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MONDAY

DEVELOPMENTS
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The Latest Issues and Trends in International Development and Humanitarian Assistance

Human
Rights
Restavèks:
The Child
Slaves of Haiti

Poverty
and

2008 DATA
Report
Coverage
The Potential
Power of the
New Rights Foreign
Advocacy Assistance:
Where Do the
Candidates
Capital Flight Stand?
Is a Human
Rights Abuse

October
2008
Vol. 26, No. 10
InterAction
MONDAY
DEVELOPMENTS

Managing Editor/Art Director
Chad Brobst

Copy Editor
Kathy Ward

Advertising & Sales
14
Michael Haslett

Communications Department
Nasserie Carew, Public Relations
Tawana Jacobs, Public Relations
Tony Fleming, New Media 21

Contents
Chad Brobst, Publications

10
Michael Haslett, Publications
Margaret Christoph, Admin Associate

Editorial Committee
Cover photo by Darcy Kiefel
InterAction Communications Team
October 2008 • Vol. 26 • No. 10
InterAction
1400 16th Street, NW
Suite 210 Features Capital Flight Is a Human Special Section:
Washington, DC 20036 Rights Abuse | 22 More Than Just
Tel: 202.667.8227 Alleviating Poverty: When development aid leaves the Money | 33
publications@interaction.org
Is Aid the Answer? | 10 a country quicker than it comes InterAction members’
ISSN 1043-8157 Whose poverty is really in, where is the real benefit? involvement in global initiatives
being alleviated? for accountable and effective aid.
Education’s Effect on • NGO Roles in Financing for
Monday Developments is published 12 Speaking Out for Poverty | 23 Development (FfD)
times a year by InterAction, the larg- Human Rights | 14 Combating child labor and • The United Nations’
est alliance of U.S.-based international Financing for Development
development and humanitarian non-
World Voices Project art breaking the cycle of poverty
governmental organizations. With more installation draws attention to through education. Review Conference
than 170 members operating in every the Universal Declaration of • The G8 Summit and Beyond
developing country, InterAction works to Human Rights. Restavèks: The Child • Improving the Impact of Aid:
overcome poverty, exclusion and suffer- The Footprint of the 3rd High
ing by advancing social justice and basic Slaves of Haiti | 25
The Potential Power of the Level Forum on Aid
dignity for all. Awareness of trafficking is
New Rights Advocacy | 16 • Making Headlines:
crucial to its prevention.
InterAction welcomes submissions of The division between NGOs The Role of Media in
news articles, opinions and announce-
focused on human rights and International Development
ments. Article submission does not guar- The G8 Are Behind:
antee inclusion in Monday Developments. development continues to blur. Will They Meet Their
We reserve the right to reject submis- Foreign Assistance:
Promises? | 27 Where Do They Stand? | 38
sions for any reason. It is at the discretion The Right to Health as a 2008’s DATA Report reveals
of our editorial team as to which articles Democrats and Republicans
are published in individual issues. Way Forward | 19 some sobering trends.
Embrace and incorporate global share their visions of
All statements in articles are the sole health in your work. development.
opinion and responsibility of the authors. An Issue of Cabinet-level
Importance | 29
Articles may be reprinted with prior per- Is the Environment On the U.S. foreign assistance reform
mission and attribution. Letters to the Back Burner? | 21 Departments
aligns with the global movement
editor are encouraged. Programs that incorporate for aid effectiveness. Inside This Issue | 3
environmental concerns also
A limited number of subscriptions are
further human rights. Letters | 4
made available to InterAction member U.S. Grassroots Activists:
agencies as part of their dues. Individual
Key to Foreign Assistance Washington Update | 5
38
subscriptions cost $80 a year (add $15
for airmail delivery outside the U.S.) Reform | 30 Inside InterAction | 6
Samples are $5, including postage. Shaping policy at home can
Additional discounts are available for be just as effective as work in
Southern Voices | 8
bulk orders. Please allow 4-6 weeks for
delivery. Advertising rates are available the field. Employment
on request. Opportunities | 39
INSIDE This Issue

Progress Against
Poverty: Aligning
With the Millennium
Development Goals

M
uch has been written about global poverty. It is
unfathomable to most people that in this world of
plenty, there are millions of people without life’s ba-
sic necessities – clean water, access to healthcare,
adequate food and housing. At this midpoint to the deadline
for achieving Millennium Development Goals (MDGs), the
poverty reduction report card is mixed. It is mixed largely be-
cause of the lack of a global commitment to reduce poverty.
The UN recently released a report that highlights the far
reaching effects of the current global economic slowdown in-
cluding escalating prices of food and oil. For people living in
cities on little more than one dollar a day, escalating prices
on staple food products can be crippling. As governments
and the international development community discuss more
effective ways to advance structural and social poverty re-
ducing programs, the concern is that the current food crisis
is expected to push many more people across the line into
abject poverty or even starvation.
Confronting the challenges of eradicating poverty demands
an equal focus on the successes being made around the world
to improve the lives of poor men, women and children.
InterAction will once again observe the International Day to
Eradicate Poverty with our second annual Progress Against
Poverty Week. During October 14-17, 2008 we will spotlight
advancements in fighting poverty, celebrate the people on the
frontlines of this grueling war, and facilitate an information
exchange on ways to reach our ultimate goal of achieving the
MDG targets by 2015.
I have seen up close the phenomenal benefits of many de-
velopment programs in communities around the world. An
effective poverty reduction conversation has to take place
at the local, national, and international levels. Your voice is
critical to this discussion.
This issue of Monday Developments is a practical guide to
our Progress Against Poverty 2008 dialogue. Let us know
what you think. Please send your comments and sugges-
tions, or share your poverty reduction success stories with us
by e-mailing comments@interaction.org. MD
Photo: Jessica Mull

Sam Worthington
President and CEO
InterAction

MONDAY DEVELOPMENTS October 2008 3
Letters Send your letters to:
comments@interaction.org

ting up internal or home-based support systems on behalf
Spouses and Families Are Important Too of the aid worker and their family. Spouses and supporting
I read the September issue of MOnday Develop- partners bear most of the psychological  burden each time
ments with great interest since the topic of Staff Care, espe- relocation takes place, even when the best logistical support
cially related to international aid workers hits close to home is made available.
for me. What surprised me was that none of the articles really I hope that the new generation of aid professionals, es-
addressed the importance of the accompanying family and pecially given the difficult conditions  and dangers that aid
“trailing spouses” that are often the supporting pillars of the families are exposed to, will demand that their organizations
international aid professional. Without a happy and support- adopt agency-wide wellness and support  policies target-
ive family there will not be an adjusted and productive aid ing both staff and family members equally.
worker, which often leads to staff turnover and the high costs On both a personal and professional level, accompanying
associated with this.  a humanitarian aid professional  for a couple of decades in
Having accompanied an international aid professional for several continents and countries can be very fulfilling, grati-
20 years in many developing countries, I know that fam- fying and a great learning experience. It allows families to be
ily members go through the same emotional stresses (if more competitive in the marketplace and provides a broader
not more) associated with relocating to a new culture and global perspective through varied and rich cross-cultural ex-
community; worrying about health and medical emergen- periences. In a word, it can enrich your life and that of those
cies;  missing home and experiencing fears and concerns around you.
over security. In fact, family members often have it worse as In my case, I am grateful for having gone through this great
they do not get the immediate comfort of quickly getting into journey and having been able to work with those less fortu-
a working environment and the support systems associated nate while providing our children with the exposure and sen-
with it. sitivity to appreciate the riches the world has to offer.
Many trailing spouses give up interesting and fulfilling ca- Taina Alexander, InterAction
reers to support their spouses. They play a vital role in set-
Praying for Better Management
September’s issue on Staff Care raised a number
InterAction’s of important and relevant lessons for NGOs, but focused

New Online largely on overseas operations. As an NGO worker in a large
DC agency, I would like to see the same commitment to bet-

Job Board!
ter management and improved staff care in organizational
headquarters.
Intense management training is essential in the NGO
world, where different cultures are embraced and diversity
is encouraged. Often people in leadership positions in U.S.
offices are required to adapt to a different culture. Unfortu-
Visit: careers.interaction.org nately I am witnessing a concentrated failure to adapt, and
the halting of an otherwise productive team.
The biggest area of adaptation for my directors is that
of religion. Many of the management team come from cul-
Talk about interacting! tures where it is normal to bring religion to the workplace.
To compliment Monday Thrown into leadership positions in DC, they illustrate the
Developments’ popular monthly inability to operate while accepting other faiths. Small, closed
bible groups have sprung up, with development opportuni-
job section, InterAction’s new ties clearly being presented to members and denied to those
online job board instantly who are perceived to have contradictory views. Although I am
connects you to the latest not a member of any such group, to my utter surprise I re-
international development cently found myself—helpless and offended—in a closed-door
jobs as they become available. prayer session with the project director!
Senior management at my organization would benefit from
Search by job sector, level,
listening to Sam Worthington, who states “better manage-
region and country—or post ment is often synonymous with better staff care”. Perhaps,
your resume and let the hiring with improved management, less stress and equal opportu-
managers come to you! nity, we would more successfully contribute to our common
goal of creating change for the underserved.
Name and organization withheld

4 MONDAY DEVELOPMENTS October 2008
WASHINGTON Update

FY2009 Appropriations
As the U.S. government’s 2008 fiscal year (FY2008) drew
to a close in the final weeks of September, Congress passed
a continuing resolution (CR) to fund the government for the
first half of FY2009 – from October 1, 2008 through March 6,
2009. A CR is a joint resolution enacted by Congress at the
end of a fiscal year if some or all of the regular appropriations
bills for the next fiscal year have not been enacted. This year’s
CR is like most in that it provides budget authority for federal
government agencies and programs to continue in operation
at current funding levels, i.e. at FY2008 levels. The calculation
of FY2008 levels explicitly excludes emergency funding, such Woman with painted face from Kmara movement in Georgia at a
as the humanitarian funding included in the War Supplemen- protest demanding democracy.
tal for humanitarian accounts. The only exceptions were extra
funds for food aid and assistance to Georgia and Haiti. This Congress to authorizing the balance in FY2009. Some of this
CR was packaged with domestic disaster assistance and three remaining balance has already been appropriated in the CR
of the 13 appropriations bills – Defense, Homeland Security, that the president signed on September 30.
and Military Construction/Veterans. Starting next January, On September 22, Senators Lugar and Casey introduced
Congress will be dealing with a new and (it hopes) more flex- the Global Food Security Act of 2008, which would, among
ible administration, with which it can negotiate spending lev- other provisions, include the appointment of a White-House-
els and pass bills to fund the rest of the fiscal year. level coordinator to oversee U.S. government efforts towards
The House passed the FY2009 package (CR plus bills) on addressing the food crisis.
September 24 and the Senate on September 27. The Presi- If you have any questions, or would like to be added to the
dent signed it on the last day of the fiscal year, September 30, email list for the weekly public policy update, please contact
in the midst of the financial market crisis and the struggle to Margaret Christoph at mchristoph@interaction.org. MD
pass legislation to try to keep that crisis from engulfing the
whole economy. That crisis will not directly affect CR fund-
ing, but it does make it all but certain that when Congress
reconvenes in the new year and considers funding for the
second half of the fiscal year, it will do so in a very, very tight
fiscal environment.

Humanitarian Legislation Update
September also saw movement on a number of pieces of
humanitarian legislation.
The Child Soldiers Accountability Act was passed by
unanimous consent in the Senate on September 15, and now
moves on to the President’s desk for his signature. The bill
allows those who recruit or use a child under 15 years of age
in an armed force or group to be held accountable under U.S.
criminal laws and disqualifies those individuals from gaining
asylum in the U.S.
On September 17, Senators Casey and Cardin introduced
legislation entitled “Support for Vulnerable and Displaced
Iraqis Act of 2008,” requiring the Secretary of State to de-
velop a comprehensive regional strategy to address the mass
displacement of Iraqis both within Iraq and internationally,
and vulnerable but non-displaced Iraqis.
The Stabilization and Democracy for Georgia Act of 2008
was marked-up by the House Foreign Affairs Committee on
September 17. The bill supports the President’s $1 billion as-
sistance package with an authorization level of $470 million
in reallocated FY2008 funds for humanitarian assistance,
Photo: KMARA

reconstruction and democracy programs carried out by the
Millennium Challenge Corporation, the Overseas Private In-
vestment Corporation (OPIC), and USAID, and commits the

MONDAY DEVELOPMENTS October 2008 5
INSIDE InterAction

advocate for the universal recognition of the rights of the dis-
InterAction Announces abled through national planning and advocacy. Handicap In-
New Theme for PROGR ternational USA is involved in the fight against antipersonnel
Annual Poverty Week AGA ESS mines and cluster bombs. As a co-founder of the Internation-

