level Department for Global and Human Devel-
The discussion was followed by a lively question-and-answer opment, outlines what accounts and authorities would make up
session with the audience, which included representatives from the proposed department (DGHD), and which foreign policy
government, think tanks and the development community. The functions would remain with other agencies.
event was another sign of the explosion of interest in foreign aid
reform issues within the development community, on Capitol The proposal is that the DGHD’s mandate will be to promote
Hill and among foreign policy think tanks. people-centered, sustainable development and provide hu-
manitarian assistance. The long-term goal of its activities will
Mr. Worthington stressed that structural reform, while neces- be a stable, sustainable world of free, democratic, economi-
sary, was not by itself sufficient to assure the most effective use cally prosperous states in which the worst aspects of poverty
of aid resources. It is part of a call for comprehensive reform, have been eliminated. It will allow for effective, coordinated
which would include rewriting of the Foreign Assistance Act use of U.S. foreign assistance funds and give development the
and creating a National Development Strategy. Within that larg- seat at the table that it needs to be an effective counterpart of
er reform context, InterAction is increasingly hearing questions the Departments of State and Defense.

Mr. Worthington supported the 2006 National Security Strategy’s
Poverty Reduction statement that the three key pillars of diplomacy, defense and de-
velopment support our national security, then went on to add,
that Works “but the development pillar is broken and needs to be fixed.”
Experience of Scaling Up
Development Success
Dr. Brainard expanded on the rationale for foreign assistance
NEIL FERNANDO, AND modernization, noting that the current system has become con-
MANEKA WEDDIKKARA voluted and poorly coordinated. As an example, she presented
Paper, 978 1 84407 602 4, $38.95 a chart on U.S. foreign assistance depicting 50 different ob-
jectives for foreign assistance coming from as many different
units in the U.S. government, which overlap without account-
ability. She observed, “Our foreign assistance doesn’t achieve
what it could do with the money currently on the table.”

Mr. Gambino outlined the proposed structure of the DGHD,
Peace Through Health noting that under the proposal, “The Secretary of the DGHD
How Health Professionals Can will be the lead voice within the U.S. Government, below
Work for a Less Violent World the President, on development assistance and humanitarian
EDITED BY NEIL ARYA AND issues.” He explained that this will allow development to be
supported by one unified voice, instead of several scattered
Paper, 978 1 56549 258 5, $39.95 ones sometimes working at cross-purposes.

The full papers and a summary paper can be found on In-
terAction’s website at
php?id=6304. Please send questions or comments to Margaret

Order by Phone: 1 800-232-0223 By Fax: 703-661-1501 Online: Subscribe to Monday Developments today!

INSIDE Our Community

International Development Expert Carol A. closely with other U.S. Government foreign affairs agencies,
Peasley Appointed Chairperson of CEDPA as well as the private sector, non-governmental groups, uni-
Board of Directors versities, developing country counterparts and institutions,
WASHINGTON, DC— The Board of Directors of the Centre other donors, and the U.S. Congress. She received the USAID
for Development and Population Activities (CEDPA), an in- Distinguished Career Award in 2005.
ternational non-profit organization that improves the lives of
women and girls around the world, elected Carol A. Peasley as Ms. Peasley also serves on the boards of Opportunity Indus-
its chairperson at a recent board meeting in Washington, D.C. trialization Centers International (OICI) and ShoreBank Inter-
Ms. Peasley had a long and highly successful career with the
U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID). She re- As the new Board Chairperson, Ms. Peasley joins a distin-
tired in 2005 after achieving the rank of Career Minister and as guished group of leaders who contribute their expertise to ad-
Counselor to the Agency. In this position, which is the most se- vance CEDPA’s mission. CEDPA’s global programs increase
nior career officer position at USAID, she advised the USAID educational opportunities for girls, ensure access to lifesaving
Administrator and other senior staff on a range of policy, op- reproductive health and HIV/AIDS information and services,
erational and management issues, and served as ombudsman and strengthen women’s leadership in their nations.
for USAID employees.
CEDPA is headquartered in Washington, D.C. and has offices
In her 35 years of service at USAID, Ms. Peasley held various in Egypt, India, Nepal, Nigeria and South Africa. With a grow-
leadership positions that included mission director in both Ma- ing network of 5,000 alumni and partners in over 150 coun-
lawi and Russia, and senior deputy assistant administrator to tries, CEDPA is building a groundswell of change agents for
the Africa Bureau. Throughout her USAID career, she worked effective international development.



The Reality of Civil nerability of the sub-region to environmental disasters such as
drought, floods and desertification, among others.

Society in West Africa Finally, the spread and prevalence of HIV/AIDS continues to
be a threat to human security in the region.
By Thelma Ekiyor, Executive Director, West Africa
These issues provide a snapshot of what West Africa and its
Civil Society Institute
people have to confront. Responding to these challenges de-
mands multi-sectoral approaches and collaboration. The re-
Editor’s Note: This edition of Monday Developments features sponsibility of governance does not lie with governments alone.
the premiere of our new Southern Voices column. Each month, Civil society and the private sector must collectively ensure that
Southern Voices will present the views of local organizations governance is proactive in addressing the persistent develop-
working independently and in partnership with the U.S. inter- mental socio-economic threat to the people in the region.
national NGO community. It will also feature the perspective
of those who directly benefit from humanitarian relief efforts. Civil society has made key contributions in the region to
complement, inform, influence and challenge governments by

ivil society has played various roles in West Africa’s pressing for public services, pushing to improve the perfor-
growth and development. Its interventions in the social mance of the state, lobbying for the rights of excluded groups,
and political arena are justified for a number of reasons. and taken other measures such as campaigning against corrup-
The first is the decline of the state in its role of providing the tion and engaging in public-private partnerships. Civil society
basic needs of its citizens. Recent macro-economic policies has also contributed significantly to altering the traditional
have exacerbated the economic situation leading many coun- conceptualization of governance as the preserve of govern-
tries in the region to an unprecedented level of poverty. The ments and has increased the recognition of citizen’s participa-
lack of adequate foundation for the transition from one-party tion in governance processes.
autocracy to multi-party democracy has further stressed the
fabric of states. In most countries, there are weak political par- Whilst acknowledging these laudable contributions by civil
ties, which often go dormant after elections. As a result, rather society, increasingly civil society organizations (CSOs) face a
than elections contributing to greater regime legitimacy and legitimacy challenge. Some of the questions civil society has to
vibrant democratic culture, they have increasingly become a contend with include: Who is civil society? Where does civil
catalyst for conflict. society get its mandate? How does civil society account to its
constituency? What moral authority does civil society have to
Poor governance continues to be a challenge in the region. It criticise and/or challenge governments? These questions hinge
has become clear that the governance deficit is the single most on the very identity of civil society and its relevance to society.
important cause of continuous underdevelopment in West Af-
rican states. The concentration of powers in the hands of the Furthermore, many CSOs have also been criticized of not ad-
executive, the politicization and the institutionalization of me- hering to the principles of good governance, democracy and
diocrity in state bureaucracies, massive corruption and flagrant accountability. CSOs have been accused of siphoning donor’s
fiscal indiscipline, inadequate civic education and programs for funds, practicing internal nepotism, and a lack of commitment
citizen and nation building, and the politicization of the military to the communities and voices they claim to represent. These
are key challenges to effective governance in West Africa. criticisms have led to calls for a code of conduct or mechanisms
to regulate CSOs activities. This ongoing debate is highly con-
Youth employment is another challenge. Unemployment is rife troversial and often results in exacerbating the already tense re-
among the region’s youth, resulting in mass migration out of lations between CSOs and government, and as seen in Ghana
the continent. over the proposed Trust Bill, which was introduced in 2007.

The sub-region is also experiencing pressure on environmen- However, it is incontrovertible that civil society must “clean
tal resources, partly due to the unregulated, non-sustainable its own house.” Self regulation has been promoted by many
exploitation of natural resources, and partly due to popula- activists in the region such as the Pan African Society for Sus-
tion growth, urbanization, the use of obsolete technologies for tainable Development (POSDEV). At the West Africa Civil
farming and climate change. The rate at which West Africa’s Society Institute (WACSI), we also believe that civil society
environment is being recklessly exploited increases the vul- continued on page 28

Human Rights

Linking Human Rights and Development:
A Twenty-first Century Approach
By Heather Grady, Director, Policy and Partnerships, Realizing Rights

few years ago when I left Ox-
fam Great Britain to join a
small human rights initiative
in the U.S., I didn’t think I
would be involved in campaigning again
anytime soon. But I sometimes still find
myself on a campaign: to strengthen the
bonds between the development and
human rights communities.

For almost twenty years I worked in
international development and pov-
erty eradication, from the village to the
national level. Our programs sought
to bring change in both the lives of
individuals and in policy-making at
the government or intergovernmental
level. Our programs were designed to
embody a rights-based approach.

Organizations around the world mirror

Photo: Karl Grobl
InterAction’s members – ranging from
those who fully embrace a rights-based
approach to those who have only a lim-
ited understanding of why it might be
important to incorporate human rights nomic injustice – human rights has not free and equal in dignity and rights. It
into development programs. Indeed, yet made a significant dent. Those who acknowledges that all individuals hold
part of my role at Oxfam was to help work in the human rights field share the same rights, and that States (and to
mainstream a rights-based approach. responsibility for this, because at times a lesser extent non-state actors) have
What has surprised me is that the this community has been particularly obligations to respect, protect and ful-
rights-based approach has spread rela- inward looking and too restrictive in fill a range of human rights: civil, po-
tively slowly among both civil society recognizing the potential application litical, economic, social and cultural. A
and development agencies. And what of human rights to these issues. rights-based approach also embodies
I discovered upon moving into the hu- firmly held human rights principles
man rights community is that much The basic principles of a rights-based such as equality and non-discrimina-
of the experience and many of the approach are simple. Development tion, transparency, accountability and
achievements of development agen- programs with a rights-based approach participation.
cies has not sufficiently informed the are based on international human rights
human rights community. standards rooted in a system of rights A rights-based approach compels an
and obligations recognized by interna- agency to analyze inequalities and dis-
The drafters of the Universal Dec- tional law. crimination. It empowers people to be
laration of Human Rights would be agents of their own development and
surprised that, in the very challenge A rights-based approach starts with the to hold institutions accountable. Cru-
in which they underscored the im- core idea contained in the simple but cially, it goes beyond the notion of pro-
portance of human rights – tackling profound first article of the Universal viding charitable assistance to address
poverty and want, and social and eco- Declaration: All human beings are born people’s needs to the realization that

