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The Latest Issues and Trends in International Development and Humanitarian Assistance

affects your work

August 2007
Vol. 25, No. 8
Climate change was described as the “defining issue of our era” by UN Secretary General Ban Ki-moon at the 2007 G8 Summit in Germany. In this edition of
Monday Developments, we explore how climate change is impacting the poor around the world. Learn about the history of climate change, why development
organizations should care, current legislation on this issue, what Japanese NGOs are doing in preparation for next year’s G8 Summit and more...

PHOTO CREDITS 03 In this Issue: An Overview
(Cover) courtesy of; (Above) courtesy of istockphoto.
com; Laura Swenson;;
04 Climate Justice: The Basics
06 Three Eras of Climate Change
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Visit 08 IPCC Issues New Global Warming Report: The Impact
of Climate Change and a Call for Action
Up next month
Look for the September issue of Monday Developments focusing on 09 Ten Ways to Make Your Office Greener
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10 The Dilemmas of Climate Change, Development,
Adaptation and Justice
12 A Humanitarian Approach to Climate Change
MONDAY DEVELOPMENTS 13 Climate Change Legislation in the U.S. Congress
Managing Editor Monday Developments is published 12 14 Global Climate Change: A Moral Response
Julie Montgomery times a year by InterAction, the largest
alliance of U.S.-based international 15 UNDP Steps Up for Climate Change
development and humanitarian
Editor nongovernmental organizations. With 16 Japan-Based NGO Forum for the 2008 G8 Summit
Kathy Ward more than 160 members operating in Seeks International NGO Participation
every developing country, we work
Copy Editor to overcome poverty, exclusion and 17 Climate Witness: Telling Your Story
Josh Kearns suffering by advancing social justice and
Lyra Spang
basic dignity for all. 22 The Climate Change Crisis and How the Poor Can
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Julie Montgomery, Publications issues.
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Why Should Development Groups
Care About Climate Change?
By Elizabeth Bast, International Policy Analyst,
A Brief History on Climate Change
Friends of the Earth 1827 Greenhouse analogy is first used by Jean-Baptiste Fourier who predicts an
Evidence is now overwhelming that climate change will seriously harm atmospheric effect keeps the Earth warmer than it otherwise would be.
the world’s poorest people and hamper development efforts globally.
Climate change will hit hardest in those places least responsible for 1957 Oceanographer David Keeling sets up first continuous monitoring of carbon
contributing to the problem, such as sub-Saharan Africa. dioxide levels in the atmosphere and finds a regular year-on-year rise.
This year, the United Nations Intergovernmental Panel on Climate
Change (IPCC) released its latest assessment report on the state of the
1979 First World Climate Conference adopts climate change as a major issue and calls
world’s climate. The report, which includes input from hundreds of on governments “to foresee and prevent potential man-made changes in climate.”
climate scientists from around the world, affirms that human actions
are contributing to climate change. It also describes expected impacts
1988 United Nations (UN) sets up the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change
of climate change around the world, including increasing droughts (IPCC) to analyze and report on scientific findings.
and flooding, changes in crop yields and water supplies and health
1990 Statistics reveal that the 1980s was the hottest decade on record, with seven of
the eight warmest years recorded before 1990. Even the coldest years in the 1980s were
The achievement of the Millennium Development Goals will be warmer than the warmest years of the 1880s.
seriously compromised by the consequences of climate change, as its
increasing impacts exacerbate hunger and poverty, disrupt schooling, 1990 The first report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) finds
disproportionately impact women and increase health risks, as well as that the planet has warmed by over 1°F in the past century and warns that only strong
fundamentally alter the natural environment.
measures to halt rising emissions will prevent serious global warming.
Worldwide, in addition to widespread food and water disruptions,
climate change is expected to affect the health of millions of people 1997 Kyoto Protocol agreement reached on legally binding emissions cuts for industri-
through malnutrition, diarrhea, cardio-respiratory diseases, changes in alised nations, averaging 5.4 percent, to be met by 2012. Though the Clinton Administration
the range of disease-spreading insects and other carriers, and deaths, was involved in negotiating the protocol, the U.S. Senate votes not to ratify unless it sees
disease and injury from heat waves, floods, storms, fires and droughts. evidence of “meaningful participation” in reducing emissions from developing countries.
Africa is one of the most vulnerable continents, particularly due to
the lack of capacity to adapt to these impacts. The IPCC report finds 2001 U.S. president George W. Bush renounces the Kyoto Protocol because he believes
that in Africa, yields from rain-fed agriculture in some countries it will damage the U.S. economy. After some hesitation, other nations agree to go ahead
could be reduced by up to 50 percent by 2020, while rising water without the U.S.
temperatures will decrease fisheries resources in large lakes. Between
75 and 250 million people are expected to experience problems with 2005 Second warmest year on record. New studies find that emissions are increasing
water availability by 2020. faster than expected and are coming close to the worst case scenario predicted by the
Development organizations are uniquely situated to help those
affected by climate change to adapt to the impacts. They can help
01.2007 The U.S. Climate Action Partnership, a coalition of major U.S. corporations
communities build resilience and adaptive capacity and can encourage
the consideration of climate change impacts in development planning.
and environmental groups, calls “on the U.S. government to pass legislation that requires
They can prioritize climate change in policy planning, incorporate significant reductions in greenhouse gas emissions.”
climate resistance into current projects and create new projects that
address climate change issues.
02.2007 A prominent group of evangelical leaders, including many InterAction mem-
ber CEOs, issues a call to action on climate change citing that “millions of people could die
Being on the front lines of the problem, development organizations are in this century because of climate change, most of them our poorest global neighbors.”
also well-placed to speak to the impacts of climate change around the
world and to our responsibility to keep the problem from worsening. 05.2007 The IPCC releases its fourth assessment report, which warns that: serious
In the United States, we are responsible for 25 percent of the world’s effects of warming have become evident; the cost of reducing emissions would be far less
emissions, with only five percent of the world’s population.
than the cost of damage they will cause; and poor and developing countries will be the
Climate change impacts will become worse if polluting countries hardest hit because they depend more directly on the environment and have less ability to
including the United States do not act now. But even with dramatic adapt.
reductions in emissions, the impacts on developing countries will be
serious and the United States has a responsibility to assist impoverished 06.2007 In advance of the G8 Summit in Germany, President Bush announces a
communities around the world to adapt to these impacts. plan to set up separate negotiations, outside of the existing UN process, that would aim to
The challenge of addressing climate change is a substantial one, but agree to voluntary emissions caps. The plan is widely criticized by European leaders and
there is a clear and compelling role for development organizations in environmental organizations for not going far enough.
combating the problem and creating solutions.
2012 Kyoto Protocol expires.

AUGUST 2007 

Climate Justice: The Basics
By Paul L. Joffe, Senior Director, International Affairs, National Wildlife Federation; Kelly Rand, Policy Coordinator,
International Affairs, National Wildlife Federation

here is growing recognition that of this century if the current extensive In 1995, the IPCC released its second
global warming threatens all na- dependence on fossil fuels continues. report, concluding that climate change
tions and especially the poor, caused by past emissions may have already
Since the 1980s, scientists have recog-
who are, in fact, the most vulner- started. The Parties negotiated what has
nized the impact of humans on the at-
able. Expected impacts include coastal become known as the Kyoto Protocol,
mosphere. In 1988, the World Meteo-
flooding, storm damage, drought, water which sets legally binding targets and
rological Organization and the United
shortages and spread of disease vectors. timetables for cutting the emissions of
Nations Environment Program estab-
These impacts will continue to increase if developed countries. It was adopted at
lished the Intergovernmental Panel on
we do not reduce global warming pollu- the third COP in Kyoto, Japan in 1997.
Climate Change (IPCC) to study these
tion. However, even with limits on pol- impacts and in 1990 the IPCC released While the U.S. produces 25 percent of
lution, action is necessary to reduce the the world’s total greenhouse gas pol-
its first report. The report confirmed that
unavoidable impacts and damage due to lution with only five percent of world
climate change was a looming threat and
global warming pollution already in the population, it has not ratified the Kyoto
called for a global treaty to address the
atmosphere. Protocol and is not legally bound by it.
However, the Protocol officially came
The burning of carbon-based fossil fuels Just two years later at the “Earth Sum- into force in 2005 when Russia became
such as coal, oil and gas and the destruc- mit” in Rio de Janeiro, the United Na- a party to it.
tion of forests worldwide are the driving tions Framework Convention on Cli-
force behind global warming. Scientific As the third IPCC report (released in
mate Change (UNFCCC) was ready for
studies show a direct relationship be- 2001) concluded, climate change will
signature and countries began signing
tween the amount of carbon dioxide most acutely affect developing countries,
on. It entered into force in 1994. The
(CO2) and other heat-trapping gases in which are least responsible and have the
UNFCCC recognizes climate change as
the atmosphere due to human activity fewest resources to adapt. The fourth
a problem and sets a goal of stabilizing
and the increase in the earth’s average IPCC report (released this year) also
“greenhouse gas concentrations in the
surface temperature. The more CO2 that found that impoverished countries will
atmosphere at a level that would pre-
is emitted, the more the planet warms. have the least capacity to cope with in-
vent dangerous anthropogenic (human-
In February 2007, the Intergovernmen- creasingly devastating impacts, including
induced) interference with the climate
tal Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) re- extreme weather events, rising sea levels,
system.” The Convention also states that
leased its fourth assessment of the large drought, disruption of water and food
the stabilized level must be achieved in
and growing body of science concerning supplies, and impacts on health. Because
a timeframe that: allows ecosystems to
global warming. The report calls global of this, the UNFCCC calls upon devel-
adapt naturally to climate change; en-
warming “unequivocal” and “very likely oped nations to help developing coun-
sures food production is not threatened;
due to the observed increase in anthro- tries meet the costs of adapting to these
and enables sustainable economic devel-
pogenic greenhouse gas concentrations.” impacts.
opment to occur.
[emphasis in the original] The Stern Review on the economics of
Today, over 180 countries, including the
Since the start of the Industrial Revolu- climate change (released by the UK Trea-
U.S., are Parties to the UNFCCC, mean-
tion, the amount of carbon pollution in sury in late 2006) highlights some grim
ing they are legally bound by its obliga-
the atmosphere has risen to a level greater prospects. Rising sea levels could flood
tions. Under the Convention, the Par-
than at any other time in at least 650,000 hundreds of millions of people each
ties meet annually at the Conference of
years, and perhaps as long as 20 million year. Two hundred million more may be
the Parties (COP) to review, debate and
years. As a result, in the 20th century permanently displaced by flooding and
further the implementation of the treaty.
alone, the Earth’s average temperature drought. Scientists at the World Health
The Convention allows Parties to take
rose more than 1.3 degrees Fahrenheit. Organization have estimated that, world-
additional, more specific action through
This may not seem like much, but just wide, about 160,000 people already die
amendments and protocols. It also ac-
a couple degrees change can take you from side-effects of global warming,
knowledges the different responsibilities
from healthy to having a fever. Eleven of ranging from malaria to malnutrition,
of developed countries versus those of
the past twelve years (1995–2006) rank and that the numbers could nearly dou-
developing countries – distinguishing be-
among the twelve warmest years on re- ble by 2020. Developing countries will
tween those historically most responsible
cord since 1850. Moreover, the IPCC need to adapt to reduce their vulnerabil-
for the problem (i.e., developed coun-
projects that the earth’s average temper- ity to these and other impacts.
tries) and those historically less respon-
ature will rise between four and eleven sible (i.e., developing countries). Several different funds were created un-
more degrees Fahrenheit before the end der the Framework Convention and the

Since the start of the Industrial Revolution,
the amount of carbon pollution
in the atmosphere has risen to a level greater
than at any other time in at least 650,000 years,
and perhaps as long as 20 million years.