POVERINST
Observance al Campaign to Ban Landmines (ICBL) which was awarded

WEEK TY
InterAction’s annual event the Nobel Peace Prize in 1997, Handicap International USA
2 0
is to now be identified as 0 8 is now widely recognized as a key international lobbyist on
A
Progress Against Poverty ligning wit weapons of war.
h th
Week. In its second year, the Develope Millennium International Housing Coalition (IHC) was organized by
event has grown to include a ment Go the National Association of REALTORS (NAR), the Canadian
als
small series of events hosted Real Estate Association (CREA) and Habitat for Humanity In-
at InterAction’s offices in Washington, DC, and an en- ternational (HFHI) to promote the goal of “HOUSING FOR ALL”
hanced Web presence that will highlight the anti-poverty as an essential element to ending poverty worldwide. Recog-
work of InterAction member organizations. The theme of nizing the worldwide housing problem and the lack of priority
this year’s event is “Aligning with the Millennium Devel- being given to housing issues, the IHC was organized for the
opment Goals”. purpose of restoring housing to a position of importance and
While the week is dedicated to celebrating how far the priority on the world development agenda. IHC supports the
international development and humanitarian commu- basic principles of private property rights, secure tenure, effec-
nity has come in the fight against global poverty, par- tive title systems, and efficient and equitable housing finance
ticipants will also have an important opportunity this systems. These principles are essential elements to further-
year to assess U.S. progress toward achieving the Mil- ing economic growth and development and they support civic
lennium Development Goals by 2015 and use this mid- stability and democratic values. The IHC vigorously advocates
point analysis to better align their work. for these principles in national and international forums, and
A full recap of Poverty Week events will appear in No- emphasizes giving high, sustained priority to housing the poor
vember’s Monday Developments. and slum dwellers across the world.
Islamic Relief USA strives to alleviate suffering, hunger,
illiteracy, and diseases worldwide regardless of color, race,
Five New Members Join InterAction religion, or creed, and to provide aid in a compassionate and
The board of directors in their September meeting unani- dignified manner. Islamic Relief aims to provide rapid relief
mously voted for five new member organizations to join In- in the event of human and natural disasters and to establish
terAction. sustainable local development projects allowing communi-
InterAction welcomes the following new members: ties to better help themselves. To achieve these objectives,
Campaign for Innocent Victims in Conflict (CIVIC) advo- Islamic Relief implements several different types of projects
cates on behalf of victims of armed conflict, working to ensure including development projects, orphans projects, seasonal
they receive recognition and assistance from warring parties. projects, and domestic projects. Islamic Relief has helped
CIVIC persuaded the U.S. Congress to establish programs for the people of Afghanistan, Bosnia, Chechnya, Kosova and
war victims in Afghanistan and Iraq. It guides victims to as- Palestine, providing rapid assistance in times of emergency.
sistance, brings the human cost of war to the attention of Islamic Relief’s Orphans Welfare Program provides care for
policymakers and the public, and is advocating a new global orphans and remaining members of their family. Islamic Re-
standard of conduct that warring parties should bring assis- lief has increasingly supported many domestic projects – the
tance to civilians they’ve harmed. In 2005, CIVIC’s founder biggest being the response to Hurricane Katrina.
Marla Ruzicka was killed in Iraq by a suicide bomber while CHF International is the catalyst for long-lasting positive
advocating for families injured and killed in the crossfire. CIV- change in low- and moderate-income communities around
IC honors her legacy and strives to sustain her vision. CIVIC the world, helping them to improve their social, economic and
is urging warring parties to take responsibility and provide environmental conditions. CHF International programs are
appropriate assistance to the victims. building blocks to peaceful, prosperous democratic societies.
Handicap International USA works to improve the living CHF International implements innovative, demand-driven
conditions of people living in disabling situations in post- and community-specific solutions to improve depressed and
conflict and low income countries around the world. They malfunctioning economic systems all over the world.
work with local partners to develop programs in health and They are a pioneer in the development finance arena pro-
rehabilitation and social and economic integration and col- viding an array of financial services to economically disad-
laborate with local authorities to clear landmines and other vantaged groups.
war debris and to prevent mine-related accidents through Years of development experience has enabled CHF to start
education. They respond fast and effectively to natural and applying sustainable community development principles as
civil disasters in order to limit serious and permanent inju- early in the recovery process as circumstances allow. Their
ries and to assist survivors’ recovery and reintegration. They experience has demonstrated that the surest route to effective

6 MONDAY DEVELOPMENTS October 2008
development is a local community addressing its own needs 2008, President Sirleaf met with InterAction member CEOs
based upon democratic principles and collective action. to discuss ways member organizations can best support de-
velopment and humanitarian assistance in Liberia. President
InterAction Members Meet with Liberian President Sirleaf emphasized the importance of NGOs aligning their pro-
“Many organizations have helped Liberia during times of grams with the country’s national development strategy.
emergency, and now the country is transitioning from hu-
manitarian crisis to development. We must scale up proj- New Director for Sustainable Development
ects and programs in Liberia to increase impact,” said Ellen InterAction welcomes Dr. Brian Greenberg as its new Di-
Johnson-Sirleaf, the President of Liberia. On September 26, rector for Sustainable Development. Dr. Greenberg has over
20 years of experience in food security, agricultural develop-
ment, and environmental sustainability.
For the past three years, Dr. Greenberg has served as a
Senior Program Officer in the Agriculture Unit at Winrock
International, where his work spanned programs in agricul-
ture and rural livelihoods, environment, conflict mitigation
and organizational capacity building. Previously, he worked
with the Office of Private Voluntary Cooperation at USAID as
a AAAS fellow, and as Director of Environmental Social Sci-
ences at Innovative Resources Management.
Dr. Greenberg’s development career has included extensive
field research, program implementation and policy advocacy,
with a focus on Egypt and South Asia. He holds a PhD in Cul-
Ellen Johnson-Sirleaf, the President of Liberia, poses with InterAc- tural Anthropology from the University of Chicago, where he
tion members and InterAction President & CEO Sam Worthington. also received training in population and the environment. MD

Poverty Reduction World Health Organization Press
that Works
Experience of Scaling Up titles now available through
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Spanish. Stylus will undertake full sales
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MONDAY DEVELOPMENTS October 2008 7
SOUTHERN Voices

Standing Up For Those
– millions of them in fact – that she has cast aside for political
expediency and religious conservatism,” said Saracho.
The Philippines is among those lagging in terms of meet-

Caught in the Crossfire ing its MDG targets. A third of its population is deemed poor
and the number is rising. Despite record GDP growth last
year, there is rising poverty and hunger. The government
Amid renewed insurgency and a heated blames this on the global food crisis and the rising prices
debate about reproductive health, anti- of oil. But anti-poverty advocates maintain the government
has failed miserably to create jobs and improve people’s ac-
poverty campaigners in the Philippines cess to education and health services. The global crisis in
are preparing for this year’s Stand Up. food and oil are just “more bad luck” that hit poor families
so bad that one Filipino student in six has stopped going to
Lani C. Villanueva, Global Call to Action against Poverty school recently (the National Statistical Coordination Board
reported recently that the drop in enrollment is worsening).

M
embers of the opposition called on her to Anti-poverty advocates are concerned that the government
cancel her trip because it would cost a lot of taxpay- is not just missing its MDG targets but also missing the point
ers’ money. But she wants to be a part of it. New York, in the whole MDG story so far.
New York. So she took a very expensive 19-hour flight, bring- Muslim separatist rebels recently attacked Christian-dom-
ing an entourage of 70 plus and a dismal re-
cord of delivering the Millennium Development
Goals (MDGs). Philippine President Gloria Ar-
royo initially cancelled her trip to New York to
attend the United Nations high-level meeting
supposedly so she could focus her attention on
the country’s economic problems and on the
renewed hostilities in Southern Philippines,
but changed her mind at the last minute.
There are positive gains to be had in this
trip, Arroyo’s executive secretary explained.
She would be meeting with world leaders first
and foremost, including the UN secretary gen-
eral. It will give her an opportunity to explain
to the world how the Philippines is facing glob-
al challenges and the ongoing military opera-
tions in Southern Philippines.
World leaders attending the high-level meet-
ing are expected to report on the highlights of
the progress made by their countries towards
achieving the MDGs. Joel Saracho, coordina- Poverty Requiem held on Oct. 17,2007 during the Stand Up event.
tor of the Philippines coalition of the Global
Call to Action against Poverty (GCAP) is dismayed that Arroyo inated areas in Mindanao, devastating communities and forc-
is more concerned about engaging her counterparts on global ing thousands of poor families out of their homes. The dis-
economic challenges than on urgent actions her administra- placed families have been crowding gymnasiums and schools
tion must take to ensure compliance with the MDGs, the is- and many have no homes to return to or have no plans of
sue for which the high level meeting was convened. ever returning home, swelling the number of the homeless,
“The Philippines has not been making progress on MDG unschooled, unemployed, ill, and malnourished.
targets concerning universal access to education, reducing The predominantly Catholic country is also currently em-
maternal mortality and increasing access to reproductive broiled in a debate about the controversial Reproductive
health services. And her report to the UN will say that the Health bill. The bill will legalize, among others, mandatory
country is doing fairly well in terms of meeting most of the age-appropriate teaching of reproductive health and the pur-
MDG targets except that it needs to work harder on some tar- chase of contraceptives by state hospitals. Although its propo-
gets. But behind the glib presentation, the statistics and po- nents have explained that nowhere in the bill does it say that
litical-speak are real people who are living in filth and death abortion will be legalized in the country, nuns and priests
have mounted a fierce campaign against the bill’s passage.
Agree or disagree with what you’ve read? Send a letter to the editor. While surveys have found that more than 90% of Filipinos
Email: comments@interaction.org (letters will be published in a future issue) want services to plan the size of their family and are support-

8 MONDAY DEVELOPMENTS October 2008
ive of a population management policy, the majority of law- In 2007, a total of 43.7 million people from 127 countries
makers in the House of Representatives have sided with the “stood up”, breaking the earlier Guinness record. Close to
Catholic Church, which threatened lawmakers supportive of 33 million “stood up” in Asia, the highest mobilization by a
the bill with denial of Holy Communion. Arroyo herself de- region. Of these, more than seven million were Filipinos.
clared she is taking the Catholic Church’s position because “For this year’s Stand Up, GCAP hopes to surpass last
this has always been her position. year’s numbers and make it an even bigger moment for glob-
Anti-poverty advocates have said financing gaps are one al action on poverty and the MDGs. In the Philippines, it is
of the biggest hurdles meeting the MDGs and the prospects urgent to bring people together and demand that government
for bridging the gaps are not bright considering how serious take action. We are racing against time,” said Saracho.
the problem of corruption is. They lament the tens of billions Tens of millions of people are expected to participate in
of pesos that have been lost to corruption, which could have hundreds of events from small community events to massive
gone to MDG funding. concerts, sporting and faith events, and marches (for details,
This is the backdrop against which preparations in the Phil- check out www.standagainstpoverty.org)
ippines for the Stand Up and Take Action is taking place. To make an even bigger impact in terms of enabling citizens
Stand Up is a worldwide call to take action against poverty to hold their governments accountable to their promise to end
and inequality and for the achievement of the MDGs. It is held poverty, GCAP has joined with Oxfam, Save the Children and
during the observance of the International Day for the Eradica- Comic Relief to launch a major campaign action called In My
tion of Extreme Poverty on October 17. It was initiated in 2006 Name. (see www.inmyname.com). Well-known supporters of
by the UN Millennium Campaign (UNMC) and GCAP, a global In My Name, who have called on their governments to take
anti-poverty coalition working in 110 countries. That year, 24 action include Queen Rania Al Abdullah, Emeritus Archbish-
million people from 87 countries stood up against poverty dur- op Desmond Tutu, Mary Robinson, Ela Bhatt, Jeffrey Sachs,
ing the 24-hour period of October 17 and made it into the Guin- Emmanuel Jal, Kristin Davis, Scarlett Johansson, Mischa
ness Book of World Record. The Philippines ranked third in the Barton, Angelique Kidjo, Annie Lennox, Sergio Mendes, Wyclef
Asia Pacific region with 2.4 million Filipinos participating. Jean, Fergie, will.i.am., John Legend, and many more. MD

MONDAY DEVELOPMENTS October 2008 9
“ The counting of dollars is not
necessarily a good indicator
of success, for it is often that the
promises made fall far short
of the mark at the end


of the day.

10 MONDAY DEVELOPMENTS October 2008
Poverty Solutions

Is Aid
The following article presents
excerpts from a presentation by
Steve Berkman at an international
symposium on global poverty
and inequality sponsored by the
Institute for Global Leadership

The
(IGL) and Education for Public
Inquiry and International
Citizenship (EPIIC) at Tufts
University on February 22, 2008.

Answer?
W
e have been asked to consider whether AIDS, programs to empower women, social safety nets,
aid is the answer to alleviating poverty and I and a host of other obviously worthy goals. And these can
submit that it is. It alleviates poverty for thou- be good things, if that money is used wisely and efficiently
sands of consultants like myself who earn to achieve the donor’s objectives. But the counting of dol-
handsome fees advising the poor about poverty. It allevi- lars is not necessarily a good indicator of success, for it is
ates poverty for thousands of officials employed by the often that the promises made fall far short of the mark at
international aid agencies. It alleviates poverty for thou- the end of the day.
sands of technical assistance experts who vainly attempt But before continuing, let me clarify a critical difference
Photos: Darcy Kiefel (opposite page); Margaret Aguirre

to bring effective governance to failed states. It alleviates between the government officials responsible for admin-
poverty for the shareholders of thousands of firms that istering aid monies, and the beneficiaries whose lives are
win contracts on donor funded projects. And last, but not supposed to be improved by the process. Simply put, the
least, it alleviates poverty for corrupt elites who govern people who administer the aid monies are not those who
the poor in developing countries around the world. are supposed to benefit from it.
And while aid alleviates poverty for the aforementioned Perhaps this can best be understood if we examine a
individuals, it is hard to find evidence that it is doing the recent, small health sector project in Equatorial Guinea.
same for the poor themselves. Small wonder that so little The project was funded with five million dollars and was
is left for them after everyone else has fed at the trough. intended to improve the delivery of health services to the
Now there will be those who will challenge this assess- poor. The donor’s final assessment of the project conclud-
ment by pointing to all the money spent fighting HIV/ ed the following:

MONDAY DEVELOPMENTS October 2008 11
Poverty Solutions

• There were no quantified outputs And so, let us ask what are their real government officials, responsible for
found to demonstrate the progress of motivations? Are they completely and administering aid monies, living way
the project. genuinely committed to development? beyond their official means. This is not
• There was no recorded inventory of Are they truly interested in ensuring that because of privately earned wealth, but
the 13 vehicles, 1,000 mattresses or donor funds are used for the purposes because they had abused their posi-
the essential drugs procured under intended? Will they have the profession- tions of public trust so that they may
the project. al courage to speak out when things are enrich themselves at public expense.
• The status of studies on the preva- not going well? Are they truly committed They have raped national treasuries,
lence of malaria, a review of hospital to alleviating poverty for the masses? diverted public resources, and filled
finance, and an inventory of health It is difficult to find satisfactory an- their offshore bank accounts with aid
facilities cannot be determined. swers to these questions when we see monies intended for the poor.
• Service delivery for the health pro- how often aid is compromised. Despite From this, of course it would be easy
grams did not improve as follows: the dedication of many in the donor to conclude that there is no possibil-
• Endemic malaria persists where the community, there are those who often ity of making aid work. But I submit,
malaria control program was to be acquiesce to other interests and pres- that while the picture I have painted
piloted. sures to advance their careers, while is bleak, it does not mean we should
• Four newly constructed health cen- others ignore failures in the field to throw the baby out with the bath water.
ters are under-utilized and physi- protect the status quo. Still others dis- Aid does make sense, and it can work.
cally deteriorating. regard the corrupt nature of their inter- It has worked when applied judiciously,
• The sexually transmitted disease con- locutors who seek to enrich themselves and where all parties were fully com-
trol center is no longer in operation. mitted to the process. And, it can allevi-
• Essential drugs funded by the proj- There are those who ate poverty. But, and this is critical, it
can only work in certain environments.
ect are in short supply.
• Despite costly rehabilitation, drug often acquiesce to other It can work where those administering
warehouses are empty and in de-
plorable physical condition.
interests and pressures aid funds truly want to see it succeed. It
cannot work if their overriding agenda is
to advance their careers, to enrich themselves. It can work where
The only positive outcome reported at
the end of this project was the publica- while others ignore certain minimal levels of government in-
tegrity are enforced. It cannot work
tion of a booklet on sexually transmit-
ted diseases; and even there, it was not
failures in the field to where corruption is rampant. It can
work where donor agendas are focused
known how many copies were actually protect the status quo. on direct interventions with the poor. It
printed and distributed. In this particu- cannot work where the main beneficia-
lar case, can we truly say that aid is the at the expense of the poor. All these ries of aid are government officials and
answer? If we are to be honest, we must human factors impact the develop- their bureaucracies. It can work where
conclude that it was a complete and ment process as money is pushed out aid projects are small and focused, and
dismal failure. What else can be said the door to meet donor lending quotas. where meaningful and measurable re-
when all we have for five million dollars Often doomed to fail, aid programs are sults can be achieved. It cannot work
is some unknown quantity of booklets nevertheless funded to satisfy political, where projects are large, complex and
whose distribution cannot be verified? institutional and personal career agen- overly sophisticated. It can work when
So where did all that money go? das that have no logical bearing on de- those of us in the aid business move be-
Given the noble intentions of the donor velopment or the alleviation of poverty. yond the conferences, the workshops,
community, what explains the many dis- What do we see on the recipients’ the studies, the research, the surveys,
mal failures of the past several decades? side? More often than not, dysfunction- the papers and all the other intellectual
Part of the answer lies within certain ba- al governments, run by corrupt elites exercises, and concentrate upon getting
sic underlying realities that prevail in the with little interest in governing for the measurable results on the ground. MD
aid business. First, there is the matter of benefit of the governed. Billions in aid Steve Berkman worked at the World
agendas. Not the institutional agendas of for pie-in-the-sky projects rife with lu- Bank in the Africa Region Operations
the donors or the recipient governments, crative contracts for friends, relatives Group for twelve years. He retired in
but the agendas of the individuals, the and associates. Bid rigging, fraudu- 1995 and was called back in 1998 to as-
functionaries, the officials and the poli- lent procurement, and every conceiv- sist with the creation of a fraud and anti-
ticians, interacting on both sides of the able scam known to man. All under the corruption unit. He is also the author of
aid equation. For they are the real play- guise of alleviating poverty. the recently released The World Bank
ers in this game, not the faceless institu- I could present more examples of and the Gods of Lending (Kumarian
tions they represent. They are the ones failed projects. Suffice it to say, I have Press) that provides an in-depth look at
who sign on the dotted line. They are the seen my share of poorly constructed how the Bank operates, how it has failed
ones who determine the details of an aid roads, health clinics without equip- to accomplish its mission of alleviating
program. And they are the ones who de- ment, and all sorts of decaying in- poverty in developing countries, and how
termine how the money will be used. frastructure. I have seen too many it can return to that mission.

12 MONDAY DEVELOPMENTS October 2008
World Voices

World Voices Project at New York’s
South Street Seaport

14 MONDAY DEVELOPMENTS October 2008
World Voices

J
ust what does Tigrinya, “All human beings are born free and sound like? This kind of example should
Apache or Zulu sound like? Have equal in dignity and rights.” He noted be in as many places as possible.”
you ever heard of the languages that he sees inequality between people, Another woman from Kashmir, India
Igbo or Ga? You may have, de- especially men and women, as a world- said after experiencing the exhibit, “Peo-
pending on where you live, but most wide problem. “When I was growing up, ple should hear this entire declaration on
people don’t even know they exist. those sorts of things were never men- the radio in their native language. Most
World Voices Project lets you listen tioned, but I knew they existed,” Ganbat poor people, the ones whose rights are
to these and over fifty other languages said. “It was good to hear they were ac- abused, can’t read and don’t even know
reading The United Nation’s Universal tually written in the declaration.” this declaration exists.” I looked at her
Declaration of Human Rights. It’s an World Voices Project was borne out and said, “You’re right. Why don’t you do
artistic and educational audio instal- of a humble desire to create a little that? Maybe you can get local stations to
lation and informal online database of more harmony in the world. As a sound read it on-air.” She nodded at first reluc-
recordings whose primary message is recordist on documentary films, I had tantly, then as she thought more about
that regardless of ethnicity, religion, grown close to many colleagues on dif- it, she smiled and I could see that she
gender, age, or cultural barriers, we ferent continents. I was consistently was mentally taking on the task. I was
share a common humanity that car- struck by the fact that from Jakarta to thrilled. Maybe the exhibit had made a
ries with it an international standard Cairo, we always found ways to laugh difference and inspired someone to take
of justice and equality of treatment. together; that despite our cultural dif- action. I could only hope.

Speaking Out
for Human Rights
World Voices Project art installation draws attention
to the Universal Declaration of Human Rights.
By Brenda Ray, Director and Audio Artist
“Did you travel around the world ferences there were many common
to record these languages?” someone
asked me. I laughed that I should be so
threads in humor, aspirations, com-
passion and good will. Creating the
“Most poor people, the
lucky to have that kind of funding. But World Voices Project was a way to turn ones whose rights are
no. The project is predominantly self
funded and while the languages I re-
my mundane technical skills into a cre-
ative force for education and a measure abused... don’t even know
corded represent peoples from around
the world, I barely had to cross 42nd
of enlightenment for those who haven’t
had the opportunity to travel exten-
this declaration exists.”
Street to find them. All but four voices sively; to help dissipate the climate of The goal of World Voices is to do just
were recorded in the New York City fear and xenophobia that permeates that: to travel around the world, to
area, thanks to the city’s melting pot the media; and to express our common schools and to other public forums and
status. I met my “Armenian and Mon- humanity through sound. to inspire people to either take action,
golian voices” at a bar during a birthday World Voices Project premiered at stand up in defense of every person’s
party for a friend. Both were investment New York’s South Street Seaport in rights, or at minimum to change their
bankers. Later that month I met each at July 2008, where a jungle of almost minds about long held stereotypes or
their respective offices and after record- sixty hanging headphones representing beliefs. I think almost every person has
ing Ganbat, my new Mongolian friend, as many languages were suspended a natural inclination to create harmony
he was inspired to help me. “There’s a from a grid in an atrium space over- in the world we live in. Many just don’t
man from China who sits around the looking New York’s East River. One visi- know where to begin.
corner. Let me see if he’s still here.” He tor, Tammy Morris, said, “As a parent The digital audio tracks are offered
Photo: ArchiCulture.net

was, and Ganbat proceeded to bring and as a New York mom, I think this to anyone who wants to present it
me willing co-workers from Germany, is amazing... all good moms around the themselves in exchange for a voluntary
France, and Romania. He later said that world are trying to teach their children contribution to help keep the project
having grown up in communist Mongo- that every person in every country has going. Please visit www.worldvoicesproj-
lia, he had never read the Declaration. these rights. And who wouldn’t want to ect.org for more information or write to
He was struck by Article One that says, hear what so many different languages info@worldvoicesproject.org. MD

MONDAY DEVELOPMENTS October 2008 15
Rights Advocacy

The Potential
Power of the New
Rights Advocacy
The division between trends as the New Rights Advocacy. We
also argue that we are witnessing the
NGOs focused on human development of fundamentally new hu-
rights and development man rights norms and standards at the
convergence of development and human
continues to blur. rights goals and practice. Significantly,
the real potential of RBA for the devel-
By Ellen Dorsey, Executive Director, opment sector lies in the convergence of
Wallace Global Fund these trends and whether opportunities

T
are exploited for collaboration.
he development sector These changes in the human rights
is advancing new methods, sector have evolved over decades, but
new strategies and new part- only recently manifested themselves in
nerships in the application of new missions, agendas and campaigns
rights-based approaches (RBA). Argu- by human rights groups. Two signifi-
ably one of the most compelling rea- cant factors drove this change. The the South who were not limited by those
sons for development agencies to move first, and most obvious, is the signifi- distinctions. New rights groups were
towards rights-based approaches is cant changes occurring in the world – cropping up, focusing on specific eco-
the enhanced power brought by sub- from the end of the Cold War and the nomic and social rights. And together
jecting policies and programs to inter- explosion of communal conflicts to the with the movements in the South, they
nationally recognized standards and rapid growth in economic globalization pressured the human rights groups to
principles based upon a framework of and corresponding shifts in power of end the historic bifurcation of human
entitlement, accountability and obliga- economic actors. NGOs began to look rights. These new actors argued that
tions. Such standards provide greater for the root causes of the new types of the practice of treating civil and political
legal and political accountability than abuses that arose and struggled to de- rights as concrete and enforceable, and
goals, while conferring an international velop strategies to address the power of economic and social rights as merely
legitimacy that can be a powerful tool the international financial institutions aspirational, was out of date and in-
in advocacy and campaigning. Finally, and corporations that were having as stead championed the principle that all
RBA offers a more powerful framework much, if not more, impact on human rights are interdependent.
by moving the tenor of the discourse rights than the state governments While different international human
from charity to entitlement. these groups traditionally had target- rights organizations vary in the degree
A parallel shift is occurring in the ed. Simultaneously, international hu- and method of their work on economic
traditional human rights sector. NGOs man rights groups were also re-orient- and social rights, the human rights
that traditionally focused on civil and ing their work towards civil society in movement has been fundamentally and
political rights increasingly are tar- the global South. No longer did human irrevocably changed and can been seen
geting their monitoring and advocacy rights groups represent the “victims” in shifts in the work of these groups.
work on economic and social rights. directly, but instead they began work- Some NGOs, such as Physicians for
As these two sectors engage in pro- ing in partnership with local communi- Human Rights, are emphasizing spe-
foundly transformative activities, both ties, movements and organizations ad- cific issues such as the right to health.
are being influenced by the growth of vancing human rights and advocating Other human rights groups are focus-
social movement advocacy on econom- for just and sustainable development. ing on a particular method of advanc-
Photo: Hearly Mayr

ic and social rights occurring across By the late 1990s, human rights ing economic and social justice through
the globe. groups were collaborating at the global the lens of anti-discrimination. Yet oth-
My research collaborator, Paul Nel- level with development and environmen- ers are transforming their missions to
son, and I have dubbed these three tal NGOs and working with partners in embrace work on the “full spectrum” of

16 MONDAY DEVELOPMENTS October 2008
Rights Advocacy

human rights. One striking example of norm that will shift the power of com-
this change is the launch next year of munities to resist seizure of lands and
a decade-long worldwide campaign on privatization of resources. As these new
poverty by Amnesty International. norms advance, they become tools in a
In addition to significant changes in larger strategy to pressure governments
the human rights sector, creative social and non-state actors to be accountable
movement advocacy is producing new for the social and environmental im-
norms for human rights. Most notable pacts of their projects and policies.
are the campaigns for broad access to But what do these larger trends sig-
essential medicines (particularly for nal for the development sector? It is ul-
people affected by HIV/AIDS) and for timately a question of power through
the protection of the right to access to coordination and collaboration.
drinking water in the context of rapid Collaboration between the develop-
privatization of water utilities. The coop- ment, environmental and human rights
eration and joint efforts among NGOs, sectors is growing rapidly. Professional
consumer organizations and commu- staff are moving across the sectors,
nity based movements are evidence of a bringing expertise and knowledge that
are contributing to cross-fertilization of
Creative campaigns the fields. Creative campaigns between
development and human rights NGOs
between development are cropping up everywhere, address-
and human rights ing a range of issues and targeting
government and economic actors that
NGOs are cropping up impede progress on economic and so-

everywhere, addressing cial change. Rights campaigning is also
producing more effective partnerships
a range of issues and between social movement organiza-
tions and international NGOs.
targeting government Yet this collaboration is still nascent.
and economic actors Opportunities to share learning and to
experiment programmatically need to
that impede progress be created in order to bring the unique
expertise and experiences of the differ-
on change. ent sectors together to build more coor-
dinated approaches. Historic differenc-
new level of integration in which meth- es, unique cultures and competition
ods, language, strategies and actions are for resources also must be bridged to
consistently informed by human rights allow for new levels of work on econom-
and development interaction. They are ic and social policy and transformative
also producing “new rights” (such as services with a human rights lens.
the right to essential medicines and the To not exploit this potential power is
right to water) that are subsequently to risk rendering the rights-based ap-
evoked by other social movements and proaches to development a mere fad in
are used in litigation or advocacy to development practice and would miss
hold governments and economic ac- a golden opportunity to advance the
tors accountable at the domestic and development community’s goals. But
international levels. Social movements done strategically, financially re-
and sometimes governments have also sourced, and backed by the leadership
asserted or claimed these rights and of agencies and NGOs, the potential
brought them into international and convergence could produce an unprec-
national policy debates. edented level of political power and in-
An emergent norm that perhaps best fluence for all involved and spell real
reflects the development-human rights change for development work. MD
convergence is the right of affected Ms. Dorsey formerly served as Chair
peoples to participate in development of the Board of Amnesty International
decisions. While not yet codified into in- USA. She is the co-author of New Rights
ternational standards, there is a global Advocacy: Changing Strategies of De-
push to institutionalize “the right to free, velopment and Human Rights NGOs
prior and informed consent” as a new (Georgetown University Press).