Human Rights

we hold responsibilities for each other in the Universal Declaration of Human based approach to the Millennium
across the planet. Ultimately, adopt- Rights, Oxfam, Save the Children and Development Goals (MDGs) as well.
ing a rights-based approach is about UNICEF, among others, convinced the Otherwise, either the MDG targets
addressing the power dynamics that Ministry to adhere to the spirit and let- will not be met, or their achievement
underlie persistent poverty and mar- ter of global standards on the right to will leave a significant portion of the
ginalization, and allow a wide swath education. Vietnam’s significant efforts world’s people languishing below the
of humanity to remain impoverished in education quickly became a model targets. This year is a perfect time for
and insecure in our world of vast re- within the region and beyond. us to focus on such an ambitious tar-
sources. get: it is both the sixtieth anniversary
The steady increase in the number of of the Universal Declaration of Hu-
It has been said that a rights-based ap- children in school across the world is man Rights and the midpoint to MDG
proach is nothing more than an effec- no doubt due in large part to the global deadline of 2015.
tive development program that places “right to education” approach of a co-
at its center empowerment and partici- alition that included civil society, UN Why should we all make this effort? Be-
pation. While this may be true, is it not agencies and governments. In my own cause human rights is the single thread
both more effective and more appropri- organization, Realizing Rights, we pro- that binds us together across all of hu-
ate to explicitly adopt the human rights mote the “right to decent work” agenda
manity, across all nations, cultures, re-
framework as the starting point of de- ligions and political persuasions. In our
velopment assistance? increasingly globalized world, nothing
A rights-based approach short of common global standards and
It is also sometimes assumed that a
human-rights approach inevitably
starts with the core idea principles are required to bridge and
overcome these differences.
causes confrontation between people, contained in the simple but
organizations and government institu-
In this anniversary year we should turn
tions, for example where governments profound first article of the over a new leaf in the book of human
are unwilling or unable to guarantee
education, health care or decent jobs
Universal Declaration: rights. There are positive signs. Am-
nesty International, for example, will
for their people. For this reason, many All human beings are born launch a campaign on human dignity
of the best rights-based programs ad-
dress both the demand and supply free and equal in dignity and the rights of the poor, covering
civil, political, economic, social and
sides of development, working to build
communities’ abilities to demand their
and rights. cultural rights.
rights, while also supporting govern-
ments at the local or national level to In addition, organizations like my
as an important realization of employ-
improve their capacity to fulfill those own are working with the Elders’
ment rights set out in specific articles of
rights. It also recognizes that resource “Every Human Has Rights” campaign
the Universal Declaration, in the Cov-
constraints create impediments to real- ( to
enant on Economic, Social and Cultural
izing social and economic rights, and raise the public’s awareness of hu-
Rights, and in the International Labor
makes the goal steady progress rather Organization’s Core Labor standards. man rights, to build individual com-
than assuming an ability to fulfill all I believe that if the development agen- mitment and to highlight the work of
rights for all people at once. cies that support livelihoods programs a range of partner organizations that
worked in coalition for more, and more span traditional development and hu-
I saw the power of using human rights decent, employment using an explicit man rights organizations. As former
standards in the field of education while rights-based approach like the global UN Secretary-General and Elder Kofi
I lived in Vietnam in the 1990s. I recall education adopted, we could tackle the Annan reminded us when launching
a moment of heated discussion with employment crisis and achieve far better In Larger Freedom a few years ago,
the Vietnamese Ministry of Education outcomes from development assistance. we will not have development with-
when they were proposing to adopt a out security, we will not have secu-
definition of “universal education” Bridging the remaining gaps between rity without development, and we will
that left out the 10 percent of children development and human rights ac- have neither development nor securi-
who were hardest to reach. Pointing to tivities and organizations is one of ty without human rights. Now would
Vietnam’s early ratification of the Con- the most important challenges of the be an appropriate time to weave these
vention on the Rights of the Child and next decade. There is enormous ben- firmly together in our discourse and
harking back to the right to education efit in incorporating a stronger rights- practice as NGOs.

Climate Effects

Climate Change and Conflict Prevention:
Hope for the Best, Prepare for the Worst
By Lisa Schirch, Director of the 3D Security Initiative at the Center
for Justice & Peacebuilding at Eastern Mennonite University

limate change escalates the vironmental stressors weaken political lead to increased competition and con-
need to help communities ad- systems, and exacerbate resource scar- flict in receiving regions, as highlighted
dress conflict constructively. city causing food, shelter and income by some U.S. and European communi-
Building an infrastructure for shortages. As people lose their liveli- ties resisting immigrants from south of
conflict prevention entered the develop- hoods, as local governments are unable their borders.
ment community’s agenda several years to respond to climate-changed induced
ago. In the face of the multiple chal- environmental disasters and thus lose Conflict prevention or reaction?
lenges brought on by climate change, their public legitimacy, there may be In the early 1980s, billboards around
conflict prevention programming is just mass migration of hundreds of millions Africa announced: “No Peace without
as important as adaptation strategies to of people, mass instability, increased Development, No Development with-
build disaster-resilient communities. terrorism, and violent conflict over re- out Peace.” In the last ten years or so,
sources such as water. Military experts policymaking capital cities in Western
There is not a direct cause-effect line identify climate change as a “threat donor countries have integrated this
between conflict and the environmental multiplier” for instability in some of basic tenet into their foreign policy
consequences of climate change. Cli- the most volatile regions of the world. infrastructure. Development is now al-
mate change will interact with a wide most universally recognized as playing
range of current development challeng- The environmental impacts of climate a role in peace and security by helping
es. Yet the unpredictable human reac- change amplify existing economic, so- to prevent violence.
tion to these environmental challenges cial and political struggles. As desertifi-
is an increasing concern. cation increases in Africa’s Sahel region, In the face of climate change, inte-
clashes are increasing between herders grated programming blending conflict
Social and political impacts of and farmers competing for scarce pro- prevention goals with poverty alle-
climate change ductive land. The potential for sea level viation goals is an even greater need.
Climate change-induced rise in sea rise causing mass migration is already Conflict prevention includes programs
level, strong storms, droughts, floods, aggravating long-standing disputes. In- to promote forums for discussing the
water scarcity, soil erosion, desertifica- dia, for example, is building a wall in root causes of conflict, programs in
tion, deforestation and disease already part to keep out potential migrants leav- good governance, reconciliation ef-
create flows of displaced peoples in ing Bangladesh in the face of sea-level forts between polarized groups, and
search of livelihoods and homes. En- rise or future storms. Migration can also local economic development programs

Climate Effects

that bring together groups in conflict to
work on a common goal. Climate Change and Iraq

In Iraq, for example, Iraqi NGOs help ccording to a Yale University study, Iraq has suffered a severe drought over
Sunni and Shi’a community leaders the last eight months. Iraqi farmers say that they expect their crops to be half
build bridges across the lines of con- of what they were in 2007. Syria and Turkey have also been experiencing the
flict to focus on common development same poor rainfall. And since the Tigris and Euphrates begin their journeys as rain
goals such as building wells. In Ghana, over these two countries, Iraqi farmers expect less water to flow through their riv-
civil society leaders worked with the ers and irrigation canals. The Fertile Crescent, representing parts of Iraq, Iran, Syria
government to build an infrastructure and Turkey has been one of the world’s most reliable farming zones for thousands
for conflict prevention. These national, of years. Its current drought is likely due to the changing patterns of world weather
regional and district-level forums in- brought about by global warming.
clude staff trained in mediation and di- —Esselle Hattom, Environmental Consultant and Human Rights Advocate
alogue prepared to deescalate tensions
over resources.
paredness. NATO promoted dialogue prevent mass instability and migra-
Climate change presents an opportu- and cooperation among former Eastern tion related to climate-change induced
nity for increased multilateral coopera- Bloc countries on environmental is- disasters, loss of livelihoods, and re-
tion on common threats. The Madrid sues. In countries all over Africa, Asia source conflicts. As illustrated in the
Peace Process for the Middle East used and Latin America water management diagram here, a lack of preparation and
water, migration and other environ- boards are working to maximize shared response to the possible social and po-
mental issues to foster multilateral en- usage of local water resources. litical impacts of climate change could
gagement between Israel and regional result in vastly greater needs for hu-
states. China, India and Pakistan have Conflict prevention programs are manitarian aid and resettlement in the
cooperated on seismic disaster pre- cost-effective investments that could aftermath of conflict.

Climate Change. Poverty. Resource Scarcity.
These are issues we all care about. Build your capacity to
address the frontiers in development. Take time to reflect
on your work with peers from around the world.
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Global Warming

Imperfect Storms:
Global Warming and the Need for International
Cooperation for Sustainable Development
By Paul L. Joffe, Senior Director, International Affairs, National Wildlife Federation

ecades of work and progress that, “climate change is expected to the “cap and trade” system that would
on international development have serious impacts on biodiversity, limit pollution by U.S. industry. The
and poverty alleviation are even threatening the very basis of hu- legislation also provides for developing
threatened by accelerating man survival.” country assistance for clean technology
global warming. The UN Develop- and avoidance of deforestation.
ment Programme’s most recent Hu- Public policy is beginning to respond,
man Development Report states flatly but is doing so too slowly and on a Nevertheless, action has slowed in the
that this is not a future prospect but scale too limited to address the threat- U.S. Congress and many participants
rather a current trend, slowing prog- ened damage, which will cost an es- in the international negotiations seem
ress on the Millennium Development timated 40 to 80 billion dollars annu- to be waiting in hope that the next U.S.
Goals and aggravating inequalities. If ally in developing countries. Though president will be more proactive on
this trend is left unchecked, the report the 1992 UN Framework Convention this issue. However, the international
says there will be reversals in human on Climate Change, a treaty to which development, humanitarian assistance
development throughout this century the United States is a party, called for and environmental community does
and rising potential for conflict. The assistance to developing countries for not have the luxury of waiting. Sci-
poorest countries are most vulnerable adaptation to climate change, little has entists warn that we have only a few
to climate impacts. been done to fulfill that pledge. years to bend down the upward trajec-
tory of global warming pollution. This
It is now well established that greenhouse Recently, there have been two more is because the pollution accumulates
gas emissions produced by humans from hopeful signs. In December, 2007, the in the atmosphere; and after it reach-
the burning of fossil fuels and other ac- international community launched new es dangerous levels of concentration,
tivities are the primary reason the global climate treaty negotiations meant to cul- damaging consequences are locked in
thermostat is rising dangerously. Increas- minate in late 2009 with an agreement for decades and even centuries.
ing drought, rising sea levels, severe that will significantly reduce green-
weather events, and spreading disease house gas pollution in coming decades Accordingly, now is the time for our
vectors threaten both human communi- and provide substantial new funding community to analyze the problems
ties and the natural world. to poor countries to cope with damage and build support for solutions to the
from global warming. Both are needed great challenge posed to sustainable
In fact, the threats to humans and because runaway climate change will development by global warming. What
to nature are closely related. Global create catastrophic damages that no is needed is an era of policy initiative
warming damage to nature aggravates amount of adaptation can remedy. and institution building comparable to
poverty, and poverty aggravates the the creative period of international co-
damage to nature in a vicious circle – The second hopeful development is that operation following World War II.
an imperfect storm. In Haiti, poverty is in 2007 and 2008 the U.S. Senate began
a root cause of deforestation, which in serious consideration of legislation to Some of the necessary work has begun
turn contributes to poverty. And climate reduce U.S. global warming pollution and efforts are currently scattered around
change will speed deforestation glob- and contribute about one billion dollars in organizations such as the UN Frame-
ally. Global warming is contributing annually in the near term, rising thereaf- work Convention on Climate Change,
to an unprecedented species extinction ter, in assistance for adaptation in poor the UN Development Program, the UN
crisis and deterioration of ecosystems, countries. These funds, which could Environment Program, the World Bank,
undermining the ecosystem services constitute part of a U.S. contribution to the Global Environmental Facility, na-
provided to human communities. The building consensus on a global warm- tional development and environmental
Chair’s Summary of a recent meeting ing treaty, would be raised from the ministries, think tanks and NGOs. Im-
of G8 environment ministers states auctioning of pollution permits under portant technical work has begun using