Kyoto Protocol to help developing coun- cover the amount of greenhouse gases
tries adapt. While the UNFCCC calls for they produce. If they have more cred-
developed countries to provide adapta- its than they need to cover greenhouse
tion assistance, all contributions to the gases they emit, holders can trade or sell
funds are voluntary. Unfortunately, only their extra credits to producers who need
$232 million has been pledged to these more. One of the outstanding issues is
funds to date. The World Bank has esti- whether polluters should simply be given
mated the annual cost of adaptation in the necessary credits or whether they
developing countries to be approximately should be auctioned off with a portion of
$10 to 40 billion, while new studies esti- the proceeds being used to help meet the
mate these costs to be at least $50 billion U.S. responsibility to provide adaptation
a year. Without early and strong mitiga- assistance in developing nations.
tion (cutting of emissions), adaptation The coming months will also see a re-
costs could rise even more. sumption of international negotiations
The earth has already warmed 1.5 de- aimed at reaching agreements on the next
grees Fahrenheit since the start of the in- round of obligations for both mitigation
dustrial revolution. Scientists say that to and adaptation. Concerned groups and
avoid dangerous impacts of global warm- individuals must press the U.S. govern-
ing, we must keep warming at less than ment to re-engage in these negotiations
an additional 2.1 degrees Fahrenheit. and support a strong agreement. Fortu-
Climate modelers believe that to have a nately, there is growing public support
good chance of doing this, we must stabi- for action.
lize atmospheric concentrations of global The current and upcoming debates also
warming pollution at 450ppm (parts per provide an opportunity to promote
million). To do its fair share to meet that greater understanding of the links be-
goal, the U.S. must reduce its emissions tween global warming, development
by about two percent per year, or about and effective foreign assistance. Environ-
80 percent in total by 2050. The longer mental and development groups all have
we wait to begin cutting, the faster we important experience and important
will need to reduce emissions in the end. roles to play. Working together, they can
In fact, scientists say a global delay of 10 ensure recognition of the links between
years nearly doubles the reduction rates global warming and development and
required around 2025 and may make that policies on these issues are mutually
avoidance of dangerous climate change reinforcing.
While no one will be able to escape global
Carrying out adaptation programs raises warming, it is the poorest people and na-
many issues, including finding financing tions who are most vulnerable to its neg-
and clarifying the relationship between ative impacts. They are also most in need
efforts to adapt to climate change and ef- of strong advocates and practical policy
forts for poverty alleviation such as the solutions to help build resilient commu-
Millennium Development Goals. Carbon nities and reduce their vulnerability. Oth-
permits are a “hot” topic in this area, erwise, the poor face further devastation
potentially providing a funding source and the world faces rising instability. The
for climate change adaptation including U.S. has an interest in preventing this
poverty alleviation. Under cap and trade and a responsibility to address both miti-
systems, such as the kind currently being gation and adaptation needs.
debated in Congress, major producers
of greenhouse gases would need to have
© 2007 National Wildlife Federation
sufficient numbers of carbon permits to

AUGUST 2007 
limate change as a global challenge has evolved through a series of stages
Three Eras of in recent decades. We are now on the brink of a new era that will see the
terms of the debate shift once again. The different eras are characterized by
Climate Change the scientific evidence, public perceptions, responses and the engagement
of different groups addressing the problem. In the first era, from the late 1980s to
By Saleemul Huq, Head, Climate 2000, climate change was seen as an “environmental” problem concerning preven-
Change Group of the International tion of future impacts on the planet’s climate systems over the next fifty to one
Institute for Environment and hundred years through reductions in emissions of greenhouse gases, a process also
Development (IIED) and a known as “mitigation.”
coordinating lead author of the The second era started around the turn of the millennium, with the recognition that
IPCC’s 4th Assessment Report, and there will be unavoidable impacts from climate change in the near term (over the
Camilla Toulmin, Director, IIED next decade or two). These impacts must be coped with through “adaptation,” as
well as mitigation, to prevent much more severe and possibly catastrophic impacts in
the longer term. It has become clear that many of the impacts of climate change in
the near term are likely to fall on the poorest countries and communities. The third
era, which we are just about to enter, will see the issue change from tackling an en-
vironmental or development problem to a question of global justice. It will engage a
much wider array of citizens from around the world than previous eras.
While the characterization of the first two eras will be widely accepted by many, the
third era is more contested. This is especially true in the United States (and Austra-
lia), where public and political opinion are lagging behind that of Europe and many
parts of Africa, Asia and Latin America.

First Era
The first era can be dated from the preparation and publication of the first assessment
report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), established in
1988, which alerted the world to the problem of the runaway greenhouse effect.
This was predicted to occur sometime in the 21st century if emissions of man-made
greenhouse gases continued unabated at current rates. The IPCC assessment was
based on computer models of the Earth’s atmosphere and the physics of heat entrap-
ment by a number of gases, but principally carbon dioxide, from burning of fossil
fuels like coal, petroleum and natural gas.
This led to the governments of the world agreeing to the United Nations Frame-
Learn about the latest IPCC
work Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) in 1992 at the Rio Earth Summit,
Report on page 8.
whereby all signatory countries accepted the problem and agreed to take measures to
reduce their emissions. They also recognized that the rich countries (listed by name

in the annex of the UNFCCC and hence the connection between adaptation to even an environment and development
known as “Annex I countries”) were the the impacts of climate change and devel- issue, to one of global justice, or, more
countries principally responsible for past opment on the ground, especially in the correctly, global injustice. One group of
emissions and would take action first. water, agriculture, disaster preparedness people (namely rich people everywhere,
and coastal management sectors. but mostly in rich countries) have caused
In 1995 the IPCC published its second
the problem, and another group of peo-
assessment report. It highlighted the fact At this time the perception of the prob-
ple (namely poor people, especially in
that despite pledges to reduce emissions lem shifted to include the need to see
poor countries) will suffer most of the
of greenhouse gases, they were continu- climate change not just as an environ-
adverse consequences in the near term.
ing to rise and would result in severe im- mental issue but also as a growing threat
pacts if nothing were done to cut them. to development. Thus, a wider range of Thus, the issue goes beyond mitigation
This in turn led to the negotiation of the people became engaged with the issue, alone, although this is urgent to prevent
Kyoto Protocol of the UNFCCC, which including the NGO and development even greater and more catastrophic prob-
was agreed upon at the third conference community, with solutions sought not lems in fifty years’ time. And it goes be-
of parties (COP3) to the Convention in only in mitigation but also in necessary yond adaptation, such as helping people
Kyoto, Japan in 1997. This committed adaptation. prepare for the unavoidable impacts in
signatory countries to targets for reduc- the next few decades. A major challenge
ing emissions by an agreed amount by now is to find ways to compensate peo-
Third Era
the end of the first commitment period ple for the damage that has already been
in 2012, after which the targets would The third era began to really take off with done.
become more stringent. Developing UK Treasury’s publication in late 2006
This new characterization of the climate
countries did not have to accept any tar- of the Stern Review on the Economics
change problem binds together every
gets for emission reductions in the first of Climate Change and the IPCC’s pub-
single person on the planet, as each hu-
commitment period, but would make lication in 2007 of its fourth assessment
man has a “carbon footprint” that is
commitments after 2012. report. Both reports stated unequivocally
contributing to the problem, although
that climate change is already happening
During this era, the issue was seen prin- the size of individual footprints varies
and that human activities are largely to
cipally as an environmental problem to by many orders of magnitude. Everyone
do with the global atmosphere and the has a responsibility to reduce their emis-
people involved were scientists and na- The Stern Review concluded that climate sions commensurate with their footprint,
tional environmental policy makers. The change could shrink the global economy while seeking to offset what cannot be
solution was also seen in terms of preven- by up to 20 percent, but that acting now reduced. The germ of the solution to
tion of impacts that would occur in the to face the threat would cost just one climate change must grow from each
distant future. percent of global gross domestic product individual taking responsibility not only
(GDP). The IPCC, meanwhile, conclud- to reduce their own individual impacts,
ed that climate change is inevitable, that but also to urge leaders to choose poli-
Second Era adaptation to it is critical and that those cies and actions that will enable a stable
The start of this era can be traced to 2001 who contributed least to the problem and just planet.
with the publication of the IPCC’s third will suffer the most.
People from all walks of life around the
assessment report which, for the first The IPCC warned that extreme climat- world, especially in the richer parts of
time, alerted the world to the unavoid- ic events from droughts to floods are the world, are beginning to realize the
able impacts of human induced climate set to become more frequent. While it magnitude of the climate change prob-
change in the near term (the next decade may not be possible to attribute a single lem and their responsibilities for emis-
or two). The report thus raised the need event, such as Hurricane Katrina, which sions of greenhouse gases that cause the
to cope with impacts through “adapta- struck New Orleans in 2005, to human problem.
tion.” It also pointed out that impacts induced climate change, the accumula-
would not be uniform across the globe, As they do, they must also take action.
tion of evidence of major, climate-related
but that poor countries and poor com- They can act both as consumers, by mak-
occurrences is a very strong signal that
munities in all countries (including rich ing conscious decisions to reduce the car-
human-induced climate change is already
nations) would be vulnerable and need bon footprints of their lifestyles, and as
happening. Examples include glacial ice
assistance to adapt. citizens by urging action by political and
melt in Greenland, heat waves in Europe,
other leaders to take the necessary policy
In policy terms, this led to the Marrakech droughts in Africa, floods in Asia and
decisions both nationally and globally.
Accords agreed at the seventh conference hurricanes in the Caribbean. The costs of
The most pressing need, by 2009 at the
of parties (COP7) held in Marrakech, adopting low carbon technology are now
very latest, is for a globally agreed, eq-
Morocco in November 2001, where a recognized as insignificant in comparison
uitable treaty on climate change for the
number of new funds were created to to the risks of massive and catastrophic
post-2012 era to follow up on the Kyoto
help poor countries to adapt. These in- changes if we do nothing.
cluded the least developed countries A shift is happening in the way climate
(LDC) fund as well as the special climate change is perceived: moving from a view
change fund (SCCF). It also highlighted that it is just an environmental issue, or