18 MONDAY DEVELOPMENTS October 2008
Right To Health

Ugandan activists call for affordable generic
AIDS drugs, March 2005.

demands to provide the political sup-
port that human rights requires.
That has all changed. Clear princi-
ples are emerging. The right to health
requires governments to offer health
services to their people that meet ba-
sic criteria: that they are available and
accessible – physically, geographically,
and economically – to all; respect cul-
tural values and offer quality of care;
and that health services must conform
to principles of non-discrimination and
equity – and indeed must particularly
focus on the needs of the most vulnera-
ble and marginalized. Any disease-spe-
cific health programs must strengthen
health systems as a whole.
Moreover, no matter how poor, states

The Right to
have a core obligation to develop na-
tional plans that assure critical health
needs are met. They must vigorously
allocate resources within their capacity

Health as a Way
to fulfill the requirements of the plan
– and numerous objective measures
have emerged to access whether they
are doing so, including comparing gov-

Forward
ernment health spending to compara-
ble countries, to changes in gross na-
tional income (GNI) and to other areas
of the budget.
The right to health encompasses more
than health services. Governments are
Embrace and incorporate global health in your work. also obligated to assure that determi-
nants of health, such as clean water,
By Leonard S. Rubenstein, President, Physicians for Human Rights, and Eric A. sanitation, education, safe drugs, and
Friedman, Senior Global Health Policy Advisor, Physicians for Human Rights protection of equal legal and social sta-

T
tus of women and minority and indige-
he right to health has health and development to create en- nous communities, are secured. And as
come of age. This was stun- ergy for social justice in health. with all human rights, process is criti-
ningly apparent at a conference A decade ago, the right to health, like cal: transparency and the participation
in London held in September to many economic, social and cultural of communities are essential.
reflect on the work of the first UN Spe- rights, was seen by many, including Someday historians will no doubt
cial Rapporteur on the Right to Health, almost the entirety of the U.S. human unravel the relationships between the
Paul Hunt, and to consider the way for- rights and development communities, efforts of scholars, activists, UN com-
ward under his successor, Anand Gro- as rhetorical at best – useful to invoke at mittees and the Special Rapporteur in
ver. The right to health has become a rallies but unsuited for the tough work working out many of the conceptual
powerful tool: for developing health sys- of development and of holding govern- and legal dimensions of the right to
tems with sufficient human resources ments accountable. It might represent health and the spectacular activism in
to meet the needs of the population; to human aspirations, but it lacked the global health that has led to unprec-
support the demands of poor and in- conceptual clarity, to say nothing of the edented – if still insufficient – increases
digenous people to end the marginal- political teeth, of “true” human rights of of both funding and international atten-
Photo: Sarah Kalloch

ization that both leads to ill-health and the civil and political variety: concrete tion to global health, especially the suf-
denies them access to health services; standards and analytical tools, mecha- fering of millions of people from HIV/
to insist upon access to essential medi- nisms for monitoring compliance, ac- AIDS, malaria and tuberculosis, some
cine including for treating  AIDS; and countability, and social movements ani- of the scourges of the developing world.
to link activists with experts in public mated by a common set of values and But for the moment, what is most im-

MONDAY DEVELOPMENTS October 2008 19
Right To Health

portant is that human rights provide a
way forward on health in practice.
No matter how poor, to addressing structural factors, includ-
ing entrenched discrimination and de-
We see this in so many ways. In some states have a core valuation that make the poorest women,
especially in the rural areas of develop-
countries, especially in Latin Amer-
ica and perhaps most prominently in obligation to develop ing countries, most likely to die in child-
South Africa, the right to health has
become enforceable in courts. More-
national plans that birth. The welcome attention to rights-
based development has mostly been a
over, the right to health is providing assure critical health method used by development agencies
a framework for planning to address
some of the most intractable needs. For needs are met. themselves rather than extending it to
the range of actions and partnerships
example, it has yielded detailed strate- needed to address human rights viola-
gies for assuring that national health to inspire and stimulate partnerships tions that underlie ill health; partner-
workforce plans and the donor policies between agencies that provide health ships between development and civil
that support them emerge from a par- services and develop health policies society groups in health development
ticipatory and transparent process and and human rights and civil society or- remain too rare.
produce strategies consistent with hu- ganizations that can address social in- Even worse, the global health com-
man rights principles. equality and marginalization in areas munity as a whole has not fully em-
Perhaps most important of all, civil as disparate as women’s reproductive braced the right to health as the driving
society and health advocacy move- health and health worker recruitment. set of values, standards, and mecha-
ments throughout the world, from the And yet for many in the larger global nisms for health development. In his
People’s Health Movement to more fo- health community, the right to health last report to the General Assembly in
cused efforts like the Health Workforce largely remains a secret or, worse, an March, 2008, Special Rapporteur Paul
Advocacy Initiative, are insisting that empty slogan. For example, the har- Hunt noted that while governments
the actions of both donors and devel- mony between human rights principles pass resolutions on the right to health
oping country governments adhere to and the Millennium Development Goal at the UN Human Rights Council, “they
right to health principles. Indeed, the 5 on maternal mortality is much pro- appear to suffer from amnesia” at the
right to health approach has begun claimed, but too little attention is paid continued on page 23

20 MONDAY DEVELOPMENTS October 2008
Environment

T Is the Environment
he connection between
a healthy natural environment
and human rights and well-be-

On the Back Burner?
ing has been widely recognized
for the past four decades. However, in-
ternational development and humani-
tarian assistance organizations still
often overlook the magnitude of this
relationship. This effectively places the Programs that incorporate environmental concerns
environment on the back burner, and
leads to the failure of organizations to
also further human rights.
incorporate conservation programs into
their overall mission. Unfortunately, By Leah Berry, Program Associate, Humanitarian Policy & Practice, InterAction
this is often a result of working under
constricted budgets, where lifesaving placed populations should be particu-
programs will naturally trump projects larly aware of environmental concerns,
that focus on long-term sustainability considering that a large scale influx of
or well-being of a community. Never- people will likely have some negative
theless, because the environment and environmental impacts, particularly in
human rights are often closely related, a situation where refugees or internally
the importance of a healthy environ- displaced persons (IDPs) are required to
ment should not be overlooked. live in a contained settlement or refugee
Forty years ago, in December 1968, camps. These problems have been doc-
the UN General Assembly passed Reso- umented over the past several decades
lution XXIII on convening a United Na- by refugee-hosting governments, the
tions Conference on the Human En- United Nations High Commissioner for
vironment. The Resolution begins by Refugees, NGOs working with displaced
noting that modern science and tech- populations and independent research-
nology has led to significant changes in ers. At times, displaced populations
the natural environment, thus raising have been unfairly blamed by the host-
concern for “the consequent effects on ing government or local community.
the condition of man, his physical, men- Although NGOs cannot determine
tal and social well-being, his dignity and where refugees or IDPs will or can settle,
his enjoyment of basic human rights.” they can take actions to ensure that nei-
The Conference on the Human En- ther the refugees nor the host communi-
vironment, which was held in Stock- ties face unnecessary challenges stem-
holm, Sweden in June 1972, was the
first major, international conference
NGOs can make ming from shortages of natural resources
associated with environmental decline.
on the relationship between humans changes to reduce Organizations must also consider the
and the environment, and is noted for
developing what is seen by many as their carbon output impact their own operations can have
on the environment. Both in their field
the foundation for linking the two, the
Stockholm Declaration.
and minimize their and headquarters locations, NGOs and
other humanitarian organizations can
Photo: Stocksnapper - Fotolia.com; photo illustration: Chad Brobst

Principle 1 of this Declaration states: overall consumption of make changes to reduce their carbon
“Man has the fundamental right to
freedom, equality and adequate con- resources. output and minimize their overall con-
sumption of resources. Environmental
ditions of life, in an environment of a considerations may seem insignificant
quality that permits a life of dignity prived of some of their basic rights. when compared with the daily activities
and well-being, and he bears a solemn In an ideal situation, development and of most humanitarian assistance orga-
responsibility to protect and improve humanitarian assistance organizations nizations that work to save lives and
the environment for present and future would integrate environmental pro- protect people from conflict. Yet because
generations.” In other words, not only grams into all aspects of their work, and those same people—those who live in
do humans have a right to freedom, more money would be available to fund conflict affected areas or are living in
equality, and well-being, but “in an en- these programs. At the very least, these poverty—will be disproportionately af-
vironment of a quality that permits a life organizations must ensure that their ac- fected by the impacts of climate change
of dignity and well-being.” If people do tivities do not contribute to environmen- and natural resource depletion, it would
not have access to a healthy environ- tal degradation that ultimately will harm be irresponsible to overlook the value of
ment, they may not be able to achieve the very communities the organizations mitigating our organizational carbon
a dignified life and would thus be de- aim to assist. Agencies working with dis- output and use of natural resources. MD

MONDAY DEVELOPMENTS October 2008 21
Capital Flight

Capital Flight is
attention. Behind these headlines,
though, is the reality that abusive busi-
ness practices such as trade mispricing
and resource smuggling dwarf the graft

a Human Rights
of corrupt government officials.
In July Greenpeace released an in-
vestigative report entitled Conning the
Congo, which details how the German
owned, Swiss-based multinational Dan-

Abuse
zer Group, one of the largest players in
zens remain poor or actually see their the DRC logging sector, used an elabo-
quality of life worsen. rate profit-laundering system to move
The World Bank estimates that devel-
oping countries loose between $500 and For every dollar in
When development aid $800 billion dollars a year in illicit fi-
nancial outflows. Conversely, the World aid that goes into the
leaves a country quicker Bank and other international organiza-
developing world, $10
than it comes in, where is tions estimate that monetary aid to the

the real benefit? developing world is in the vicinity of $50 is siphoned out.
to $80 billion per year. That’s a ratio of
ten to one, meaning that for every dol- income out of Africa and into offshore
By Raymond Baker, Director, lar in aid that goes into the developing bank accounts. This kind of nefarious
Global Financial Integrity world, $10 is siphoned out, undermin- business model is a scourge of the de-

I
ing economic development efforts within veloping world. And the true cost to the
recently had the opportunity the world’s poorest nations. citizens of these countries is measured
to address a coterie of high-level fi- The high-profile perpetrators of capi- in lives, not dollars.
nance and academic representatives tal flight such as kleptocrats Mobutu of A report released this summer by
in Kinshasa on the subject of capital the Congo (now the DRC), Suharto of In- Christian Aid predicted that illegal,
flight out of the Democratic Republic of donesia, Marcos of the Philippines, and trade-related tax evasion alone would
the Congo (DRC) and strategies for cur- Abacha of Nigeria led glitzy, unabashed, be lead to 5.6 million deaths of young
tailing the destructive outflow of illicit colorful lifestyles that made newspa- children in the developing world be-
money from the developing world. per headlines and captured the world’s tween 2000 and 2015. These are deaths
I brought with me a report prepared
by Global Financial Integrity Lead
Economist Dev Kar on total cumula-
tive capital flight from the DRC. Using
World Bank and International Mon-
etary Fund data from 1980 through
2006, Dr. Kar estimated that $15.5
billion had been drained from the DRC
illicitly over that time period.
In the report Dr. Kar noted that if
the DRC could have prevented this il-
licit outflow of money during that same
time period, in effect keeping its $15.5
billion, the DRC could have paid off its
entire external debt at the end of 2006
($11.2 billion) and still had $4.3 billion
left over to add to the country’s foreign
exchange reserves or to invest in infra-
structure and poverty alleviation.
Today, the DRC is a country rav-
aged by civil strife and mired in abject
poverty. With vast mineral and oil re-
serves, the country is a paradigm of
what development economists call the
“paradox of plenty,” in which a coun-
try reaps massive wealth from a steady
and lucrative export trade while citi-

22 MONDAY DEVELOPMENTS October 2008
Education

Education’s Effect
due to lack of clean drinking water,
vaccinations, access to adequate medi-
cal care, and other basic forms of soci-

on Poverty
etal infrastructure such as electricity,
education and transportation.
Today, as the 60th anniversary of the
United Nation’s adoption of the Univer-
sal Declaration of Human Rights ap-
proaches, many poor countries remain Combating child labor and breaking the cycle of
mired in poverty and have correspond-
ingly poor quality of living indices such
poverty through education.
as high infant mortality and low life ex-
pectancy because corruption, abusive By Azra Kacapor, Director of Child and Youth Programs, and John Fox,
trade mispricing, and criminal activ- Senior Director of Strategic Communications, World Learning

O
ity have systematically robbed these
countries of capital. n a recent visit to a tured a snapshot of a system function-
The Declaration states that “Every- school in Kisapincha, a poor ing as it should to acknowledge and
one has the right to a standard of living indigenous community in the protect the rights of a child from eco-
adequate for the health and well being Ecuadorian sierra, we were nomic exploitation and hazardous la-
of himself and his family, including meeting with a teacher when an eight- bor, linking the responsibilities of the
food, clothing, housing, medical care, year-old boy named Jose arrived sev- state down the line to the empower-
and necessary social services.” eral hours late to class and approached ment and well-being of the child him-
The link between capital flight and the teacher to speak in private. He was self. Jose had learned the importance
degradation of human life is clear. Im- clearly upset to be late and wanted her of being in school rather than working.
proving transparency and information to know it was because his parents had He trusted his teacher, the school sys-
sharing will hinder both government kept him home to spray the fields with tem, and implicitly the state, to address
kleptocrats stealing money and multi- pesticide. The teacher contacted Jose’s the situation and protect his interests.
national corporations evading taxes, parents and community leaders to en-
which will in turn allow capital to ac- sure he is kept in school and away from A girl learns agricultural techniques at the
cumulate in poor countries. The way is hazardous work in the future. Colegio Avila vocational high school,
there, what is critically needed now is That moment, brief as it was, cap- Loreto, Amazon region of Ecuador.
just the will. MD

Right to Health
continued from page 20

World Health Assembly and the World
Health Organization (WHO) Executive
Board, which pay scant attention to
human rights as a means of driving
global health policy. Draft WHO guide-
lines on the international recruitment
of health personnel, for example, fail to
recognize certain international obliga-
tions on recruitment that flow from the
right to health.
It has been thirty years since the Al-
ma-Ata Declaration proclaiming health
for all. Since then there have been many
shifting approaches to global health pol-
icy, but none that combine the enduring
Photo: John Fox, World Learning

values, analytical power, motivating
force for communities, and potential for
realizing health for all as a human rights
approach. If the right to health is to
achieve its potential rather than be a
passing fancy, everyone concerned about
global health must not only embrace it,
but also ground their work in it. MD