Global Warming

the National Adaptation Programmes of es are needed and where will they come issues on which there has been stale-
Action of various countries. Similarly from? What is being done? What more mate or delay that are now even more
important technical work is also under- needs to be done, by whom, and on what urgent because of global warming? For
way in some of the multilateral agencies timetable? Can we establish guidelines example, is there adequate multilat-
on subjects ranging from impact assess- for national and multilateral agencies to eral leadership and coordination on the
ment, to capacity building, to financing. address these questions, with participa- MDGs? What is the role of the G8? Is
The necessary treaty commitments by tion by all countries and stakeholders? there a need for a greatly expanded and
countries are lacking, however, and be- reformed successor to the G8? How are
yond the most immediate issues in the 3. Integrating adaptation and develop- the roles of specialized agencies and
negotiations are a host of other big is- ment: How should adaptation, as well the private sector in dealing with trade,
sues that need attention. as other climate change related assis- finance, development, environment,
tance for clean technology and avoided and other issues integrated at both the
A thorough work plan is beyond the deforestation, be integrated with exist- national and the international levels?
scope of this article, but here are some ing development efforts and reforms? How can involvement of stakehold-
questions as a start in thinking about This issue should be included as part ers and civil society be strengthened?
strategy on a scale to match the monu- of reform of U.S. foreign assistance What are the means for systematically
mental challenge we face: and reinvigoration of efforts to meet assessing and improving multilateral
the Millennium Development Goals cooperation to confront the tasks of de-
1. Defining the task: What are the dif- (MDGs). What are various scenarios velopment made even more daunting
ferent kinds of challenges in adapting for integrating adaptation and tradi- by global warming?
to climate change? What should be tional development? Would it make
done to address them? sense to use Poverty Reduction Strat- There are undoubtedly many more
egy Papers as a vehicle for this? questions and few easy answers. The
2. Establishing a framework for ac- point here is to highlight the need for a
countability: What is the magnitude of 4. Revitalizing broader forms of co- strategy to address the new challenges
the adaptation problem? What resourc- operation: What are the institutional continued on page 28

Agriculture & Hunger

New Strategies in Agricultural Development:
Long Term Solutions to Global Hunger
By Leah Berry, Program Associate for Humanitarian Policy and Practice
and Hilary Nalven, Senior Program Associate for Strategic Impact, InterAction

address the current crisis, but exactly
how these additional funds will be used
remains to be seen. In talks involving
the President and other senior officials
of the World Bank, InterAction Presi-
dent and CEO Sam Worthington urged
the Bank to support projects assisting
smallholder farmers directly – a break
from the Bank’s tradition of supporting
large, centralized and usually govern-
ment-owned projects.
Photo: Liliana Rodriguez

While the NGO community has con-
sistently championed and supported
small-scale agricultural development,
the current crisis makes it clear that
new ideas and additional funding is

everal months ago, UN Sec- acres or less, and despite the prevalence needed. Responding to this and to the
retary-General Ban Ki Moon, of huge agribusiness farms in much of need to collaborate and to share inno-
spoke of a “New Face of Hun- the developed world, these five-acre or vative ideas, on June 25 more than 40
ger.” High food prices, increas- less farms account for 85 percent of the InterAction members attended the first
ing demand, and a decrease in supply world’s farmland. Smallholder farmers meeting of the new Agriculture Work-
have created a situation where millions are some of the hardest hit by the cur- ing Group. While InterAction members
of people worldwide are faced with mal- rent food crisis, so it is clear that any pro- have long supported long-term agricul-
nutrition and situations of even greater posed solution to the crisis must take the tural development, this is the first time
poverty. While researchers and policy- needs of these people into consideration. the membership has come together to
makers have found that a number of in- form a working group on this issue.
terrelated and complex factors have cre- Increasing agricultural production in
ated the “New Face of Hunger,” one of developing countries will require ex- The purpose of the first meeting was to
the most significant causes (a shortage tensive political, economic, and so- provide members with the opportunity to
in supply) and the associated solution cial reforms both globally and locally. share ideas and discuss the current state
(a boost in agricultural production) is Programs to boost production will be of agricultural programming, policy, and
not particularly new at all. Global food neither straightforward nor cheap, but coordination. Because a number of orga-
stocks have decreased for the past five their importance is widely accepted. nizations, alliances and initiatives are al-
to ten years, while the demand for ma- As noted in the Final Declaration of ready looking at issues related to agricul-
jor food crops has increased over this the June 2008 UN Global Conference ture, a central goal of the meeting was to
same period, and millions of people go on Food Security: “There is an urgent determine how InterAction can uniquely
without enough food every year. need to help developing countries and and effectively contribute to the broader
countries in transition expand agricul- discussion. Three main themes for fram-
While the high number of urban dwell- ture and food production, and to in- ing the direction of the working group
ers affected by the current crisis is a new crease investment in agriculture, agri- emerged: policy and advocacy, best and
phenomenon, the majority of those fac- business and rural development.” innovative practices, and production.
ing malnutrition still live in rural areas.
Approximately 1.5 to two billion people Over the past several months, donor Regarding policy and advocacy strate-
are smallholder farmers owning five countries have pledged millions to gies, the working group recognized the

Agriculture & Hunger

utility and advantage of speaking with To ensure that this additional funding is smallholder farmers, focus particularly
a unified voice, although developing targeted towards the most effective and on women farmers, and allow for suf-
key messages may prove to be tricky in poverty alleviating programs, members ficient flexibility in programming to
light of the complexities surrounding identified the need to share information accommodate varying needs.
both global and national agriculture on and document best practices and les-
policies. Moreover, participants noted sons learned from the field. Research on Moving forward, the working group
that overlaps with other sectors such new and innovative agricultural practic- has agreed to divide into smaller sub-
as climate change, health, and gender es is also needed to deal with existing groups, each focusing on one of the
must be taken into account while de- and future environmental changes. three areas of policy, practice and pro-
veloping these policy positions. duction, and will also continue to meet
Relating to the spread of best and in- regularly as a larger group.
Although the key messages have yet to novative practices is the need to boost
be determined, a push for increased and both short and long-term food produc- If you have an interest in this working
sustained funding for agriculture pro- tion. As noted earlier, InterAction seeks group and would like to become in-
grams will undoubtedly be one compo- to achieve this by encouraging policies volved, please email Hilary Nalven at
nent of Interaction’s advocacy strategy. and programs that directly support

Controlling a Crop Crisis
By Michael Potts, Director, Great Lakes Cassava Initiative,
Catholic Relief Services

T he global food crisis underscores the urgent need to increase
food security worldwide. One major solution is increasing the
production capacities of small-scale farmers, ideally to the point
where they can grow an excess and benefit from rising prices. At
the same time, farmers must have the tools to protect their crops
from disease, particularly staples they depend on for both food
and incomes. Cassava brown streak disease misshapes roots and causes a dry rot,
making the roots inedible (photo by Michael Potts/CRS).
In Africa, two highly concerning pandemics are putting food secu-
rity at significant risk. Cassava mosaic disease and cassava brown local conditions to work with farmers to develop improved cas-
streak disease are wiping out fields in Central and East Africa, sava varieties that are adapted to local conditions, resist diseases
decimating as much as 70 percent of crop yields. These losses are and have higher yields.
seriously impacting farming communities, with cassava being the • More than 50 local partners then team with farmers in the field to
primary source of food in much of this area. evaluate the varieties, select the most appropriate ones, and ulti-
mately multiply and disseminate cuttings to affected farmers.
To stem the spread of the diseases and enable affected farmers to • Working with more than 5,000 farmer groups, these local part-
recover their pre-disease cassava production levels, the Great Lakes ners also teach farmers to recognize disease symptoms and take
Cassava Initiative is bringing together scientists, NGOs and farmers. proactive steps to prevent spread.
Funded by the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation and led by Catholic
Relief Services, this four-year initiative aims to produce and dissemi- The Great Lakes Cassava Initiative is taking additional measures to
nate disease-resistant cuttings to more than one million households ensure sustainability and improve farming incomes. These include
in six countries: Burundi, the Democratic Republic of the Congo, Ke- providing farmers with access to new market opportunities, orga-
nya, Rwanda, Tanzania and Uganda. The initiative will also lay the nizing savings and loans communities, funding critical international
foundation for expansion into Southern and West Africa as cassava research and coordinating closely with related agricultural efforts.
diseases continue to spread through the continent. In addition, advanced diagnostics and mapping technology are cre-
ating a disease surveillance system across the six countries to help
Key to the success of the project is the marriage of agricultural re- better identify farmers under threat. GIS and GPS technologies will
search and grassroots development: also trace production and distribution of cuttings.
• The International Institute for Tropical Agriculture is working
closely with national agricultural research institutions in each Through close collaboration among numerous partners, the Great
target country to develop methods for rapidly identifying these Lakes Cassava Initiative is helping to achieve a green revolution in
diseases and monitoring their spread. Africa – a needed change that is even more urgent in light of the
• The national institutions use research results and knowledge of current food crisis.

Food Crisis

Addressing the Global Food Crisis
By Cherri Waters, Managing Director for NGO Research, InterAction

hen G-8 leaders meet in
Japan in July, they will
have to tackle an item
unexpectedly added to
their agenda: the world food crisis. Ac-
cording to the Japanese government,
this will be the first statement on food
issued by the world’s superpowers.
Certainly, this is not the first food crisis
in recent years. But what distinguishes
this crisis from others – and commands
the attention of world leaders – are
the intensity with which it emerged,
its global scope, the 100 million more
hungry people it may create, and the
level of actual and potential political
unrest generated in its wake.

Josette Sheeran, Executive Director of
the World Food Programme, has called
this crisis a “perfect storm” – a criti-
cal or disastrous situation created by a
powerful confluence of events. In this
case, the disaster is a rapid and steep
rise in the price of food that is devas-
tating poor communities worldwide.
Food prices have been increasing since
2003, most sharply since 2006. Accord-
ing to the International Monetary Fund,
a ton of wheat that cost $105 in Janu-
ary 2000 cost $481 in March 2008. In
one year (from March 2007 to March
2008), the price of corn increased by
31 percent, rice by 74 percent, soya by
87 percent, and wheat by 130 percent.
Overall food prices have doubled over
the past three years.

A complex crisis with
multiple causes
The all-time-high cost of oil has driven
up the cost of food production. Climate
change has contributed to the current
crisis and will continue to have adverse
Photo: Kyla Springer

effect on food production. For exam-
ple, drought in Australia, one of the
world’s largest food exporters, reduced
the supply of both wheat and rice.

