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MONDAY

DEVELOPMENTS
The Latest Issues and Trends in International Development and Humanitarian Assistance

Positive
Change Through
Advocacy May 2008
Vol. 26, No. 5
InterAction
Features
03 Inside this Issue
04 Global Poverty Act Offers
Opportunity to Strengthen U.S.
Development Assistance
06 What the Candidates Are Saying
About International Development?
07 Iraq Action Days: Advocating for
Humanitarian Assistance
08 Preparing for the G8 Summit
10 Who’s Advocating for Aid Workers
in Sudan?
12 Safe Drinking Water and
Adequate Sanitation Crucial to
Eradicating Poverty
14 The Ottawa International Forum on
Multi-Stakeholder Dialogue on Civil
Society and Aid Effectiveness
16 The Missing Dimensions of the
Accra Agenda for Action:
Rights-Based Development
18 Saying “No” in a “Say Yes” Business
19 Housing for the Poor and Urban
MONDAY DEVELOPMENTS Slums – A Crisis in Need of Attention
Managing Editor Monday Developments is published 12
and Action
times a year by InterAction, the largest
Nia Davis
alliance of U.S.-based international
20 Reliance on Supplemental Funding for
Editor development and humanitarian Humanitarian Response Programs
nongovernmental organizations. With
Kathy Ward
more than 160 members operating in every
developing country, InterAction works to
Copy Editor
Nia Davis
overcome poverty, exclusion and suffering Also in this Issue
by advancing social justice and basic
dignity for all. 22 Inside Our Community
Advertising & Sales
Michael Haslett InterAction welcomes submissions of news 24 Inside InterAction
articles, opinions and announcements.
Communications Department
Article submission does not guarantee 26 Career Developments
inclusion in Monday Developments. We
Nasserie Carew, Public Relations
Tawana Jacobs, Public Relations
reserve the right to reject submissions 27 Position Announcements
for any reason. It is at the discretion of
Tony Fleming, New Media our editorial team as to which articles are
Chad Brobst, Publications Manager published in individual issues.
Michael Haslett, Publications
All statements in articles are the sole
Editorial Committee opinion and responsibility of the authors.
Public Policy & Outreach Team,
Articles may be reprinted with prior
InterAction permission and attribution. Letters to the
editor are encouraged.
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Inside this Issue

Positive Change Through Advocacy
By Sam Worthington, President
and CEO, InterAction

F
or more than two decades InterAction and its members
have advocated for Congress and the White House to
increase the International Affairs Budget for relief
and poverty-reducing programs. To be sure, we can
boast some major successes. But while the overall level for
the International Affairs Budget has tripled over recent years,
many program areas of longer-term development have not

Photo courtesy: Martha Hourican
kept pace and urgent humanitarian needs are chronically un-
derfunded. Increasingly we ask not just how much is needed,
but also how can scarce resources be used more effectively?

Next January the country will have a new administration,
a new Congress and a new opportunity to elevate poverty
focused development. Between now and then InterAc-
tion’s advocacy will continue to respond to the daily chal-
lenges confronting our sector while laying the groundwork foreign assistance. We will also advocate for the creation of
for greater aid effectiveness in the future. A year ago we a National Development Strategy and the establishment of a
were in the midst of trying to understand and respond to cabinet level department for global development.
the effects of the “F” (foreign assistance) reform process at
USAID and the State Department. Few at that time could This month in Monday Developments, we explore the real
have predicted the explosion of interest that the broader effects our community’s advocacy is having on policy
reform issue commands today. InterAction’s positions and change. Highlights include a summary of the recent Iraq
principles on effective humanitarian and development as- Action Days forum and its efforts to focus Congressional
sistance have never been more relevant and needed than attention on the humanitarian issues the conflict has pro-
they are in the current debate. duced. We also investigate advocacy that directly targets
safe water, climate change and urban housing.
Numerous recent articles, books, commission reports and
congressional hearings have buttressed three themes of In- During recent travels to Darfur, I witnessed first-hand the
terAction’s advocacy on aid reform: (1) global challenges hardships of the Sudanese people, as well as the stress and
now, and in the future, require the U.S. to effectively use challenges affecting those who support them. In this issue
all of its foreign policy assets: defense, diplomacy, and de- we ask: “Who is advocating for Sudan’s aid workers?” We
velopment; (2) properly resourced, civilian-led humanitar- also look at the effects of proposed legislation such as the
ian and development assistance must be elevated; and (3) Global Poverty Act, as well as recent and upcoming forums
the fragmented U.S. foreign assistance system badly needs in Ottawa and Accra. In addition, we examine important ad-
revamping and restructuring. vocacy issues for July’s G8 Summit.

Within the expanding debate on how to reform U.S. foreign The success of InterAction’s advocacy rests upon the ag-
assistance policy, InterAction continues to advocate for pro- gregate strengths of its 165 member organizations and its
grams and institutional structures that put saving lives and many friends and strategic allies. There is still much work to
poverty reducing development at their core. Going into next do in terms of educating the next administration, Congress,
year, we will closely follow efforts to reauthorize the For- and opinion leaders on how poverty focused development
eign Assistance Act, and call upon the next administration to works and why it matters. The best way to restore our na-
enter into a grand bargain with Congress and civil society tion’s standing around the globe is to proudly and confident-
organizations to forge a new paradigm for more effective ly show the rest of the world America’s human face.

MONDAY DEVELOPMENTS May 2008 3
Global Poverty Act Offers Opportunity to
Strengthen U.S. Development Assistance
By Kimberly Burge, Senior Writer/Editor and Erin Tunney, Sr. International Policy Analyst, Bread for the World

M
ore and better poverty-fo- the number of people living on less than programs is currently split up between
cused development assis- $1 a day) an official part of U.S. policy. 12 departments, 25 different agencies,
tance is a critical compo- It would require the president to de- and almost 60 government offices.
nent of the effort to meet velop and implement a comprehensive
the Millennium Development Goals plan to carry out that policy. For example, U.S. trade policies greatly
(MDGs). These eight, achievable ob- affect the ability of a country to grow
jectives were adopted by the nations of Congress can improve U.S. assistance its economy, develop, and reduce the
the world, including the United States, to ensure the maximum benefit reaches poverty within its borders. Yet, the U.S.
in 2000 in order to improve the quality those in greatest need. The Global Pov- Trade Representative is not involved in
of life of hundreds of millions of poor erty Act calls for a strategy to determine the discussion of a country’s develop-
people around the world. By Bread the right mix of aid, trade, debt policies ment strategy. The same holds true for
for the World’s calculations, funding and investments. The strategy should the Treasury Department and its work
for poverty-focused development as- also include consultation with the pri- on debt cancellation, and with interna-
sistance has more than doubled since vate sector, civil society and develop- tional financial institutions like the IMF
2000. The Global Poverty Act now ing countries themselves as critical and the World Bank. The U.S. Agency
pending before Congress affords an components to global development. for International Development (USAID)
opportunity to make this assistance was once the lead in development pro-
work even more effectively. Coordination of U.S. government pro- gramming. Now less than 40 percent of
grams and policies is critical to en- official development assistance flows
The Global Poverty Act would make suring the maximum effectiveness of through USAID programs, as more and
the eradication of extreme poverty and U.S. development efforts. However, more agencies and departments are cre-
achievement of the first Millennium De- the government’s implementation of ated across the federal government and
velopment Goal (to cut in half by 2015 U.S. global development policies and take on international assistance pro-

4 InterAction MONDAY DEVELOPMENTS
gramming. Without coordination, these ber 25, 2007. Senators Barack Obama allowing them to help build their com-
policies can undercut each other and di- (D-IL), Chuck Hagel (R-NE), and Maria munities and countries. In the past few
minish the overall effectiveness of U.S. Cantwell (D-WA) introduced the bill in years, Congress has increased federal
development assistance. the Senate on December 7, 2007. It cur- funding for poverty-focused assistance
rently has 13 other bipartisan cosponsors. by about $1 billion per year, and other
Many InterAction members recognize On February 14, 2008, the Senate For- countries have followed suit.
these problems and have begun work eign Relations Committee passed the bill
on a comprehensive reform of U.S. for- out of committee by unanimous vote. These successes and the increase in as-
eign assistance. Efforts have focused sistance have made an important differ-
not only on coordination, but also on In the fight against hunger and poverty, ence. But the United States is not yet on
gaining clarity around the purposes the world as a whole has made sig- track to fulfill the promises it made by
and objectives of U.S. aid. Foreign as- nificant progress and the United States signing on to the MDGs. 2015 (the tar-
sistance goals must be articulated and should be proud of its contributions to get date for achievement of the MDGs)
prioritized to allow for the proper mea- these efforts. The United States part- looms ever closer.
surement of results. Without clear-cut nered with the Rockefeller Foundation to
objectives for assistance, programs are launch a “Green Revolution” in Asia that Bread for the World’s grassroots mem-
pulled in many directions without a quadrupled food yields and prevented bers will be working to bring about more
stated measure of accountability. The predicted famine and widespread hun- and better poverty-focused development
Global Poverty Act would be an im- ger. Assistance from the U.S. and other assistance throughout the year. In 2008,
portant step in this direction. donors eradicated smallpox and is close Bread’s main legislative campaign calls
to wiping out polio. Twenty-nine million for: (1) an increase of at least $5 billion
The Act, introduced in the House of more children in sub-Saharan Africa are in poverty-focused development assis-
Representatives (H.R. 1302) on March in school now than were a decade ago. tance for the U.S. government’s 2009
1, 2007, by Representatives Adam Smith United States development assistance fiscal year; and (2) for Congress to pass
(D-WA) and Spencer Bachus (R-AL), is currently providing HIV/AIDS treat- the Global Poverty Act so that this assis-
accumulated 84 cosponsors and passed ment for approximately 1.45 million tance is better coordinated and reaches
the House by voice vote on Septem- men, women, and children worldwide, those in greatest need.

MONDAY DEVELOPMENTS May 2008 5
What the Candidates are Saying About
International Development?
As the country draws closer to the November 4 election, the three leading contenders for the presidential
nomination are speaking out more on global development issues. The following are quotes taken from vari-
ous statements in reference to the U.S. role in international humanitarian and development issues.

Hillary Clinton
“America has a long and proud history of fighting poverty and encouraging economic development
around the world. But that commitment has lagged relative to our own wealth, and in comparison with
other prosperous nations. We need again to reclaim this great tradition, which is a testament to the
kindness, generosity, and wisdom of the American people. America has long represented the ideal of
opportunity. We must once again reclaim our leadership in promoting opportunity around the world.
We do this first and foremost because it is right. And we do it also because it is smart. Gnawing hunger,
poverty, and the absence of economic prospects are a recipe for despair. Globalization is widening
the gap between the haves and the have-nots within societies and between them. Today, there are
more than two billion people living on less than $2 a day.” – Senator Hillary Clinton’s global development
agenda, 2007

John McCain
“Today we are not alone … In such a world, where power of all kinds is more widely and evenly dis-
tributed, the United States cannot lead by virtue of its power alone. We must be strong politically,
economically, and militarily. But we must also lead by attracting others to our cause, by demonstrating
once again the virtues of freedom and democracy, by defending the rules of international civilized so-
ciety and by creating the new international institutions necessary to advance the peace and freedoms
we cherish.” – Senator John McCain speech to The Los Angeles World Affairs Council, March 26, 2008

Barack Obama
“The United States should provide global leadership grounded in the understanding that the world
shares a common security and common humanity. We must lead not in the spirit of a patron, but the
spirit of a partner. Extending an outstretched hand to others must ultimately be more than just a matter
of expedience or even charity. It must be about recognizing the inherent equality, dignity and worth of
all people. It will require American leadership that leverages engagement and resources from our tradi-
tional allies in the G8 as well as new actors, including emerging economies (e.g. India, China, Brazil and
South Africa), the private sector and global philanthropy. Yet, while America and our friends and allies
can help developing countries build more secure and prosperous societies, we much never forget that
only the citizens of these nations can sustain them.” – Senator Barack Obama at a foreign policy forum in
New Hampshire, November 27, 2007

For more information and analysis of what the can-
didates are saying about global development, check
out the Center for Global Development’s blog “Views
from the Center” at http://blogs.cgdev.org/globalde-
velopment/ and the ONE Campaign’s ONEVote08.org/
ontherecord which allows readers to compare the
candidates’ plans.