AUGUST 2007 
IPCC Issues New Global Warming Report: The Impact of
Climate Change and a Call for Action
By Andrea Barron, Adjunct Professor of History, George Mason University

he Intergovernmental Panel on a In Latin America, “changing pre-
Climate Change (IPCC), a net- cipitation patterns and the disap-
work of more than 2,000 scien-
IPCC Summaries for pearance of glaciers are projected to
tists from over 150 countries, re- Policymakers significantly affect water availability
cently issued its fourth assessment report for human consumption, agricul-
on climate change. Working Group I: The Physical ture and energy generation.” Rising
The IPCC is organized into three sepa- Science Basis sea levels will likely increase flooding
rate working groups, each of which issued in low-lying areas. More salinization
a separate assessment. Working Group I and desertification of agricultural
focused on the physical science of climate land is also expected.
Working Group II: Impacts,
change. Working Group II assessed the a On small islands in the Caribbean,
Adaptation and Vulnerability
impact of climate change on vulnerable and the Indian and Pacific Oceans,
populations, glaciers, forests and other rising sea levels could have severe
natural systems, and how they can adapt consequences, “exacerbating inun-
to global warming. Working Group III Working Group III: Mitigation of dation, storm surge, erosion and
discussed the state of knowledge on miti- Climate Change other coastal hazards, thus threat-
gating climate change by reducing the ening vital infrastructure, settle-
concentration of greenhouse gases in the ments and facilities that support the
atmosphere, the policies governments livelihood of island communities.”
can adopt to create incentives for mitiga-
The April Report also outlines what peo-
tion and the relationship between mitiga- technology, education, information, ple can do to adapt to climate change,
tion and sustainable development. skills, infrastructure, access to resources, ranging from building levees to altering
In its February report, Working Group and management capabilities.” Not sur- their eating and recreational patterns to
I stated, “warming of the climate sys- prisingly, countries in the developing changing the way they farm. Adaptation,
tem is unequivocal,” as seen from in- world have far less adaptive capacity and however, can only go so far. What is re-
creases in air and ocean temperatures, will suffer the most, even though they ally necessary is to reduce greenhouse gas
the widespread melting of snow and ice, contribute very little to global warming. emissions in order to stop or mitigate cli-
and rising sea levels. The scientists said For example: mate change in the first place.
it is “very likely” (more than 90 percent a In Africa, millions more people This is what Working Group III conclud-
probability) that these developments are could go hungry because of a 50 ed in its May Report, recommending a
due to human activities, specifically the percent decrease in crop yields by series of actions that could prevent tem-
burning of coal, petroleum and natural the year 2020. By 2020, from 75 peratures from rising more than 3.6 to
gas. Climate scientists predict that be- to 250 million Africans will suffer 4.3°F (2 to 2.4°C) above pre-industrial
cause of the concentration of carbon di- from an increase in water stress due levels. It is at those increased levels that
oxide and other greenhouse gases in the to climate change. Eighty million we would begin to see the worst effects of
atmosphere, temperatures will probably more people are at risk of being ex- global warming. Stopping that rise would
rise from 3.2°F to 7.2°F (1.8-4°C) by posed to malaria in the 21st centu- involve, for example, setting higher stan-
the end of the 21st century and possibly ry. Malaria is expected to increase in dards for fuel efficient cars, investing in
as much as 11.5°F. The oceans have also Zimbabwe and in parts of Angola, public transportation and alternative fu-
absorbed this heat, causing sea levels to Burundi, Ethiopia, Kenya, Rwanda els, making buildings, factories, homes
rise 6.7 inches in the last 100 years and and Somalia, with some decreases in and appliances more energy efficient, and
affecting ocean currents. the western Sahel and other areas. reducing deforestation. Governments can
What will happen if global warming con- offer financial incentives to increase forest
a In Asia, “coastal areas, especially
tinues at the same pace? The IPCC’s areas, use fertilizers and irrigation more
heavily-populated mega-delta re-
Working Group II Report, issued in efficiently, improve waste and wastewater
gions in South, East and Southeast
April, explained how extreme weather management, and transfer technology
Asia, will be at greatest risk due to
events (such as heat waves, droughts, to developing countries. The mitigation
increased flooding from the sea and,
fires and heavy rains) can have severe con- measures recommended by the IPCC
in some mega-deltas, flooding from
sequences for every region of the world. would not cost more than three percent
the rivers.” Some good news: crop
Countries can develop strategies to adapt of global gross domestic product (GDP)
yields could also increase up to 20
to these weather extremes, but adaptabil- by 2030, and would have a significant ef-
percent in East and Southeast Asia.
ity “depends on such factors as wealth, fect on climate change.

Ten Ways to Make MUST READ
Your Office Greener Using Gender Research in Development
1. Use less paper. Print double-sided Reviewed by Hilary Sims Feldstein, independent consultant specializing in the use
copies when possible, buy recycled paper of gender analysis in agricultural research and projects
and use real mugs instead of paper cups or
Using Gender Research in Development, by Agnes R. Quisumbing and Bonnie
Styrofoam. McClafferty, International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI), 2006
2. Recycle paper, plastic, glass, Since the early 1980s, the Consultative Group on International Agricultural Research
batteries, and toner and ink cartridges. (CGIAR) and other agricultural research entities have developed a substantial body of work
If your office uses bottled water, try to focused on gender in research. Similarly, many development practitioners have argued
for making gender issues part of development planning and project implementation.
use the big coolers instead of individual These efforts have been driven by two similar, but not identical, incentives: equity and
serving plastic bottles. effectiveness. Equity argues that development is slanted if it does not address the needs
and strengths of women as well as men. Effectiveness argues that without the whole
3. Reduce transportation costs. Urge picture of who is doing what, why and when, the lack of information on gender roles and
workers to use public transportation, interests will skew the picture, leading to mistakes that could be avoided if that information
carpool, bike or walk to work. Seek (and the people involved) were included in planning and research. Because equity is (still!)
such a loaded issue in development planning, it is very useful to be able to garner and use
out government programs that provide well-argued, convincing information on women’s and men’s roles and interests.
incentives for people who use such means
of transportation. Using Gender Research in Development by Agnes R. Quisumbing and Bonnie McClafferty,
both with the International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI), is just what we all need: a
4. Buy more energy-efficient equipment source of guidance and inspiration. As the authors note, “Many researchers are resistant
to modifying their tried and tested methodologies to incorporate gender sensitive data
for your office. collection and analysis methods.” The book addresses this problem directly in three major
5. Turn down the thermostat one or two
degrees in the winter. During the summer, The first chapter, “The Importance of Using Gender and Intrahousehold Research to
turn the thermostat up a few degrees Inform Projects and Policies,” pulls together the salient findings of over ten years of
IFPRI’s detailed research on gender issues. Specifics on how certain studies were carried
or open the windows to use less air out – what kinds of surveys, what kind of anthropological data preceded a survey, how
conditioning. researchers constructed measures of bargaining power by understanding the assets
women brought to marriage – are given in sufficient detail that one will be inspired to
6. Turn off the lights when you are not in seek such solutions for one’s own work. The strongest message from this chapter is that
the office and keep the lights off during the households do not act as one when making decisions; therefore, researchers and project
bright daylight hours. Switch from standard planners must understand the assets, demands and preferences of household members in
order to understand how choices are made and the implications for overall production and
light bulbs to compact fluorescent bulbs. household well-being.

7. Shut down your computer at night. The second chapter, “Gender and Intrahousehold Aspects of Food Policy,” brings together
Screensavers just keep the computer IFPRI research findings relevant for development projects and outcomes. For example,
running as normal. researchers found that households may not pool resources, that women and men bring
different assets to a household, that women and men accumulate different forms of social
8. Bring green plants into the office to capital, and that improving women’s status and increasing their resources increases
household allocations for education and child health.
absorb CO2. They make your office more
attractive too! The third chapter links the research findings to project design and public policy. The wealth
of data from IFPRI research provides a series of essential questions related to gender for
9. Organize a workshop to educate each project stage (design and appraisal, implementation, and monitoring and evaluation)
employees about global warming that help the researcher determine which questions are most salient in his or her particular
situation. The appendices are also helpful: illustrating survey data and summarizing the
and actions they can take to reduce IFPRI studies and their major findings.
greenhouse gases.
Do not wait until you need it to get this book. Request it now and roam through it for
10. Establish a “Green Team” in your inspiration and reassurance in your next fact-finding endeavor!
office to encourage workers to adopt
Using Gender Research in Development can be downloaded and ordered at:
environmentally friendly practices and
recommend new, creative ways of making
the office green.
AUGUST 2007 
Urgent but Uncertain
The Dilemmas of Climate Change, Development, Adaptation
and Justice for Development and Humanitarian Work
By J. Timmons Roberts, Fellow (2006-07), Environmental Change Institute, Oxford University, Professor of
Sociology and Director of Environmental Science and Policy, The College of William and Mary

Hurricane Stan caused flooding and mudslides that led to over 1,500 deaths in southern Mexico during 2005. Photo: courtesy of Laura Swenson

Climate change presents a painfully The current rush to address climate change rekindles many of
vexing dilemma for development and these fears. The fact that poor nations neither caused the prob-
lem nor can afford to deal with the consequences it has unleashed
humanitarian organizations. On the heightens the strong sense of injustice. Yet adequate funding for
one hand, it seems a distraction from poorer nations to cope with climate change has not appeared,
the core work of economic and social and the funding that has appeared is not clearly “additional” to
development, threatening to derail an earlier levels of aid. In short, fears that environmental protection
and development are in a zero-sum game appear to have some
agenda worked out over decades. This foundation.
perception is not new. For example, On the other hand, agencies working on the ground in Africa,
in response to the great wave of Asia and Latin America are finding that all kinds of their activities
environmentalism in the late 1960s, many are threatened by new unpredictability or measurable changes in
developing nation governments made the weather. Extended and unpredictable drought, heat waves,
very clear that their priority had to be on rising sea levels, severe flooding and hurricane intensity are caus-
ing many groups to rethink decades of accumulated experience
meeting the basic human needs of their on what to tell people are good choices about food production,
people. They feared greatly that foreign housing and infrastructure.
aid for addressing these needs would be Agricultural projects are among those most vulnerable to climate
diverted to environmental projects. change, and all types of projects (from capacity-building to trans-