Food Crisis

A positive development – rising in- lieve that this crisis alone constitutes Fundamentally, this is a food price
comes in countries experiencing rapid sufficient reason to make major chang- crisis. Because poor people living in
economic growth – has increased the es in both the amount and allocation of developing countries spend as much as
demand for meat and milk and has led, these resources to fund programs that: 50 percent to 80 percent of their mea-
in turn, to greater demand for grains • Enable small farmers to increase ger incomes on food, high and rapid
to feed livestock. The growing use of production and take advantage of price increases have been devastating.
grains to produce bio-fuels has reduced market opportunities; Thus, long-term solutions must focus
their use as food. • Make infrastructure improvements on poverty reduction.
in roads and irrigation systems; and
As the stock and real estate markets • Support agricultural research and 4. Congress should make food aid
have become more volatile and com- new technologies to increase small faster, more flexible, and less expen-
modities prices soared, investors have farm productivity and enable farm- sive by allowing more cash and local
increased speculation in commodities ers to adapt to climate change. purchase.
futures. Exporting countries have im- Estimates are that by eliminating the
posed bans, taxes, minimum prices, Currently, the Millennium Challenge requirement that food be sourced from
and quotas on exports of rice and wheat Account (MCA) is the only U.S. gov- the United States, Congress can in-
that have reduced supply and pushed ernment program that provides ample crease U.S. food aid by up to 50 per-
prices higher. funding for these types of activities. cent without providing any additional
This makes it all the more unfortunate funding. Cash or vouchers for local
Neglect of agriculture that Congress may cut MCA funding to purchase would also arrive sooner and
For the last 20 years, donors and many pay for the emergency response to the have the added benefit of stimulating
recipient governments have made low food crisis. There is an urgent need to the local market.
and declining investments in agricul- reduce suffering, but not at the expense
ture. In 1980, 30 percent of annual of long-term solutions. 5. The United States should assess
World Bank lending went to agricul- the impact of bio-fuels and take steps
tural projects; in 2007, it was only 12 2. The U.S. and other donors should needed to reduce negative effects.
percent. In developing countries, ag- provide adequate funding for tradi- In a recent article in the Financial
riculture spending as a share of total tional and new forms of emergency Times, World Bank President Robert
public spending fell by half between response to address the needs of both Zoellick reported that the use of corn
1980 and 2004. U.S. foreign assistance urban and rural poor. U.S. assistance for ethanol in the U.S. has consumed
for agriculture has dropped from a high should: more than 75 percent of the increase
of 20 percent in 1980 to 6.0 percent in • Fund food vouchers, food-for- in global corn production. Sustained
1995 to 2.5 percent in 2006. work and cash-for-work programs, growth in the demand for feedstock
and school-feeding programs; to produce bio-energy will continue to
A comprehensive, coordinated • Support health and nutrition pro- drive food prices higher.
global response grams that focus on the needs of
We believe that the United States can mothers, pregnant women, and Ultimately, the United States, work-
and should show leadership in re- infants; and ing with other bio-fuel users, should
sponding to this crisis through the up- • Stimulate agricultural production develop global standards for bio-fuel
coming G-8 summit and through Con- immediately through programs production – with food security and en-
gressional action over the next several that provide seeds, tools, and other vironmental sustainability at their core.
months. With this in mind, InterAction inputs along with farm credit.
offers the following recommendations: 6. Congress should remove trade bar-
3. The U.S. should make all assis- riers to developing country imports.
1. The U.S. and other donors should tance more flexible, country-specific, Fully reforming global trade policy
at least double long-term investments people-driven and poverty-focused. cannot be done overnight. In the mean-
in agricultural programs that enable In each country, the food crisis is a time, the U.S. can promote develop-
small farmers to produce more food. product of a complex mix of factors ment by changing our own trade poli-
The Bush Administration’s 2009 fiscal unique to that situation. Rather than cies to open our market to goods from
year Congressional Budget Justifica- mandating specific approaches or least developed countries.
tion includes a request for agriculture remedies, donors should give govern-
that is only 2.3 percent of the total re- ments, communities and implementers Interested in advertising in
quest and less than 23 percent of the the flexibility to determine what best Monday Developments?
“economic growth” request. We be- fits the local context. Contact Michael Haslett at

Aid Perception

Fearing for the Future of the
Humanitarian Enterprise
By Antonio Donini, Senior Researcher, Feinstein International Center

magine sitting down to talk with
eight mullahs in a village in central
Afghanistan, meeting with people in
the war-torn Gulu district in northern
Uganda, or conducting a focus group
with low-caste landless peasants in the
Maoist heartland of central Nepal. How
do they perceive humanitarian action
in their respective communities? Is it
fulfilling its intended purpose? Are the
views of the locals being heard?

As part of a research project on the chal-

Photo: Antonio Donini
lenges likely to affect humanitarian ac-
tion over the next decade, researchers
from the Feinstein International Center
(FIC) at Tufts University traveled to 12
countries in crisis to assess perceptions
of humanitarian action “from below.” A A group of women in Kabul examine the HA2015 Preliminary Report (November 2006).
new report from FIC entitled Humani- The Feinstein International Center team reconvened some of the original focus groups to
bring back the preliminary findings to those that provided the information.
tarian Agenda 2015:The State of the
Humanitarian Enterprise (available
electronically at: ) summa- Overall more than 2,000 people pro- or unwittingly, they bring – values,
rizes these perceptions and identifies vided inputs into the research. management styles, improper behavior
the gaps between the current practice – and the effect it has on the communi-
of humanitarian action and the aspira- The findings are analyzed around four ties in which they work. They have to
tions of beneficiaries in crisis situa- issues: the avowed universality of hu- be much better at explaining what they
tions. It suggests that if these gaps are manitarianism; the impact of terrorism are doing and why. As a primary school
not addressed, they will pose increas- and counter-terrorism on humanitarian teacher in Ghorband (central Afghani-
ingly difficult challenges to interna- action; the push for coherence between stan) put it: “Why do these foreigners
tional humanitarian action throughout humanitarian and political agendas; come here? Is it because they can’t find
the next decade. and the security of humanitarian per- jobs in their own countries?”
sonnel and the communities benefiting
The building blocks of the research are from humanitarian action. More generally, in addition to the dis-
12 case studies of conducted in Afghan- connects between “outsiders” and “in-
istan, Burundi, Colombia, the Demo- The findings siders”, the findings highlight a crisis
cratic Republic of the Congo, Iraq, One common thread was that aid of humanitarianism in the post 9/11
Liberia, Nepal, northern Uganda, the practitioners need to improve their world. International action aimed at
occupied Palestinian territory, Pakistan, understanding of local culture as an assisting and protecting the most vul-
Sri Lanka and Sudan. The approach was investment in more effective and more nerable is, for the most part, inextrica-
evidence-based. Findings were drawn secure operations. Northern humani- bly linked to a Northern security and
from interviews and focus group dis- tarians need to listen more and preach political agenda, and it is seen as such.
cussions at the community level aimed less, learning from the resourceful- Nevertheless, principled humanitarian
at eliciting local perceptions. Additional ness, resilience and coping strategies action, though battered at times, consti-
data was collected from aid staff and of communities. They need to be more tutes an essential safety net for people
other observers at the country level. aware of the baggage that, wittingly in extremis that deserves to be nurtured

Aid Perception

greater institutional consistency and
Principles in Iraq professionalism. Standards have gained
“… neutrality is not an abstract notion in Iraq but is regarded as an es- currency, programs have become more
sential protection against targeted attack by communities and most remain- contextualized, and professionalism
ing humanitarian organizations alike’ … ‘Our research confirms that Iraqis has improved. Yet despite the rhetoric
are neither stupid nor lacking in a sense of right and wrong, and yet, as of downward accountability to ben-
Iraqis themselves explained it to our research team with consistency and eficiaries, mainstream humanitarians
clarity, that is precisely how they often understand the assumptions underly- continue to talk principally to the like-
ing humanitarian action that has been instrumentalized in the service of an minded, shunning different or dissent-
occupying force or some other political/military objective. The Iraq case ing voices. Much that is local and non-
demonstrates the dangers inherent in shackling and subordinating a human- Western in humanitarian action goes
itarian response to a military or political agenda that is subject to changing unrecognized: the coping mechanisms
fortunes”. of communities, the parallel life-saving
universe that includes zakat and the
— Greg Hansen, Iraq Country Study: Taking Sides or Saving Lives: remittances of refugees and migrants.
Existential Choices for the Humanitarian Enterprise in Iraq’, These constitute the unrecorded as-
FIC, 2007, p16 available at sistance flows of groups and countries
that are not part of the northern-driven
humanitarian system.
and protected. Such action occupies manitarian action has become a multi-
a crucial but increasingly precarious billion dollar enterprise. When it oc-
The wider meaning
position at the intersection of interna- cupied the margins of conflict – as, for
The study’s findings confirm the good
tional political and security agendas example, in refugee camps outside con-
news that humanitarian action remains
and the coping strategies of people af- flict areas – humanitarian action was an
an essential – and sometimes dominant
fected by crisis and conflict. However, activity of generally minor consequence
– element in the international response
it is used as a tool to achieve political to belligerents. Aid agencies were ac-
to crisis and conflict. Increasingly, it is
objectives and torn between principle cepted or tolerated as beneficial, or at
a factor in the undertakings and calcu-
and pragmatism as perhaps never be- least non-threatening. Now humanitar-
lations of political and military players.
fore, particularly in high-profile crises. ian action is very often at the center of
conflicts and of international concern. However, the bad news is that humani-
Though the traditional values of hu- It influences, as well as reflects, public tarianism’s high profile status entails
manitarianism still resonate among af- opinion and the views of governments a constant risk of misunderstand-
fected communities in all of the settings at the national and global levels. ing, false expectation and delusions
studied, the humanitarian community of grandeur. There is a persistent and
is divided on the extent to which core Moreover, politicization, militarization worrying perception gap between out-
principles should be respected, par- and privatization nowadays represent siders and insiders – that is, between
ticularly in more asymmetrical and more of a challenge for those parts aid agencies and the communities they
intractable crises. This disquiet affects of a diverse enterprise striving for a aim to help. Despite examples of cre-
the quality and the coherence of the as- modicum of fidelity to principle. Many ative problem-solving, humanitarians
sistance and protection provided. For mainstream agencies have been drawn have not, overall, acquitted themselves
example, as our Iraq country study implicitly or explicitly into the service well in protecting the integrity of hu-
shows, neutrality is not an abstract no- of political agendas. Only a minority manitarian interests and operations
tion, but an essential protection for aid has exhibited the policy determination from recurrent infiltrations of politi-
agencies and their beneficiaries. and financial wherewithal to resist. It cal and military actors. As the report
thus remains debatable whether the as- concludes, “Absent the cultivation of
To say that humanitarians need to be sortment of agencies and individuals greater resourcefulness and resilience,
wary of politics, even as they do their that comprise the humanitarian enter- therefore, we fear for the future of the
work in highly politicized settings is prise can – or should – maintain the fic- humanitarian enterprise.”
nothing new. What is new in the post- tion that they are all parts of the same
Cold War and post-9/11 eras is that movement, functioning as parts of a Antonio Donini is the main author of
the stakes are much higher because common apparatus. the report. For hard copies contact An-
the extent of need has proliferated, the All the case
awareness of need has become more The research data also confirms that studies and other materials are avail-
instantaneous and more global, and hu- the humanitarian enterprise has gained able from the website

Aid Reform

The Five Stages of
Foreign Aid Reform Grief
By Gregory Adams, Associate Director for Policy and Advocacy, Aid Effectiveness Team, Oxfam America

oes the current state of U.S. there have been at least six other major But fear not! There’s a new therapeu-
foreign aid programs have efforts to modernize America’s foreign tic tool: The Five Stages of Foreign
you feeling anxious and un- aid structure. Few have led to any sys- Aid Grief. By understanding these five
fulfilled? You are not alone. tematic improvement. This history has stages, you can begin your own jour-
Forty-seven years ago, President Ken- led even the most committed among us ney through the healing process.
nedy signed into law the Foreign As- to despair for the future of American
sistance Act of 1961. Since that time, leadership in fighting global poverty. Diagnosis: Weak, ineffective aid
The impetus for the Foreign Assis-
tance Act of 1961 came from a clear
sense that the U.S. foreign aid system
was failing to serve the interests of the
United States. According to a memo
prepared for President Kennedy, U.S.
foreign aid in 1961 had “the following
familiar weaknesses:”

“Its financing, as well as its perspective,
is short-run rather than long-run. The
small development component is main-
ly guided by a project approach rather
than an approach in terms of developing
whole nations. Its legislative underpin-
ning is piecemeal, reflecting geological
layers of past interests and problems. Its
administration is diffuse ... At home there
is profound uneasiness and dissatisfac-
tion with a program which has appeared
to yield little result at great cost.”