6 InterAction MONDAY DEVELOPMENTS
Iraq Action Days:
Advocating for Humanitarian Assistance
By Leah Berry, Program Associate, InterAction

D
espite minimal media cover- agencies responding to humanitarian
age of the issue, Americans needs in the region spoke about the
are becoming increasingly conflict, the challenges facing Iraqis,
aware of the humanitarian and the American and international re-
crisis in Iraq and in countries hosting sponses to the crisis.
Iraqi refugees. The level of U.S. sup-
port to address the crisis, however, is The forum’s last panel was devoted
grossly inadequate, and does not even entirely to discussing the way for-
come close to meeting the needs of the ward – what can be done to address
families who have been displaced or the existing problems and overall cri-

Photo courtesy: Oxana Minchenko
otherwise affected by the ongoing con- sis. Many of the speakers in the other
flict in Iraq. three panels also touched on this sub-
ject. Emphasizing the important role
While estimates vary, recent figures individual Americans have in advo-
from the International Organization of cating for assistance to Iraqi families,
Migration report that approximately Ken Bacon, President of Refugees
4.5 to five million Iraqis have been dis- International, stated that this problem
placed since 2003; one to two million can only be resolved with the work of
Iraq Ambassador to the U.S., Samir
are refugees living primarily in Syria many dedicated individuals. “I think
Shakir Mahmoud Sumaida’ie, gives the
and Jordan, while 2.7 million have that you are the beginning of that team opening keynote address at the Iraq
been internally displaced. Nongov- of people around the country,” Mr. Ba- Policy Forum on April 14th.
ernmental organizations (NGOs) work con noted, “who will be supporting the
hard to provide assistance to these dis- State Department’s efforts and press-
placed and vulnerable populations, but ing them to do more, because there is While the two days of advocacy in-
they simply do not have the resources a lot more to be done.” cluded a morning of grassroots activ-
to fully support the millions of Iraqi ism training that focused on strategies
people who lack sufficient food, health- In the two days following the forum, relating to advocacy for Iraqi refugees
care, shelter, education opportunities, approximately 80 grassroots activists specifically, many of the participants
jobs and overall security. Moreover, and several members of the aid and already possessed a great deal of ex-
with funds rapidly diminishing, some development community met with perience and extensive knowledge
of the organizations fear that they will over 64 Congressional offices to do about the humanitarian situation in
have to cut services further still. just that: to advocate on behalf of Iraq Iraq. Grassroots activist Madeleine
refugees, internally displaced persons, Stix, a high school senior from New
Recognizing an urgent need to push for and other vulnerable Iraqi individuals York City, noted that many of the other
additional support for Iraqi refugees and communities. The specific asks, participants not only knew a great deal
and displaced families, InterAction, as outlined in the advocacy packets about the Iraqi humanitarian situation,
in partnership with approximately 30 put together by the Iraq Action Days but had in fact lived and worked in Iraq
other DC-based NGOs, organized the organizers, are: (1) to strengthen hu- or the surrounding region.
Iraq Action Days, a three-day event manitarian aid to the region and to
to focus Congressional attention on provide additional funds to interna- The majority of the meetings with
the humanitarian crisis and advocate tional and non-governmental organi- Congressional representatives and staff
for a substantial increase in funding to zations currently providing assistance; were well received. Erik Gustafson,
assist displaced and vulnerable Iraqis. (2) to increase support for develop- Director of the Education for Peace in
On April 14, the first day of the Iraq ment projects, which are necessary for Iraq Center (EPIC), and activist/author
Action Days, over 220 people attended long-term peace in Iraq; and (3) to in- Ramzi Kysia continue to emphasize the
the all-day policy forum at which key crease the number of vulnerable Iraqi bipartisan nature of the issue and main-
experts on Iraq and representatives of refugees admitted into the U.S. continued on next page

MONDAY DEVELOPMENTS May 2008 7
Preparing for the 2008 G8 Summit
continued from previous page

tain that there was not a lot of disagree-
ment over the advocacy asks. To garner
By John Ruthrauff, Senior Manager Member Advocacy, InterAction
strong support from all representatives,

T
the grassroots activists at times focused
on the connection between additional he annual G8 Summit is pre- development. Although progress has
humanitarian assistance and long-term sided over by the head of state been made on many of these commit-
stability in Iraq and the surrounding re- of the host country which ments, InterAction has again urged the
gion, emphasizing that stability in the also sets the agenda. In July United States to exercise its leadership
region is in U.S. security interests. The of 2008 the Summit will be held in role to ensure that the U.S. and other
activists were also very clear on the fact Hokkaido Japan. Each fall InterAction G8 countries implement their previous
that the issue is humanitarian assistance organizes a G8 Summit NGO Coordi- commitments. For an analysis of the
to Iraqi families, and not a debate over nation Group of members and allies G8 government commitments from the
the war or military policies – an impor- to provide input into the U.S. position 2005 Gleneagles Summit and their ful-
tant point. leading up to the Summit. In recent fillment or the lack thereof, see ONE’s
Summits, U.S. leadership has been DATA Report 2007 (available at www.
While the great majority of the con- critical in advancing debt relief, HIV/ thedatareport.org). The 2008 edition will
gressional representatives and staff AIDS funding and other assistance to be available on the web site in June.
were receptive to the requests, it is the poorest countries of the world, par-
still unclear who will provide leader- ticularly in Africa. Policy Decisions
ship in Congress and in the adminis- Similar to previous summits, policy is-
tration, and whether these issues will Previous Summit Commitments sues for the 2008 G8 Hokkaido Toyako
be prioritized and pushed forward. In 2005, G8 countries made historic Summit are being discussed and agreed
Elizabeth Campbell, Director of Ref- commitments to work towards ending to in a series of ministerial meetings
ugee Council USA (RCUSA), notes extreme poverty, especially in Africa. during the six months prior to the Sum-
that while the large number of Hill The promises included: fighting HIV/ mit. During this time InterAction has
visits illustrates a success for the ad- AIDS and malaria while strengthening been and continues to communicate its
vocacy movement, there is still much health systems; canceling unsustainable positions to the U.S. Sherpa (the lead
to be done and people should remem- debt of the poorest countries; expand- U.S. staff for the Summit) who is based
ber that a long-term commitment is ing access to education, clean water and at the National Security Council. This
necessary. sanitation; and supporting agricultural year the activities have included:

Some advocates are concerned that
the urgently needed humanitarian as-
sistance will be tied up in wider politi-
cal debates over the war and spending
during the U.S. fiscal crisis. Moreover,
as noted by the Policy Forum’s closing
keynote speaker, Representative John
D. Dingell of Michigan, in light of the
myriad competing issues on the policy
agenda, “getting the Congress to focus
on this matter is not going to be an
easy task.”

Nevertheless the majority of Iraq Ac-
tion Days participants were positive
about the experience and many left on
Photo courtesy: Gerald Martone

Wednesday feeling empowered and
motivated to do more to advocate on
behalf of Iraqi families.

For video highlights, photos and addi-
tional information, visit www.iraqac-
tiondays.org

8 InterAction MONDAY DEVELOPMENTS
December: InterAction’s G8 NGO
Coordination Group submitted poli- InterAction Community
cy statements to the White House on
health, climate change, education and
Prepares for the 2008 G8 Summit
agriculture. These were written by
As InterAction prepares for the 2008 G8 Summit, we call attention to four
teams from the Coordination Group.
specific areas where the United States can play a leadership role.
January: A delegation from the Coor- Global Health Care
dination Group met with the Japanese We commend President Bush for demonstrating leadership in the fight
Minister of the Economy, and repre- against HIV/AIDS with the establishment of the President’s Plan for
sentatives of JICA (Japan International Emergency AIDS Relief. InterAction urges the United States to continue
Cooperation Agency (the Japanese its leadership by pressing the G8 Summit to commit to reduce the
equivalent of USAID) and JBIC (Ja- mortality rate among children under five by two-thirds (Millennium
pan Bank for International Coopera- Development Goal (MDG) 4). The U.S. should lead an international
tion)) at the Japanese Embassy. effort to increase investments by the G8 countries to achieve the
health targets of MDG 5 to reduce maternal mortality by three-
March: Members of the Coordina- quarters, requires improving maternal health by ensuring universal
tion Group met with the Sherpa and access to reproductive health care, expanding emergency obstetric
his team at the NSC. Three weeks care, and increasing skilled birth attendants.
later, Coordination Group members
met with NSC staff responsible for Climate Change
climate change and health, education The effects of global warming are being felt and will continue to
and agriculture. increase due to global greenhouse gas emissions. We applaud the
recent attention by the United States to human-induced climate
April: InterAction, ONE, and PATH change. However, the G8 countries need to reaffirm the UN Framework
participated in international NGO Convention on Climate Change and the Bali Action Plan as their central
meetings in Kyoto and met with seven frameworks for addressing climate change. To achieve this, they need
of the G8 country Sherpas to present to commit substantially increased assistance to vulnerable developing
policy statements on development is- countries. To accomplish the goal of limiting global temperature to
sues and climate change. no more than 3.6 degrees Fahrenheit above pre-industrial levels, G8
countries need to lead reductions in global greenhouse gas emissions
May: A delegation of InterAction to below 50 percent by mid-century.
members’ CEOs met with the Sherpa
to discuss the Summit’s agenda, espe- Education
cially the newly emerging food crisis. We applaud the role of the United States. in identifying education as one
of its top three development priorities. We urge the U.S. to lead the G8
International Alliances in: committing to providing the estimated $11 billion annual funding
As a multilateral decision-making considered necessary to reach Education for All, a global commitment to
event, the G8 Summit, necessitates us- ensure that all children receive a quality basic education. The G8 should
ing international alliances of NGOs to also: renew their commitment to the universal primary education, MDG
increase our influence. One important 2, and gender equality at all levels of education, with increased attention
example is the G7 Platform Alliance, to fragile and conflict affected states; and affirm a new G8 commitment
which includes InterAction and its to ensure that education is an integral part of humanitarian responses to
counterparts in the other G7 countries. conflict and emergencies.
This alliance provides InterAction
contact with NGOs with information Agriculture
and access in each of the key countries InterAction urges the addition of agriculture and the food crisis to the
attending the Summit. InterAction also G8 agenda. The President’s Initiative to End Hunger in Africa (IEHA),
works with the G8 Working Group of announced in 2002, seeks to cut hunger in Africa in half by 2015. IEHA’s
GCAP, the Global Campaign for Ac- key principles include building alliances and broad-based political
tion Against Poverty led by World Vi- and financial commitments among development partners in Africa
sion International. Coordination and and focusing investments on core activities to eliminate hunger in
planning meetings are being held in the Africa. However, sufficient resources have not been forthcoming.
G8 host country, Japan, in the fall and It is important for the G8 to significantly increase its support for
again in the spring prior to the Summit. agricultural development.

MONDAY DEVELOPMENTS May 2008 9
Who’s Advocating for Aid Workers in Sudan?
By Sam Worthington, President & CEO, InterAction

I
chose Darfur as the location for my The well-being of aid workers should to go on forever. Other stressors are more
first humanitarian visit because it re- be of concern to all of us as they stand insidious: a request to go home to bury a
mains the world’s largest and most on the front lines of the effort to address father or simply visit family is often de-
sustained humanitarian intervention. the suffering caused by this intractable nied; a year’s worth of effort erased by
I went with a simple mission in mind: to conflict. Their situation also sheds light a combat operation; and the toll of time
bring attention to the needs of humani- on the challenges and needs of their slowly breaking down the hardiest soul.
tarian workers in the region and to in- counterparts working in so many other
crease my understanding of their work. places around the world that unfortu- It is living with constant stress: from
nately do not share the same spotlight. harsh living conditions, to restrictive
The crisis in Darfur recently marked its and often frustrating travel logistics
five-year anniversary, yet the death and Most international humanitarian work- and fear. It is the desire of aid work-
violence in the region remain constant. ers stay in Darfur for one to two years. ers to make any possible progress in
Like the refugees, aid workers have The year is split into cycles, with many a stalemate war that only seems to get
been wondering, “How much longer?” international staff spending 10 weeks in worse for the civilians of all sides who
The crisis in Darfur recently marked its the field, a short time at home, and then call Darfur home. It is the burnout, the
five-year anniversary, yet the death, and returning for another 10 weeks. Some fear of having a local colleague killed
violence in the region remain constant. stress is obvious and the workdays tend or raped, the time away from family or

Photo courtesy: Judith Warren, Operation USA

10 InterAction MONDAY DEVELOPMENTS
yet another bout of disease, the stress
of living in a compound that is secure
for now, and the knowledge that de-
spite all the hardships, their energy and
concern should not be for themselves
but for the people of Sudan.