Development, Adaptation AND Justice
port and crop substitution) require efforts to adapt to current The dilemma of climate change for development and humanitar-
and expected changes. ian organizations has a final twist. The push to add labels to food
or other products documenting their country of origin or their
Adaptation to climate change can be extremely expensive. From
carbon footprint potentially threatens some key traditional and
building sea walls and flood protection to reorganizing whole
new, non-traditional exports from developing countries. Faced
productive and housing systems, the possibilities are almost end-
with competing products, many ethically concerned consumers
less. With great coastal and river delta regions and semi-arid areas
are confused about which label to favor. For example, the Inter-
potentially becoming uninhabitable, relocation of whole com-
national Institute for Environment and Development in London
munities may be needed.
recently estimated that over one million Africans’ livelihoods
The world’s wealthy countries are already undertaking huge ef- rely on the air freighting of fresh fruit and vegetables to the UK
forts, some costing billions of dollars, to protect themselves. The alone. This places humanitarian and development organizations
outcry over lack of preparation and response to climate-related in another difficult position: to reduce this problem consum-
disasters shows that politicians and administrators neglect their ers need to reduce emissions, but doing so sometimes threatens
own countries’ likely future changes at their peril. livelihoods of the same people they are attempting to assist. A
Very recently, many observers have begun to argue that “good decade’s worth of work on “Fair Trade” labels is also threatened
development is good adaptation.” What they mean by this is that by rising consumer concern about climate change, since many
carefully done development projects with a primary focus on is- people are dedicating themselves to buying only local products.
sues other than climate change can at the same time serve to This final point raises the issue that simply “climate proofing”
make communities more “resilient” to climate shocks and vari- individual development projects based on predictions of climate
ability. This thinking focuses on “no regrets” efforts that will be variability and change may be fatally inadequate. For example,
useful even if predicted changes do not materialize – ones that farmers might install rainfall capture or irrigation systems to wa-
will help economic development regardless of what the climate ter their new export crops, but then find that the market for the
does. This is a good idea overall, and it serves to bring together products has collapsed. This supports the need for far greater di-
the two sides of the dilemma. versification in local economies, especially into sectors that have a
However, without good research, we do not know just how great lower-carbon impact and create higher social benefits than many
the overlap is between “good development” and “good adapta- export commodities generate.
tion”: it may not be as great as we hoped. So we probably need Of course finding new product niches will be an evolving chal-
to consider thoughtfully how we can pay for pure adaptation lenge, especially for products with low capital and technical
projects – ones with few significant development benefits. barriers. That is, nations across the world will copy a successful
Clearly the world’s wealthy nations should be paying for much product and the price will drop quickly. If scientific assessments
adaptation in developing countries since we created a dispropor- are correct about the needed levels of greenhouse gas emissions
tionate share of the problem of climate change and we will not reductions, diversifying products and markets, including a sub-
be suffering the worst from it. The world’s poorest people, who stantial focus on provisioning local markets, may be the safest
least caused this problem, can least afford to adapt. Benito Muller way for countries and producers to orient their production.
of the Oxford Institute for Energy Studies argues that adaptation There are win-win-win solutions that are clearly good develop-
funding is required by the basic legal doctrine of restoring those ment and good adaptation, and those should get our immediate
things which we have damaged and of compensating the victims attention. Highly efficient cooking stoves, for example, reduce
for those things which we cannot. deforestation, CO2 emissions, indoor air pollution, and risks and
A pivotal question is where the funding for adaptation will come stress on women who must walk miles to collect firewood. Well-
from. Cost estimates of the needs for adaptation funding to de- designed and reliable small-scale, decentralized and renewable
veloping countries are still extremely rudimentary, but vary from energy systems likewise may satisfy donors, consumers and local
$8 billion to over $40 billion per year. Estimates at the low end needs, while making remote locations more resilient in the face
of the scale were compiled by Ian Noble of the World Bank in of infrastructure damage from severe weather events. But repeat-
2005; higher end ones by Oxfam in an April, 2007 report. edly pointing to these few examples makes for thin understand-
ing of how the two issues can truly be joined.
An Adaptation Fund has been set up under the Kyoto Proto-
col and the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Of course there will not be a single answer to the climate/devel-
Change. Early contributions were voluntary, and the current to- opment dilemma everywhere. Solutions will have to be created
tal in the fund is under $50 million total (not annually). Its on- jointly by local people and their technical and funding partners.
going funding is dependent upon a two percent levy on carbon We have much to learn about what to do to help people around
trading under Kyoto’s “Clean Development Mechanism” and, the world adapt to the effects of climate change and how to turn
therefore, its size is uncertain and potentially unstable. A battle a clear injustice into sustained, adequate funding and real devel-
over who will oversee the fund has slowed its disbursal. Increases opment assistance.
in ODA (Official Development Assistance – voluntary gifts from
national governments) are needed, but seem unlikely to be ad- The author has been researching climate change, development and en-
equate without additional mandatory contribution mechanisms. vironmental justice for fifteen years. His 2007 book with Bradley C. Parks
In the meantime, some “innovative finance” for adaptation seems published by MIT Press is entitled A Climate of Injustice: Global Inequal-
ity, North-South Politics, and Climate Policy. He is also the co-author of a
necessary to address this global injustice, perhaps in the form of a
major examination of the environmental implications of foreign assistance,
tax on carbon or progressive levies on airline travel. entitled Greening Aid? Environmental Implications of Development As-
sistance, which is forthcoming from Oxford University Press.

AUGUST 2007 11

A Humanitarian Approach to Climate Change
By Madeleen Helmer, Head, Red Cross/Red Crescent Climate Centre

There are two primary reasons
why humanitarian organizations
have been slow to arrive at the climate change table...

ive years ago, the Red Cross/Red in coming decades, before greenhouse but also for the beneficiaries of humani-
Crescent Climate Centre (RC/ gas emission reduction measures can be- tarian programs. Awareness-raising, and
RC Climate Centre) launched an come effective. Furthermore, the IPCC participatory risk assessment and pro-
effort to address the humanitarian has reported that climate change will dis- gram development, will help communi-
impacts of climate change. This quickly proportionately affect the world’s most ties to prepare physically and mentally for
proved easier said than done. How can vulnerable people, including the sick, el- new and unexpected weather trends and
humanitarian organizations address the derly, and impoverished. events. It will also encourage communi-
uncertain impacts of climate change? However, despite certainty that the cli-
ties to become engaged by overcoming
What are some characteristics of a hu- mate is changing, the local impacts of
the perception that the problem is simply
manitarian approach to climate change? climate change remain highly uncertain.
too big to tackle.
There are two primary reasons why hu- Hit by unexpected floods in 2002, Cen- 4. Communicate with governments.
manitarian organizations, the first to tral Europeans were surprised a second Assessing the humanitarian consequenc-
join communities in dealing with the time by drought and a deadly heat wave es of climate change is also new for most
consequences of climate change (such in 2003. And they are not alone. governments, whether they are local,
as famine due to drought), have been So how do humanitarian organizations
provincial or national authorities. Un-
slow to arrive at the climate change ta- fortunately, there are very few examples
know for which climate change impacts
ble. Firstly, climate change has tradition- of governments implementing climate
they should prepare? The RC/RC Cli-
ally been perceived as an environmental change risk assessments and adaptation
mate Centre has developed a five-prong
rather than humanitarian problem. The programs. Dialogue with governments
approach to addressing climate change
scientific, political and public debate has at all levels will be vital to developing
focused on the cause of climate change programs that are embedded in sound
– the emission of greenhouse gases. In 1. Consult with experts. Regular dia- policy, and backed-up by human and fi-
contrast, humanitarian organizations are logue with the foremost experts in the nancial resources.
concerned with the impacts of climate fast-evolving field of climate change sci-
5. Learn by doing. Within the context
change on vulnerable communities. ence can help humanitarian actors to
of climate change, there will always be is-
understand better the humanitarian con-
Secondly, climate change risks have been sues that require further research. None-
sequences of climate change. Although
debated primarily as future risks, with theless, there is enough information to
many of the trends that experts identify
projections for temperature and sea level address at least some of the existing and
are too general to be operational (for
rise as far out as 2080. These risks seem emerging climate change risks that com-
example, “10 to 20 percent more rain
far from the daily, pressing humanitarian munities face. Disaster risk reduction pro-
anticipated in 2050”), dialogue with
agenda, which has already left humani- grams alone offer many opportunities,
knowledge centers, such as meteorologi-
tarian organizations and the communi- such as building schools that can serve
cal offices, can turn available knowledge
ties they serve stretched thin. as shelters during floods and developing
into practical information.
improved early-warning systems.
In reality, climate change is here and 2. Adapt programs to address the
now, and it is directly affecting the hu- Climate change is an unprecedented,
anticipated impacts. Humanitarian
manitarian needs of communities. The global challenge for humanity. The en-
organizations can use the information
Intergovernmental Panel on Climate gagement of humanitarian organizations
they glean from experts and knowledge
Change (IPCC) has issued a series of re- is vital to meet this challenge.
centers as they work with communities
ports – the conclusions of which reflect to assess the risks they face from climate
consensus among scientists and govern- change. A malaria program in Kenya may The Red Cross/Red Crescent Climate Centre
ments – that draw important conclusions seeks to address the humanitarian impacts of
look at the increased risk of malaria in
for humanitarian organizations. climate change and to elevate the humanitar-
high latitude regions. A water and sanita-
ian perspective within the climate change
The IPCC has reported that climate tion program in India may take into con- debate. It is a joint collaboration between the
change is resulting in new weather pat- sideration changing monsoon patterns. International Federation of Red Cross and Red
terns and extreme weather events involv- Crescent Societies and the Netherlands Red
3. Raise awareness within communi-
ing floods, heat waves, droughts, hur- Cross.
ties. Assessing climate change risks is new
ricanes and typhoons. It predicts that Photo: courtesy of Ben Granby
not only for humanitarian organizations,
these weather phenomena will accelerate

Climate Change Legislation in the U.S. Congress
By David Turnbull, Communications Coordinator, U.S. Climate Action Network

arlier this year, the Intergovern- the committee, Senator James Inhofe (R- emissions, and requires achieving 2004
mental Panel on Climate Change OK) who is famous for having stated that levels by 2012 and 60 percent below
(IPCC) released a series of reports climate change is “the greatest hoax ever 1990 levels by 2050.
stating that there is unequivo- perpetrated on the American people.” Other bills introduced in the Senate in-
cal evidence humans are causing global Senate Majority Leader Harry Reid (D- clude the Bingaman-Specter Low Car-
warming, that the effects of such warm- NV) has also stated that floor time will be bon Economy Act of 2007, which fea-
ing will be extremely costly, and that reserved for climate legislation this fall. tures a “safety valve” on credit pricing
there is still time to act to avoid many In the House, Representative John Din- that could compromise the integrity of
of these effects. The U.S. Congress, af- gell (D-MI) chairs the Energy and Com- its cap by allowing extra credits to en-
ter years of inaction, has finally begun to merce Committee, which has jurisdiction ter the system. The Kerry-Snowe Global
take on the issue of global warming in over climate change legislation. Both he Warming Reduction Act calls for a 20
earnest. This past June, the Senate passed and Speaker Nancy Pelosi (D-CA) have percent renewable electricity standard
an energy bill that calls for increases in
stated that climate change legislation by 2020 and emissions 60 percent below
automobile fuel efficiency, increased en- will be debated this fall. The Speaker has 1990 levels by 2050.
ergy efficiency in buildings and appli- shown strong interest in the issue, having
ances, and encourages greater use of bio- created a Select Committee to investigate
fuels. The House of Representatives was solutions to global warming. Further,
Looking Forward
also scheduled to debate an energy bill Senators Joseph Lieberman (I-CT) and
Chairman Dingell, once skeptical of cli-
with similar aspirations before the start John Warner (R-VA) recently announced
mate change legislation, has stated that
of its August recess. However, while this that they would work together to draft a
he agrees with the need to cut emissions
legislation takes steps towards reducing new piece of global warming legislation
on the order of 80 percent by 2050.
the nation’s greenhouse gas emissions, by September, and have recently released
the drastic cuts required to avoid danger- an outline of their potential legislation.
ous climate change require a more direct Current Proposed Legislation This development has pushed the debate
approach. and Efforts in the Senate forward as Senator Boxer
To achieve the necessary levels of emis- In the House of Representatives, several has said that the Lieberman-Warner bill
sions reductions, many are looking to- bills featuring a cap-and-trade system will be the starting point for legislation
wards a federal cap and trade system on have been introduced. Representative that comes out of the committee she
greenhouse gas emissions. In such a sys- Henry Waxman (D-CA) introduced the chairs. The proposal released by Senators
tem, a cap on greenhouse gas pollution Safe Climate Act of 2007, which man- Lieberman and Warner outlines a solid
is set and industries and other emitters dates economy-wide emissions cuts with starting point, but should be strength-
subject to the cap must acquire rights in targets set at reducing emissions to 1990 ened to meet the needs scientists have
the form of credits in order to emit these levels by 2020 and to 80 percent below detailed. Senate Majority Leader Reid’s
greenhouse gases. These credits are auc- 1990 levels by 2050. The Safe Climate office and Senator Boxer’s office have
tioned or otherwise allocated by the gov- Act is broadly endorsed by the environ- both stated that a bill could reach the
ernment to those seeking permission to mental community. Also introduced in floor before the end of the year. In ad-
emit. As the IPCC has concluded, drastic the House earlier this year is the Olver- dition, a bill sponsored by Senators Jo-
cuts are needed worldwide to avoid dan- Gilchrest Climate Stewardship Act, which seph Biden (D-DE) and Richard Lugar
gerous climate change. In order for the sets targets at 1990 levels by 2020 and (R-IN), which calls for the U.S. to re-
U.S. to make its fair share of the needed 70 percent below 1990 levels by 2050. engage in international climate negotia-
reductions, a federal cap and trade sys- tions, could also be voted on this fall.
tem must achieve an 80 percent cut in Similarly, several bills have been intro-
duced in the Senate that call for econ- In the House, Chairman Dingell has
U.S. emissions by 2050 (based on 1990 stated repeatedly that his committee will
levels). omy-wide emissions reductions. The
Sanders-Boxer Global Warming Pollu- debate climate change legislation this fall.
tion Reduction Act, broadly endorsed Support for the Safe Climate Act contin-
Congressional Leadership by the environmental community, is the ues to grow, with 140 Representatives
Prioritizing Climate Change most ambitious of the economy-wide currently cosponsoring the bill.
Legislation bills, calling for a series of emissions tar- This fall looks to be an active time in Con-
gets that include reaching 1990 levels by gress with respect to the climate change
In the Senate, Barbara Boxer (D-CA) 2020 and 80 percent below 1990 levels debate. After too many years of inaction,
now chairs the Environment and Pub- by 2050. Another economy-wide mea- Congress appears ready to move. But
lic Works (EPW) Committee, which has sure that has garnered support in the whether or not President Bush will sign
jurisdiction over global warming legisla- Senate is the McCain-Lieberman Cli- any legislation that takes the necessary
tion. She has made producing legislation mate Stewardship and Innovation Act of steps to make the emissions reductions
aimed at cutting greenhouse gas emis- 2007. This bill focuses on major emit- that the science requires is a question
sions a priority for her committee, mark- ters, covering roughly 78 percent of U.S. that looms large over the debate.
ing a key shift from the previous chair of