Any of this sound familiar? Piecemeal
legislative underpinning? Geological
layers of past interests and problems?
Today, the original 1961 Act has grown
to a mass of surrounding legislation in-
cluding all or part of 138 public laws
passed by Congress over the past 47
years, comprising nearly 2,600 pages
in all. That body of law contains more
than 170 priority areas and purposes
and over 550 directives.

Short-run financing and perspec-
Photo: Jane Hahn

tive? Congressional guidance for U.S.
foreign aid is provided by the annual
appropriations process, a process de-
signed to function on an annual time-

Aid Reform

frame. This essentially means that the Unfortunately, more money by itself is women’s health? Fights over aid to par-
U.S. can move the goalposts every not a solution. For too long, those who ticular countries we like or don’t like?
twelve months for poor people, their support U.S. foreign aid programs have
governments and development profes- been afraid to talk about aid’s short- In truth, the box has been open for a
sionals in the field. comings for fear it would undermine while now. Congress struggles almost
the case for funding. But U.S. taxpay- every year over family planning lan-
These shortcomings – just to name ers deserve more credit; they can see the guage, debates which countries should
a few – have become so clear to all limitations of our existing aid programs. get aid, and adds earmarked funds for
observers that it is hard for many to The way to strengthen foreign aid is not favored projects. If anything, a reform
understand why reform remains so po- to hope the public won’t notice the fail- process will mean that these controver-
litically difficult. Hence the need for a ings, but to engage in an honest discus- sies will be out in the open and more
tool to help us overcome this malaise sion about how we make U.S. develop- fully debated, making it more possible
and begin a new day for U.S. develop- ment programs work better. to reach consensus solutions.
ment assistance programs.
The next stage is anger. “This is a cra- The third stage is bargaining. “Well,
Stages of aid reform grief zy idea!” we say. “If you try to do this, fundamental reform is too hard. Maybe
When confronted with the reform you’ll open a Pandora’s box! The whole we can work on just fixing the existing
agenda, the first response of many of foreign aid system will fall apart. Mem- law, making a few changes, just to bring
us is denial. “The problem isn’t really bers of Congress won’t vote for any for- it up to date.” But the reality is that U.S.
that serious,” we say. “Sure, the law is eign aid bill, even a plan for reform.” development programs are so outdated
messed up, but it doesn’t actually pre- that modest reform doesn’t get you a
vent us from doing anything. A smart Opening Pandora’s box could be fright- working system, it only gets you some-
lawyer can get around it. We don’t need ening. If this box were opened, would thing less outdated. In order to make
reform, we just need more money.” we have fights over family planning and continued on page 28

Aid Effectiveness

Aid Effectiveness vs. Development Effectiveness:
A Paris Declaration for CSOs?
By Sylvain Browa, Senior Manager for Partnership & Development Impact, InterAction

n preparation for the September As donors, CSOs manage a signifi- izens inform aid agendas at the coun-
2008 Accra High Level Forum on cant proportion of private resources try level, and contribute to alternative
Aid Effectiveness, civil society or- provided by individuals, corporations development policies and initiatives. It
ganizations (CSOs) from around and foundations. These resources are is in this role that CSOs can mostly sig-
the world have been consulting over invested in support of the disadvan- nificantly impact the aid effectiveness
the past year on proposals to advance taged and marginalized communities reform, expanding the dialog to include
an aid and development effectiveness and groups around the globe. CSO considerations beyond the priorities of
agenda with donor and recipient gov- efforts are primarily informed by a donor and recipient governments.
ernments. In the process, CSOs have strong desire to express solidarity with
begun to discuss their own roles in the the disadvantaged and in most cases For CSOs, effective aid can only be
aid system and the related challenges run parallel to those of central govern- achieved when development is ap-
and opportunities. It is likely that a ments. Bringing CSO resources to bear propriately prioritized and properly
full and formal recognition of CSOs in the effort to make aid more effective practiced. While the PD is about “aid
as critical partners in improving the ef- would require recognizing and in some effectiveness” or the efficiency and ef-
fectiveness of official development aid instances adopting CSOs’ priorities fectiveness of the aid regime, CSOs are
(ODA) – a key expectation out of Ac- and underlying values and operational calling for a focus on the broader and
cra – could both deepen and broaden philosophy – namely, a focus on the more important concept of develop-
the scope of the Paris Declaration (PD) poor and marginalized. ment effectiveness – i.e., creating the
on aid effectiveness. conditions for an effective and lasting
As service providers, CSOs work pri- reduction in global poverty and inequal-
To further this discussion, about 80 marily with local communities and ity. CSOs believe that development
NGO networks from around the world independent community-based insti- concepts such as human rights, gender
will meet on June 29-30 in Paris to tutions. CSOs strive to respond to the equality and integration, and local ca-
begin to explore the concept of CSOs needs of these communities, which pacity building are central to achiev-
effectiveness. At this meeting the par- may differ from those of the national ing the aid effectiveness the PD seeks.
ticipants plan to launch an independent, governments. CSOs efforts to address Moreover, CSOs argue that the overall
CSO-led, global process to identify the their own effectiveness look not only goal of aid effectiveness as defined in
key principles relevant to CSO develop- at the mechanics of how their resourc- the PD (acceleration of the achieve-
ment effectiveness, along with a number es are managed and aid delivered, but ment of poverty reduction objectives,
of guidelines and good practices. This also at the outcomes and impact of including the Millennium Develop-
initiative – a sort of Paris Declaration their actions and, most importantly, the ment Goals) cannot be dissociated from
for CSOs – will be developed from De- capacity of their local partners to take the root causes of the problems that aid
cember 2008 through December 2010. ownership of these actions and carry seeks to address. Similarly, the realiza-
them forward. The aspirations and ca- tion of the objective of the PD should
The CSO initiative could be quite dif- pacity of CSOs’ primary partners could be informed by and assessed based on
ferent from the OECD/DAC-managed therefore become key factors in the aid the impact the PD reforms have on the
PD Principles on Aid Effectiveness, effectiveness debate. broader objectives of development and
which focus on improving the manage- humanitarian assistance.
ment of aid resources between donor As aid advocates, the most publicized
and recipient governments through in- role of CSOs is that of independent The CSO initiative is expected to help
stitutional reforms. The CSO initiative watchdogs of government action. harmonize and advance current efforts
will be informed by a complex web of However, the most important role of to address effectiveness issues in CSO
CSO functions (as donors, service pro- CSOs as aid advocates is that of giv- operations globally, and prepare CSOs
viders and aid advocates) and a value ing voice to the multitude of voiceless to engage in the review of the Paris
system different from the one that in- communities and marginalized groups. Declaration Principles scheduled for
spired the signatories of the PD. CSOs strive to help these voiceless cit- 2011 in Beijing.

Security Issues

Think Locally in Guard Management
By Josh Kearns, Associate Security Coordinator, InterAction

n late February 2008, U.S. NGOs the NGO was able to ensure that their
based in N’Djamena, the dusty capi- guards felt a strong sense of community
tal of Chad, were forced to evacuate with their neighbors. And by treating
when a coalition of armed opposi- the guards as equal members of the or-
tion groups stormed the city. Because ganization – stopping to ask after their
the attack was relatively unexpected families every day, including them in
(residents of N’Djamena had only two lunch plans and similar courtesies – a
days’ warning) and because evacuation sense of loyalty to the organization was
was largely on foot, there was little instilled. These basic, common sense or contract the work out to a guard
opportunity to secure office valuables measures saved the NGO’s property company. (This article focuses on the
before fleeing. The rebels entered the and, possibly, its programming. former; if choosing the latter course,
city, besieged the presidential palace be sure to consult other organizations
and looted the surrounding neighbor- “Steve,” a security professional at an- working in the region for recommen-
hoods, where many NGOs have their other NGO, agrees that common sense dations on reliable guard companies.)
offices. Two days later, the rebels with- or, more precisely, cultural sensitivity, Guidelines should then include policies
drew and retreated across Chad to their goes a long way toward maintaining an and procedures for hiring guards. As
rear operating bases in Darfur. Within effective and loyal guard team. He cited we saw in the Chad case, this step can
days, the market in El Geneina, West one example of an NGO whose policy make or break your guard program.
Darfur, was flush with goods purloined it was that all staff in the field office
from NGO offices in N’Djamena, ev- greet the guards by name upon entering Nepotism in hiring is frowned upon in
erything from mobile and satellite or exiting the facility. This was written the U.S. and many other western coun-
phones to standard office equipment. into the organization’s policy. At the tries. This is not always the case else-
other end of the spectrum, he recalled where in the world, where family, clan or
Absent from the Geneina stalls was the an expat program manager in a Mus- tribal relationships are often paramount.
equipment of one U.S. NGO whose lim country who asked his watchman Of course, NGOs must make their own
guards stayed behind to protect its to feed his dog, without ever offering decisions when it comes to hiring in the
property. As armed looters passed by food to the watchman. Adding insult to field. However, a guard with strong lo-
the front of the office, the guard on injury, the expat built a doghouse, but cal ties will be better connected to the
duty banged a brick against the inside no guardhouse to protect his protec- neighborhood rumor mill, enabling
of the front door, mimicking the sounds tor against the elements. In this situa- him to identify threats emanating from
of gunfire to successfully ward off po- tion, a lack of basic cultural sensitivity within the community. Furthermore,
tential trespassers, risking his life by worked against the expat manager and guards with ties to other national staff
drawing attention to himself. (InterAc- his NGO. When a critical incident be- already employed by the NGO will be
tion does not recommend this tactic!) fell the organization, the first person to more likely to perform honorably if not
turn and run was the watchman. one but two jobs depend on it. “Steve”
Why did these particular guards stay stressed that local laws must be taken
and defend their employer’s assets when One NGO shared its guard management into account when hiring guards. It is
the trained guards contracted to protect guidelines with InterAction. The guide- often good practice to hire guards from
the office next door fled? According to lines take the decision-maker (usually both local and more far-flung commu-
“Laura,” the Chad country director of the country director or security focal nities to ensure that you haven’t hired
the NGO, the reasons had little to do point) through the entire process. As the local organized crime ring. Review
with how much they were being paid with all security decisions, the first step these decisions on a case-by-case basis.
or their level of experience. Instead, is a comprehensive security risk assess-
she believes the guards’ performance ment, which should include a program “Bill,” another expat former security
had to do with good hiring and manage- assessment, a threat assessment and a professional related an anecdote in
ment practices. By hiring guards from risk assessment. Once it is determined which his hubris was humbled by a
the neighborhood, relying on the rec- that guards are necessary, the next deci- local-hire guard supervisor in Afghani-
ommendations of trusted national staff, sion is whether to hire guards directly stan who offered common-sense advice