Adding to the hardships is the reality
that time is not on the side of the NGO
humanitarian worker. Every movement
of NGO expatriate staff is regulated and
limited by government controls. Their
space to work, the humanitarian space
that enables a group of people to care
for others within a war zone, is getting
smaller. Humanitarian space requires
some degree of security, not protection
from the barrel of a gun, but from the
warring sides and knowledge of the
land and respect from its people.

Photo courtesy: Judith Warren, Operation USA
In Darfur, 13,000 humanitarian work-
ers keep over two million internally
displaced people (IDPs) alive. The
vast majority of these aid workers are
committed locals. Simply by being
present in Darfur, aid workers ensure
that the sad status quo doesn’t turn
into an even greater disaster. They
feed, care for and shelter some 2.5
million people each day. They also
deal with mass migrations such as the
8,000 IDPs that migrated from one
area to another swelling the Zam Zam recognizes that about 70 percent of the members’ human resource staff, opera-
Camp in Darfur to over 47,000. They work on the ground in Darfur is han- tional staff and psychosocial personnel
work through 80 international NGOs, dled by NGOs. And for international to discuss the best ways to help hu-
the International Committee of the NGOs everyday is an uphill battle. manitarian workers recognize and deal
Red Cross (ICRC), and a massive UN with cumulative and critical incidence
humanitarian presence. “I’ve reached the end of my useful life stress. We will continue to work with
on the ground,” commented one expe- our members and other partners to ad-
Operationally, beyond the obvious need rienced relief worker after two years dress the need for available resources
for funding and security, two things in Geneina, the capital of West Darfur for humanitarian staff to address issues
make this humanitarian effort possible. state. Many of the world’s most expe- such as pre-deployment training, man-
The first is the incredible professional- rienced humanitarian workers covered agement training, and stress reduction
ism of the various NGO staffs and their the first two or three years of the Darfur and self-care techniques.
leadership. And the second, while not crisis. But now at the end of its fifth year,
glamorous, is equally important: lots recruitment has become a challenge be-
and lots of coordination. Humanitarian cause Darfur is not the ideal place for a To participate in the
work in Darfur is run on meetings, e- first humanitarian tour. For some, after InterAction Staff Care Working
mails and phone calls. a year, it is time to move on with a tour Group or to join the Staff Care
in Darfur checked off to complete a re- email list, please contact:
While in Darfur, I took part in some of sume. You can’t blame them.
these coordination meetings to explore Linda Poteat, Director of
how this incredible aid effort works, Recognizing the need to strengthen ef- Disaster Response
what keeps it going, and what stresses forts to address these conditions, Inter- 202-667-8227 ext. 526
might cause it to fall apart. The UN Action recently created the space for

MONDAY DEVELOPMENTS May 2008 11
Safe Drinking Water and Adequate Sanitation
Crucial to Eradicating Poverty
By John Sauer, Communications Director, Water Advocates

A
ccording to the United Na- and sanitation the only Millennium De- based communities. The Global Wa-
tions, getting on track to velopment Goal enshrined in U.S. law. ter Challenge was created to channel
meet the Millennium Devel- private funds to water and sanitation
opment Goals in both drink- The U.S. government’s appropriations projects and Rotary International has
ing water and sanitation will mean for its 2008 fiscal year (FY) provided created the Water and Sanitation Ro-
better health, longer lives and greater the first clear-cut opportunity to fund tarian Action Group to help heighten
dignity for billions of the world’s poor- the Water for the Poor Act. Congress Rotary’s involvement in the sector.
est people. The UN also says improv- responded, appropriating $300 mil- Also, upcoming meetings of the En-
ing access to safe drinking water and lion, and these FY 2008 funds should vironmental Grantmakers Association
sanitation will contribute 30 percent, be made available in the field by Au- and the Council on Foundations will
on average, to achieving all the Mil- gust or September. The prospect of new – for the first time – feature sessions
lennium Development Goals. funding has galvanized USAID and the on the global safe drinking water and
State Department to identify the high- sanitation issue.
What this means is that the lack of safe est priority countries (based on need
drinking water and adequate sanitation and likely effectiveness of aid) and has As recently as three years ago, there
undermines all forms of poverty eradi- reversed what had been a long, slow de- was no full-time U.S.-based advocacy
cation, including achieving universal cline in support for drinking water and on behalf of safe drinking water and
primary education, promoting gender sanitation at many USAID Missions in sanitation internationally and the is-
equality, improving maternal and child the world’s poorest regions. sue was often off the radar screen
health, and ensuring environmental of public attention. And while today
sustainability. momentum is certainly building, ad-
Advocacy for safe drinking vocacy for safe drinking water and
Over 1.1 billion people don’t have safe water and sanitation is sanitation is still at risk of fading
drinking water and more than 2.6 bil- away unless a critical mass of support
lion don’t have access to basic sani- still at risk of fading away for the sector is achieved. There is a
tation. This leads to one child dying great need for continued, strategic ad-
every fifteen seconds from preventable
unless a critical mass of vocacy and increased understanding
water-and sanitation-related diseases. support for the sector is of water and sanitation’s central role
This is the sad story behind the statis- in decreasing poverty.
tics. The good news is that something achieved.
can be done. Unlike many other global For FY 2009, Water Advocates and
challenges, the solutions to the safe The Act and the FY 2008 appropria- other organizations will urge the ap-
drinking water and sanitation disaster tions were a direct result of the work propriation of $500 million to imple-
exist now. With more financial sup- of bipartisan leadership from both the ment the Water for the Poor Act, with a
port, public awareness and political Democratic and Republican parties. scaling up of well-monitored programs
will, millions of lives can be saved. This was encouraged by the advocacy in high priority countries. In addition,
work of a host of nonprofits, including Congress will be urged to provide
In 2005, Congress took a historic step civic groups, the faith-based commu- funding for a high-level Coordinator
towards addressing this crisis by pass- nity, humanitarian organizations, de- at USAID in Washington, DC to fa-
ing a law called the Senator Paul Si- velopment agencies, global health ad- cilitate effective implementation of the
mon Water for the Poor Act. This Act vocates and education organizations. Act. The President has asked Congress
explicitly identifies drinking water and for funding to add 300 new USAID
sanitation for the world’s poor as a pri- Increased U.S. government support is Foreign Service Officers abroad (as
mary objective of U.S. foreign devel- in turn encouraging increased private part of an overall 1,000 person hiring
opmental aid. It recognizes water and funding for international safe drinking initiative), and many water organiza-
sanitation’s importance in all aspects of water and sanitation from foundations, tions will urge that FY 2009 appro-
poverty eradication and makes water corporations, and the civic and faith- priations’ language recommend that a

12 InterAction MONDAY DEVELOPMENTS
certain number of the new hires have and sanitation. The problem will be Scores of InterAction members have
expertise in water. made worse by climate change, the been working quietly (and with little
impacts of which will adversely affect attention) for years implementing
More work is also being done to en- the poorest and those already lacking water and sanitation projects, saving
courage citizen sector participation. access to water and sanitation. and improving the lives of the world’s
One example is the U.S. WASH-in- poorest citizens. It’s time that these ef-
Schools Initiative, launched on March When is comes to advocacy – and in- forts were recognized and the founda-
12th at National Geographic. This is an creasing funding for effective drinking tion built to expand them.
effort with a broad-based coalition to water and sanitation programs interna-
address the specific problem that 50 tionally – everyone has a role to play. Of course, some level of responsibil-
percent of schools in the developing More developmental NGOs should in- ity rests with the organizations them-
world lack access to water, sanitation volve their constituencies around this selves to ratchet up water and sanita-
and hygiene education (WASH). critical issue. It is important to expand tion’s prominence internally in their
the network of NGOs advocating on a own goals and strategy, and to commu-
Together, water and sanitation will be consistent basis on behalf of the Water nicate advocacy opportunities to their
one of the 21st century’s most important for the Poor Act. staff, donors and members. With the
issues, which, if we don’t get right, will water and sanitation challenge, there
continue to undermine efforts to support There is a need for NGOs to work more exists an opportunity to help put an end
positive and sustainable development. closely with the USAID’s Global De- to this silent disaster.
velopment Alliance to increase public
The problem is already real today for private-partnership matches on behalf Note: A panel on these issues will be
those blinded by trachoma and those of safe, affordable water and sanita- part of the 2009 InterAction Forum, to
missing school because they are home tion. NGOs also need to scale up their be held on May 6-9 in Washington, DC.
sick suffering from diarrhea. The UN work in the field and, where possible, The proceedings at the Forum will be
estimates that 4,500 children die each to encourage host governments to pri- covered in a separate issue of Monday
day due to illnesses related to water oritize drinking water and sanitation. Developments later this spring.

Children in Buena Vista, Honduras, celebrate the availability of safe water and sanitation in their mountain village.

Photo courtesy: John Kayser/Water For People

MONDAY DEVELOPMENTS May 2008 13
The Ottawa International Forum on
Multi-Stakeholder Dialogue on Civil Society
and Aid Effectiveness
By Sylvain Browa, Senior Manager, Partnerships and Development Impact, InterAction

I
n February 2008, the OECD/DAC’s rum’s roundtables and other issues of agreements, including priority setting,
Advisory Group on Civil Society particular interest to the InterAction development of the programs, and on-
and Aid Effectiveness hosted an community. going monitoring and evaluation.
international forum entitled Multi-
Stakeholder Dialogue on Civil Society Roundtable conclusions Democratic Ownership and the
and Aid Effectiveness in Ottawa, Can- Implementation of the Paris
ada. The forum was held in anticipa- Legitimacy: Recognition of CSOs’ Declaration (PD)
tion of the upcoming Accra High Level Roles and Voices as Development Participants, particularly NGO and
Forum III (Accra HLF3) on the Paris Actors CSO representatives, were skeptical
Declaration on Aid Effectiveness. The Recognizing the critical roles CSOs about donor and recipient govern-
Accra HLF3 will bring together de- play in aid, aid effectiveness and de- ments’ commitment to expand the
velopment ministers of developed velopment requires that governments ownership of aid programs, given the
and developing countries, heads of and donors create a space for CSOs, power imbalances, the behind-closed-
multilateral and bilateral development both North and South, to become ac- doors nature of aid politics and the
organizations, and several heads of tive participants in discussions on these Accra HLF3’s decision not to re-visit
civil society organizations to assess issues – a goal enshrined in the eighth the PD principles. The discussions,
progress and identify needed actions to Millennium Development Goal which however, called for governments to
broaden and deepen the implementa- commits signatories to “developing a broaden ownership to encompass lo-
tion of the Paris Declaration principles. partnership for development, recog- cal ownership, and pave the way for
The Ottawa forum gathered over 200 nizing the variety of actors engaged multi-stakeholder participation in
participants from donor and recipient in development.” Roundtable partici- development policy formulation pro-
governments, multilateral develop- pants called for donors to engage in a cesses. This would entail improving
ment agencies, Northern and Southern dialogue with recipient governments transparency and access to informa-
NGOs and civil society organizations about the importance of CSOs and the tion, especially around budgets and
(CSOs), and independent experts. The need to ensure that CSOs are active procurements, supporting CSO capac-
U.S. NGO participants included, In- participants in development decision- ity to monitor the policy process, and
terAction, Academy for Educational making processes at all levels. working with CSOs to develop alterna-
Development (AED), CARE USA, tive policy solutions, drawing on local
Center for International Private Enter- A variety of tools and mechanisms are knowledge from the grassroots.
prise (CIPE), Heifer International, and available to facilitate the active partici-
Oxfam America. pation of civil society in the North and Alignment should lead donors (in-
the South, including: (1) establishing cluding donor nation CSOs) to reduce
With a strong focus throughout on ‘‘observatories’’ on CSOs where a va- conditions that stifle domestic policy
the key role that civil society plays in riety of actors in the aid system (local space, to facilitate policies rather than
the international aid system, thematic government, donors and civil society) designing them, and to support South-
roundtables drew particular attention come together to look at a sector in a ern CSOs in demanding accountabil-
to issues of legitimacy, democratic particular country or region, analyze ity from their governments. Harmon-
ownership in the implementation of their respective roles as development ization should mean multi-stakeholder
the Paris Declaration, enabling en- actors and plan, deliver and monitor co-ordination, preferably at the sec-
vironments and nurturing equitable aid collaboratively; (2) creating a per- toral level, done in a decentralized
North-South relations between civil manent mechanism at the OECD for manner. Better co-ordination could
society groups. a continuing dialogue with civil soci- reduce transaction costs, but should
ety beyond the Accra Agenda; and (3) not be limited solely to national plans
The following is a brief overview of building CSO involvement in devel- and poverty reduction strategy papers
some of the conclusions of the fo- opment programming into any donor (PRSPs).