MONDAY DEVELOPMENTS October 2008 23
Education

And he felt empowered to claim his right to an education as
his pathway out of poverty.
The United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child,
Wiñari: Growing from the Bottom
approaching its twentieth anniversary next year, has changed Recognizing the link between child rights and poverty
the way the world views children and provided a legally bind- alleviation, World Learning is partnering with the U.S.
ing platform for protecting their unique and inalienable Department of Labor and indigenous communities in
rights. Although a legal document by definition, the Conven- Ecuador to combat child labor and break the cycle of poverty
tion has inspired a shared vision for children’s rights that through education. The purpose of education projects that
recognizes their protection as fundamental and sacrosanct. combat child labor is to reduce the number of current and
It also represented a paradigm shift by defining the rights of potential child laborers by increasing their enrollment in
the child comprehensively and stipulating the responsibility school, reducing their hours of work, and removing them
of the State to protect those rights “to the maximum extent of from the worst forms of labor.
their available resources.”
In its application to real-world contexts, however, the Conven- Wiñari, which means “growing from the bottom” in the local
tion’s vision remains distant from the reality in much of the de- Kichwa language, addresses child labor by:
veloping world where poverty, armed conflict and other factors • Supporting re-enrollment of children who have dropped
leave children at risk and not covered by the laws that should out of school through accelerated classes that allow them
protect them. In these contexts, child labor predominates, de- to re-enter at grades appropriate to their age;
priving children of education and perpetuating the generational • Improving teacher performance and teaching methods to
cycle of poverty for vulnerable and marginalized groups. encourage first-time enrollment and retention;
In Ecuador, for example, child labor is disproportionately • Providing older, out-of-school children with technical
high among indigenous children who live in poverty. Indig- training in skills they need to compete for jobs; and
enous children are, by tradition, more involved in domestic • Strengthening the capacity of school committees and
labor and farm work, and have less access to quality educa- community organizations to support their schools,
tion than non-indigenous children. Like many other margin- effectively advocate for improved government policy,
alized groups, they often start school when they are older and and establish networks of activists to continue advocacy
are more likely to drop out, weakening their opportunities for beyond the life of the project.

employment and perpetuating poverty across generations.
Studies suggest a direct link between more equitable dis-
tribution of education and lower poverty and inequality, as
well as faster economic growth. World Bank studies show that
SIT Graduate Institute access to education for girls strongly impacts the educational
achievement, health prospects, and mortality rates of their
International Development children, while additional Bank data suggest that education
for girls and boys may also be the most effective preventative
Programs measure in fighting HIV/AIDS. However, studies such as these
also consistently confirm that access to education is only a
s%DUCATIONFOR'LOBAL3OCIAL#HANGE start toward achieving the positive benefits of education.
including master’s degrees in In Ecuador and elsewhere, World Learning has found that
Sustainable Development, for the 165 million children involved in child labor today the
Social Justice in Intercultural Relations, answer to their future lies in ensuring access, retention and
Conflict Transformation, completion of adequate, quality education. Child labor among
with new concentrations in Youth Program Leadership marginalized populations is too often a rational response to
desperate poverty and lack of hope that is only reinforced
sNEW in 2009INTHE3ULTANATEOF/MAN when the alternatives are seen to have little value. Quality
-ASTEROF'LOBAL-ANAGEMENT education and clear pathways out of poverty must be assured
focus in Middle Eastern Studies, in order to counter the perception of poor families that their
International Organizational Development, interests are better served by keeping their children home to
Social Entrepreneurship and Innovation work than sending them to inadequate schools.
By addressing the intertwined rights of the child to an edu-
WWWSITEDUGRADUATE cation and a childhood free of hazardous and exploitative la-
WWWWORLDLEARNINGORG bor, we are in turn establishing the conditions necessary for
marginalized communities such as Kisapincha to break free of
poverty. Through a chain of protection involving the govern-
ment, NGOs, community partners and parents, Jose and chil-
dren like him can be confident of their rights and have the hope
and opportunity to envision a better, more secure future. MD

24 MONDAY DEVELOPMENTS October 2008
Child Slavery

Rescued children receive integral
attention at rehabilitation centers;
not only food and shelter, but
also education and employment
opportunities.

Restavèks:
Unfortunately, Benchelo’s story is just
one of hundreds of thousands in this im-
poverished Caribbean nation. Frequent-

The Child Slaves
ly, children are sent away by their own
families in hopes of giving them a bet-
ter life, an education or opportunity. All
too commonly, these children are forced
into domestic servitude or agricultural

of Haiti
labor and never go to school. Many are
physically and sexually abused. Others
are sold to more affluent families, or traf-
ficked abroad to serve other masters.
According to the U.S. State Depart-
ment, human trafficking “deprives
Awareness of trafficking is crucial to its prevention. people of their human rights and free-
doms; it increases global health risks;
By Amber Lupin, Program Assistant, Pan American Development Foundation and it fuels the growth of organized

J
crime” (Trafficking in Persons Report,
ust a few years ago, teen- the household chores. When he pro- June 2008). Worldwide, there are up to
age Benchelo was a restavèk, a tested, he was deprived of food. 27 million people held against their will
domestic slave in Haiti. Born in Eventually, Benchelo ran away to in forced labor, sexual servitude and
Cité Soleil, Port-au-Prince’s noto- live on the streets of Cap-Haitien. After other forms of modern slavery. In Hai-
riously violent slum, he was sent to live enduring years of frequent beatings by ti, the Western Hemisphere’s poorest
with a distant relative in Cap-Haitien af- gangs while he begged for food, Bench- country, where the unemployment rate
Photos: Karl Grobl

ter his mother’s death. Unlike the other elo found the Foyer Lakou/Lakay Cen- hovers at sixty percent and the average
four children in the house, Benchelo ter. He is now a full-time resident there income is under two dollars per day,
was not sent to school. Instead, the ten and is studying to enter school in the the number of children servants, or
year-old was forced to perform most of second grade, at the age of fifteen. restavèks, may be as high as 300,000

MONDAY DEVELOPMENTS October 2008 25
Child Slavery

– in a country of 8.5 million.
The problem is compounded by the
Worldwide, in March of 2008.
With additional funding from the State
Haitian government’s lack of resources, there are up Department’s Office to Monitor and Com-
bat Trafficking in Persons, the Protecting
including the lack of an organized and
effective police force. In many cases, to 27 million Human Rights program also includes a
there are too few officials, and those
that do exist are too inexperienced or
people held cross-border component that educates
the community and local government
lack training to investigate restavèk against their officials, empowers a civil society border
cases. Trafficking across the Domini-
can Republic – Haiti border is of partic- will in forced watch to monitor and document human
rights abuses, and provides resources
ular concern, with Haitians sold as sex
slaves for the tourism trade or as do-
labor, sexual for trafficking victims.
Hopefully, with the installation of a
mestic servants in Dominican homes. servitude new government, Haiti can begin to
The Pan American Development
Foundation (PADF) addresses these and other forms of strengthen its efforts to combat human
trafficking. If Haiti cannot bring this
issues under its Protecting Human
Rights program in Haiti, funded by
modern slavery. major human rights offense under con-
trol, it will affect the country’s ability to
USAID. By implementing resources ment of children, training for police receive non-humanitarian internation-
like the Foyer Lakou/Lakay Center, and enforcement groups, and targeted al assistance, such as funding from the
which provides medical assistance, legislative assistance to help the Hai- World Bank. In the meantime, organi-
psychological counseling, legal assis- tian government meet international zations like PADF are struggling to help
tance, and employment opportunities, standards in the area of human rights. as many children as possible. As for
PADF works to provide a new start for Because Haiti has no law prohibit- Benchelo, he is hopeful about his fu-
enslaved children and adults. The pro- ing trafficking in persons, PADF, the ture for the first time in many years. He
gram includes a media campaign to International Organization for Migra- is training to become an auto mechan-
educate the population about traffick- tion and the Organization of American ic, and, when he is older, he plans to
ing, technical assistance for grassroots States, helped draft an anti-trafficking care for street children just as he is
groups working to combat the enslave- bill that was presented to Parliament cared for now. MD

26 MONDAY DEVELOPMENTS October 2008
DATA Report

The G8 Are Behind:
rica by 2010. At the time, the G8 had
actually committed to just over $25 bil-
lion alone and other non-G8 countries

Will They Meet Their
committed to even more. Because some
countries have “clarified” their commit-
ments and others’ Africa targets were

Promises?
dependent on global aid growth (which
has not been realized), the total target
from the G8 is now $21.8 billion by
2010. When non-G8 donors are added,
the total is $26.1 billion.
2008’s DATA Report reveals some sobering trends. In 2007, total ODA for Africa from
G8 donors only increased by $837 mil-
By Joshua Lozman and Erin Thornton, ONE lion over 2006 levels. Three countries,

T
Canada, France and Japan, actually
his year marks the mid- exactly what they committed to spend cut ODA to Africa in 2007. In total, de-
point in the timeline for realiz- every year, they did spell out what they spite the fact that the G8 are roughly
ing the G8’s promises to Africa intended to spend annually by 2010. To halfway to the 2010 deadline, they have
to help achieve the Millennium monitor progress towards that goal, the thus far only delivered an additional $3
Development Goals (MDGs), which are DATA Report draws a straight line from billion, or 14 percent of the total com-
also at the mid-point of the fifteen-year the baseline to that target to measure if mitted increase to Africa.
period set for their accomplishment. regular progress is being made towards For three years, the G8 have de-
When at the Gleneagles G8 Summit in that target. Sadly, the answer is that livered less than the total that would
2005, the G8 committed to doubling sufficient progress is not being made. have been needed to be on a straight
ODA (Official Development Assistance) line trajectory to reach the 2010 target.
to sub-Saharan Africa by 2010, DATA The G8 collectively This means that scaling up to the goal
and the ONE Campaign cheered as The commitment from 2005 was in 2010 will require much larger an-
loudly as anyone. But, like many oth- commonly referred to as a $25 billion nual increases between now and 2010.
ers, we underscored that these com- commitment in new assistance for Af- In total, ONE estimates that the G8
mitments would truly be something
to celebrate once delivered. So we set
out to monitor that delivery. The DATA
Report is an annual effort to hold the
G8 accountable to these promises by
monitoring progress towards not only
the broad commitment to double ODA
to sub-Saharan Africa, but also to the
sectoral commitments made for debt
cancellation, health, education, water
and sanitation, trade, governance and
security and aid effectiveness. The 2008
report highlights the achievements in
Africa that are too seldom recognized
and underscores the fact that the fail-
ure to deliver in full on the G8 commit-
ments limits the possibilities for taking
these successes to scale.
Due to space constraints, this ar-
ticle focuses only on the ODA progress
by the G8 nations other than Russia,
which DATA does not hold accountable
for meeting the group’s development
promises. The complete report, includ-
ing information on progress towards
the sectoral commitments, aid effec-
tiveness commitments, and a detailed
explanation of ONE’s methodology are
available online at www.one.org/report.
Although countries did not spell out

MONDAY DEVELOPMENTS October 2008 27
DATA Report

development, but this increase was not
enough to overcome past cuts. Italy
has promised $4.793 billion in ODA
for Africa by 2010, but its ODA in 2007
was only $1.097 billion.

Japan
After largely fulfilling its relatively
weak commitment from 2005, Japan
has committed to double bilateral aid
from its 2004-2007 average by 2012.
In 2007, Japan’s total bilateral ODA to
sub-Saharan Africa was $1.16 billion,
actually a decrease of $213 million
from 2006. ONE has estimated that Ja-
pan’s ODA to Africa will again decrease
in 2008 by $59 million.

United Kingdom
The UK has increased ODA to Africa
more than any other G8 country since
2005, delivering 26 percent of its prom-
ised increases thus far. Additionally,
the UK appears to have plans in place
to deliver the ODA promised by 2010.
Despite this positive news, the UK only
increased ODA to Africa by $48 mil-
* Though Japan is shown here as having achieved its commitment, it should be noted that this commitment was only to double lion in 2007. Prime Minister Brown’s
bilateral aid from 2003 levels. In selecting 2003 for its Africa commitment, Japan chose the year with the lowest bilateral spending in
the previous decade – ¥60 billion ($561 million). This was not an ambitious commitment and does not contribute significantly to the budgets for the next three years show
overall increases to which the G8 committed. a roadmap to meet the UK’s commit-
ment to Africa of $6.508 billion in ODA
will need to increase ODA to Africa by dent Sarkozy also moved the goalpost in 2010. In 2007, ODA was $3.637 bil-
$6.4 billion each year starting in 2008. for France’s commitment from 2012 to lion to Africa.
ONE estimates that while 2008 ODA 2015. France has only increased ODA
levels will improve (with an estimated to Africa by $334 million between 2004 United States
increase of $2.6 billion in 2008), this and 2007, but has committed to reach While disbursements of recent in-
is still $3.8 billion short of the increase $7.53 billion in 2010. creases in U.S. assistance to Africa have
needed to get on track. been slower than hoped, increases in
Germany assistance primarily for HIV/AIDS and
Canada In the wake of the Heiligendamm G8 malaria are starting to come through.
In 2007, Canada’s ODA to Africa Summit in 2007, Germany increased ONE predicts that by next year the in-
decreased by $88 million. Canada set ODA to sub-Saharan Africa by $311 creases will double; and analysis shows
a fairly weak commitment to Africa in million in 2007, and an increase nearly that by 2010 the U.S. is likely to have
2005 and has weakened it further by twice that is expected in 2008. Despite delivered in full on its 2005 commitment
lowering the baseline against which a this, Germany only increased ODA by to double ODA to Africa between 2004
doubling of ODA would be based. The $485 million between 2004 and 2007. and 2010 to a total of $8.8 billion. In
target is now $1.5 billion – the lowest It has promised $6.204 billion in ODA 2007, ODA to Africa was $5.414 billion,
commitment by any G8 donor mea- for Africa in 2010; in 2007, it delivered representing 15 percent (or $581 mil-
sured in nominal amount. Between $2.72 billion. lion) of the total committed increase.
2004 and 2007, Canada’s ODA has
only increased by $72 million. Italy Going forward
Italy made a very ambitious commit- The question is what happens now?
France ment to Africa, but since 2004 Italy’s Though some countries are doing bet-
France made a very large commit- assistance to Africa has actually de- ter than others, as a whole, the G8 are
ment to Africa in 2005. But last year, clined by one percent, making it un- on track to break their word unless
France cut assistance to Africa by $66 likely that it will deliver on its com- radical changes are made. The DATA
million, and in total has delivered $334 mitment. Italy provided a substantial Report lays out a roadmap for how the
million or less than seven percent of increase for Africa in 2007 ($417 mil- G8 can get back on track. Italy – the
the increase promised by 2010. Presi- lion) by diverting tax savings towards continued on page 32

28 MONDAY DEVELOPMENTS October 2008
AID Alignment

An Issue of Cabinet-
alignment with recipient countries’ own
development strategies. As InterAction
member Oxfam America found on a re-

level Importance
cent research trip to El Salvador, there
are at least 11 agencies delivering for-
eign assistance there and U.S. govern-
ment development staff find that “‘It’s
difficult to keep everyone happy,’ when
U.S. foreign assistance reform aligns with the global each agency focuses on the challenges of
development through a different lens.”
movement for aid effectiveness. Clearly, the current system creates un-
necessary roadblocks on the route to
By Lindsay Coates, Vice President, Public Policy & Outreach, InterAction alignment, and we can do better. By