AUGUST 2007 13
Global Climate Change: A Moral Response
By Stan Doerr, Executive Director, ECHO, Inc.

iffa, 600 kilometers into the Sa- mono-cropping. In Burkina Faso, I saw a costs and wood use, they also burn more
hara, had been our home for field where rice was planted on the valley efficiently and thus produce less damag-
over a year. We were the only ex- floor, maize at the edge of the valley, and ing smoke. Biogas generators are also
patriates in the area, but in the sorghum on the side of the hill so that becoming more popular and there are
early 2000s we were feeling the effects of if the rains were good you got produc- numerous simple designs that produce
9/11 even in places like Kiffa. We awoke tion from all three crops, but if the rains methane that can be used for cooking,
one morning to find a note posted on didn’t come you could at least get some heating or light.
our gate declaring a jihad against my wife sorghum production. Urban and roof- We have a moral obligation to provide
and me. We took the normal precautions, top gardening techniques can be used options for the poor with whom we are
but then one day the police conducted to grow vegetables using small spaces, called to work: options for better, more
a survey and found that 95 percent of scrap materials and waste water. New nutritious food production, less expen-
the local population didn’t even know varieties of non-hybrid grain crops that sive, more efficient energy production,
we were Americans. (They thought we grow in a wide range of rainfall levels and and a higher quality of life, in spite of the
were French, not because my French is new crops or niche crops that provide climate changes taking place.
so good but because most of the popula- both good nutrition and income genera-
tion didn’t speak French.) And 99 per- tion are also options. While in Mali, we
cent of the local population were simply used “drought tolerant” sorghum seed. ECHO provides agricultural technical support,
attempting to find ways to feed their We planted this seed in Mauritania on a seeds, appropriate technologies, ideas and
families and didn’t care about politics. sand dune after the last rain and still got training to over 3,000 organizations in 180
Obviously someone in the remaining one a great crop. countries. ECHO is based in Ft Myers,
Florida on a 50-acre training farm with one
percent posted the note! There are also technologies that can re- of the largest collections of tropical fruits and
What does this have to do with “A Moral duce costs and negative environmental vegetables in the U.S. and a seedbank with
Response to Global Climate Change?” impacts. Energy efficient stoves are be- hundreds of seeds from tropical crops that
it distributes to international organizations
In 25 years overseas working with small- coming more common. And for good working with the poor.
scale farmers, I have observed that most reason. These stoves not only reduce fuel
of the poor don’t care about big issues
like CO2 emissions or carbon credits.
The Mexican farmer looked hopeless as he told us, “About ten years ago the rains stopped
They are simply trying to survive. It is
coming on time. A couple of years later, the bark beetles arrived. And then, a few years after
obvious to most of these poor farmers
that, it was the forest fires.” He pointed to a nearby lake that had been a source of water but
that the rains are no longer as predictable
was now almost dry.
as they used to be. They see that fire-
wood or charcoal is scarcer and more ex-
Everything I am seeing corroborates Stan’s experience and some of the worst predictions
pensive. The woman in the cook hut has
of climate change. Taking rain from farmers dependent on rain-fed agriculture is a potential
noticed that she is coughing more and
death sentence with dramatic impact on our work in rural development and huge moral
has less energy from years of breathing
thick smoke. Those that live below the
mountain see that the rivers are less pre-
For Christians who believe we have been called to be stewards of the earth, the moral
dictable and the snows on the mountains
responsibility extends even further. It is a responsibility that sadly we have not always taken
are vanishing and cannot help but ask if
to heart. Thankfully, the church is waking up to responsibility for the care of creation. Notably,
there will be snow for their grandchildren
many prominent evangelical leaders took a stand in 2006 with the Evangelical Climate
to see. Cool seasons are warmer and pests
Initiative, which helped to put the issue in the consciousness of our supporters.
are more prevalent. This is what global
climate change means to the poor. It is
Nonetheless, many members of the Association of Evangelical Relief and Development
about survival.
Organizations (AERDO) had long recognized the connection between environment and human
Survival in a time of highly unpredictable wellbeing. In fact, Floresta, a Christian nongovernmental organization founded in 1984 to
weather patterns and natural resource reverse deforestation and poverty by transforming the lives of the rural poor, was specifically
shortages has become a moral issue. Ad- created to focus on the connection between healthy forests and healthy communities,
vocacy has a role to play, encouraging although climate change presents a new challenge.
government action on climate change.
In the field, we also have a role to play by However, the poor are not only among the most vulnerable to the effects of climate change,
increasing the options for the poor that they also can be an important part of the solution. One of the most important causes of
will improve their chances of surviving. greenhouse gas emissions is deforestation. By working to encourage sustainable agricultural
In a time of highly unpredictable weath- techniques that limit the need for shifting agriculture, by encouraging agro-forestry, by
er, several ways exist to increase the likeli- providing alternatives to firewood and charcoal (as a fuel and as a source of income), we
hood of some crop production. One ex- can help the poor to become an important part of the solution, even as they improve their
ample is planting various crops instead of economic lot. With a change in opportunities and incentives, the poor can become important
agents of reforestation rather than deforestation.

– Scott Sabin, Executive Director, Floresta USA
UNDP Steps Up for Climate Change
By Cara Santos Pianesi, Communications Officer, United Nations Development Programme

ost people agree that climate governance; access to sustainable energy Large and medium-sized projects, given
change is finally and defini- services; sustainable land management to impetus by GEF seed funding, can at-
tively on local, national and combat desertification and land degrada- tract additional investments by other
international agendas. But tion; conservation and sustainable use of partners. In 2006, the GEF Council ap-
how many of us know about the UN’s biodiversity; and national/sectoral policy proved $203 million in grants for UNDP
role in creating a sea-change of public and planning to control emissions of projects. UNDP leveraged an additional
opinion on the issue? How many know ozone-depleting substances and persis- $500 million in project co-financing
the significant and specialized work that tent organic pollutants. Given UNDP’s from governments and other partners.
has been ongoing under UN auspices? work in 166 countries, the following UNDP believes that climate change is at
represent just a few examples of UNDP’s
Foremost, the UN has been crucial in the very heart of its development mis-
impact on the environment and sustain-
finding out the facts – bringing the best sion. We emphasize that the poorest and
able development.
scientific assessments of the likely impacts most vulnerable members of the global
and costs of climate change to the at- With UNDP help, many countries have community will bear the brunt of climate
tention of governments and the general woven environmental targets into na- change’s immediate effects and will be
public through the Intergovernmental tional development plans. For example, least able to recover, thus widening the
Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). This Cambodia has set targets to double fish chasm between the haves and the have-
year’s series of IPCC reports nots and deepening global in-
has been broadly recognized equality.
for its serious message which, As a result, UNDP is stepping
while acknowledging the up its efforts in advocacy and
dangers of climate change, in pioneering solutions. Last
also suggests that the world’s June, UNDP announced it was
destiny is still manageable if bolstering the current carbon
quick, concerted action takes finance system when it named
place. An important result of European banking and insur-
the IPCC on public aware- ance giant Fortis to be the fi-
ness of climate change is nancial services provider for
widespread acceptance of its UNDP’s MDG Carbon Facil-
use of the word “unequivo- ity. (MDG refers to the Mil-
cal” to describe the links lennium Development Goals.)
between human activities The facility is a bridge between
– from burning fossil fuels to developing countries and the
cutting forests – and climate global carbon market and pro-
change. This linkage has had vides an innovative means of har-
an immeasurable effect on mobilizing sanctuaries and reduce fuel wood de- nessing the vast resources of the carbon
populations and governments around pendency by almost 50 percent; Albania market to bring long-term, sustainable
the globe. adopted a target of universal electricity development to a more diverse group of
availability through increased power gen-
Now, as the world moves forward from developing countries.
eration from renewable energy sources
deliberation to action, the UN’s role
coupled with reduced transmission and Under the terms of the partnership with
continues to be critical. Climate change
distribution losses. In the Ukrainian au- Fortis, UNDP will help developing coun-
is a global problem that needs a long-
tonomous region of Crimea, UNDP has tries conceive projects intended to reduce
term, international solution. The UN is
supported community projects that not emissions of greenhouse gases, and will
at the center of brokering a fair, equitable
only supply water, but also help reduce ensure that these projects meet the Kyoto
and decisive climate change regime for a
tensions among different ethnic groups. Protocol’s agreed standards and deliver
post-Kyoto Protocol world.
In Fiji, a UNDP-supported community real, sustainable benefits to the environ-
While the UN Secretariat seeks to achieve initiative that began as a local experiment ment and broader human development.
international consensus and take advan- in one village to return to traditional and Fortis will then purchase and re-sell the
tage of the momentum on this issue, sustainable modes of marine manage- emissions-reduction credits generated
many UN agencies and programs, along ment has now spread successfully to six by these projects. Proceeds from Fortis’
with governments and nongovernmental national districts throughout the coun- purchases will provide developing coun-
organizations, are working on different try. tries and communities with a new flow of
aspects of climate change. Traditionally resources to finance much needed invest-
UNDP, together with the UN Environ-
the United Nations Development Pro- ment and to promote development.
ment Program and the World Bank, also
gramme (UNDP) has focused on six
implements the Global Environment Fa- UNDP’s MDG Carbon Facility will op-
areas within its energy and environment
cility (GEF), an international financial erate within the framework of the Clean
practice: frameworks and strategies for
mechanism with 176 member countries.
sustainable development; effective water continued on page 17