14 InterAction MONDAY DEVELOPMENTS
The challenge facing development ac- countability processes and practice, CSOs to attend all components of this
tors in the aid effectiveness process is and develop self monitoring and evalu- meeting, including the roundtable dis-
how to localize and democratize the ation mechanisms. They should trans- cussions and the ministerial meeting
PD principles. Reducing poverty and form existing unequal power relations on September 4. InterAction will work
inequality should be the end purpose into ones that promote complementari- with members and other U.S. NGOs to
of management for results and mu- ties and solidarity, and that protect the ensure a strong U.S. NGO in Accra.
tual accountability. This requires con- space for growth of Southern CSOs.
tinuous dialogue to build a common Ensuring U.S. NGOs contribute to
understanding of these two concepts. Other Issues of Particular the CSO Aid Effectiveness Initiative
This, in turn, requires resources and Interest to U.S. NGOs The NGO and CSOs in attendance
procedures to allow for local definition agreed to meet in Paris June 29-30,
of results and indicators, along with an Increasing U.S. NGOs engagement 2008 to launch a CSO initiative on aid
independent and rigorous monitoring with the OECD/DAC on the limita- effectiveness. The meeting will be or-
and evaluation system to assess the de- tions of PD principles ganized by the French NGO platform
velopment outcomes of the Paris Dec- The U.S. NGO delegation attended a Coordination SUD and facilitated by
laration at the national level. CSO-only side meeting that addressed CONCORD, the European umbrella
this issue. InterAction will facilitate CSO network and InterAction. A num-
Enabling CSOs as Effective Aid U.S. NGOs’ participation in a number ber key U.S. NGOs are expected to
Deliverers and Fostering Equitable of upcoming opportunities, includ- participate.
Relations Between Northern and ing: (1) a CSO response to the draft
Southern CSOs communiqué for the Accra HLF3; U.S. NGOs engagement with U.S.
For CSOs to be effective in planning, (2) participation in the international government on aid effectiveness and
delivering and evaluating aid, it is criti- CSO working group that liaises with the PD Principles
cal that all aid actors commit to “do- the OECD/DAC (the group, which in- The U.S. NGO delegation met with
ing business differently.” Discussions cludes InterAction has drafted a policy the USAID representative at the con-
on this theme highlighted a number of paper that is in circulation for CSO en- ference to begin discussions on how
necessary commitments by the various dorsement around the globe, available US NGOs could collaboratively work
actors, including: at www.betteraid.org); (3) participa- with the US government on a number
tion in the CSO parallel forum planned of issues raised in the aid effectiveness
Recipient governments should imple- for August 31–September 1 in Accra process. USAID welcomed the oppor-
ment legislative frameworks that allow (the forum expects about 400 CSO tunity to engage U.S. NGOs on the po-
for an independent and effective civil participants from around the world); tential impact of the PD principles on
society (e.g., recognizing CSOs’ roles, and (4) the Accra HLF3 (September its partners. InterAction will facilitate
voices and activities, and facilitating 2-4) will provide 80 accreditations to this process as well.
their registration). They should also es-
tablish mechanisms for ongoing multi-
stakeholder dialogue to address specific
development issues and policies.

Donors should adopt “good donorship”
practices in support of civil society in-
cluding core institutional support, long-
term partnership commitments, com-
mon funding modalities, flexibility and
responsiveness, appropriate contracting
practice and procedures, and single re-
porting. Donors should balance capacity
building efforts between governments
and CSOs, and encourage Northern
Photo courtesy: Dan Craun Selka

CSOs to be responsive to local demands
and to operate in line with partner coun-
tries’ development strategies.

Northern and Southern CSOs need to
build sustainable and more equitable
relationships, improve downward ac-

MONDAY DEVELOPMENTS May 2008 15
The Missing Dimensions of the Accra Agenda for
Action: Rights-Based Development
By Nancy Alexander, Consultant

A
t the OECD-DAC’s 2005 to struggle against forms of aid that works: performance assessment frame-
high-level forum on “aid undermine their rights. works (PAFs), which are attached to
effectiveness,” the interna- operations that inject aid into national
tional community endorsed The design of PRSs should be democ- budgets (“budget support”). The 12 re-
the Paris Declaration (PD). Then, in ratized. The first of the twelve PD In- cent PAFs I have analyzed included an
a closed-door session, a few ministers dicators of Progress is intended to mea- average of 60 conditions.
attached 12 “Indicators of Progress” sure ownership. It states that by 2010,
to the PD that are used to track an- 75 percent of countries must have an Tanzania’s PAF is a 12-page matrix of
nual progress toward the goals of the “operationalized national development conditions, with 49 pages of annexes
PD. There is not a single indicator strategy” or PRS. Many developing that recount the government’s progress
that relates explicitly to the goals of countries object to this indicator. (or lack thereof) on the conditions. The
sustainable human development, in- PAF was prepared with little participa-
cluding the Millennium Development tion and, since it consolidates the con-
Goals (MDGs). Hence, there seems
A government cannot “own” ditions of all donors and creditors, it is
little basis for the claim in the Accra its national development not amenable to change.
Agenda for Action (AAA) that “[t]he
Paris principles are providing a solid strategy if it is graded by The AAA states that the design of con-
platform for accelerated progress on ditions should be improved “so as to
gender equity, environmental sustain-
its creditors according to make them more effective at promot-
ability, respect for human rights and yardsticks it does not design. ing ownership.” But if governments
good governance that is fundamental are designing the conditions through
to good development results.” The participatory processes, they will au-
AAA is the proposed outcome docu- It is unlikely that any country can tomatically promote ownership. It also
ment for the high-level forum on aid “own” a PRS that must be graded and emphasizes the importance of “stream-
effectiveness in Accra, Ghana next approved by the boards of the IMF and lining” conditionality when, in actual-
September. World Bank in order to gain access to ity, certain kinds of structural condi-
most international assistance. When tions (e.g., privatization, user fees for
Rather than upholding universal val- PRSs were launched in 1999, govern- basic services, or wage ceilings) should
ues, the PD attempts to unify, or “har- ments’ PRSs were to be “broadly en- simply be banned.
monize,” the aid delivery systems of dorsed” by the boards of the IMF and
creditors and donors, and align them World Bank and used as a guide and The aid cartel needs to be disbanded.
with the policy priorities of recipient framework for all assistance. Instead, Donors are expressing concern that,
countries as presented in their national PRSs are assigned letter grades. As of when the IMF declares that a govern-
development strategies or Poverty Re- February 2007, seven years after the ment’s economic policy is “off-track,”
duction Strategies (PRSs). These goals launch of PRSs, no country had re- donors and creditors withhold their
are not being advanced in ways that ceived an “A” on its PRS; five coun- aid, including budget support. To avoid
uphold the ownership and sovereignty tries received a “B.” Bank officials losing parts of their budget financing,
of partner countries. A positive agenda state that they will help governments governments will sometimes be more
is needed: raise their PRS grades, but they miss accountable to external actors than do-
the point. A government cannot “own” mestic constituencies. The AAA should
The PD and AAA should require its national development strategy if it ensure neither the IMF nor financiers
that all assistance uphold or “do no is graded by its creditors according to of budget support operations should
harm” to international conventions yardsticks it does not design. run the aid system as a cartel. Precipi-
and treaties relating to, for instance, tous withdrawal of significant levels of
human rights, labor rights, and the The “aid effectiveness” process should aid – particularly in response to IMF
environment. Instead, under current ban intrusive policy conditions. The signalling – should be precluded.. Do-
arrangements, citizens must continue PD promotes new conditionality frame- nors and creditors should ensure aid

16 InterAction MONDAY DEVELOPMENTS
predictability over the medium-term
and sharply limit the bases for with-
drawal of support.
IA Advocacy Agenda
Budget support processes should be InterAction is working on the following advocacy issues:
democratized. The PD urges donors
and creditors to diminish funding for • Budget and appropriations, including emergency/
projects and, by 2010, provide two-
thirds of all aid through programmatic supplemental humanitarian funding
approaches that finance budget sup- • Partner Vetting System
port and the implementation of policy
frameworks for each sector (“Sector- • Preserving humanitarian space from military and
Wide Approaches (SWAps)). In gener- administration encroachment
al, these programs are designed in top-
down ways with heavy donor/creditor • Foreign Assistance Modernization
engagement and conditionalities. More- • A cabinet-level department of global development
over, according to evaluation experts,
there are no effective ways to measure • Non-funding-related humanitarian advocacy
the impacts of these programs.
• Millennium Challenge Corporation monitoring
At the Accra High-Level Forum on • The G8 summit
Aid Effectiveness, it would be useful if
citizens’ groups presented alternative • U.S. government policy and practice on contracting
Indicators of Progress for the PD and and acquisitions
exposed the ways the PD is diminish-
ing the policy space of their govern-
ments in ways that, ultimately, hand-
cuff democratic process.

MONDAY DEVELOPMENTS May 2008 17
Saying “No” in a “Say Yes” Business
By Joseph Mettimano, Vice President for Advocacy, World Vision

A
few years ago I agreed to meet However, one of the keys to our suc- to address important issues as they
with an impressive group of cess on any particular issue, or set of emerge. After all, we need to be nimble.
advocates who were forming issues, is our ability to stay focused. But we also need to be disciplined.
a coalition to take action on Simply put, saying yes to everything
a critical human rights issue. As they ultimately results in being effective at Now I’m fairly confident that what I’m
presented a well-prepared PowerPoint nothing. This is as true for large orga- raising here is not news to most Mon-
presentation with graphic images that nizations as it is for smaller ones. day Developments readers. Most of us
detailed the horrific abuses that were are put in this situation on a regular ba-
involved, I found myself becoming Success stories throughout history sis. But the challenge before us is how
passionate and energized to get deeply have illustrated that staying focused, do we, as a collective community, cre-
involved in this emerging campaign on-track with a mandate and keeping ate the space so that we say yes more
that they were asking me to join. “the main thing, the main thing” is than we say no. How do we better or-
critical. I’m reminded of Dwight D. chestrate our respective organizations,
What they were describing was one Eisenhower who said, “We succeed whether it is advocacy in Washington,
of the key human rights issues of the only as we identify in life, or in war, DC or programs in the field, to provide
21st century and a number of notable or in anything else, a single overriding maximum coverage of the key issues
players were forming the movement objective, and make all other consider- and deliver with maximum impact?
that would take it on. By the end of the ations bend to that one objective.”
meeting, I was a “convert” and I knew In many ways, InterAction provides the
this was going to be a vigorous cam- One of the keys to our forum to accomplish part of this goal.
paign that could make a big difference Moreover, there is a plethora of work-
in the lives of many people. success on any particular ing groups and consortia in the field that
issue, or set of issues, is our work to harmonize efforts, as well. How-
With a certain mind, but a regretful heart, ever, all too often, I think we stop short
my answer to their request was no. Un- ability to stay focused. of finding this “collaborative utopia.”
derstandably, they were surprised.
In the humanitarian field, it is equally Consider this quote from Jeffrey Sachs
But my response was not based on critical that every organization holdfast related to cooperation in the field: “The
the merit of the issue or the abilities to its mission statement, mandate and issue of aid harmonization is also crucial.
of the group, but was out of necessity. strategy as we make difficult decisions A discussion in 2000 about aid to Tan-
My team already had a robust list of about what we are going to focus on. The zania noted that there are ‘thirty agen-
urgent issues and priorities we were challenge for all of us is having the wis- cies involved in providing development
pursuing and our remaining band- dom and discernment (and, sometimes, funds, 1000 projects, 2500 aid missions
width was low. During my 18 years in the courage) to know when to say yes. a year, all with separate accounting, fi-
Washington, DC I have had to make nancial and reporting systems’… In
this difficult decision many times. It’s When I first joined World Vision, one order to harmonize aid, the various aid
never easy. of the first things my supervisor en- agencies should operate on the basis of
grained in me was that we are to al- their true competitive advantage.”
Clearly, those of us who work in the ways ask the question of any potential
humanitarian or human rights field new venture, “What is the specific ob- Let me emphasize two interrelated
have the honor and privilege to be jective?” But, more than this, I have to points. First, while many of you may
involved with issues of great conse- ask myself, is this issue part of World not need this verification, let me just af-
quence. I’m thankful everyday for be- Vision’s mission and mandate? Do we firm that it’s okay to say “no.” Second,
ing in this line of work. And, without a have a voice on this issue? Do we have we can be assured that our individual
doubt, there are a multitude of impor- experience and credibility? Do we decisions are not “fatal” if we work
tant and urgent issues in the world that have the resources to do it well and can together to serve the needs of the poor
need our attention. Naturally, as caring we “move the needle?” and oppressed, and as a community we
people, our impulse is to take on all of leverage and coordinate our efforts.
them: “How can I say no to…(fill in To be clear, I’m not suggesting that we Those who we aim to serve deserve
the blank)?!” need to be rigid and not make room nothing less.