I
joining the global effort for alignment
n 2005, ministers of developed decision-making to achieve results. and harmonization, U.S. policy-makers
and developing countries responsible • Mutual accountability. Donor and will become more collaborative actors in
for promoting development and the developing countries pledge they will a global context and better stewards of
heads of multilateral and bilateral de- be mutually accountable for devel- taxpayer funds.
velopment institutions met in Paris and opment results. Managing for results and mutu-
resolved to take far-reaching and mean- al accountability will also be better
ingful action to reform the delivery and These principles are iterative and served by U.S. foreign assistance re-
management of aid. The meeting led to interlocking. They also fit closely with form. A new Secretary for Global and
the Paris Declaration on Aid Effective- positions taken by InterAction’s Board Human Development should manage
ness, which establishes global commit- of Directors in 2006 and in our pro- for results by:
ments for donor and recipient countries posal for the creation of a new Cabi- • Creating, adequately staffing and
aimed at supporting more effective aid. net-level Department for Global and funding an independent office for
Signatories to the declaration include Human Development. evaluating foreign aid programs
35 donor countries (including the U.S.)  Alignment and harmonization allow across all the agencies and offices of
and agencies, 26 multilateral agencies donors and recipients to interact more the new department;
and 56 countries that receive aid. The effectively at all levels: donor-to-donor, • Using training programs to build
Paris Declaration principles dovetail recipient-to-recipient, and recipient-to- staff capacity in monitoring and
with many of the principles underlying donor. InterAction has called for cohe- evaluation;
the push by InterAction members to re- sion and coherence to replace the cur- • Making mid-term and final evalua-
form U.S. foreign assistance structure – tions mandatory;
a system that is badly broken and must A new department • Ensuring that grants and contracts
be repaired. Many of the approaches en-
couraged by InterAction and its mem- would streamline U.S. provide adequate staffing and funding
for performance monitoring, as well
bers as part of this reform effort also will
bring U.S. foreign assistance into align-
assistance programs. as midterm and final evaluations;
• Rewarding learning rather than sim-
ment with global efforts to overcome rent fragmentation in order to achieve ply punishing mistakes;
poverty, exclusion and suffering. the effective use of development resourc- • Committing to impact evaluations
The Paris Declaration outlines five es. Harmonization of priorities among for new or untested interventions
principles that should be shaping aid U.S. government agencies, multilateral that donors or governments would
delivery: institutions and recipient governments like to scale up or replicate;
• Ownership. Developing countries will ensure the best and wisest use of • Requiring that all impact evaluations
will exercise effective leadership over resources. The proliferation of uncoor- undergo external peer review; and
their development policies and strat- dinated programs throughout the U.S. • Joining the recently formed Inter-
egies and will coordinate develop- executive branch has resulted in less national Initiative for Impact Evalu-
ment actions. effective achievement of development ation (3ie), contribute substantial
• Alignment. Donor countries will base goals and incoherent interface with our funds, and encouraging other coun-
their overall support on recipient development partners. A new depart- tries to join it as well.
countries’ national development strat- ment would streamline U.S. assistance
egies, institutions and procedures. programs (currently there are at least 26 Finally, more than five decades of de-
• Harmonization. Donor countries departments and agencies providing of- velopment experience have taught In-
will work to make their actions more ficial development assistance) under one terAction members that we can never
harmonized, transparent and collec- Cabinet secretary, and would go a long achieve true development without real
tively effective. way towards achieving the Paris Decla- ownership by the beneficiaries of as-
• Managing for results. All countries ration principle of harmonization. sistance programs. Nor can we expect
will manage resources and improve Furthermore, it would improve our continued on page 32

MONDAY DEVELOPMENTS October 2008 29
Grassroots

U.S. Grassroots Activists:
Key to Foreign Assistance Reform
Shaping policy at home
can be just as effective as
work in the field.
By Michele Learner, Writer,
Bread for the World

W
hen my friend’s devel-
opment project in Latin
America was completed,
he wanted to stay on and
work for another worthwhile group. He
asked people in the community, “What
can I do that will help you the most?
Which of these development programs
is the most important?” The most fre-
quent answer surprised him: “The best
thing you can do for us is to go home
and work to improve U.S. policy. You A greater U.S. focus on poverty reduction could mean more resources for agriculture in
are a citizen and a constituent, and Ethiopia and elsewhere in the developing world.
you have the ability to influence mem-
bers of Congress. We are affected by in voicing their opinions. Perhaps Bread for the World’s icon-
the policies, but we do not have the Strategists on both sides of the par- ic advocacy story is from 2004, when
power to shape them.” tisan divide agree that grassroots advo- Connie Wick of Indianapolis wrote to
Of the various U.S. policies that affect cacy works. “Members of Congress lis- her senator, Richard Lugar (R-IN), to
developing countries, foreign assistance ten to constituents at home a lot more support funding for the Millennium
is one of the most influential – and out- than the news media gives them credit Challenge Account (MCA) and global
dated. When the Foreign Assistance Act for doing,” explained Republican Jack HIV/AIDS programs.
of 1961 was passed, African colonies Oliver. Democrat Mike McCurry noted, Soon after she sent the letter, Bread
were still fighting for independence and “More and more political power is now president David Beckmann attended
the U.S. was preoccupied with Soviet in the hands of people who work at a White House signing ceremony and
expansionism. The world has changed, the grassroots. It’s really replacing the had a chance to talk with President
but the Foreign Assistance Act and 30-second ad as the way we persuade Bush about the importance of funding
many of its assumptions have not. people to pay attention to the issues – the MCA. Mr. Bush called over Sena-
To get Capitol Hill to change it, tim- and that’s a good thing. The personal tors Frist and Lugar and asked them to
ing is everything. Now, with the prom- witness of individuals is powerful for help secure MCA resources.
ise of a new administration, supportive the people around them.” A minute later, Senator Lugar said to
statements from leaders of key con- We have consistently found this true Beckmann, “You know, I am just now
gressional committees, and increased where I work, Bread for the World, a col- responding to a letter from a constitu-
voter concern as soaring food prices lective Christian voice against hunger ent, Connie Wick. She is saying just
and their consequences regularly make based on grassroots advocacy. Bread what you are saying, that we should
the U.S. news, the time has come to members reach members of Congress fully fund the MCA and not cut fund-
Photo: Todd Post/Bread for the World

pass new and improved foreign assis- using the traditional tactics with a few ing for ongoing programs of assistance
tance legislation. updates: writing letters, making calls, to poor people.”
Persuading members of Congress visiting congressional offices, writing In one sense, Wick’s story is unusual
to do this – particularly for nonprofits letters to the editors of key media, post- – it includes the President of the Unit-
without large lobbying budgets – will ing to influential blogs, and organizing ed States and a senior U.S. senator.
mean connecting members of Con- others to do the same through church But activists frequently hear from key
gress with networks of their constitu- activities, campus outreach, Facebook, members of Congress that letters from
ents who are concerned about global listserves, community groups, and constituents influenced specific votes
poverty alleviation and are comfortable friends-and-family contacts. or decisions.

30 MONDAY DEVELOPMENTS October 2008
The world sees one Africa.
We see so much more.
No two countries are the same. Every country in Africa has a different culture,
a different economy, a different way of doing things. We understand this.
With an established presence in 18 African countries, we not only know the
dynamics of each local market, its specialist sectors and its communities; we’re
also committed to every one of them. So when it comes to doing business in Africa,
you’ll know you’re dealing with the bank that truly celebrates unity in diversity.
www.standardbank.com
Inspired. Motivated. Involved.

SBSA113531-8/08
Grassroots

In 2009, Bread for the World is ask- Bread for the World is developing a Aid Alignment
ing Congress and the new president to handbook, video, and Web resources continued from page 29
reauthorize U.S. assistance to promote – for advocacy to reform foreign assis-
global development, foster broad-based tance. It will be providing stories and to live up to the standard of mutual ac-
economic growth in low-income coun- examples, as well as statistics, to help countability if recipient countries have
tries, and support the efforts of poor advocates persuade Congress to make not fully bought into donor countries’
people to lift themselves out of hunger poverty reduction a goal of our assis- development plans. A new Cabinet-level
and poverty. tance and to keep development focused department would need to prioritize own-
In our experience, grassroots activ- on long-term objectives. The resources ership and mutual accountability, and
ists are knowledgeable, sophisticated will be made available on the organiza- maintain some of our government’s best
and creative. In recent years, Bread for tion’s website early next year. practices in these areas, like the policies
the World members have pushed for of the Millennium Challenge Corporation
debt relief, creation of the Millennium DATA Report (MCC) that promote country ownership,
Challenge Account with the goal of continued from page 28
manage for results, and contain mutual
poverty alleviation, farm bill reform to standards of accountability between the
allow fair treatment for farmers in the country most behind on its commit- U.S. and recipient countries.
developing world, and more and better ment to Africa – is now the G8’s host. It would be easy for an outsider to
development programs that respect the Prime Minister Berlusconi, recently re- dismiss the current push for foreign as-
priorities of poor people. elected to lead Italy, is the only G8 sistance reform and a new Cabinet-level
In the national office, it is our job to leader who will attend this year’s sum- Department for Global and Human De-
explain the issues in a clear and com- mit who was also his country’s leader velopment as a U.S.-centric bureaucrat-
pelling way, provide advocates with at Gleneagles and signed his country’s ic exercise, but it is important to re-
tips and resources, support them in name to the Africa Communiqué. If the member that we have, in the principles
planning activities, monitor develop- G8 is to continue to be a trusted body laid out in the Paris Declaration, a high-
ments on the Hill and alert them when and if the world is to prevent millions of er set of objectives: ownership, align-
action would be most effective – and Africans from dying needlessly, the G8 ment, harmonization, managing for re-
then get out of their way. MD must keep their promises. MD sults, and mutual accountability. MD

32 MONDAY DEVELOPMENTS October 2008
Finance

prior to the Doha International Review Conference on Financ-
SPECIAL SECTION: ing for Development (November 29 – December 2). The Forum

More Than
will offer a unique opportunity for civil society organizations
(CSOs) and NGOs to carry their engagement forward by pre-
paring strategic policy interventions for their participation in
the official round tables of the Doha Conference. A civil so-

Just the
ciety representative will also address a Conference plenary.
The Forum will also allow NGOs and CSOs to establish syn-
ergies with governments and institutional stakeholders with

Money
a view to ensuring that governments reaffirm and honor their
Monterrey commitments, and supplement them with new
commitments.
The objectives of the Doha Global Civil Society Forum are to:
A look at InterAction members’ involvement in global • Provide time and space for extensive discussion and review
initiatives for accountable and effective aid. of the FfD agenda;
• Review civil society proposals on FfD and related and cross-
cutting issues, such as the environment, climate change,

NGO Roles in Financing gender, labour issues, economic, social and cultural rights,
and innovative financing measures; 

for Development (FfD)
• Enhance the participation of civil society in the Doha Con-
ference through panels, workshops, debates and dialogues
with governments and institutional stakeholders;  
• Provide networking opportunities for civil society, NGOs,
By Gemma Adaba, Representative to the United Nations, government delegates and institutional stakeholders
International Trade Union Confederation, and John through interactive dialogue sessions; 
Ruthrauff, SR. Manager, Member Advocacy, InterAction • Design strategies and mechanisms of follow-up engage-
ment and monitoring of the Doha Conference outcomes on

N
GOs and civil society organizations, includ- thematic issues that are civil society priorities; and
ing the International Trade Union Confederation • Disseminate civil society policy proposals and points of
(ITUC), InterAction and several of its members, were view regarding the Doha Conference to the national and
active at the UN’s International Conference on Financing for international media.
Development in Monterrey Mexico in 2002. NGOs acted both InterAction members interested in the FfD process can
globally and nationally, convening and participating in initia- visit www.un-ngls.org/ffd/ or contact John Ruthrauff at jru-
tives aimed at monitoring progress and holding governments thrauff@interaction.org or 202-552-6523. MD
accountable to their commitments. They worked on key Fi-

The United Nations’
nancing for Development (FfD) themes such as: the MDGs
and poverty eradication, capital flight, debt cancellation, la-
bor rights and employment issues, and financing for gender
equality and women’s empowerment.
The FfD process is one of the global mechanisms for dia- Financing for
logue and action along with others, such as the annual G8
Summit and the 3rd High Level Forum on Aid Effectiveness Development Review
Conference
held recently in Accra, Ghana. NGOs play a role in ensuring
the implementation of G8 and other intergovernmental com-
mitments. They monitor for coherence and continuity across
the range of global structures.
Last year the UN designated a group of civil society or- By Oscar de Rojas, Director, UN Financing for Development
ganizations and networks as facilitators for the official UN

I
FfD process. This has evolved into the thirteen-member Doha n 2002, the United Nations organized a confer-
Non-Governmental Organization Group on Financing for De- ence in Mexico, which resulted in the “Monterrey Con-
velopment (DNG), which includes the International Trade sensus of the International Conference on Financing for
Union Confederation and InterAction. The DNG provides a Development.” A follow-up International Review Conference
broad and inclusive platform around which interested orga- will take place in Doha, Qatar from November 29 through
nizations and networks can mobilize. The aim is to ensure December 2, 2008. The conference will review progress made
effective civil society participation in the Doha preparatory in the implementation of the 2002 agreement. Last year, the
process and at the Doha Review Conference. Both Oxfam and President of the General Assembly appointed the Ambassa-
Population Action International are involved in the process. dors of Egypt and Norway as facilitators of the preparatory
A Global Civil Society Forum open to all stakeholders in- process for this follow-up Conference. During the past year,
cluding governments will be held on November 26 – 28, just six review sessions have been held on the issues addressed