Security Issues

on guard management. The expat was Is it Time for a Vehicular Paradigm Shift?
vexed by the fact that his night guard By John Schafer, Senior Security Coordinator, InterAction
was repeatedly caught sleeping on the

job. Finally, he took a photo of the guard f you have a 4x4 vehicle and are operating in Darfur, Somalia or other regions of
sleeping at his post, as an example for instability, the likelihood of being carjacked has never been higher. Yet some or-
future snoozers, and prepared to fire ganizations have failed to fully integrate the increased risk into how they operate
him. The guard supervisor intervened: on a daily basis. Some have mitigated the threat by using local taxis and this has
worked very well. However, incidents of armed break-ins to steal parked vehicles
“The problem is the schedule, not the have also increased, making the situation more dangerous for NGOs that are now
guard. No guard can be useful when intentional targets for those who want to steal 4x4 vehicles.
he has to work two 12-hour shifts to
cover for a sick guard. We need to Three of the main reasons these vehicles are being stolen are: (1) to generate cash;
work eight-hour shifts so that if one (2) to turn the vehicles into “technical” vehicles by cutting off the top and mounting
of our guards manning a post calls in a machine gun on it; and (3) to transport troops and materials.
sick, we only have to hold over the ex-
isting guard for four hours, turning it Maybe it is time to change the way we think about transport. There are options
into a 12-hour shift. We can bring the beyond the types of vehicles we commonly select. One is a series of new ultra light
next guard in early so that the team can utility vehicles that have design features that may help address this problem. I like
properly cover the shift.” to call them golf carts on steroids.

The result of this poor scheduling was Originally produced for farmers, these ultra light utility vehicles are powered by a
that all of Bill’s other guard manage- 760cc, 40hp engine that operates on diesel. They are designed to withstand rug-
ment policies – post orders, cross-train- ged terrain and the harsh environments. They have a completely sealed power train
ing drivers as guards and vice-versa, that can ford up to 30 inches of water. NGOs could buy three of them for the price of
daily activity logs – were rendered inef- one 4x4. They can be delivered to the
fective by exhausted guards. By imple- harshest of conditions via airplane
menting the eight-hour shift schedule, or helicopter, and in many places it
the problem was solved. is easier to clear them through cus-
toms because they are often licensed
In the examples above, good guard as motorcycles.
management practices helped organi-
zations get the most from their locally Using these ultra light utility vehicles
hired guards. The NGO in the Chad would help reduce the risk of attacks
anecdote did not have a codified guard on NGO vehicles in several ways.
management policy, and relied instead First, because the top speed for these
upon their country director’s common vehicles is 40 miles per hour, it would be less attractive to bandits seeking vehicles
sense and cultural sensitivity, honed that can keep up with the columns of rebel movements. Second, heavy machine
over years working abroad. In this ex- guns cannot be placed on them. Third, their small size means they cannot be used
ample it paid off. However, not every to transport many troops.
program director or country director is
endowed with these gifts: remember the Factory customization can turn these “golf carts on steroids” into ambulances and
dog example? The sound course of ac- allow them to carry four passengers. The cabs can be fully enclosed to protect the
tion for NGOs working in insecure en- occupants from the environment. Carts can also be added to handle large amounts
vironments is to put into writing guard of hauling.
management guidelines that include
hiring procedures, training, equipping, Using these vehicles may also address another risk to NGOs — traffic accidents. The
management and a host of other details lower speed of these vehicles may lessen the severity of injuries sustained in the
that will simplify the decision-making event of an accident.
process for over-worked field manag-
ers. An organization’s guidelines should Using these vehicles may be one novel step in solving a major problem that hu-
reflect the NGO’s values and allow for manitarian workers face around the world, but it is not a panacea. I am still amazed
by the organizations through out the world that do not have policies mandating
flexibility to adapt to the local situation.
the wearing of seat belts.
And don’t forget cultural sensitivity.

Military & Development

The Militarization of Foreign Aid
By Jim Bishop, Vice President, Humanitarian Policy and Practice, InterAction

he increased engagement by AFRICOM, it is unlikely to be called on
the U.S. armed forces in the to wage war. To justify its size and fund-
development and humanitar- ing it sees itself playing an increasingly
ian activities traditionally the prominent role in relief and development
primary responsibilities in the United activities in Central and South America.
States of civilian agencies and NGOs
has multiple roots. In a reversal of this trend in which
some civilian officials in the admin-
Programs to win the hearts and minds of istration pushed for more military in-
local populations in contested areas are volvement in development activities,
a long-standing military practice. But in in congressional testimony Secretary
Afghanistan and Iraq the U.S. military Gates has voiced his concern about the
and some of its coalition partners have extent to which the military is being
greatly expanded these activities. Fail- called on to undertake foreign aid ac-
ure to commit sufficient military forces tivities. He has spoken out publicly in
to achieve ambient security in the early favor of increased funding for USAID

Photo: Jordan Beesley
years of the war in Afghanistan, con- and State and authorization for staffing
fusion between the roles of NGO and levels that would give them the surge
military personnel caused by military capacities they now lack.
activities mimicking NGO operations,
Over 21 percent of American foreign
and the lack of a civilian surge capacity
assistance is now channeled through
prompted the creation of military led from peace to combat, making this a the U.S. armed forces, a four-fold in-
provincial reconstruction teams. Now radical departure for the armed forces. crease in just six years. In responding to
deployed in both Afghanistan and Iraq, It was undertaken at the initiative of the natural disasters, the military can bring
American PRTs (provincial reconstruc- Bush Administration, not that of the to bear assets not readily available to
tion teams) undertake humanitarian uniformed military. The State Depart- NGOs, helping them accomplish their
and development projects. These are ment tried to create a surge capacity life-saving missions. But the effective-
financed by a billion-dollar congressio- that would enable it to respond in sta- ness of military personnel diverted from
nal appropriation the Pentagon wants bilization scenarios. But State received the activities for which they are trained
to increase and make available to all insufficient support from the adminis- to engage in development activities for
combatant commands. tration to win congressional appropria- which they often do not have appropri-
tion of the required financial support. ate skills raises serious questions regard-
As part of its global war on terror- ing sustainability and accountability.
ism the administration is using mili- The decision to create a separate mili-
tary units to shore up fragile states tary command for Africa, called AF- Some would argue that it should not
that might become havens or training RICOM, was accompanied by the an- make a difference which part of the
grounds for terrorists in the Horn of nouncement that it would be a different government is providing foreign aid.
Africa and West Africa’s Sahel region. type of military organization. It would But the face America presents to the
Small teams of military personnel are be heavily engaged in humanitarian and world sends a message about the nature
digging wells and building schools. development activities on the continent. of our society. Do we want it to be under
The initial announcement was, in part, a the aid worker’s baseball cap emblem-
In November 2005 the Defense Depart- reflection of the fact that it was unlikely atic of our democracy or the soldier’s
ment issued a directive instructing the AFRICOM would be called on to en- helmet of a garrison state?
military services to give preparation for gage in combat and some additional jus-
engaging in stabilization operations the tification for its creation was required. Agree or disagree with what you’ve read?
same priority they were giving to pre- Send a letter to the editor
paring for combat. Stabilization opera- The Southern Command, or SOUTH- Contact Chad Brobst at
(letters will be published in a future issue)
tions were defined as spanning those COM, poses another problem. Like


Addressing the “Complaints Deficit” awareness campaigns; and (4) organi-
zations should mitigate the risk factors

in Sexual Exploitation
for sexual exploitation and abuse.

In summary, organizations need to set
and Abuse aside sufficient resources and develop
systematic monitoring systems in part-
nership with beneficiaries, while also
By Coleen Heemskerk, Complaints Handling Officer, making information on complaints and
Humanitarian Accountability Partnership International investigations accessible and involv-

ing beneficiaries to participate in the
he 2002 reports of sexual aid workers occurs. They know that development and refining of the pro-
exploitation in West Afri- women and children are particularly cesses. This framework would empow-
can refugee camps exposed vulnerable to such abuse, yet they con- er beneficiaries to give improvement
humanitarian organizations tinually expressed a distrust of how or- feedback or to complain when service
to the existence of such abuse. The re- ganizations manage complaints against is inadequate or harmful.
sulting shock led many organizations their staff. Even in locations where
to develop codes of conduct, investiga- intensive prevention and response pro- HAP member agencies believe that
tion protocols and additional training on grams are in place, most participants this framework is available already in
preventing and responding to exploita- stated that they would rarely complain the HAP Standard in Humanitarian
tion and abuse. Now, six years later, Hu- to humanitarian organizations about Accountability and Quality Manage-
manitarian Accountability Partnership basic day-to-day issues let alone sexual ment, which has embedded within it a
International (HAP) has conducted a misconduct by an aid worker. Conse- commitment to providing complaints-
beneficiary-based consultation to ascer- quently, the report highlights just how handling mechanisms. Organizations
tain if humanitarian beneficiaries feel rare complaints are and points to why that comply with the HAP Standard
safer as a result of NGO and UN efforts investigations end up being even rarer. demonstrate their achievements in ac-
to prevent sexual exploitation and abuse countability and quality management
by aid workers. The use of the term ben- A vast number of respondents stated in a process developed and recognized
eficiary is not intended to diminish the that organizations need to improve by humanitarian peers. These agencies
dignity or resilience of consultation par- efforts to meaningfully consult with undertake to establish and implement
ticipants. The final report, To Complain them when creating complaints mecha- complaints-handling procedures that
or Not to Complain: Still the Question, nisms. Most importantly, aid organiza- are effective, accessible and safe for
indicates that global expectations on tions need to create an environment of intended beneficiaries, disaster-affect-
how long meaningful change would trust allowing for dialogue between the ed communities, organization staff and
take, how much it would cost and what beneficiary and the aid organizations in humanitarian partners.
would be involved were unrealistic. which listening and feedback are taken
seriously and produce results. No one can argue against the fact that
The consultation process involved the exploitation and abuse by staff is a
participation of nearly 300 beneficiaries It is also worth noting that even human- result of an organization’s failure to
of humanitarian aid. Participants aired itarian staff expressed wariness about be accountable to beneficiaries of hu-
their perceptions on whether or not the reporting on fellow aid workers. Fear manitarian aid. The goal is to create an
magnitude of sexual exploitation and of retaliation and lack of safety are per- environment in which exploitation and
abuse is changing and were asked for vasive barriers to complaining for both abuse does not occur, but if it does, that
their suggestions on how best to improve groups of people. The report highlights organizations are made aware of the
prevention and response mechanisms. four recommendations to address this problem, they reply swiftly and ben-
With consultations in Kenya, Namibia “complaints deficit”: (1) organizations eficiaries feel safer. At the very least,
and Thailand, despite the diversity of must embed a prevention and response all humanitarian organizations must re-
cultures and circumstances in each case, mechanism in the organization’s ac- move the dilemma many currently ex-
many similar patterns emerged. countability framework; (2) organi- perience as to whether or not to speak
zations must create an environment out against sexual exploitation and
Unsurprisingly, the majority of partici- of trust and meaningful partnership abuse, so that in another five years, “To
pants are all too well aware of when and between agency staff and beneficia- complain or not to complain?” will no
where sexual exploitation and abuse by ries; (3) organizations should conduct longer be the question.