18 InterAction MONDAY DEVELOPMENTS
Housing for the Poor and Urban Slums –
A Crisis in Need of Attention and Action
By Christopher Vincent, Director, Congressional Relations/International Affairs, Habitat for Humanity

T
oday, one billion people live that provided assistance in housing and What should the U.S. development
in slums, with the expectation urban policies and programs with par- community do?
that three billion will be liv- ticular attention to the needs of lower For the U.S. to become a leader in
ing in slums by the year 2030. income groups. Both of these programs solving this issue of reducing pov-
While inadequate shelter and access to have been eliminated. erty and the number of people living
basic services remains a serious dilem- in slum conditions, a huge effort will
ma in need of attention in rural settings, Given the trends towards urbaniza- be needed to educate numerous audi-
the problems are often compounded in tion and the concentration of poverty ences about complex issues faced in
urban settings. And, since the world is within slum communities around the dealing with shelter and urban issues.
urbanizing at a rapid rate, with this year world, U.S. foreign assistance should The United Nations has designated the
marking the first time in history that be increasing attention to the issue first Monday of every October “World
more than half of the world’s popula- rather than eliminating housing and ur- Habitat Day” to reflect on the state of
tion will live in an urban area, there is ban focused programs. human settlements and the issue of
a growing need for the global develop- adequate shelter for all. Habitat for
ment community to focus on the issues Finding the appropriate interventions Humanity will be spending consider-
of shelter and urban slums. in informal and slum communities able time and effort trying to focus
can be extremely challenging and of- the world’s attention on the issue of
Cities today, especially in developing ten entails multi-sectoral approaches, shelter, slums and the role secure ten-
countries, simply do not have in place something U.S. foreign assistance is ure has in helping reduce poverty. We
the systems, capacity or political will not necessarily well-suited to tackle challenge other organizations to use
necessary to deal with the growth of structurally. World Habitat Day as a tool to focus
their populations – giving rise to ever attention on the issues of shelter and
growing and expanding slum com- The global development community urban slums. Given the multitude of is-
munities. For example, while Africa has focused on the issue of secure sues ranging from access to clean wa-
is the least urbanized continent today tenure as a key priority for improving ter, environmental sustainability, and
with 37 percent of the population liv- slums given many believe secure ten- health related issues, there is plenty of
ing in urban areas, by the year 2030 it ure is a pre-condition for other poverty opportunity – and certainly a need for
is expected that over half the popula- reduction and development assistance everyone to understand the issues and
tion will live in urban areas and most programs to have any lasting impact. help drive change that will give rise to
of that growth will be in informal and As UN-Habitat’s Global Campaign lasting, sustainable solutions for the
slum communities. for Secure Tenure states: “Security of poor living in slum conditions.
tenure is a fundamental requirement
While the issue of inadequate housing, for the progressive integration of the All indications are that urbanization will
informal settlements and slum forma- urban poor in the city, and one of the continue unfettered for years to come.
tion has been given relative priority in basic components of the right to hous- Local, city, national and international
the Millennium Development Goals ing…It guarantees legal protection policy-makers need to understand this
under Goal 7 Target 11, which aims to against forced eviction…The grant- process better and begin focusing on so-
achieve significant improvement in the ing of secure tenure is one of the most lutions that increase opportunities for the
lives of 100 million slum dwellers by important catalysts in stabilising com- poor that empower them to take advan-
2020, the focus given to housing and munities, improving shelter conditions, tages of the opportunities urbanization
urban issues by U.S. foreign assistance reducing social exclusion and improv- can afford. Working to ensure tenure se-
has dramatically declined in recent ing access to urban services.” Provid- curity for the one billion people around
years. For many years USAID had a ing secure tenure is not a silver bullet the world currently living in slums, and
housing guaranty program that provid- for slum improvement, but it is an im- planning for the next two billion people
ed $100 million or more each year in portant element – and an essential first expected to move into slums over the
loans to developing countries. USAID step that helps empower the poor to next few decades is a crisis in need of
also had a network of regional offices tackle other important challenges. attention and action.

MONDAY DEVELOPMENTS May 2008 19
Reliance on Supplemental Funding for
Humanitarian Response Programs
By Ken Forsberg, Legislative Manager, InterAction

T
he federal government’s an- This causes program cuts, delays and the fall of 2006. At their request, Inter-
nual appropriations cycle has disruptions that carry very serious, ir- Action public policy staff then picked
become a two-step process. In reversible human consequences, re- up the baton, revising and adding data
addition to the regular annual gardless of any eventual “make-up” tables and graphs to the paper illustrat-
appropriations bills, mid-year supple- funding provided in supplementals. ing the problematic funding trends.
mental appropriations bills are now an Financial uncertainty and delay at the The paper was finalized in February of
expected part of the budget process, in beginning of the fiscal year can lead 2007, and has been distributed regularly
large part because much of the Defense to drastic scale-backs and shutdowns to key congressional and administra-
Department’s budget for the Iraq and of programs as NGOs have to close tion staff, including appropriations and
Afghanistan wars has been covered offices and let staff go. Funding may budget committee staff. (To receive a
through mid-year supplemental fund- eventually be restored, but the damage copy of the paper email Ken Forsberg
ing requests. There is therefore now an incurred is irreversible: it is not possi- at kforsberg@interaction.org.)
expectation of a second chance each ble to “backfill” urgently needed life-
year to fund certain programs. saving assistance such as food, water, The problem has become a standard
primary health or emergency obstetric part of our budget and appropriations
With budget ceilings increasingly tight- care. Lives are lost. Crisis readiness is advocacy messaging, and is regularly
er, humanitarian accounts (disaster, ref- reduced as reserves are tapped. Scarce raised in letters and meetings as an on-
ugee, and food aid) in annual appropria- funds are lost to the inefficiencies of going problem. When appropriate, we
tions bills have become vulnerable to stop-and-start operations. And credi- have added a “responsible budgeting”
reductions during the regular appropria- bility is damaged, as the undependabil- message to the humanitarian one, since
tions process because of the expectation ity resulting from fitful and uncertain some members of Congress, beyond
that these accounts stand a better chance funding causes recipients and other any humanitarian concerns they might
for mid-year supplemental “emergency” global relief organizations to question have, are concerned about the fiscal
funding than accounts that fund long- the reliability of the U.S. government practice of using “off-budget” supple-
term development. The budget requests and U.S.-based NGOs as partners in mental funding (i.e. spending that is not
and regular appropriations for humani- relieving human suffering. part of our annual national fiscal plan
tarian accounts have routinely been less, comparing spending and revenues) to
sometimes significantly less, than what InterAction members the American cover programming we know will be
recent history has repeatedly proved to Refugee Committee, CARE and the necessary up-front.
be necessary. The accompanying table International Rescue Committee took
and graph illustrate this trend for the In- the lead on advocacy on this issue, Appropriations and Budget Committee
ternational Disaster Assistance account, identifying the trend and drafting a pa- staff have become more aware of the
one of several humanitarian accounts per presenting the problem – including human costs of relying on supplemental
that InterAction tracks. real examples of the damage caused – in funding to fund humanitarian program-

20 InterAction MONDAY DEVELOPMENTS
the expected increase, however, would
not appear to be enough to allow full
funding of the humanitarian accounts in
regular 2009 appropriations bills.

In any case, the chances of regular
2009 spending bills being passed this
fall appear to be slim, with a continuing
resolution likely to be used instead to
provide for spending to simply contin-
ue at current levels, as Congress waits
for a new administration more likely
to support its priorities. All of this sug-
gests that the next best opportunity for
breaking the cycle of dependence on
supplemental funding for humanitarian
programming will come in 2009, when
ming. Yet tight budget conditions con- administration officials again planning a new administration presents its first
tinue – thanks to a costly war, domestic on using supplemental funding to make budget, for its 2010 fiscal year. Inter-
political pressures to increase funding up the shortfall. For Congress’s part, Action and its members will continue
for domestic priorities, and antipathy the 2009 budget resolution, if agree- to educate Congress on this issue in
to raising taxes – so appropriators and ment is reached between the House the meantime, and will work to engage
budgeters continue to face tough choic- and Senate (negotiations were ongoing with the transition team of the new ad-
es among competing demands. Aware- at press-time), will suggest an increase ministration, urging them to break this
ness of the problem has therefore not for international affairs spending. (The harmful cycle and to start fresh with
yet translated into change. The adminis- congressional budget resolution does responsible budgeting that makes the
tration’s 2009 budget request for the hu- not prescribe spending to the level of most of our humanitarian spending.
manitarian accounts was again low, with specific accounts.) The magnitude of

MONDAY DEVELOPMENTS May 2008 21
Inside our Community

Mercy Corps Brings Emergency Aid to several years and the dry river beds in the north of the country
Southern Iraq  cannot contain the runoff from the ongoing torrential rains in
Mercy Corps has provided water, medical supplies and other neighboring Angola. The rains have inundated Namibia and
forms of emergency assistance to the war-weary southern cut off entire villages from any means of escape except by he-
Iraqi provinces of Basra, Maysan and Wassit following the licopter. At least 42 people are confirmed dead and thousands
March 28 ceasefire between the Iraqi Shia cleric Maqtada al- have been displaced by the floods.
Sadr and Iraqi and U.S. forces. The agency distributed water
in Basra and three month’s stock of disposable first aid and The situation in Namibia is dire. President Hifikepunye Po-
medical supplies to two hospitals in Kut. hamba has appealed for international aid, stating that the
country cannot cope with the disaster on its own. Thousands
The humanitarian situation rapidly deteriorated in southern of acres of crops have been destroyed, raising fears of a loom-
Iraq on March 25 when fighting erupted between al-Sadr’s ing food shortage. Episcopal Relief and Development’s part-
Mahdi Army and Iraqi and U.S. forces. The violence para- ner in Namibia, Anglican AIDS Programme, is responding to
lyzed cities like Basra, Baghdad, Kut and Amarah. According the most severely affected areas, providing supplies such as
to OCHA, nearly 700 people were killed and more than 1,500 blankets, clothing, food, medicine and clean water. A cholera
injured, the majority of them civilians. Paul Butler, Mercy outbreak in the Ohangwena region threatens to spread to other
Corps’ Iraq country director, said the organization also made areas, so immediate assistance is extremely critical.
preparations in anticipation of more violence. “It’s a difficult
and tense situation,” he said. “Rains are continuing and flood levels have yet to recede,”
says Janette O’Neill, Senior Director of Africa Programs for
Episcopal Relief and Development Responds to Episcopal Relief and Development who has just returned from
Floods in Namibia the country. “The diocesan hospital, St Mary’s Odibo, is bat-
Episcopal Relief and Development is providing emergency tling a cholera outbreak. Emergency support is being used to
assistance to communities in Namibia affected by devastating meet the needs of families displaced by this disaster.”
floods. Namibia has been experiencing a drought for the past
Somalia Crisis Deteriorating, International
Medical Corps Warns
Increased fighting has intensified the humanitarian crisis in
Somalia, according to the International Medical Corps (IMC),
which reported a sharp increase in disease and malnutrition
among internally displaced persons in recent months. The crisis
has made the IMC’s Somali operations difficult and precarious.