AUGUST 2007 15
Japan-Based NGO Forum for
the 2008 G8 Summit Seeks
International NGO Participation
By Shimosawa Takashi, Japan NGO Center for International Cooperation (JANIC)

he 2008 Japan G8 Summit NGO opment. This Forum is the first time that
Forum network was formed in We invited InterAction’s all the Japanese NGOs working on issues
anticipation of the 2008 G8 sum- counterparts around the of environment, human rights and/or
mit in Toyako, Japan. Organized development have come together to col-
in January 2007 with 50 nongovernmen- world to contribute to Monday laborate on a common goal and it has
tal organizations (NGOs), the Forum Developments. Last month, created an opportunity for NGO leaders
now includes 100 organizations working we heard from the UK NGO to learn together and from each other on
together to address global issues. The an on-going basis.
Forum is an exciting opportunity for coalition, BOND. This month
Japanese NGOs and JANIC is serving as the Japanese-based coalition, Forum Goals for the
its Secretariat. JANIC, shares its perspective Upcoming G8 Summit
on the 2008 G8 Summit. The issues we are addressing are of global
What is JANIC?
Look for more articles in scale and they require global efforts to
The Japan NGO Center for Internation-
future issues. resolve them. The G8 countries have
al Cooperation (JANIC) is a non-profit, tremendous influence on global politics
non-partisan NGO network founded in as well as the globalized economy. It is
1987 by a group of NGO leaders who essential for the G8 Summit to address
saw the need to better coordinate ac- G8 Kyushu-Okinawa Summit these issues and agree upon effective
tivities in Japanese society and facilitate measures to resolve them. NGOs have
communication with overseas groups.
in 2000
extensive experience promoting social
Most JANIC members are involved in At the 2000 Kyushu-Okinawa G8 Sum- justice, fostering civil society participa-
overseas cooperation, such as promoting mit, the Japanese government highlight- tion and resolving issues through cross-
child education, women’s empowerment ed the need to battle infectious diseases. border cooperation. The Forum provides
and social forestry activities in develop- More than 45 Japanese NGOs signed a us with a channel to share this unique
ing countries. Over 140 NGOs are now JANIC-organized joint statement that experience and to fulfill our responsibil-
JANIC members and they are actively called on G8 governments to take more ity as members of civil society to propose
involved with all of its activities. JANIC responsibility for poverty reduction and practical solutions based on what we have
is governed by a board of trustees, and human development in their ODA poli- learned.
daily operations are run by a secretary cies. While the joint statement was a step
general and16 staff members. forward, limitations in funding and prep- Groups participating in the Forum are
aration limited JANIC’s ability to make divided into three units, each with its
Some of JANIC’s many activities own office: poverty and development,
the effort a truly widespread movement.
include: environment, and peace and human
a serving as the secretariat for the In 2005, the Make Poverty History rights. The governing body, called Se-
annual all-Japanese Network NGO movement was introduced in Japan waninkai, consists of six leaders selected
Forum; and its white wrist bands became very to coordinate the units and joint activi-
a conducting NGO human resources popular. Sales of the White Bands in ties. JANIC serves as the secretariat of
development training courses; Japan reached 4.6 million and generated both the Poverty and Development Unit
a offering accounting courses to enough funding for subsequent advocacy and the Sewaninkai.
NGOs; work, including the creation of a
foundation for Japanese NGOs that has NGOs will use the Forum to cooperate in
a establishing an information and
facilitated a good start in preparations for areas beyond their specialized fields and
resource center;
2008 G8 summit. to appeal to the G8 leaders to commit
a conducting global citizenship,
to effective measures to address global
organizing seminars all over Japan,
environmental issues, promote develop-
researching and advocating for The NGO Forum ment, eliminate poverty in developing
NGO support schemes such as
As mentioned above, the G8 Summit countries, safeguard human rights and
official development assistance for
NGO Forum was established in January build peace.
NGO activities; and
a providing information and advisory 2007 to strengthen our collective voice. The Forum’s priority topics for the 2008
services to local governments, eco- Japanese NGOs strive towards a sustain- G8 Summit include climate change,
nomic organizations, labor unions, able society and work to address diverse biodiversity and other environmental
media and other groups interested issues such as the environment, peace, issues, severe poverty in developing
in NGO activities. human rights, global poverty and devel- countries, communicable diseases such

as HIV/AIDS, and other global issues related ministerial meetings, encouraging The second challenge is determining how
that are threatening the survival and them to commit to effective measures to to deal with anti-G8 groups in Japan that
sustainable development of global society. address global environmental issues, pro- believe the organization is illegitimate
The inclusion of such issues as major mote development and eliminate poverty and oppose its existence and the holding
agenda items at various G8 summits since in developing countries, safeguard hu- of the summit in Japan. Some of these
the 1980s has led to various agreements man rights and build peace. groups may take physical action to stop
on these issues. the G8 summit and that could precipi-
tate a strong police crackdown against
It is noteworthy that climate change and Challenges all NGOs. We are trying to engage these
poverty in Africa were among the main
While Forum activities have benefited groups in dialogue and create a good at-
agenda items for the 2005 G8 Summit
from good organization and coordina- mosphere to understand each other.
held in Gleneagles in the United King-
tion by the participating NGOs, we are
dom. A proposal was made to establish Finally, we need advice from other ex-
facing two significant problems.
a framework for dialogue, including with perienced NGOs around the world. We
developing countries, on future initiatives One is a serious funding shortage for the hope that we can work together with our
to address climate change. A report on Forum’s activities. Most Japanese private NGO counterparts from other nations to
this issue is due at the 2008 G8 Summit, donors prefer to support tangible devel- create a united NGO voice that will effec-
and its presentation will be an important opment projects or charities rather than tively present its messages to the political
opportunity for further negotiations. On advocacy work. Furthermore, exten- leaders at the 2008 G8 Summit. We look
poverty, though many promises have sive media coverage of violent activities forward to working with you and hope
been made, none have been adequate. by anti-G8 groups at the G8 summit in to see you in Toyako next year.
The prospects for truly resolving this is- Germany has made people more nervous
sue remain unclear. It is hoped that the about what outside groups might do
G8 Summit in Japan will address existing at the summit in Japan and made them Groups and individuals interested in learning
more about the Forum and JANIC can contact
barriers and achieve agreement on effec- wary of supporting NGO advocacy ac-
the author at
tive policies to truly address the issues of tivities for the summit. As a result we still
global poverty. lack the funding needed to support even
the minimum level of necessary advocacy
The NGO Forum will appeal to the G8
leaders at the 2008 Summit and in the

continued from page 15

Development Mechanism (CDM) and experience as well as UNDP’s specialized fects, climate change demands a response
Joint Implementation, the market-based expertise and global reach. By expanding by countries acting on the basis of their
mechanisms under the Kyoto Protocol the CDM’s presence into countries and historic responsibilities and capabilities.
that allow developed countries to meet regions previously inaccessible to carbon UNDP understands that climate change
their compliance targets by financing finance, the MDG Carbon Facility will can no longer be regarded solely as an
projects in developing countries that help people in these areas acquire the environmental issue. It now threatens ev-
contribute to reducing greenhouse-gas resources and knowledge to take greater ery aspect of human development. And
emissions. The CDM has been at the cen- control over their future environment because of this, UNDP notes that the in-
ter of a rapidly expanding, billion-dollar and development paths. Once a develop- ternational community must manage the
international market for carbon credits. ing country gains proficiency in carbon global economic risk from climate change
However, early signs indicate that the finance, attracting private-sector invest- just as we manage our risks in other are-
CDM is unlikely to deliver the broad- ment and developing project technolo- nas. UNDP maintains that all poverty-
based benefits that many hoped it would, gies that deliver longer-term development reduction strategies must account for
at least in the near to medium term. benefits, the MDG Carbon Facility will climate–related risks and further protec-
CDM projects so far have been limited in exit that market, having accomplished its tions against economic risk must be seri-
geographic reach and focused primarily market transformation objectives. ously considered in the near term.
on “end-of-the-pipe” technologies that On the advocacy side, UNDP’s flagship
generate limited benefit for long-term, In tandem with other UN organizations
Human Development Report for 2007
sustainable development. in the field and in major developed coun-
will focus on climate change. This year’s try capitals, as well as the rest of the de-
The partnership between UNDP and report, to be released in November, will velopment and environmental commu-
Fortis covers an initial pipeline of proj- explain why the world has less than a nity, UNDP hopes to make a difference
ects that will generate 15 million credits decade to change course and start living in our common effort to mitigate to the
during the Kyoto Protocol’s first com- within its global carbon budget. It also extent possible the known ill-effects of
mitment period (2008-2012). UNDP will depict how climate change will cre- climate change. As interest, innovation
began evaluating potential projects for ate long-run human development traps, and political will increase, UNDP and its
the MDG Carbon Facility as soon as the pushing vulnerable people into down- UN, governmental and nongovernmen-
project was launched in June. ward spirals of deprivation. Further, the tal partners are poised to push this critical
report will stress that, because it is a
The MDG Carbon Facility capitalizes on envelope.
global problem with global causes and ef-
Fortis’ resources and substantial carbon

AUGUST 2007 17
Climate Witness: Telling Your Story
Compiled by the World Wildlife Fund Climate Witness Team

limate Witness is World Wild- Climate Witness, 06.20.07
life Fund’s (WWF) initiative to
document the direct experiences Written and Submitted by Linda Morton,
of people who are witnessing the Cook Islands, Micronesia
impacts of climate change on their lo-
My name is Linda Morton and I am 53 years
cal environment. By demonstrating that
old and have lived in Boise, Idaho for 22 years.
climate change is already affecting the
Currently I work as a Lactation Consultant and
lives of a growing number of people to-
Public Health Nutritionists for a local hospital. I
day, WWF brings a real-life perspective to
feel my purpose in life through beautiful, natural
what many view as a somewhat ambigu-
environments so I like to spend time outdoors
ous and distant threat. These stories help
rafting, skiing, hiking, and bird watching.
WWF promote effective solutions to cli-
mate change. Over the past 10 years, my husband and I have
traveled to the Cook Islands because of its gentle people and culture, the magnificence
WWF works with scientists around the
of the beaches and water, and the opportunity to spend time outdoors.
world who provide scientific background
information to the climate witness testi- I felt compelled to be a “climate witness” on a dramatic event I observed about a year
monies. The role of the Science Advisory ago while snorkeling in the lagoon on Aitutaki and Rarotonga. I have been traveling
Panel is to establish if the impacts reported to the Cook Islands over the past 10 years, and these changes seemed interesting and
by Climate Witnesses are consistent with concerning.
known trends, and if these stories can be Aitutaki Observation. I was on Aitutaki for a week in 2006 and for several days in April,
placed in the context of current scientific 2006, I spent hours observing this most beautiful “field” of magenta colored coral. It
knowledge of human-induced climate was breathtaking. I had never seen coral quite so abundant and beautiful. On my last
change events in a particular region. This day on Aitutaki, I went to observe the coral field one last time and the entire group
will help WWF to understand better how of coral had turned bright white: no color at all. From one afternoon to the next, the
the reality on the ground is in line with coral changed. One year later, this striking change is still very clear in my mind, and
scientific model projections. has seemed disturbing to me, so I thought I would send this story to you. From your
Are you a Climate Witness? website descriptions, it sounds like this striking change in color could be the result of
a change in water temperature and possibly related to global warming. Could a water
Many people around the world have start- temperature change cause such a dramatic overnight change this quickly, or was what I
ed to notice shifts in our climate and some observed some natural cycle for coral that I was just lucky to have observed?
of us are also noticing how these changes
impact the local environment. Others are Rarotonga Observation. In general, there was much less colorful coral; many more
noticing changes that they suspect might “grey rocks” in the lagoon that I believe were remnants of dead coral; and the water
be linked to climate change. In some seemed much less clear. If these changes I observed could be related to climate changes
places these changes are small shifts in resulting from global warming, please let me know how I can get involved in any Cook
the timing of nature or seasons, in other Island projects. We will be returning to the Cook Islands over the coming years, and
places around the world these changes I would be interested in observing and reporting what I observe in a more scientific
are causing real danger and heartache to way, if the data is useful to someone. Please advise as to how I can be involved in Cook
communities and families. Island work.
WWF is interested to hear from indi- The Scientific Explanation by Prof. John E. Hay (
viduals about the changes you are seeing The observations Linda describes for Aitutaki are consistent with the response of corals
– they believe that some of these changes to physiological stresses. Given the relatively pristine nature of the Aitutaki lagoon, it is
could be caused by human pollution of quite possible that the observed event was the result of high sea surface temperatures
the atmosphere causing global warming. and/or excessive sunlight. The observations are thus consistent with peer-reviewed lit-
WWF invites you to tell your story. Your erature describing climate-related impacts already being experienced by reef ecosys-
story can help identify the kind of impacts tems.
climate change is having and could have
in your local area. Your observations are The observations for Rarotonga reflect past bleaching events and highlight the delayed
valuable and important – your involve- recovery of such reef systems when they are suffer stresses, including high pollutant
ment, along with others around the loadings and high sedimentation rates. The latter may be related to climate conditions,
world, will help the world take action to but indirectly.
address this problem. Only by working Based on the information provided, my conclusion is that the observations for Aitutaki
together can we help to prepare our local in particular appear somewhat consistent with peer-reviewed literature about climate
communities for some of the inevitable impacts already happening today.
changes in the climate.
A paper by Ainsworth et al. which provides additional background information can be
Visit downloaded from the website of the new Australian Research Council Centre for Excel-
lence for Coral Reef Studies:

Climate Witness, 04.20.07
Written and Submitted by Norbu Sherpa, Nepal
My name is Norbu Sherpa. around 90 to 100 days and there was no guarantee of success.
I am 41 years old and I Now people come for 30 to 40 days and complete the climb.
am a trekking guide in the We are noticing many other climate changes in my village and
Khumbu region in Nepal, its surroundings. Rainfall has declined and we are experiencing
not far from Mt. Everest. more droughts; trees are dying. This winter there was no snow
I think this is one of the and no rainfall. Instead, we had snowstorms when we least ex-
most beautiful places in the pected them, in spring, baffling locals and tourists alike.
world and I feel proud that
I live and work here. We normally plant potatoes in February and March and harvest
them from July to August. However, due to the lack of rainfall
I was born in the small vil- we have been unable to grow anything at all this year.
lage of Ghat to the son of
a senior monk, Lama Ang In the old days when we still had cold winters we made the walls
Dorja Sherpa. After completing my secondary education I took of our houses about 20cm thick, so they would be well insu-
classes at a monastery for two years to become a monk. I finished lated. Now we only have to make them about 8cm thick because
the training and became a junior monk. I was ready to follow in there’s less snowfall and it’s just not as cold as it used to be.
my father’s footsteps. More floods. I am not the only person whose life was impacted
The flood. My career, however, took a dramatically different on by the Dig Tsho flood in 1985. There are many other families
turn on 4 August 1985 when a glacier lake above my village in Ghat who were also badly affected. Sadly that event will not
collapsed. My family and I were all in our house when we heard a be the last time these kinds of disasters happen. There are many
big explosion. We rushed outside to see what had happened. To more glacier lakes on the verge of expanding and collapsing. I see
our astonishment we saw a big black stream of mud, including them all the time when I go trekking.
rocks and trees, rushing down the mountain. We scrambled About two years ago the Imja glacier lake was small and you
about collecting a few belongings we could carry and ran out of could walk around it. But now it is much bigger and is expanding
the house. We got out just in time. In a few minutes the flood two to three metres every year. Whenever I trek to the lake, the
had swept away five houses, including mine, as well as cattle and biggest glacier lake of Khumbu region, my body starts shaking,
crops. I saw my cow drowning in the flood near a suspended reminding me of the event that occurred in my village 20 years
bridge. The flood kept raging on for hours and washed away all back. The terror that I experienced when I was young flashes in
our possessions. Those were the most distressing hours of my front of me and reminds me of the sorrow and misery that we
life. were forced into.
The next morning we went to the place where our house once I am now 41 years old and fear that more floods will occur. I
stood, but it was as if the houses had never been there. Our would not be able to restore my life a second time, nor would
neighbors who had not lost their homes came to help us to look any villager be able to sustain their livelihood. So I pray it won’t
for our possessions. There I was, homeless, landless and jobless repeat again and sadly that is all I can do.
at the age of 19. But still I thank God that the flood occurred
during day time. Had it occurred during night it would have Natural beauty at risk. Through my work as a trekking guide
washed away everything, including us. and through my participation in various community groups,
I have come to understand that the entire world community
Later on we came to know that the flood had also washed away praises the natural beauty of my region. I feel happy when I think
an almost completed hydropower plant in Thamo, which cost about this. But it makes me sad to realize that this natural beauty
U.S. $1.5 million. Bridges were damaged and lines of commu- is now at risk. We are facing lots of environmental problems in
nication were cut off. our daily lives. What worries me most is global warming. The
Melting glaciers. In order to earn a living and support my majestic Himalaya Mountains and glaciers that have stood for
family, I had to give up my career as a monk. I decided to start thousands of years are now melting away, forming glacier lakes.
a trekking business. In the past 20 years I have participated in We as mountain people don’t normally have access to the various
various expeditions. I have trekked Mt. Everest three times international media and other fora where we can express how
and scaled many famous mountains: Mt. Choyo (8100m), Mt. threatening it feels to live a life in the mountains. WWF’s Cli-
Dhaulagari (8200m), Mt. Sheeapangama (8200m), Mt. Borunja mate Witness initiative has given me a platform to tell the world
(7000m) and many more. And in that time I also started a family about the impact of climate change that we are facing now.
and a business of my own. My wife Kandu runs the tourist lodge
and restaurant we own in Ghat. I would like to request everyone around the world to take cli-
mate change seriously and act quickly to reduce the impacts.
I have more than two decades of trekking experience in this
region. There have been many occasions where I have noticed The Scientific Explanation
changes in the glacier environment. I have seen many glaciers Scientific analysis has shown that annual temperature increase in
melting and glacier lakes expanding. These expansions of the the Trans-Himalaya region is on average 0.09 degrees Celsius.
lakes greatly increase the risk of more glacial lake outburst flood The annual temperature increase throughout Nepal is 0.06 de-
(GLOF) events occurring in our region. grees Celsius. This high increase in temperature has resulted in
I go to the Mt. Everest Base Camp about four to five times a the melting of glaciers and the formation of glacial lakes, which
year. The glacier used to be three hours away; now it has shifted have resulted in glacial lake outburst floods (GLOF). Sixty-seven
upward and you can actually have a base camp nearer to where percent of glaciers are retreating in the Himalayas and climate
the foot of the mountain is. Before, an expedition would take change has been identified as the major factor.

AUGUST 2007 19
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MPH, Forced Migration & Health Track, Student Practicum Photos, 2005: (L to R) Rachel Goldstein; Daniel Gerstle; Sara Saad El-Dein; & Lindsay Stark

AUGUST 2007 21
Strange and extreme weather
events are on recent record.
Seven of the ten hottest
years in the past 130 years
occurred in the 1990s. In
1998 alone, at least fifty-six
countries suffered severe
floods, and forty-five suffered
from drought in which vast
tracks of tropical rainforest
were burned.
How are practitioners

The Climate Change Crisis and How the Poor Can Adapt
By Jefferson Shriver, Head of Programming, Catholic Relief Services in Nicaragua

or the first time, human influence hottest years in the past 130 years oc- and wind patterns that make the Earth
on the environment is leading to curred in the 1990s. In 1998 alone, inhabitable for humans, animals and
the destabilization of climate. This at least 56 countries suffered severe plants have become more random and
destabilization has its most pro- floods, and 45 suffered from drought unreliable in recent years
found effect on those who depend in which vast tracks of tropical rainfor-
on consistent weather patterns est were burned. As Al Gore showed Rising global temperatures caused by
for their safety and livelihoods: the poor so vividly in his film An Inconvenient fossil fuel emissions in industrialized
and marginalized in the global South. Truth, glaciers are dwindling in many countries and destruction of the earth’s
There has never been greater urgency parts of the world at unprecedented natural “sinks” (namely forests) that
to reduce emissions and assist the poor speed, endangering the world’s stock sequester CO2 from the atmosphere
in adapting to climate change. of fresh water supplies. Farmers from in the global South are creating a
Africa, Asia and Latin America are tell- crisis that is threatening and even
Strange and extreme weather events ing the same story: the predictability destabilizing the living systems upon
are on recent record. Seven of the ten of the seasons, of rainfall, water-levels which the world’s poor depend to