Southern Voices Aid Reform form is the right thing to do, that it is
continued from page 8 continued from page 22 necessary, and it is possible.
has the ability to develop mechanisms development programs work for the 21st
The U.S. can and should have a modern
that ensure that it is accountable to it- century, we need to start with a program
foreign aid system that prioritizes fighting
self, its constituencies and the laws that designed for the 21st century, not update
poverty. Only then will we will be able to
govern the state. one designed for the Cold War.
pursue our goal of supporting effective
states with empowered citizens who can
There are concerns in the region that The fourth is depression. “Why bother
participate in fair and open markets.
stressing self regulation in the civil soci- trying to reform the system. All the
ety sector will put the sector on the defen- past efforts have failed. We need to fo-
The United States needs to modernize
sive and make it succumb to government cus on protecting the existing funding.
the law, strategy and structure of our for-
machinations aimed at curbing CSOs’ Reform will never happen.” This stage
eign aid. We need to rewrite the law so
influence and their espoused watchdog can be the most difficult for us suffer-
role in society. While these concerns are we can build a new consensus between
ers. But there is hope, particularly from
justifiable, WACSI believes that the calls Congress, the President, and the Ameri-
some who have grappled with these
for self-regulation provide an opportu- can people on the basic elements of for-
same issues for years.
nity for the sector to objectively set stan- eign aid and what it should accomplish.
dards by which its viability, relevance Take, for instance, the words of House We need a thoughtful, longer-term and
and effectiveness can be gauged. Foreign Affairs Committee Chairman well-resourced strategy for how we en-
Howard Berman: “Next year (2009), our gage with our partners to achieve those
The reality of West Africa in the 21st committee intends to reform and rewrite goals. And we need to build a new co-
century is that the region is yearning the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961.” ordinated structure in the U.S. govern-
for a responsive and responsible civil ment that can define, pursue and sustain
society that can work with governments Or those of State/Foreign Operations Ap- our efforts to execute our strategy.
to address the prevalent challenges in propriations Chairwoman Nita Lowey:
the region. WACSI ( “It’s time for us to look at the foreign Finally, we need to change the practice
was established by the Open Society assistance apparatus of the United of U.S. development assistance so that it
Initiative for West Africa to assist civil States not with an eye toward further puts poor people and their governments
society in building viable institutions tinkering around the edges, in my in charge of their own development. Our
that can play this role in the region. The judgment, but with the aim of rein- top business schools drum this mantra
Institute’s mandate is to ensure that civil venting it to reflect the challenges into the heads of new MBAs: know your
society actors are strong institutionally and needs of the 21st century.” customer. U.S. development assistance
and technically competent to inform should adopt this approach, and be flex-
and influence policy making at differ- And the recent statement by the Ranking ible enough to listen to the needs of poor
ent stages in the region. Republican on the House Foreign Af- people and their governments.
fairs Committee, Ileana Ros-Lehtinen:
“[W]e have not reformed the 1961 It is all possible. But it will all involve
Global Warming concerted engagement from people
Foreign Assistance Act in any truly
continued from page 14 who believe that the United States gov-
meaningful way since 1973. I com-
to sustainable development posed by mend the new Chairman of our Com- ernment has a mission and an interest in
global warming. Top priorities for ac- mittee, Mr. Berman, for committing ending global poverty. There is a unique
tion are enactment of U.S. support for to the task of both authorizing our opportunity right now to fix foreign aid.
adaptation assistance as part of climate assistance and overhauling our basic A growing number of NGOs, think
change legislation and U.S. leadership foreign assistance statute, which is tanks, advocacy organizations and U.S.
to achieve a global agreement that in- now close to fifty years old.” citizens are coming together to work for
cludes adaptation assistance. These reform. By tackling our grief, we can
and the other important issues men- These people are veterans of numer- take on this noble mission, and build a
tioned come with a ticking clock of ur- ous fights over foreign aid. Yet they are better toolkit to fight global poverty.
gency. Increasingly anxious reports by confronting foreign aid reform head-
scientists and bulletins about melting on. If they can do it, there’s hope for And one last thought: the five stages
ice and gathering storms remind us of the rest of us. of grief, as identified by the psychia-
Francis Bacon’s warning that “he that trist Elizabeth Kübler-Ross, were first
will not apply new remedies must ex- Moving to acceptance published in 1969, and are thus eight
pect new evils, for time is the greatest Finally, grudgingly, most of us move years newer than our current foreign
innovator.” on to acceptance: accepting that re- aid system.

CAREER Developments

Do Emerging Trends Affect Career Trends?
By Michael Haslett, Senior Communications Associate, InterAction

he theme of this month’s Monday Developments is “Trends in Development.” That got
me thinking about how different topics and new ideas have affected my thoughts on
Next Month’s Question:
international development, and specifically about the decisions I have made profes-
sionally and academically. What are the
best ways for
When microfinance became a big topic several years ago after Muhammad Yunus received
the Nobel Prize, I found myself reading a lot more about microfinance and micro-lending.
entry and junior
I even took some courses on international economics. The fact that Southeast Asia was al- level people to
ready a region of interest to me and that business and economics were subjects that I had start a career
knowledge of made microfinance a form of development that was approachable to me. Now
though, as I see topics like food aid and disaster relief in the news, I’m not struck the same internationally?
way. While I am interested, I do not find myself researching with the same fervor as I had What ways can
with microfinance.
people recently
To get a better idea of how people approach these subjects, I decided to ask members of our out of school find
community: “How have trends in development influenced your career choices? How big a engaging field
role do hot topics and new ideas play in your decision-making when looking for jobs?” The
following are some of the insightful answers I received: work?
“Trends in development have influenced me quite profoundly actually. When I was fin-
ishing college and entering into this work in 1998, I was mainly introduced to strong
critiques of development. I worked in the Andes with indigenous communities that were
partnered with Westerners – all critiquing western-implemented agriculture and gender
programs. That “trend” highlighting the problems with development at the time influ-
enced me strongly; I left international work for seven years for domestic community
development work. Now that I’m entering the field again, I come in with more focused
skills around education and post-conflict settings, and renewed vision. Is this due to the
masters education I received, where this work was not highly problematized? Perhaps.
Trends, in my experience, not only provide open doors but cautions and road-blocks.”
– Liz Gruenfeld

“…the impact of conflict (and conflict resolution) on development has fascinated me
and been a significant influence on my choice to pursue a PhD in international conflict
resolution.” – Cheryl Duckworth

“As I develop career goals, following the latest research in the field and current events
affecting people living in poverty has allowed me to see the bigger picture and identify
where growing needs and my skills meet. Paying attention to the major funding trends is
Have an opinion?
also helpful in predicting where the newest jobs will be and resources will flow. Above Let us know what you think!
all, I think it is important to stay flexible and develop concrete skills that will be relevant Send your responses
despite changes to the landscape in the field.” – Christine C. to Michael Haslett at
“When a hot topic arises, I try to become educated or more aware of the issue. However,,
I also find myself becoming skeptical of organizations that appear to have jumped on the with “Career Developments”
band wagon just because funding has become available because the topic has become in the subject line.
popular.” – Jeremy W.

To advertise, call 202-667-8227 ext 548 or email MONDAY DEVELOPMENTS July 2008 29
this position will develop and implement

Employment Opportunities key strategies for the West Central and
Island Africa region in order to maximize
mission impact. The ideal candidate will
possess 5 to 7 years of multi-country
Health Office Senior Country Director program management experience with
Project OfficeR Chad an international NGO or multinational
Washington, DC World Concern is seeking a Country Di- organization which has operations in
Crown Agents USA, Inc. (CA-USA), a US rector to lead an alliance of 6 Christian the West Central and Island Africa region.
incorporated development firm, is seek- relief and development organizations Cross cultural management and commu-
ing a Health Office Senior Project Of- in responding to humanitarian needs nity development experience required. A
ficer for our Washington, DC office. The in Eastern Chad. The program is an inte- willingness to communicate and affirm
purpose of this position is to provide grated approach in wat/san, livelihoods the values and principles of HFHI is a
administrative and technical support for and health. The Country Director will be must. Excellent English and French lan-
the USAID-funded health program and responsible to provide overall in-coun- guage communication skills required. If
will work with health, contracts, finance, try leadership, policy, strategy, program you would like to fill a key role with a dy-
and procurement staff in order to imple- design, support, implementation and namic organization making a difference
ment efficient field office operations and reporting, and budget management throughout the world, you can express
activities. Must have a BA with minimum as well as supervise Chadian and inter- interest by going to our website, www.
five years experience in health com- national staff. The Country Director will and applying on-line. HFHI is
modity procurement and supply chain represent World Concern and the alli- an equal opportunity employer.
management systems, international ance to the Chadian government and
development, or other related sectors. donors. Requirements: 5 years of proven Program Technical Advisor/
Apply at http://careers.crownagentsusa. success in int’l program management, Writer
com. Visit for managing a multi-cultural team, experi- New York, NY
more information. CA-USA is an Equal ence in complex emergencies, program The African Medical and Research
Opportunity Employer. design and report writing. Experience Foundation (AMREF USA) seeks a public
on food- or cash-for-work programming health professional to support health
Country Program Director a plus. Intermediate French or Arabic, development projects in Africa. Based
Nigeria fluency preferred. Apply at http://www. in NYC with travel to Africa. Will develop
Partners for Development (PFD) seeks project proposals and budgets for foun-
a Country Program Director for its Ni- Page.aspx?&pid=929&srcid=427. dations, corporations, and USG agen-
geria program. Key responsibilities are: cies; monitor and evaluate projects;
Oversee direction of programs, includ- Regional Director West provide technical support to project
ing management of current objectives Central and Island Africa staff; ensure the quality and timeliness
and assets; prospect for new business; Pretoria, South Africa of reports; and work with U.S.-based
insure strong financial management; Habitat for Humanity International partners and donors. Required: MPH,
and develop/strengthen management (HFHI) an international Christian ministry field and technical backstopping ex-
systems. Qualifications are: Significant dedicated to eliminating substandard perience, proposal and report writing.
NGO field management experience, housing and homelessness worldwide, is USAID Child Survival and Health Grants
preferably in public health, SED, and seeking a seasoned professional to serve Program experience especially desir-
local capacity-building; demonstrated as its Regional Director - West Central and able. Excellent writing and communica-
self-reliant problem-solver; outstand- Island Africa. Reporting to the are vice tion skills. Full time with benefits. Send
ing communications skills, written and president of Africa and the Middle East, c.v. to
oral; planning; budgeting; proposal-
development; financial management;
liaison/negotiation with donors/host
governments; cultural sensitivity; and InterAction’s
skilled in regulations of bi-lateral, multi-
lateral and private foundations. Appli- New Online
Job Board!
cants must be a dedicated team player
proficient in a multiple-deadline envi-
ronment; computer proficient; and have
a relevant advanced degree. Position is
based in Abuja with travel as necessary. Visit:
We are an EOE. Mail, fax or e-mail cover Talk about interacting! To compliment Monday Developments’ popular monthly
letter, salary expectations, date of avail-
job section, InterAction’s new online job board instantly connects you to the latest
ability and resume to: Partners for De-
velopment, 1320 Fenwick Lane, Suite international development jobs as they become available. Search by job sector, level,
406, Silver Spring, MD 20910, USA. Fax: region and country—or post your resume and let the hiring managers come to you!