“We clearly see the humanitarian toll of the catastrophic situ-
ation in Somalia in our clinics,” said Patrick Mweki, Interna-
tional Medical Corps country director in Somalia. “The long-
term displaced people become more susceptible to diseases,
and the new arrivals put further pressure on the overstretched
aid infrastructure.”

In a joint statement with 38 other aid organizations of the So-
malia NGO consortium, the IMC expressed the urgent need
that safe access for humanitarian supplies must be ensured,
civilians must be protected, and the environment of impunity
must be addressed. It warned that the humanitarian crisis will
become more and more complex and will continue to deepen
in the absence of a political solution to the current crisis.

ADRA Norway Releases Children’s
Educational Musical
The Adventist Development and Relief Agency (ADRA) in
Norway completed Different, But Still Alike, a new musical to
promote children’s education and teach Norwegian children
about diversity.

22 InterAction MONDAY DEVELOPMENTS
ADRA Norway is selling CDs of the musical to choirs, schools, Suzanne’s grasp of the distinct challenges facing humanitarian
libraries and the general public to raise funds for children’s edu- organizations today,” explained Christopher Johnson, Air Serv’s
cation projects. The CD includes songs, lyrics, pictures, and in- CEO. “As a non-sectarian, not-for-profit aviation company, Air
formation about ADRA. It also includes a resource booklet with Serv is unique among international humanitarian organizations.
sheet music, scripts for the dramatic presentation, and questions While other groups serve the needy directly with food, books
to stimulate discussions about topics, such as freedom of choice, and clean water, we primarily fly humanitarian workers safely
fellowship, unity, the environment, and diversity. and reliably into harsh and often dangerous environments. The
delivery of humanitarian aid critically depends on the supply
“The musical focuses on how we are all different, with differ- chain (typically 65-85 percent of relief budgets) for which Air
ent backgrounds, cultures and different stories,” said Gry Hau- Serv forms an essential and unique link.”
gen, communications consultant for ADRA Norway. “Through
learning about the lives of children in other countries we can Musgrave plans to communicate this crucial message through
build solidarity and work for freedom and justice.” Air Serv’s new fundraising programs. “With 24 years of expe-
rience as an essential link in the humanitarian delivery chain,
There are currently 11 Norwegian schools working on the play Air Serv needs to be recognized and appreciated for its ongo-
created by ADRA Norway. The musical, composed of stories ing excellence in the global struggle to serve as a catalyst for
about children from Peru, Cambodia, Ethiopia and Norway, positive change among the most disenfranchised of our fel-
can be used in its entirety, or separately, as a tool to promote lows. I am very excited to be a part of Air Serv’s mission.”
discussions in the classroom. An English version is planned
for the future. For additional information visit www.adra.org. Musgrave brings strong marketing, public relations and fundrais-
ing skills to Air Serv. She most recently served as Director of De-
Air Serv International Hires New Director velopment at Highland School, a private school located in War-
Air Serv International has recruited Suzanne Musgrave to serve renton. Prior to this, Musgrave served Wolf Trap Foundation for
as its new Director of Marketing and Development; she assumed the Performing Arts and the Meadow Outdoors Foundation, both
her new position at the end of March. “We were impressed with in Virginia, in fundraising and corporate sponsorship.

MONDAY DEVELOPMENTS May 2008 23
Inside INTERACTION

The Humanitarian and rants and irresolute politicians.” – Jim Bishop, Vice President,
Humanitarian Policy & Practice, InterAction
Development Community
“Back in the mid-1980s, I was working in Geneva, trying to drum
Remembers Julia Taft up interest in the particular needs and resources of refugee wom-
en. I remember saying to a colleague, ‘someone should write a

T
he international humanitarian book about refugee women so that people will understand what
and development community this issue is all about.’ Lo and behold, a year or so later, a book
offers its support and condo- came out on refugee women in developing countries, written by
lences on the passing of former In- Julia Taft. I didn’t know Julia then – in fact our first discussion
terAction President/CEO, Julia Taft. was brainstorming about how to get UNHCR to address gender
The following pieces were printed in issues. But that was just the beginning. Over the years, I came to
a memory book that was later sent to appreciate Julia’s work in many different ways. At InterAction
her family. As the many words of re- she impressed – and sometimes frightened – everyone with her
membrance express, Julia was a won- sky-high energy level. Many times I felt breathless just listening
derful humanitarian worker and colleague and will be missed to her brainstorm about what more could be done, what more
by many in this community. Julia served InterAction twice as should be done for refugees. And when I was chair of InterAc-
president. From 1994 to 1997 she was the coalition’s second tion’s working group on refugees and migration and Julia was
chief executive, leading the coalition through a period of ex- Assistant Secretary of State for BPRM, I remember her tracking
pansion and growing influence in Washington, DC. In 2006, me down while I was traveling, waking me up in the middle of
while already ill, she agreed to serve as Interim President as the night and demanding to know what the voluntary agencies
the board searched for a successor to Dr. Mohammad Akhter were going to do about a particular crisis. I remember strug-
following his resignation. She remained in that capacity for six gling to wake up and thinking – ‘what’s Julia going on about this
months until the current President, Sam Worthington, took the time?’ Now I don’t even remember which particular crisis it was,
helm. While we have learned a great deal from Julia, we will but I remember her passion, her commitment, her insistence that
miss her passion and commitment to those she served. the U.S. needed to do better. The last time I saw Julia was shortly
before Christmas when she was asked about the U.S. response
“Please accept the sincere condolences of myself personally to Iraqi refugees. As always, she was full of vim and vigor. She
and Christian Children’s Fund on the passing of Julia Taft, a knew exactly what the U.S. should be doing: we should be doing
name that for many years has been synonymous with the ex- much more and we should be doing it better. I admired Julia tre-
emplary relief work that she led “on the ground” and around mendously – for her commitment and clearly-articulated sense
the world. Former Secretary of State Colin Powell said it best of justice, but also for her sense of style and her rollicking sense
when he referred to Julia as an “image of American openness of humor. Many of us in the humanitarian community are better
and generosity.” Her long-time work with refugees is also leg- off for having known and worked with Julia. More importantly,
endary: what an extraordinary and commendable life of public the world’s refugees are better off because Julia lived and cared
service. I know that I express the sentiments of many, many and worked so passionately for them. In this moment of sadness,
colleagues when I say that the world is a much better place for we also give thanks for the wonderful life of Julia Vadala Taft.
thousands of people whose lives Julia not only touched, but Our prayers and thoughts are with her family.” – Elizabeth Fer-
healed. She will be missed.” – Anne Lynam Goddard, Presi- ris, Senior Fellow and Co-Director, Brookings-Bern Project on
dent and CEO, Christian Children’s Fund, Inc. Internal Displacement 

“A few weeks ago, I wrote a note to Julia upon learning that “I always remember Julia and the encouragement she provided
she was receiving hospice care. In that note, I told her ‘thank to me during the most difficult assignment I’ve ever had. I
you’ one last time. Knowing and working with her has been a worked in Somalia for CARE managing a USAID umbrella
pleasure; losing her is painful. She lived a remarkable life and grant in the early 90s at the beginning of the war. During a trip
I feel fortunate to have known her. I send my condolences with to DC, I met with Julia when she was the director at Interac-
deep sorrow.” – Daniel E. Pellegrom, President, Pathfinder tion. Many NGOs at the time wanted access to the funds en-
International trusted to us by USAID. We were struggling with a few groups
trying to work the political system to have money diverted
“Julia’s passion was contagious, inspiring many of those for- to them. She really put things in perspective, and advised me
tunate to work with her to make extraordinary efforts to help to do what was right for the Somali people. For the next two
those for whom she had such compassion. Her raucous laugh- years, when the going got tough during the war, I always re-
ter echoing through the office lifted spirits sometimes deflated membered to ‘do what was right,’ as advised by Julia. I often
by witnessing so many lives lost to the machinations of evil ty- remember her words even now. Few people go through life

24 InterAction MONDAY DEVELOPMENTS
having such a positive influence on the world as Julia did!” would sneak out of a meeting to have another cigarette. Though
– Robert G. Laprade, Program Director, Tsunami Recovery deeply saddened by her passing, I will always celebrate the life
Program, American Red Cross of this extraordinary person.” – Donald D. Cohen

“I give thanks to God for the life and service of Julia Taft. I “I will always remember Julia as a force to be reckoned with,
had to pleasure to work with her when she served as InterAc- combining intelligence on the issues, passion for the humani-
tion’s CEO. She was a woman of vision and passion, and she tarian cause, the ability to charm even the most hardened rebel
knew how to mobilize those around her to get things done! My or government representative and the sheer will to get the job
sincere sympathies to Julia’s family as you mourn her loss; done. Julia was already a legend when I joined the humani-
may the love of family and friends bring you comfort and may tarian ‘movement’ in 1991 and in my early years at OFDA,
God’s steadfast promise of life eternal give you peace.” – Kate tales of her major role in negotiating Operation Lifeline Su-
Wolford, President, The McKnight Foundation dan, together with Jim Grant of UNICEF, took on the aura of
a legend. Of course, Julia went on to do many more remark-
“There are a few heroes who have entered and deeply affected able things in InterAction and in the State Department refugee
my life. Julia Taft was high among them. It is easy to have one’s bureau and beyond, but I come back to OLS because, having
passion dulled by engaging in constantly battling countless and had the pleasure to contribute to its continuation in the 90s,
senseless tragedies tearing apart hundred of thousands of lives I consider it the most remarkable international humanitarian
through the deadly combination of man-made and natural di- effort of our time, and we will forever be indebted to Julia for
sasters whose victims were usually among the world’s most her efforts.” – Valerie Newsom Guarnieri, Country Director
impoverished. Julia never lost that passion and commitment to and Representative, World Food Programme-Philippines
take on all challenges to save and make better lives for these
people, be they sick, homeless or hungry. During her tenure at “I have had the privilege of knowing Julia from the time she
InterAction, Julia asked me to serve as the co-chair of its advo- was President of InterAction. Her passion, ability, vision and
cacy committee. It was at that time that I was privileged to fully warmth set InterAction on its course to success and touched
witness her commitment, courage and determination. Beyond all who knew her. We will all miss her – but she lives on in
that however, I came to know Julia for her friendship, generos- our daily work and our in thoughts.” – Linda Pfeiffer, Ph.D.,
ity and sparkle. It was a blessing to just be around her when she President & CEO, INMED Partnerships for Children

Different Needs, Equal Opportunities:
InterAction to Develop E-Learning Course on Gender Equality
As humanitarian workers prepare for work in the field, there tor-specific actors on how to ensure that the needs of women,
needs to be a concerted effort to build their knowledge and girls, boys and men are being met in humanitarian situations,
skills on gender equality and on how to effectively incor- as well as ensuring their full participation in all aspects of
porate gender awareness in their daily work. Since a large humanitarian programming. The IASC Gender Handbook:
majority of humanitarian actors never receive such train- Women, Girls, Boys and Men, Different Needs – Equal Op-
ing, this interactive online E-learning will attempt to ad- portunities and the IASC Gender-based Violence Guidelines
dress this gap by providing a way for workers to strengthen will form the foundation for this creative training approach.
their knowledge at any time.
The course will include information on the core issues of
InterAction, in collaboration with the Inter-Agency Stand- gender and on how to ensure gender concerns are taken into
ing Committee’s Gender Sub Working Group on Gender consideration in all aspects of humanitarian response. The
and Humanitarian Action, is developing an interactive E- course is expected to be finished in July 2009 and should
learning course to help UN and NGO humanitarian staff be seen as an additional tool and not as a replacement for
mainstream gender into their work. The overall objective of current gender training efforts.
the E-learning Initiative for Gender Equality is to strength-
en the understanding and capacity of humanitarian workers InterAction is currently looking for InterAction members to
on why gender equality programming is important and how serve on the Advisory Committee for this project. If you are
it can be implemented in practical ways in the delivery of interested in participating or would like more information,
humanitarian protection and assistance programs. please contact Julie Montgomery, Senior Coordinator and
Technical Specialist, InterAction, at jmontgom@interation.
The online course will provide practical approaches to sec- org or call 202.667.8227, ext 572.