MONDAY DEVELOPMENTS October 2008 33
Finance

in the Monterrey Consensus: mobilizing domestic resources, manitarian aspects of the
mobilizing private foreign direct investment, trade, increas- global food price crisis.
ing official development assistance (ODA), external debt, and Yet global NGO advo-
systemic issues. Based on the summaries of the review ses- cates and practitioners
sions, as well as other relevant inputs, the President of the know that the G8 is not the
General Assembly and the facilitators have circulated a draft only forum in which issues
outcome document of the Review Conference on which infor- of fundamental interna-
mal consultations by UN Member States and drafting ses- tional importance are ad-
sions are being held in the fall. dressed, and governments
The Doha Review Conference provides a unique oppor- know this as well. This
tunity to address crucial issues of international economic was reflected in the state-
cooperation and development. It is taking place at a criti- ment issued by the Group
cal juncture when the current difficulties in global financial of Five (G5) (Brazil, China,
markets and the discussion of financial sector regulation India, Mexico and South
have also underscored the importance of incorporating the Africa) during the G8 Sum-
voice of developing countries in the relevant international mit, the G5’s first stand-
fora, as the decisions made there greatly affect their develop- alone document since they
ment prospects. Similarly, the current food crisis highlights came together in 2005. The
a number of systemic issues that deserve concerted atten- G5 framed their key concerns and recommendations in the
tion. This is also a period when a number of emerging issues context of global structures beyond the G8, including the UN,
and challenges, relating to innovative sources of finance and the Doha Development Round, the Financial G20, the UN
climate change, among others, have received great attention. Framework Convention on Climate Change, the Kyoto Pro-
Given these developments, there should exist a willingness tocol and the Bali Road Map, the Monterrey Consensus, the
in both the North and the South to review existing arrange- Johannesburg Plan of Implementation, and the MDGs. Not
ments relating to international economic relations and coop- once in their statement did the G5 countries recommend that
eration for development. action be taken within the G8 framework. What the statement
By allowing the international community to take stock of does call for is action within agreed upon global frameworks
urgent needs and priorities pertaining to financing for devel- and fora.
opment, the Monterrey Consensus has provided a valuable In this proliferation of global mechanisms for dialogue and
benchmark that serves to mobilize policy efforts in areas re- action, NGOs have a role to play in ensuring that not only are
lating to aid and other capital flows, debt, systemic matters commitments kept, but that there is also continuity across
and domestic reforms. It is our hope that the Doha follow- the range of global structures, with each one building and
up will provide additional momentum to this process that improving on the last. The recent 3rd High Level Forum on
should help lead to a significant reduction in poverty and Aid Effectiveness, hosted by Ghana in September, and the
want and a better world for everyone. MD up-coming Doha Review Conference on Financing for Devel-
opment, offer opportunities to do just this. The High Level

The G8 Summit
Forum, which addressed key issues related to improving the
impact of aid, complements the Doha Review, where partici-
pants will address how to meet the financial needs of devel-

and Beyond opment priorities.
As a community, there will always be room to improve how
we communicate and coordinate our positions and our ac-
By Kimberly Darter, Coordinator for Global Partner- tions. The way in which civil society organizations in Japan
ships and Strategic Impact, InterAction went about preparing for the 2008 G8 Summit reflects such
learning. Well in advance of the Summit, individual Japa-

T
his year’s G8 Summit in Toyako, Japan could nese NGOs and NGO networks formed coordinating bodies
have been significant. Leaders of the G8 countries had, and established lines of communication that were kept open,
yet again, a historic opportunity to take positions on even in the face of disagreement on positions or actions. Ad-
transnational issues of fundamental importance such as ditionally, Japanese NGOs worked to ensure that precedents
Photo: Ruslan Gilmanshin - Fotolia.com

global warming, the international financial system, and the concerning NGO participation set at recent G8 Summits were
Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) – all made immedi- built on, including NGO accreditation and access to the me-
ately tangible by the global food price crisis. dia center, as well as dialogues and meetings with Japanese
The G8 leaders failed, however, to use the Summit to fur- government officials, including the Prime Minister.
ther the interests of their citizens, let alone the interests of Moving forward, the number of fora between the 2008 G8
people in the rest of the world. Progress at the Summit extend- Summit and the 2009 Summit in Italy provide further op-
ed to commitments to deliver on the Gleneagles promise of $50 portunities for civil society to work at both the national and
billion for development in Africa by 2010, implementation of international levels to ensure that commitments are followed
monitoring mechanisms for pledges on health, education, wa- through on and that progress continues to be made in the
ter and sanitation, and a pledge of monetary support for hu- fight against global poverty. MD

34 MONDAY DEVELOPMENTS October 2008
Accra Outcomes

Improving the Impact implementation of the Paris Declaration principles on aid ef-
fectiveness (the 2008 Monitoring Survey), the HLF3 admit-

of Aid: The Footprint
ted openly that the current pace of implementation would not
meet the 2005 commitments made in Paris by the 2010 dead-
line. That reality led the HLF3 to explore various ways to get

of the 3rd High Level the pace of implementation back on track. Chief among these
were: identifying new targets that would allow signatories to

Forum on Aid meet their commitments by 2010 (accelerate); and addressing
some of the fundamental limitations of the 2005 agreement
(deepen) identified in consultations leading to Accra.
The outcome of the HLF3 captured in the AAA was positive
By Sylvain Browa, Director of Global Partnerships,
overall. Although there were no specific commitments to de-
InterAction
tailed plans and individual targets showing how donors and

M
“ inisters of developing and donor countries recipient countries would meet their commitments by 2010
responsible for promoting development and Heads of – as called for in the statements issued by civil society organi-
multilateral and bilateral development institutions en- zations (see box) – the AAA produced a number of action items
dorsed the following statement in Accra, Ghana, on 4 Septem- that, if carried through, would afford a new momentum to the
ber 2008 to accelerate and deepen implementation of the Paris overall efforts to improve the impact of aid. These include:
Declaration on Aid Effectiveness (2 March 2005).” With two • Predictability of Aid Flows. Donors will provide three- to
key words – deepen and accelerate – this preamble to the Ac- five-year advance information on their planned aid to re-
cra Agenda for Action (AAA) captures the two main objectives cipient countries, so that recipient countries can integrate
of the 3rd High Level Forum on Aid Effectiveness (HLF3) that that information into their medium-term planning.
took place on September 2-4, 2008 in Accra. • Use of Recipient Country Systems. Donors will use re-
Alerted by the results of the mid-term evaluation on the cipient country systems to deliver aid as the first option

MONDAY DEVELOPMENTS October 2008 35
Accra Outcomes

and provide a justification when they opt not to.
• Aid Conditionality. How and when aid money is spent will
What Does The Accra Agenda for Action
(AAA), produced at the recent 3rd be determined by the recipient countries’ development objec-
the Accra High Level Forum on Aid Effective-
ness, has broad implications for US
tives (results-based conditionality) rather than donors’ pre-
scriptive conditions (i.e., broad policy conditionality such as
Agenda NGOs, both advocacy-focused and the World Bank’s famous Structural Adjustment Programs.)
• Tied Aid. Donors will relax restrictions requiring recipient
for Action implementing organizations.
countries to procure the goods and services they need from
Mean for The U.S. NGOs’ call for an overhaul
of the Foreign Assistance Act can-
donor countries (rather than wherever they can find the
best quality at the lowest price.)
U.S. NGOs? not afford to ignore the growing • Strengthening Country Ownership over Development.
Developing country governments (with donor support) will
consensus on development effec-
tiveness at the global level. The out-of-date and fragmented work more closely with parliaments, local governments, civil
current U.S. aid architecture prevented the U.S. from showcas- society organizations, research institutes, media and the pri-
ing some of its more progressive programs such as the Millen- vate sector in preparing, implementing and monitoring na-
nium Challenge Account and/or aspects of its operations that tional development policies and plans.
are far ahead of what the principles on aid effectiveness call • Capacity Building for Development. Donors’ support for
for. This meant that in Accra the U.S. was perceived as out of capacity development will be demand-driven and designed
step and sometimes as the obstacle to consensus on a more to support country ownership (through donor support to
progressive AAA. An overhaul of the U.S. Foreign Assistance recipients’ self identified capacity needs and related strate-
Act that does not account for the consensus reached in Accra gies to address them).
or the U.S. government’s current global commitments – the
Paris Declaration, Millennium Development Goals, and Fi- Accra is a milestone in the aid effectiveness debate. The role
nancing for Development (FfD) – will have missed a significant played by the development ministers in Accra marked a prac-
opportunity to re-position the U.S. as the leader on global tical shift from a purely technocratic debate between donor
aid issues. U.S. NGOs will need to re-think their strategies to and recipient countries about the mechanics of how aid is pro-
take into account not only the realities of the U.S. domestic vided and used to a broader discussion of development effec-
political context but also the realities of the country that aid is tiveness that recognizes and seeks to leverage the critical roles
intended to help, and their shared development vision. of stakeholders such as parliament, civil society and the pri-
vate sector. The development ministers were critical in reach-
Accra will have direct impact on US NGOs operating over- ing consensus on the content of the AAA in the final hours of
seas. The U.S. government’s aid programs overseas will be the HLF3. This consensus was mostly due to the leadership of
scrutinized for compliance with the principles on aid ef- Henrietta Fore, Administrator of the U.S. Agency for Interna-
fectiveness. As the U.S. tries to comply with these principles, tional Development and Director of U.S. Foreign Assistance.
some of its responsibilities will trickle down to NGO partners Ms. Fore took the responsibility for signing off on three stick-
either at the sector or project levels. Even NGOs operat- ing points the U.S. had opposed over the course of the negotia-
ing with private resources will ultimately have to interface tions: the predictability of aid flow over 3-5 years, departure
with recipient country priorities as framed under the Paris from aid conditionalities similar to the World Bank’s Struc-
Declaration. At a minimum, U.S. NGOs must engage the U.S. tural Adjustment Programs, and the use of recipient countries’
government agencies they work with on the possible impli- public management systems to deliver aid.
cations of Accra for their operational partnerships. Accra recognized the work of civil society organizations
(CSOs) in addressing poverty and inequality and committed
InterAction will provide the appropriate space and organiz- to engaging them more deeply. Unlike the 2005 agreement
ing to ensure that U.S. NGOs engage the government on that overlooked the critical roles and contributions (money,
both policy and operational matters. InterAction will also expertise and human resources) of NGOs and other CSOs
ensure that U.S. NGOs have a voice in the development of the to fighting poverty and saving lives, the AAA devoted a full
planned CSO [civil society organization] effectiveness frame- article to CSOs. The commitments in Article 20 to support-
work, which has become a key component of the growing ing the CSOs’ own initiative to promote CSO development ef-
consensus on development effectiveness. Accra proved that fectiveness and assisting with the provision of “an enabling
there is a need for closer collaboration between the U.S. gov- environment that maximizes their contributions to develop-
ernment and U.S. NGOs on development issues at the global ment” will prove critical to advancing the humanitarian and
level. U.S. NGO delegates in Accra had full access to U.S. development efforts of CSOs. (See box for highlights of how
government representatives, including the USAID Adminis- the AAA will effect U.S. NGOs.)
trator herself. It is important that preparations for the Doha Accra confirmed the growing consensus on development ef-
Conference on Financing for Development and for the next fectiveness that has been building since the formulation of the
G8 Summit further strengthen such collaboration, regardless Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) in 2000 and the con-
of the outcome of the upcoming presidential election. ference on Financing for Development in Monterrey in 2002.
Two critical characteristics of that consensus include: (1) the
centrality of gender integration, respect for human rights, and

36 MONDAY DEVELOPMENTS October 2008
Media

environmental sustainability as the pillars for achieving last- opment objectives by key
ing impacts in fighting poverty and inequality and saving lives; stakeholders – a preamble For video coverage of
and (2) the recognition that development is a political process to increased accountabil- the media summit and
of selecting priorities and committing resources to them that ity, ownership and effec- additional information about
starts with a national government, its various branches, its tiveness. InterAction’s Aid Effectiveness
citizens and their organizations, and its private sector. These events included a efforts, please visit:
2010 will tell if and how the AAA helped put the implemen- media workshop, media sum- www.interaction.org/aideffectiveness
tation of the aid effectiveness principles back on track. In the mit and a post-conference
meantime, CSOs will continue to monitor the behaviors of media briefing.
both donor and recipient governments, using the frameworks The media workshop took the form of an information
they collectively defined and agreed on. MD sharing session between civil society representatives and
Ghanaian journalists in order to develop better knowledge

Making Headlines:
of aid effectiveness issues and their relationship to core local
and regional issues.
The media summit was conducted as an interactive dis-

The Role of Media cussion between civil society, media and policy-makers on
the role of media in setting and implementing development

in International
priorities and objectives. The participants and audience dis-
cussed ways to improve the media’s role in promoting the
principles of accountability and ownership among all the rel-

Development evant actors. The event was hosted by the Ghana Association
of Private Voluntary Organizations in Development, InterAc-
tion, the Pan African Organization for Sustainable Develop-
By Nasserie Carew, Director of Public Relations, ment and the West African Civil Society Institute. Attendees
InterAction included local, regional and foreign correspondents.
Following the conclusion of the HLF3, InterAction held a

T
he Accra Agenda for Action, adopted recently comprehensive post-conference media briefing for junior-
at the 3rd High Level Forum on Aid Effectiveness (HLF3), level journalists to stimulate interest and commitment to the
identified the role of media as vital to attaining an ef- issue of development. MD
fective aid system. The recognition of the progression of the
responsibility of media within the global poverty debate is an
exciting and welcome one. The Organisation for Economic Co-
operation and Development (OECD), which through its De-
velopment Assistance Committee (OECD DAC) organized the
MONDAY
DEVELOPMENTS
HLF3 and oversees the aid effectiveness debate of which the

Subscribe online and
HLF3 is a part, is one of many global bodies that are increas-
ingly embracing the idea that in order to significantly advance

receive 15% off *
the aid dialogue, the media-civil society relationship must
mature into a partnership built on shared values.
InterAction’s Excellence in Development Reporting program
recognizes the incredible potential of the media as a develop-
ment partner. Building an effective media-civil society rela-
Visit www.interaction.org/monday
tionship starts with the international development commu- to subscribe
nity – civil society, policy-makers and donors – viewing the
Monday Developments
media as a critical and equal partner in development. provides in-depth news
Civil society can do much to help the media develop a bet- and commentary on global
ter understanding of core development issues by improving trends that affect relief,
access to staff and information and providing an open forum refugee and development
of information exchange. work. Monday Developments
As part of this effort, InterAction held a series of media also describes new resources
for relief and development
events at the HLF3 in order to:
workers, professional growth
• Amplify the voice of civil society in the aid effectiveness opportunities, upcoming events
debate and the HLF3; and employment listings.
• Reinforce the importance of recognizing the media com-
munity as a critical actor in poverty reduction efforts and *To receive a 15% discount on
as a valuable catalyst in advancing the aid effectiveness new subscriptions, enter the
debate by shaping public attitudes and informing decision- coupon code:
making; and Poverty issue
• Encourage a broad ownership and collaboration of devel-

MONDAY DEVELOPMENTS October 2008 37
Party Platforms

Foreign Assistance: F
oreign assistance reform has continued to grow as
a hot political topic. More than thirteen Congressional hearings

Where Do
have been held in the last year, as well as consultations with se-
nior Congressional leadership members and staff. There is a deep
understanding that the United States Government foreign assistance
planning, delivery, implementation and monitoring apparatus needs to

They Stand?
be re-thought. InterAction members in partnership with Brookings Insti-
tution, the Center for American Progress, the Center for Global Engage-
ment, and others have been actively engaged in the call for reform (to
get involved, visit www.modernizingforeignassistance.net) So important
is this issue that the two major U.S. political parties addressed the prob-
lem in their respective party platforms at this summer’s conventions.
Here are excerpts of the key passages.