30 InterAction’s MONDAY DEVELOPMENTS To advertise, call 202-667-8227 ext 548 or email
Modernizing Foreign Assistance Network Coordinator
A broad network of organizations has come together to achieve the objectives of elevating development and modernizing foreign
assistance in the U.S. national interest. The Network is looking for a Coordinator to provide leadership and direction to develop, coordinate
and implement strategies for government relations, media, presidential candidate and transition outreach and legislative drafting. He/she
will develop and implement strategies to bring additional members into the Network and maintain relationships and enhance synergies
between all Network members.
Candidates for consideration must have ten plus years of relevant work experience, including management, coalition work and Hill
experience. He/she must have strong coalition-building and networking skills and the ability to bring new voices to the conversation about
foreign assistance reform. A strong knowledge is needed of foreign policy, foreign aid and the development establishment with a proven
ability to advance policy proposals in government and non-government arenas. Strong written, oral communications and presentational
skills are critical as well as strong interpersonal skills and an ability to strategically manage multiple activities under tight deadlines while
maintaining a sense of humor. Experience in political campaigns is a plus.
The selected candidate will supervise and lead other staff hired for the Network and work with staff from Network organizations. Network
staff will be housed at Bread for the World.
Send cover letter, resume, availability and salary requirements to: Bread for the World, Attn: HR-MFAN-C, 50 F Street, NW, Suite 500,
Washington, DC 20001 or email to: (highly preferred). No phone calls please. EOE

Modernizing Foreign Assistance Network Media Specialist
A broad network of organizations has come together to achieve the objectives of elevating development and modernizing foreign
assistance in the U.S. national interest. The Network is looking for a Media Specialist to work with Network members to develop and
implement a comprehensive and diversified media relations program for the Network with a primary focus on generating media coverage
for the Network’s legislative agenda. The Media Specialist will work closely with the Network Coordinator to position the Network for
maximum impact and develop materials for use by the entire Network to “sell” our story. He/she will maintain strong relationships and
enhancing synergies between all Network members.
Candidates for consideration must have at least five years of media experience, preferably as a journalist or in communications work on
Capitol Hill. He/she must have a knowledge of legislative processes and political climate. Strong written, oral, analytical and presentational
skills are required along with the skills to rapidly react to breaking news and the ability to seize media opportunities. Knowledge of
international and development issues are a plus. Strong interpersonal skills are a must with an ability to strategically manage multiple
activities under tight deadlines while maintaining a sense of humor.
The selected candidate will report to the Network Coordinator and work with staff from Network organizations. Network staff will be
housed at Bread for the World.
Send cover letter, resume, availability and salary requirements to: Bread for the World, Attn: HR-MFAN-MS, 50 F Street, NW, Suite 500,
Washington, DC 20001 or email to: (highly preferred). No phone calls please. EOE

Modernizing Foreign Assistance Network Senior Policy and Government Relations Associate
A broad network of organizations has come together to achieve the objectives of elevating development and modernizing foreign assistance
in the U.S. national interest. The Network is looking for a Senior Policy Associate to work with Network members to implement advocacy
efforts with the U.S. Congress, Administration, non-governmental organizations, grassroots organizations and think tanks. The Associate
will work closely with the Network Coordinator to position Network proposals for maximum impact by developing and implementing
legislative strategies, gaining support on Capitol Hill, counting votes, briefing staff and Members of Congress, and providing opportunities
for grass-tops and grassroots support at strategic times. He/she will maintain strong relationships and enhancing synergies between all
Network members.
Candidates for consideration must have a Bachelor’s degree in public policy, international development or related area (or the equivalent
in work experience) and five plus years of work experience with Congress. A Master’s degree is preferred. Knowledge of international
issues and development/diplomacy-focused organizations is critical. Strong written and oral communications and presentational skills are
necessary as well as strong analytical skills. Strong interpersonal skills are a must with an ability to strategically manage multiple activities
under tight deadlines while maintaining a sense of humor.
The selected candidate will report to the Network Coordinator and work with staff from Network organizations. Network staff will be
housed at Bread for the World.
Send cover letter, resume, availability and salary requirements to: Bread for the World, Attn: HR-MFAN-SPA, 50 F Street, NW, Suite 500,
Washington, DC 20001 or email to: (highly preferred). No phone calls please. EOE

To advertise, call 202-667-8227 ext 548 or email MONDAY DEVELOPMENTS July 2008 31
Senior Finance Officer
Southern Africa Region
Washington, DC SIT Graduate Institute
formerly School for International Training
Oversee the financial management of a complex regional
portfolio of cash grant programs supporting World Vision’s International Development
efforts in Southern Africa from proposal stage to closeout. Programs
Grant budgeting, management and reporting to both internal s-ASTERSDEGREESINDYNAMIClELDS
and external customers; ensuring audit compliance and building
including Sustainable Development,
capacity of local and field staff. Assist in policy and procedure
Conflict Transformation, and Management
development. Provide regional expertise from previous life and/
or international work experience. s$EGREECONCENTRATIONS
Development Management
Bachelors or Master's degree (accounting, finance or
Conflict and Development
international business) or equivalent, MBA strongly preferred.
Mission-Driven Organizations
5+ years of accounting and/or grants management experience
required, CPA or other professional accreditation preferred. s3CHOLARSHIPSUPTO 
Previous work experience in an international/domestic relief for qualified returned Peace Corps volunteers
and development organization recommended, preferably in
the region of service. Strong relational skills and the ability to WWWSITEDUGRADUATE
communicate and provide effective training cross-culturally. 40
hours of continuing professional education required annually in WWWWORLDLEARNINGORG
this position. International and domestic travel possible (up to
Please apply online at:, Job # 1881

Operations Seeking Civil Society Leaders
Director The Synergos Institute seeks outstanding applicants for
Manila, Philippines our next class of Senior Fellows.

Synergos Senior Fellows are distinguished civil society
Conservation International is seeking an leaders from around the world who are committed to
Operations Director to oversee the Finance, bringing stakeholders together across divides to achieve
Administrative, IT, and Human Resources significant and sustainable social change.
functions for the Philippines Center for
Biodiversity Conservation in Manila, Philippines. Senior Fellows participate in a three-year learning,
The Operations Director will guide the program service and action program that builds their skills,
in the development and implementation of spreads their knowledge and deepens their impact.
sustainable management strategies, support The next Fellowship begins in January 2009; costs
fund raising efforts, set operational management of the Fellows’ participation are provided by Synergos
standards, and ensure that human and financial and its supporters.
resources are aligned and maximized for the
greatest conservation impact. Deadline for applications is July 14, 2008. For more
information and to apply, visit
For more information and to apply for this
position, please visit

32 InterAction’s MONDAY DEVELOPMENTS To advertise, call 202-667-8227 ext 548 or email
Brandeis University
The Heller School of Social Policy and Management Knowledge Advancing Social Justice

The End of Poverty ...
One Degree at a Time
Over 150 students in residence from 65 countries forming one of x M.A. in Sustainable International Development
the largest programs of its kind in the world. M.S. in International Health Policy and Management
x M.B.A. concentration in Sustainable Development
Alumni are employed by U.N. agencies, bilateral and multilateral
aid organizations, and NGOs throughout the world. x M.P.P. concentration in Poverty
x Dual M.A. programs in Sustainable Development with
Generous financial assistance for Peace Corps and other service Coexistence & Conflict and with Women & Gender Studies
organization volunteers.

A community of activists and scholars on the front lines of social policy.

To advertise, call 202-667-8227 ext 548 or email MONDAY DEVELOPMENTS July 2008 33
“Any intelligent fool can make things bigger, more complex,
and more violent. It takes a touch of genius— and a lot of
courage—to move in the opposite direction.”
—Albert Einstein, at whose suggestion the IRC was founded

Peter Biro | Communications Officer

Maxim Bushiri | Health Information Officer

Rafael Jedi | Logistics

It takes the best to prevail against
the worst of crises.
To join us, please visit:

34 InterAction’s MONDAY DEVELOPMENTS To advertise, call 202-667-8227 ext 548 or email
AT WORK Legislative and Program Associate Positions
in Public Policy and Advocacy

Regional Safety & Security InterAction seeks to fill at least two associate positions on its Public
Advisor Policy and Outreach team. Depending on his/her experience the
Middle East candidate will be considered for one of the following positions:
Associate for Advocacy and Outreach, Associate for Legislative
Finance Director Research, Associate for Campaign Coordination, Associate for
DR Congo Poverty Focused Development. Each position will support
InterAction’s public policy strategy and facilitate the advocacy of
Finance Controller
relevant subject area working groups. This includes advocacy on U.S.
foreign assistance policy, budget and appropriations issues related
Director of Programs to international development programs, coordination with other
DR Congo poverty-focused networks, as well as on aspects of U.S. relationships
with the United Nations, the World Bank and other bodies. Some
Deputy Director of positions may be more research focused, depending upon particular
Field Operations needs and demands.
The associate positions will be part of InterAction’s Public Policy
Governance & Rights Unit and report to the Senior Director for Public Policy and External
Director Relations. Associates will work closely with Senior Legislative
London or New York
Associates and Managers on the Policy team and are expected to
work with other InterAction units that relate to their subject matter

To learn more about working QUALIFICATIONS:
with us, please visit
Depending on the position, ideal qualifications could include congressional experience and/or advocacy experience, grassroots
training and organizing, issue campaign management, strong
quantitative and analytical skills, at least a bachelor’s degree
(master’s work/degree preferred), experience abroad, experience
with or interest in development work, good people skills, research
and organizational skills, strong writing and communications skills
as well as the ability to juggle multiple tasks and prioritize in a fast
paced, changing environment.

To apply, please email a cover letter, resume, and writing sample to Applications will be accepted until the
positions are filled.

To advertise, call 202-667-8227 ext 548 or email MONDAY DEVELOPMENTS July 2008 35
1400 16th Street, NW, Suite 210
Washington, DC 20036
Phone: (202) 667-8227
Fax: (202) 667-8236

InterAction is the largest alliance of U.S.-based international
development and humanitarian nongovernmental
organizations. With more than 160 members operating in every
developing country, we work to overcome poverty, exclusion
and suffering by advancing social justice and basic dignity for all.