MONDAY DEVELOPMENTS May 2008 25
E ar th D ay A dvocacy
Career DevelopmentS
By Michael Haslett, Senior Communications Associate, InterAction
In honor of Earth Day, we met with some people who doing environmental advocacy at the Next month’s issue
grassroots and national levels.
will be a a recap
We spoke with Will Hughes from American Rivers, Jason Kowalski from Step It Up, and Phil of InterAction’s
Aroneanu from 350.org to talk about their approaches and experiences with environmental Annual Forum.
advocacy. American Rivers (americanrivers.org) uses advocacy, innovative solutions and a
growing network of partners to protect and promote our rivers as valuable assets that are vital Our Question
to our health, safety and quality of life. In 2007, Step It Up became the first U.S., open-source, to you:
web-based, national day of action dedicated to fighting climate change. It has now expanded
to a year-round effort (1sky.org) and gone global through 350.org, an international campaign to
muster support around the world for reducing the amount of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere
to 350 parts per million, which is the ratio scientists have determined to be the best level to limit How do you
climate change. The following are some of their thoughts on turning ideas into action.
make large
Getting organized events help your
career? Does
“With climate change, advocacy is so applicable because you can do something at the local networking
level or at the regional level, but in the end you realize that what will need to happen right
now is federal level legislation. So with that realization I sat down with some good friends in these
with similar opinions and decided that we have the tools to make a difference. We know environments
how to make the Internet work, we know how to get friends together on campus to get stuff
done, why not try it on the national level.” – Jason Kowalski really work?
“We’ve got this open source web platform where people can submit their ideas. People are
able to vote on which ideas they think are the best and are actually taking action in their
communities on those ideas that sort of bubble up as the best ideas. For example, just a Send your
couple of weekends ago in Salt Lake City, 350 cyclists rode their bikes around the city hall in responses
support of this 350 goal.” – Phil Aroneanu by email to
Michael Haslett
Working with partners
at mhaslett@
“One of our strengths is working with state environmental organizations and bringing them interaction.org,
and their power to bear on a particular representative or their senator … to get them on with “Career
board for a bill. [Also], we bring these organizations one day [a year] and we go on the Hill,
meeting with every single representative/senator that they have, and that is even more Developments” in
powerful because the people are actually there in person.” – Will Hughes the subject line.
Also, feel free to
“We work with the usual suspects, we work with environmental groups. But we’ve also reached
out to faith communities, we’ve reached out to [minority groups] and worldwide we are comment on this
going to be reaching out a lot more to humanitarian groups and to human rights groups who month’s reader
are becoming increasingly interested in climate mitigation versus just adaptation and fixing responses.
the more frequent disasters that are happening around the planet, really preventing them
ahead of time by dealing with climate change.” – Phil Aroneanu
“For us, it was get together in your community and take a picture of your action. And we got
thousands of pictures, because there were 2,000 actions across the country. A number of
congressmen went to the events themselves – congressmen, presidential candidates. John
Edwards took a parade of people to the New Orleans Superdome.” – Jason Kowalski

Further Reading on the Web
Want us to focus on a specific career
To learn more about these three groups go to:
350.org
development topic? Let us know.
Americanrivers.org
Email Michael at mhaslett@interaction.org
To see what Step It Up is doing now, go to 1Sky.org

26 InterAction MONDAY DEVELOPMENTS
Interested in placing a job announcement or advertisement? Email publications@interaction.org

Country Director porting 280 communities representing

POSITION
Afghanistan 1.78 million inhabitants to reduce pov-
Mercy Corps has been working in Af- erty, increase social cohesion, improve
ghanistan since 1986, recently focusing access to social services, increase un-
on agricultural and economic develop- derstanding of good governance and

ANNOUNCEMENTS ment, initiatives that provide access to
services, and opportunities for mar-
improve linkage with authorities at
local level. The CDRPD provides vision,
ginalized Afghans. The Country Direc- leadership and management oversight
tor is the senior management position as well as technical support to the field-
for Mercy Corps in Afghanistan with based CDR Program Coordinators. He or
Vice President of supervisory and managerial respon- she is also accountable for the consis-
Development sibility over personnel, programs and tency of approach and implementation
New York, NY policies. MA/S or equivalent and 7-10 in accordance with the agreed model of
AFS Intercultural Programs USA seeks years experience in international relief programming throughout the country.
a Vice President of Development who and development. Please visit www. Suitable candidates for this position will
works to build a more just and peace- mercycorps.org/aboutus/jobs for fur- be bilingual in English and French, with
ful world by creating international and ther qualifications. The position will be at least six years of senior international
intercultural learning experiences and based in Kabul with frequent domes- management experience, and a strong
offers a training ground for tomorrow’s tic and occasional international travel. grasp of both consortium management
leaders. Reporting to the President, the Please apply for positions with Mercy and community driven reconstruction-
VP will build a comprehensive devel- Corps at www.mercycorps.org/abou- type programming.
opment program and manage a large tus/jobs
team. Ideal candidates are fundraising Closing Date: June 16 Director of Human
leaders with 10+ years progressive ex- Resources
perience, demonstrated successes, with Country Director Washington, DC
strong supervisory experience, and Pakistan Pact seeks a HR professional to lead the
a commitment to AFS-USA’s mission. Mercy Corps has been operational in human resources function of a high
Prior experience with a national fund- Pakistan since 1986 and in recent years performing, rapidly growing, people-
raising organization preferred. Send has expanded considerably, with pro- centered global development orga-
resume in confidence to Cecilia Roddy, grams throughout the country. The nization with offices in 26 countries
Development Guild/DDI: afsusa@devel- Country Director is the senior manage- in Africa and Asia. The successful can-
opmentguild.com. Visit www.usa.afs. ment position for Mercy Corps in Paki- didate will be a leader who is a high-
org or www.developmentguild.com stan with supervisory and managerial energy and value-driven HR activist;
responsibility over designated in-coun- have a creative vision for assisting the
Development Manager – try personnel, programs and policies. organization to attract, develop and
Foundations MA/S or equivalent in social science, retain staff; is experienced in applying
Berkeley, CA management, international develop- strategic direction to the HR function; is
Hesperian, publishers of Where There ment; 7-10 years experience in interna- an institution builder with strong team
is No Doctor, seeks an experienced tional relief and development. Please building, negotiation and interpersonal
Development Manager, responsible visit www.mercycorps.org/aboutus/ communications skills; has experience
for foundation income and relations to jobs for further qualifications. The posi- of multi-lateral grant and contract HR
raise approximately $1 million annually tion will be based in Islamabad with fre- planning and administration. The Direc-
from diverse new and existing institu- quent domestic and occasional interna- tor will provide direction for continued
tional sources including private foun- tional travel. Please apply for positions improvement in processes and systems
dations, government, and international with Mercy Corps at www.mercycorps. for people management; will develop
development organizations. The DM org/aboutus/jobs and oversee Pact’s core HR areas of
will join our 4 person fundraising team: Closing Date: June 16 global talent management, competitive
two staff responsible for Individual giv- staff compensation, staff wellness and
ing, and one associate assisting in rais- Program Director/ security, and regulatory compliance;
ing institutional funds. We are looking Chief of Party will develop and implement HR poli-
for someone with a successful record Democratic Republic of Congo cies and initiatives in support of Pact’s
in all aspects of foundation fundrais- The International Rescue Committee strategic objectives of technical, mana-
ing, research, building and sustaining seeks a Community Driven Reconstruc- gerial, and administrative excellence
relationships with foundation staff, tion Program Director/Chief of Party to in a compliant, safe work environment
proposal and report writing, and strate- lead a Consortium including the IRC that reflects Pact’s culture and values;
gic planning for fundraising programs. (lead agency), Care International and will supervise and guide headquarters
Send resume, cover letter, two writing the International Foundation for Educa- HR professionals with the goal of being
samples and salary requirements to: tion and Self Help (IFESH) implement- pro-active, effective and responsive to
jobsearch@hesperian.org. Visit: http:// ing a large scale CDR program in the the professional growth and develop-
hesperian.org/ DRC. This 3-year program aims at sup- ment of Pact employees. The Director is
continued on next page

MONDAY DEVELOPMENTS May 2008 27
Interested in placing a job announcement or advertisement? Email publications@interaction.org

continued from previous page apy (ART) to persons with HIV/AIDS. nine countries. Currently, CRS is seeking
The project is funded by the Health Re- a Regional Technical Advisor -Health
an active member of Pact’s Coordinat- sources Services Administration (HRSA), Systems Management in East Africa to
ing Group and global network of HR as part of the President’s Emergency support this valuable project. Please
practitioners. Excellent compensation Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR). As the visit our website for additional informa-
package provided. Visit Pact’s website lead agency, CRS has the responsibility tion at www.crs.org and refer to requisi-
– www.pactworld.org – for detailed job of managing and coordinating the ac- tion # I 08 060.
description and to submit your online tivities of five consortium members in
application. EOE nine countries. Currently, CRS is seeking

Chief of Party
a Regional Technical Advisor, AIDSRelief Sign up for
Anti-Retroviral Therapy in East Africa to
Tanzania support this worthy project. Please visit InterAction’s
Catholic Relief Services seeks a Chief our website for additional information weekly email job
of Party for the USG-funded AIDSRe- at www.crs.org and refer to requisition
lief Project, based in Tanzania. CRS is # I 08 059.
announcements.
the consortium lead for AIDSRelief. The InterAction offers a weekly
COP directs all aspects of the Tanzania Regional Technical Advisor, emailed listing of extensive
AIDSRelief program and ensures the Health Systems management employment and internship
goals and objectives of the project in East Africa
Tanzania are fulfilled. The COP must be
opportunities in the field of
CRS is the consortium lead for AIDSRe-
able to provide vision, strategic lead- lief, a multi-country program to provide
international development
ership and management guidance. To increased access to antiretroviral ther- and humanitarian assistance.
apply please go to www.crs.org. apy (ART) to persons with HIV/AIDS. Subscriptions are available
The project is funded by the Health Re- for renewable periods of
Regional Technical Advisor, sources Services Administration (HRSA),
one month for US $20 or
ARV Thearapy as part of the President’s Emergency
East Africa Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR). As the
three months for US $40.
CRS is the consortium lead for AIDSRe- lead agency, CRS has the responsibility Institutional rate, $400/year.
lief, a multi-country program to provide of managing and coordinating the ac- www.interaction.org
increased access to antiretroviral ther- tivities of five consortium members in

28 InterAction MONDAY DEVELOPMENTS
Interested in placing a job announcement or advertisement? Email publications@interaction.org

Director of Personnel – Chemonics International
Washington, DC
Chemonics International seeks a director of personnel to oversee and manage the day-to-day work and
operations of its personnel department. Primary responsibilities include: overseeing management of
compensation, benefits, affirmative action programs; reviewing benefit and retirement plans for com-
pliance; reviewing compensation structure and making recommendations for salary and compensation
levels across company, including merit raises, promotions, bonus and other incentive plans; managing
and maintaining compliance in the areas of Affirmative Action and Equal Opportunity; supervision and
development of eight-person staff; ensuring corporate compliance with federal and state regulations regarding employment
practices and immigration; contributing to department, division, corporate strategies; assisting with research and selection pro-
cess for enterprise HRIS; providing ongoing assessment and evaluation of key human resource metrics; advising executive staff.