Democratic National Convention 2008
Excerpt from approved Party Platform

Invest in Our Common Humanity
T o renew American leadership in the world, we will strengthen our
common security by investing in our common humanity. In countries
wracked by poverty and conflict, citizens long to enjoy freedom from
want. Because extremely poor societies and weak states provide optimal
breeding grounds for terrorism, disease, and conflict, the United States
has a direct national security interest in dramatically reducing global
poverty and joining with our allies in sharing more of our riches to help
those most in need. It is time to make the U.N. Millennium Development
Goals, which aim to cut extreme poverty in half by 2015, America’s goals
Republican National Convention 2008 as well. We need to invest in building capable, democratic states that can
Excerpt from approved Party Platform establish healthy and educated communities, develop markets, and gen-
erate wealth. Such states would also have greater institutional capacities
Helping Others Abroad to fight terrorism, halt the spread of deadly weapons, and build health-

A mericans are the most generous people in the world. No nation
spends more in combined public and private efforts to combat
disease and poverty around the world, and no nation works harder to
care infrastructures to prevent, detect, and treat deadly diseases such as
HIV/AIDS, malaria, and avian flu. We will double our annual investment
in meeting these challenges to $50 billion by 2012 and ensure that those
ensure the continued vitality of the global economy. Our reasons for do- new resources are directed toward worthwhile goals. But if America is
ing so are both moral and practical, for a world where half of the human going to help others build more just and secure societies, our trade
race lives on a few dollars a day is neither just nor stable. Including the deals, debt relief, and foreign aid must not come as blank checks. We will
world’s poor in an expanding circle of development is part and parcel of couple our support with an insistent call for reform, to combat the cor-
the Republican approach to world trade through open markets and fair ruption that rots societies and governments from within. As part of this
competition. It must also be a top priority of our foreign policy. Decades new funding, we will create a $2 billion Global Education Fund that will
of massive aid have failed to spur economic growth in the poorest coun- bring the world together in eliminating the global education deficit with
tries, where it has often propped up failed policies and corrupt rulers. the goal of supporting a free, quality basic education for every child in
We will target foreign assistance to high-impact goals: fostering the rule the world. Education increases incomes, reduces poverty, strengthens
of law through democratic government; emphasizing literacy and learn- communities, prevents the spread of disease, improves child and mater-
ing; and, concentrating on the foundations for economic development nal health and empowers women and girls. We cannot hope to shape a
— clean water, agricultural improvement, and microcredit funding for world where opportunity outweighs danger unless we ensure that ev-
small enterprises. Maternal and child health, especially safer childbirth- ery child everywhere is taught to build and not to destroy. Our policies
ing and nutrition, must be priorities, especially in countries affected by will recognize that human rights are women’s rights and that women’s
epidemics of HIV/AIDS, malaria, and tuberculosis. Further, we call for the rights are human rights. Women make up the majority of the poor in the
development of a strategy for foreign assistance that serves our national world. So we will expand access to women’s’ economic development op-
interest. Specifically we call for a review and improvement of the Foreign portunities and seek to expand microcredit. Women produce half of the
Assistance Act of 1961 oriented toward: alignment of foreign assistance world’s food but only own 1% of the land upon which it is grown. We will
policies, operations, budgets and statutory authorities; development of work to ensure that women have equal protection under the law and
a consensus on what needs to be done to strengthen the non-military are not denied rights and therefore locked them into poverty. We will
tools to further our national security goals; greater attention to core modernize our foreign assistance policies, tools, and operations in an
development programs — education, child survival, and agricultural elevated, empowered, consolidated, and streamlined U.S. development
development; and greater accountability by recipient countries so as to agency. Development and diplomacy will be reinforced as key pillars of
ensure against malfeasance, self-dealing, and corruption, and to ensure U.S. foreign policy, and our civilian agencies will be staffed, resourced
continued assistance is conditioned on performance. MD and equipped to address effectively new global challenges. MD

38 MONDAY DEVELOPMENTS October 2008
MONDAY Developments

EmploymentOpportunities
Program Officer for Eurasia the proposal development process including technical writing,
Washington, DC collaborations with local organizations, program budgeting,
Based in Washington DC this position will support innovative and overall proposal strategy and design. Identifying new op-
and high quality programming for World Vision field offices in- portunities for funding, outreach, and strengthening organiza-
cluding Indonesia, Cambodia, and the Philippines. The position tion’s portfolio; represent Partners at meetings and conferences.
is responsible for management of private funding, including Salary will commensurate with experience. Please send a cover
programs funded through child sponsorship, foundations, cor- letter and resume to recruit@partners.net with “Director of Re-
porations, and individuals. Applications accepted only online at source Development” in the subject line. For more information
www.worldvision.org. on Partners, visit www.partners.net.

Director of Finance and Operations MONITORING AND EVALUATION OFFICER
Washington, DC New York
 Solar Electric Light Fund (SELF). Senior-level opportunity for ac- Trickle Up seeks a Monitoring and Evaluation Officer to lead our
countant or  financial manager with international experience.  transition to a new monitoring and evaluation system focused
See complete job announcement, including application instruc- on documenting outcomes, learning and excellence. Working
tions, at www.SlesingerManagement.com. with our staff in New York, Guatemala, India, Mali and Uganda,
you will develop, implement, refine and maintain all system
Director of Resource Development components and manage the adoption of a new database. You
Washington, DC will be committed to Trickle Up’s mission, with at least 3 years’
Partners of the Americas requires a proactive, highly motivated experience leading monitoring and evaluation of poverty alle-
and creative Director of Resource Development. Responsibilities viation programs (quantitative and qualitative). Job description,
include managing the Resource Development Unit, including requirements, and application instructions at www.trickleup.
unit priorities, budget, team members, and consultants. Leading org. Deadline: Dec. 1, 2008.

Brandeis University
The Heller School of Social Policy and Management Knowledge Advancing Social Justice

The End of Poverty ...
One Degree at a Time
Over 150 students in residence from 65 countries forming one of x M.A. in Sustainable International Development
the largest programs of its kind in the world. M.S. in International Health Policy and Management
x
x M.B.A. concentration in Sustainable Development
Alumni are employed by U.N. agencies, bilateral and multilateral
aid organizations, and NGOs throughout the world. x M.P.P. concentration in Poverty
x Dual M.A. programs in Sustainable Development with
Generous financial assistance for Peace Corps and other service Coexistence & Conflict and with Women & Gender Studies
organization volunteers.

A community of activists and scholars on the front lines of social policy.
781-736-3820
heller.brandeis.edu HellerAdmissions@Brandeis.edu

To advertise, call 202-667-8227 ext 548 or email publications@interaction.org MONDAY DEVELOPMENTS October 2008 39
Job Openings
Project Director,
Cultural Heritage
Project
Baghdad, Iraq

Program
Coordinator,
Cultural Heritage
Project
Erbil, Iraq

Chief Engineer
West Bank

Country Director
Islamabad,
Pakistan

Director of
Internal Audit
Arlington,VA

Director of
Health Programs
Arlington,VA

International Relief & Development For more
information
1621 North Kent Street
contact Ingrid
Fourth Floor
Fitzgerald at
Arlington,VA 22209
P: 703.248.0161 703.248.0161 or
F: 703.248.0194 visit www.ird.
org and click on
www.ird.org “careers.”
Chief of Party
Famine Early Warning Systems Network
(FEWSNET)
Director of Security
Minneapolis, MN
Chemonics seeks a chief of party for the Famine
Early Warning Systems Network Project (FEWS
NET), a long-term, USAID-funded food security The Director of Security at ARC headquarters directs
and early warning information project. FEWS the development, implementation and monitoring of an
NET is a set of integrated activities that provide effective strategy to mitigate risk, maintain continuity
early warning of environmental (e.g. drought) and socio-economic (e.g.
rising prices) hazards, and monitoring and assessment of current food of operations, and provide for the safety and security of
security conditions and of a population’s current or future vulnerability all ARC employees. Also serves as the subject matter
to food insecurity. Responsibilities include overall project leadership, expert on safety and security. S/he establishes policies
management, and technical direction of the FEWS NET technical team
in Washington, DC and field office staff in Africa, Afghanistan, Central and standards affecting safety and security of ARC staff
America, and Guatemala; provision of client and stakeholder briefings on members, ARC field facilities and assets, and program
project data analysis; ensuring strategic long-term vision of innovations activities. The Security Director ensures adequate security
in international food security monitoring; and serving as the key liaison
coordinating with USAID, FEWS NET implementing partners such as USGS, protocols and mechanisms are in place to address country
other U.S. government agencies, and international and regional partners, programs’ unique security challenges. S/he provides
such as WFP and CILSS. Qualifications: Advanced degree in agriculture, direction and technical support direction in developing
economics, international development, or related field; French and English
fluency; ten years of work experience in a food security-related field and maintaining country programs’ context-specific
(agriculture, agricultural economics, early warning, economics, emergency field security plans and leads the organization’s Crisis
response, food security assessment, geography, planning, public health, Management Team. The position has the authority to
and rural development) developing and managing programs in Africa; five
years of senior level experience managing complex field and U.S.-based direct and implement appropriate security measures for
projects involving large and dispersed multidisciplinary team; U.S. work ARC country programs. This position requires 40%
authorization is required; ability to travel and work overseas; knowledge of international travel.
USAID operations, programming, and structure; demonstrated personnel
and financial management skills Application Instructions: Send electronic
submissions to FEWSNETCOP@chemonics.com by October 24, 2008. To view complete the job description and to apply, go to
Submit CV, cover letter, and three references, with the position title in the www.arcrelief.org
subject line. No telephone inquiries, please. Finalists will be contacted.

To advertise, call 202-667-8227 ext 548 or email publications@interaction.org MONDAY DEVELOPMENTS October 2008 41
“Any intelligent fool can make things bigger, more complex,
and more violent. It takes a touch of genius— and a lot of
courage—to move in the opposite direction.”
—Albert Einstein, at whose suggestion the IRC was founded

Musu Mulbah
GBV Program Manager

It takes the best to prevail against
the worst of crises.

To join us, please visit: theIRC.org/Jobs

HR_employeeHero_AprilAd.indd 1 3/26/08 11:48:48 AM

42 MONDAY DEVELOPMENTS October 2008 To advertise, call 202-667-8227 ext 548 or email publications@interaction.org
Did You
SKILL Know?
AND In the developing

PASSION
world outside
China, the $1.25

AT WORK poverty rate has
fallen from 40
percent to 29 per-
Current cent over 1981-
Openings 2005. However,

Field Coordinator given population
DR Congo growth, this
progress was not
Grants Coordinators
enough to bring
South Sudan & Sudan
down the total
Operations Coordinator number of poor
Central African Republic outside China,
which has stayed
Health Coordinators
Sudan & Chad at about 1.2
billion.
Human Resource Coordinator
Source: World Bank
Sudan

Finance Controller
Chad
How Secure Is Your Organization?
InterAction Minimum Operating Security Standards Workshop
October 30th—Washington, DC
The working environment for international humanitarians and development
professionals has become increasingly volatile in recent years. Because of this, many
NGOs are seeking a way to incorporate more robust security measures into their
programming. However, few NGOs know how best to do it.

To learn more about working InterAction has been tasked by USAID to create a set of Minimum Operating Security
Standards (MOSS) for its members. Under the MOSS, InterAction members are
with us, please visit required to create organizational policies and plans; make appropriate resources
available to comply with the standards; implement appropriate human resources
theIRC.org/Jobs policies; incorporate accountability for security at the management level; and work
together as a community in order to advance their common security interests.

This workshop seeks to assist InterAction members and other interested
organizations in the incorporation of InterAction’s Minimum Operating Security
Standards (MOSS). Recognizing that every organization will have differing needs, the
“Suggested Guidance” section for each standard will be presented by members of
the Security Advisory Group. A brief review will be followed by an open forum that
will enable attendees the opportunity to discuss methods, policies and practices of
other members in order to aid all in compliance.

This workshop is open to InterAction member organizations only.

Please RSVP by email to jkearns@interaction.org.
Subject line: “MOSS RSVP.”

To advertise, call 202-667-8227 ext 548 or email publications@interaction.org MONDAY DEVELOPMENTS October 2008 43
1400 16th Street, NW, Suite 210
Washington, DC 20036
Phone: (202) 667-8227
Fax: (202) 667-8236
publications@interaction.org
www.interaction.org

InterAction is the largest alliance of U.S.-based international
development and humanitarian nongovernmental
organizations. With more than 160 members operating in every
developing country, we work to overcome poverty, exclusion
and suffering by advancing social justice and basic dignity for all.

Program on Forced Migration and Health
HEILBRUNN DEPARTMENT OF POPULATION AND FAMILY HEALTH

MASTER OF PUBLIC HEALTH
The Program on Forced Migration and Health is committed to improving the health and well-being of people in crisis-
affected settings. The Program offers a Master of Public Health (MPH) through the Heilbrunn Department of Population
and Family Health at Columbia University's Mailman School of Public Health. The MPH curriculum is intended to prepare
health professionals for the practice of public heath in complex emergencies and post-conflict settings.

The Program's teaching and research components emphasize pragmatic, inter-disciplinary, and human rights-based
problem-solving in the health and social sectors. Upon completion of the degree, graduates will be able to:

x Lead the field of humanitarian response in the 21st century;
x Define the nature, impact, and determinants of health and social sector problems in complex emergencies;
x Develop effective policies to alleviate problems in the health and social sectors;
x Design, manage, and evaluate health and social sector programs;
x Undertake population-based research to improve humanitarian response policies and practice.

For information about the Program on Forced Migration and Health: www.forcedmigration.columbia.edu
For admissions information: www.mailman.columbia.edu/dept/sph/experience

MPH Student Practicum Photos: (L to R) Juan David Gastolomendo (1 & 3); Victoria Foster; Carinne Meyer