Qualifications: -Foreign language preferred
-Advanced degree preferred -Willingness to travel and work abroad required
-Minimum eight years applicable human resources experience -Demonstrated ability to communicate clearly, orally and in
with a strong background in compensation. CEBS certification writing
preferred. -Ability to work both independently and collaboratively
-Strong understanding of federal and state employment law required
-Strong understanding of benefit and retirement plans -Demonstrated ability to manage and supervise department
-Strong knowledge of USAID compliance policies staff, multiple project teams, and other initiatives
-Ability to operate at advanced levels of authority -Demonstrated integrity, independent thinking, judgment,
-Experience living or working in developing countries preferred and respect for others
-Permanent U.S. work authorization required.
Send electronic submissions with expression of interest to personnel_director@chemonics.com by COB, May 5, 2008.
No telephone inquiries, please.

VP of Communications and Public Engagement – Warwick, RI
Plan USA, an international child-centered development organization working in 49 countries in Africa, Asia
and Latin America, seeks a VP of Communications and Public Engagement to provide leadership, strategic
direction, oversight, coordination and priority setting for the organization. Working in conjunction with the
Media Director, Youth Engagement Director and Communications Director, will spearhead the effort to ad-
vance and promote Plan USA’s mission, values and programming throughout the nation and will develop
an advocacy portfolio around issues affecting children and youth.

Minimum requirements include a Bachelor’s degree; master’s preferred in communications or a related
field, 6+ years of high level generalist experience developing/implementing comprehensive communica-
tions plan and strategies for large and/or national organizations, knowledge of trends in communications,
media relations, and public education/engagement; excellent organizational, interpersonal and networking
skills with large groups as well as with individuals. Must be able to travel (domestically and internationally) for 25% of the time

Director of Business Development – Washington, DC
Plan USA, an international child-centered development organization working in 49 countries in Africa, Asia and Latin America,
seeks a Director of Business Development. Reporting to the VP for International Programs, this person will provide leadership and
support to the operations of the Business Development Unit. Will define and organize Plan USA’s ambitious institutional funding
growth targets for child-centered community development.

Minimum requirements include a Master’s level degree and a minimum of 10 years professional experience of which 5 years as a
manager and 5 years in related field of responsibilities; highly motivated and capable individual with excellent leadership, written
and verbal communication skills, and a proven track record in development resulting in program funding and expansion. Organi-
zation and ability to manage multi-disciplinary teams in the daily pursuit of a defined funding strategy are crucial to success in this
position. Proficiency in another international language is preferred.

Cover letter and resume to: hr@planusa.org FAX 401-738-5608’ mail: HR, Plan USA, 155 Plan Way, Warwick, RI 02886. EOE
Visit our website: www.planusa.org

MONDAY DEVELOPMENTS May 2008 29
Interested in placing a job announcement or advertisement? Email publications@interaction.org

Country Director, Egypt (Cairo)
Director of New Business Egypt Country Office
Development
Richmond, VA Save the Children, the leading international relief and development
Christian Children’s Fund is offering the agency striving to improve the lives of women and children in need,
opportunity for a results oriented per- seeks a strong Country Director for its programs based in Cairo,
son to provide leadership, direction and Egypt to lead strategic planning, growth, and management of all op-
coordination of its fundraising among erations and personnel in the country office. The CD will also main-
institutional foundations, government tain overall responsibility for administration, fiscal management,
and multilateral agencies. The Direc- and grant management of programs; direction, supervision, and
tor of New Business Development will have a mandate to grow CCF’s evaluation of staff; and the design, implementation, evaluation, and
funding from these sources. This position will report directly to the Vice
analysis of program activities. S/he is also responsible for all donor
President of Global Programs and will supervise an existing team with
services, including sponsorship, and represents the agency with do-
a commitment to build the team as required.
nors, partner agencies, local institutions, and the media.  
The candidate will have:
• A demonstrated track record of success in developing winning Advanced degree in a developmental sector e.g., public health,
proposals in partnership with international, national and local maternal,  or child health, plus at least six years of  management re-
implementing partners. sponsibility in development projects outside the US. Demonstrated
• A strong knowledge of – and existing relationships with – institutional experience in managing field operations; proven track record of pro-
foundations, government and multilateral agencies and other “key gram management, implementation, monitoring and fundraising;
players”, preferably in relation to programming in support of children. and demonstrated experience in financial and grants management,
• Experience in building organizational fundraising capability, with an budget control and strategic planning. Proven knowledge of public
emphasis on building staff skills and abilities. funding mechanisms such as USAID, DFID, UN, EU, private founda-
• Strong and enthusiastic interpersonal skills and an ability to tions and sponsorship; excellent communication skills (oral and
communicate orally and with excellent presentation skills. written) in English; knowledge of Arabic preferred; and strong team
building, cross-cultural and representational skills is required.  
CCF offers an excellent working environment, and a generous salary and
benefits package. The ability and desire to travel is a must. How to Apply:
Qualified candidates should apply directly on-line to:
Please submit your application directly by visiting our website www.savethechildren.org/careers/index.asp
www.christianchildrensfund.org EOE M/F/D/V and specify position #3641.

30 InterAction MONDAY DEVELOPMENTS
Interested in placing a job announcement or advertisement? Email publications@interaction.org

MONDAY DEVELOPMENTS May 2008 31
Interested in placing a job announcement or advertisement? Email publications@interaction.org

The International Center for Research on Women (ICRW) is an organization of international development professionals –
researchers, advocates and program managers – committed to creating and sharing the tools, approaches and techniques
needed to catalyze change for women worldwide.
Because of rapid growth, we are seeking qualified staff to fill several senior level positions crucial to our mission. These key
roles require vision and creativity coupled with proven expertise to move our research forward and apply that research to
policies and programs in developing countries. These positions are based in the Washington, D.C., headquarters but involve
targeted international travel to implement initiatives, monitor the impact of our work, and further ICRW’s visibility and reach.

Vice President, Health and Development Division
This senior leadership role in the organization functions as a member of both ICRW’s executive team and several cross-
functional management teams. You will be responsible for broad oversight of the three technical teams that represent
ICRW’s research agenda for Health and Development: HIV and AIDS and Development; Gender, Violence and Rights; and
Reproductive Health and Nutrition. The Vice President will participate in the strategic planning process, incorporating the
Division’s objectives: expanding the Division’s research and program portfolio, and fundraising, and coordinating program
area needs and activities with other ICRW divisions. You will provide leadership in promoting ICRW’s visibility and reputation
in the program area, represent ICRW with partners, governments, NGOs, the private sector and donors, and serve as an ICRW
spokesperson at public events and forums.
Gender and Agricultural Specialist
The Gender and Agricultural Specialist will help lead ICRW’s Economic Development Team to shape and develop its
portfolio on the importance of gender in agricultural development. As a senior member of the team, you will take the
primary responsibility for working with a major U.S.-based foundation to integrate gender issues into its global initiative on
agriculture. The engagement with the Foundation involves input on RFPs and proposals, technical assistance to Foundation
staff on proposal reviews, gender integration, and grantee support.
Senior Evaluation Specialist
The Senior Evaluation Specialist will provide leadership in measurement and evaluation support to a major U.S.-based
Foundation and its grantees. Your primary responsibility will be to ensure the ICRW internal team provides well-conceptualized
guidance to the Foundation and its grantees in framing and assessing key questions for performance, process and impact
evaluation, including, but not limited to, conceptual and instrument design, program design, research training and capacity
building, data management and analysis, and synthesis of project results in reports, presentations and papers.

Senior Technical Specialists, Gender and HIV / AIDS and Gender-Based Violence and Sexuality
These peer senior technical roles will contribute significantly to guiding and developing ICRW’s portfolio of work on gender
and HIV and gender and violence. Both roles will have primary responsibility for developing, leading and managing projects,
often within complex consortia, that involve research on project interventions, technical assistance and policy advocacy
that address the complex intersection of gender, gender-based violence and HIV and AIDS. Each position serves as a senior
member of the technical teams, helping to lead the conceptual development and fundraising for gender, gender-based
violence, rights and HIV and AIDS, and integrating these research themes with the Division’s broader portfolio on gender,
health and development.
Senior Social Demographer
The Senior Social Demographer will help lead the population and social transitions team to develop and expand specific
portfolios on gender, population and development. Your focus areas may include adolescents and transitions to adulthood;
determinants and consequences of women’s empowerment; son preference; and the linkage between fertility desires,
contraceptive use and abortion behavior. You will also serve as a mentor and manager for junior researchers, participating in
strategic thinking and donor/partner relations, and contributing significantly to ICRW’s institutional and business development.

In exchange for the talent and energy you bring to ICRW, we offer an environment that supports your continued professional
growth through challenging, meaningful and high-visibility work, a community of creative and motivated professionals with
whom you can collaborate and a total employment package that represents competitive compensation and benefits.
We invite you to contact Dora Ann Daniel at ddaniel@icrw.org with your resume and a cover letter as an e-mail attachment.
She then will establish a time to speak with you about your goals and vision as a development professional, share more
detailed information about our professional opportunities, and discuss how you might put your skills to work at our
organization. She also will discuss next steps toward setting up a personalized interview.

32 InterAction MONDAY DEVELOPMENTS
Interested in placing a job announcement or advertisement? Email publications@interaction.org

MONDAY DEVELOPMENTS May 2008 33
Interested in placing a job announcement or advertisement? Email publications@interaction.org

“Any intelligent fool can make things bigger, more complex,
and more violent. It takes a touch of genius — and a lot of
courage—to move in the opposite direction.”
— Albert Einstein, at whose suggestion the IRC was founded

LÉONCE BARHERENDUBA
Security and Logistics
DR Congo

It takes the best to prevail against the worst of crises.

To join us, please visit: theIRC.org/Jobs

IRC_MonDev_MayAd.indd 1 4/18/08 12:27:04 PM

34 InterAction MONDAY DEVELOPMENTS
Interested in placing a job announcement or advertisement? Email publications@interaction.org

SKILL
AND
PASSION
AT WORK Program Manager for Government Relations
Washington, DC
Current The Program Manager for Government Relations will be a key
Openings senior member of a staff team responsible for managing and
Finance Director carrying out InterAction’s ongoing work on U.S. foreign assistance
DR Congo reform. In particular, she or he will be responsible for covering
the work of, and maintaining relationships with key staff of the
Community Driven Office the Director of Foreign Assistance (F), the U.S. Agency for
Reconstruction Program International Development (USAID), and key congressional offices
Area Coordinator
and committees . The position reports to the Senior Director for
DR Congo
Public Policy and works closely with other Public Policy Unit staff.
Country Directors
Afghanistan and Pakistan Essential functions: Gathering information on changes in OFA,
USAID, MCC, and OGAC policies and practices; producing timely
Senior Technical Advisor, analyses of foreign assistance-related issues for use in advocacy
Environmental Health and by IA members; staffing and supporting InterAction’s
HQ New York Foreign Assistance Reform Task Force, and facilitating on-
going communication between InterAction members and U.S.
Deputy Director of Programs
West Sudan government staff (Congress and administration) on these issues.

Gender Based Violence Qualifications: The ideal candidate will have extensive knowledge
Coordinators of U.S. foreign assistance content and decision-making; have had
Sudan and Uganda at least five years experience working on foreign assistance related
issues, preferably with a federal agency or with an organization
that implements foreign-assistance funded projects; have proven
To learn more about working ability to work effectively as part of a team, multi-task, set priorities,
with us, please visit
adapt to change, and solve problems. Superior speaking and
writing skills are a must. The requisite education and experience
theIRC.org/Jobs for the position is a master’s degree, or the equivalent, in a field of
study directly related to international development.

Salary and Benefits: InterAction provides competitive salaries
and excellent benefits.

To apply, submit a cover letter and resume to advocacy@interaction.
org. Please indicate in your cover letter and email subject line the
position that you are applying for. The position will remain open until
filled though active review of applications will begin on May 15 and
applications received before that date will be preferred. Due to the
large number of applications received, only short-listed candidates will
be contacted. No phone calls, please.

IRC_thirdPage_MayAd.indd 1 4/18/08 12:33:10 PM
MONDAY DEVELOPMENTS May 2008 35
1400 16th Street, NW, Suite 210
Washington, DC 20036
Phone: (202) 667-8227
Fax: (202) 667-8236
publications@interaction.org
www.interaction.org

FIRST CLASS MAIL
InterAction is the largest alliance of U.S.-based international
development and humanitarian nongovernmental
organizations. With more than 160 members operating in every
developing country, we work to overcome poverty, exclusion
and suffering by advancing social justice and basic dignity for all.