survive. Communities already living sure a supportive legal framework for methods to take advantage of a growing
in harsh climates and environments – improved water resource management. natural rubber market. Projects in Haiti
water scarce, arid regions, on hillsides Communities must protect water emphasize trees that can be coppiced,
and along deforested riverbanks – will springs through protective vegetative re-growing after sever pruning for fuel
be the first to feel the devastation buffers and forest cover. Agriculture or livestock fodder. Rural families in
caused by climate change and will be activities, particularly on hillsides, Central America with access to natural
the worst hit. Those without safety nets should incorporate soil and vegetation capital, scenic beauty and supportive
– those who depend exclusively on conservation techniques to prevent government policies are also finding
rainfall for subsistence farming, those erosion. Contour infiltration canals or opportunities in community-based eco-
without solid social networks, and strip vegetation, tree windbreaks, ter- tourism. Carbon trading schemes are
those without insurance, food stocks racing and drip irrigation are excellent also a viable way for communities with
and solid infrastructure around them conservation techniques. Families, par- abundant standing forest to both earn
– will be hit earliest and hardest. ticularly those living in water scarce income and help reduce overall global
regions, should be able to harvest rain- CO2 emissions. Communities and the
According to author Paul Hawken, cli- water with mini-reservoirs, small ponds private sector can effectively work to-
mate change is now perceived as the or household water tanks connected to gether through the growing carbon
“invisible hand behind agricultural their roofs. trading market and the growing num-
decline, social disruption and migra- ber of related mechanisms.
tion.” Climate change studies using
Promoting Climate
Global Circulation Models (GCMs)
show that countries in Africa, Asia, and Resilient Livelihoods Helping Communities
Latin America will become more arid Prepare for and Respond
over the next 80 years. This trend could
generate a more profound crisis in food
Currently, half of the world’s workforce
is employed in agriculture, and agricul-
to Disasters
production as populations continue to ture production makes up 25 percent of Communities need to be prepared to
rise. These same studies demonstrate the world economy. In order to adapt to face stronger and more frequent natu-
the varying effects of climate change climate change, many farmers will need ral threats due to climate change. Ox-
and its relation to the ecology of pests to transition away from current agricul- fam recently published one of the most
and diseases, salt-tolerance of plants as tural approaches that require more rain comprehensive studies on adaptation,
oceans rise, the adaptation of food pro- and lower temperatures. Greater atten- Adapting to Climate Change: What’s
duction systems to extreme weather, tion to soil health will be key. Soils high Needed in Poor Countries, and Who
and plant responses to increased tem- in organic matter (decomposed leaves, Should Pay. In it Oxfam cites successful
perature and CO2 concentrations. plant stubble, manure, ash, etc.) retain experiences of “climate proofing” infra-
water longer in drought and drain it structure. Investments to strengthen or
In the face of these threats, poor com- faster in flood. Soils high in nutrients modify the structures of bridges, roads,
munities will need to adapt to a warm- help plants resist drought longer. homes, rural electrification and com-
ing and less predictable climate, and
munity shelters will help protect these
be better prepared for more intense Farmers will require access to seed va-
assets in the face of extreme weather
and frequent disasters. Innovative ad- rieties for subsistence and cash crops
events. Communities that have maps
aptation strategies are already proving that are resistant to flood and drought.
that identify local risks, emergency re-
successful in communities around the They will need information about plant
sponse task forces, and/or early warn-
globe, and can be applied on a mas- reactions to a warmer climate in order
ing systems will all withstand future
sive scale if the development and do- to know what can be effectively grown
weather threats better than those with-
nor community prioritize them. Three in their region as the climate changes.
adaptation strategies are described Tree-based and shade grown crops that
below. require less water, prevent erosion and Immediate reduction of greenhouse
keep moisture in the soil will help farm- gas emissions is a moral imperative to
Integrated Water ers adapt to climate change threats. In-
creased access to and sustainable use
reduce the severity of climate change
Resource Management of surface and ground water for irriga-
threats. Even so, current greenhouse
gas levels in the atmosphere are pro-
tion to reduce dependence on rain is ducing changes in climate that require
Water, although fundamental to life and also needed.
livelihoods, is usually taken for granted urgent action. Time is of the essence for
until it becomes unavailable. A shared the international development and do-
The promotion of climate resilient live-
water resource in communities living in nor community to seize opportunities to
lihoods will also necessitate moving
a watershed area can be an excellent assist the most vulnerable in adapting
away from income generation that re-
medium for planning and cooperation to climate change, making adaptation
lies solely on agriculture. This will re-
(or conflict if neglected). Community an important part of our collective insti-
quire creativity and resourcefulness,
or municipal (county) management of tutional missions.
as migration out of the rural sector is
water resources can ensure the sustain- a common coping strategy for families
ability of water quantity and quality without alternatives, but is not a desir-
and help to mitigate the major climate able solution. In Nicaragua, Catholic Read more on how other
change-related disasters of flooding Relief Services (CRS) is helping indig- InterAction members are
and drought. To be effective, land use enous communities reap the benefits of responding to climate change on
planning carried out jointly by the local a standing forest without cutting down
government and communities is criti- a single tree. Communities are organiz-
the next page. Additional examples
cal for the successful governance of a ing cooperative businesses and being online at
watershed. Good local environmental trained in sustainable rubber extraction
laws and regulatory counsels help en-

AUGUST 2007 23

Taking Our
Blinders Off
Preparation for Climate

By Allyson Wainer, Director of
Communications, Trickle Up

he poorest of the poor are likely to be most affected For example, when Trickle Up enters a community, we
as a result of climate change” according to Dr. Ra- work with our partners to identify all the factors that affect
jendra K. Pachauri, the Chair of the UN Intergovern- income-generating possibilities for that community. Obvi-
mental Panel on Climate Change. It is now common ously, local knowledge is key. For instance, if a village in
knowledge that global warming will disproportion- Honduras is no longer able to make a living from fish-
ately affect the poorest people in the world, and the ing due to environmental changes, we must take that into
poorest people within each society. Adding to the existing consideration as we work with the community to develop
environmental, economic and social challenges they face a poverty alleviation strategy that includes income-gener-
daily, the very poor will soon be dealing with massive wa- ating activities.
ter shortages, decreased crop yields and shifts in water
supply routes that will further complicate their livelihood Trickle Up’s programs currently address extreme pov-
activities and increase their vulnerability. erty through our unique training-grants-savings model
focused on individuals living at the bottom rungs of the
Responding to these changing conditions in the communi- economic ladder: those people living on less than $1 per
ties in which we work is an ongoing challenge for Trickle day. We work closely with local partners on the ground
Up. Our mission is to work with the very poor, and this to train individuals in basic business skills and provide
focus drives our organizational and programmatic deci- either seed capital or physical assets necessary to start a
sions. We and other organizations focused on extreme business. We also offer additional services including sav-
poverty must ask ourselves: What role will climate change ings group support, links to sources of capital, and ongo-
play in the lives of the extremely poor and how can we ing business training and development services.
proactively address these needs? Clearly, climate change
and the vulnerability it creates will prove to be a major As organizations with limited resources, the next step is
factor in the success or failure of our clients’ livelihood to commit to planning for the future, recognizing the vast
activities. and complex ways climate change will impact the poor-
est and working together to share the programmatic and
Trickle Up recognizes, as many of our peers do, that a technological innovations that are being galvanized to re-
number of variables contribute to extreme poverty. Like spond to this challenge. Beginning in September of 2007,
others, we use the Sustainable Livelihoods Framework Trickle Up will start the process of analyzing the vulner-
(which recognizes that poverty is multi-faceted) as a mod- ability context of each community we are in; and we are
el for developing and implementing our programs. Within interested in how other organizations have incorporated
this framework, we evaluate vulnerability on the local lev- analysis of global climate change into the implementation
el – looking at a community’s vulnerability to both natural of their poverty alleviation programs.
and manmade disasters. Development organizations, in-
cluding Trickle Up, understand that climate change will To respond to this article, please email Susannah Hop-
increase the “vulnerability index” for the communities in kins-Leisher, Director of Programs and Strategic Planning
which we work. at

Leading from the Ground Up: The Role of Community-Based Action in
Reversing Climate Change
By George Hamilton, President, Institute for Sustainable Communities

uch of the policy discussion on reversing cli- As in Russia, we will demonstrate the effectiveness of
mate change has been at the global level, as community-based action on climate change through pilot
it should be. But tackling an issue of this scale projects to make energy improvements in businesses, resi-
also requires a transformation of our societies, dential buildings and public buildings such as schools and
and it is at the local level where this change can hospitals. This summer we began to work with universi-
start. Communities the world over have a pow- ties, NGOs, government and business officials to create
erful and constructive role to play in pioneering practical state-of-the-art training programs in environmental man-
solutions; and international development organizations agement and energy efficiency. A school-based education
can help. program will enable us to reach young people about the
importance of sustainable development.
At the Institute for Sustainable Communities, we’ve seen
this firsthand. In 1997, we began working to protect one of One thing we have learned in doing this kind of work over
the world’s largest carbon sinks: the vast Russian forests. the last decade is that it is critical to gain the support of a
As a carbon sink, these woodlands absorb carbon dioxide broad cross section of community members. Global warm-
and release oxygen, thus playing a major role in mitigat- ing is not an urgent priority at the local level, so we have
ing climate change. We helped local organizations focused on other benefits, such as saving money
successfully advocate for the expansion of and improving health, in order to gain the
nature reserves and other protected ar- necessary support. We have found that
eas. At the same time, we introduced it is essential to demonstrate how
sustainable forestry practices and businesses and municipalities
helped communities develop eco- can save substantial amounts
nomic alternatives to resource of money by installing energy
destruction, including non-tim- efficient systems. Experi-
ber forest products such as tea ence has taught us to select
and eco-tourism. pilot projects that have the
potential to create broad
In 2001, we began to de- awareness, thus encourag-
velop community-based ing others to follow suit. In
approaches to energy ef- our pilot schools in Russia,
ficiency in Russia. Years of for example, dramatic im-
artificially low energy costs provements in children’s
had provided little incen- health due to cleaner air
tive to conserve heating fuel quality – respiratory illness
or upgrade outdated boilers. decreased by 30 percent in
It had been cheaper to turn less than five years – helped
up the heat, for example, than create a groundswell of sup-
to make repairs or invest in new port.
technology. With our help, a number
of communities made energy efficiency At the same time, we have come to
improvements in district heating systems see that concrete improvements are not
as well as in public and residential buildings, enough: it is also critical to build the capacity
created revolving loan funds with the money saved, of local and national organizations to continue this
and, in some cases, switched from high-carbon fuels to work and to advocate for bringing it to scale. We have
natural gas. In six years, 26 pilot municipalities across seen this not only in Russia, but also in our work on the
Russia reduced greenhouse gas emissions by more than U.S. Gulf Coast. There, our international development
500 tons per year and saved millions of rubles. Our part- perspective has prepared us to approach rebuilding after
ner, the Fund for Sustainable Development, continues this the hurricanes as a long-term process. We have learned
important community-level work, with the aim of influ- that developing leadership and local institutions is as es-
encing practice and policy nationwide. sential as building the physical infrastructure in order to
improve the resilience of communities.
This year, we are bringing this approach to the industrial
province of Guangdong, China, where we are launching Whether it be protecting the ability of the Earth to absorb
a comprehensive program to reduce climate-changing carbon, reducing greenhouse gas emissions, or dealing
emissions, promote energy efficiency and improve envi- with the consequences of climate change, locally driven
ronmental health. China recently surpassed the United action can show the public and policy-makers how criti-
States as the world’s largest carbon emitter and uses more cal it is to transform our communities from the ground up.
than twice the energy per unit of gross domestic product Even as momentum builds for decisive global action, com-
(GDP) than most industrialized nations. Given its size munities can take the lead and demonstrate what is pos-
and its rapidly expanding economy, China could be the sible.
most influential country in helping the world arrest global

AUGUST 2007 25
COMMUNITY ADRA’s emergency responses provide the essential goods and
services that survivors desperately need to cope and get back on
their feet.”
IMC Receives $2.7 Million UNICEF Grant to Revamp Philippe Cousteau Joins Counterpart International’s
Education in Lebanon Advisory Council
The International Medical Corps (IMC) and the United Nations International explorer and conservationist, Philippe Cousteau,
Children’s Fund (UNICEF) have joined forces to develop 25 Jr. has joined the Advisory Council of Counterpart International,
Child-Friendly Schools in some of Lebanon’s most vulnerable the Washington, DC-based non-profit development and human-
regions. The Child-Friendly School concept seeks to promote a itarian agency.
holistic approach to education through activities that advocate
good health and hygiene, initiatives to ensure children’s physi- “Philippe Cousteau’s knowledge and deep experience, particu-
cal and emotional well-being, and environments conducive to larly in relation to coral regeneration and ocean conservation,
learning. will prove invaluable for our restorative ecology projects,” said
Counterpart President and CEO Lelei LeLaulu. “Over the
UNICEF’s $ 2.7 million grant to IMC will benefit an estimated course of his 27 years, Philippe Cousteau, Jr. has already blazed
6,000 children, aged three to fifteen, living in 25 villages cov- a reputation as a multi-talented conservationist with enormous
ering four regions of Lebanon that have historically struggled communication skills in a field brought to the world’s attention
with poverty and instability or were affected by last summer’s by his grandfather and subsequently by his late father, the dash-
conflict. ing Philippe Cousteau,” said LeLaulu.
“I am very pleased that UNICEF has recognized IMC’s recovery Philippe’s passion for the environment first manifested itself
efforts in Lebanon and has offered us the opportunity to expand while he was a student at St. Andrews University, when he and
upon those efforts with this grant,” said IMC President & CEO his sister Alexandra Cousteau created the non-profit organization
Nancy Aossey. “The partnership between IMC and UNICEF EarthEcho International. The siblings formed the organization
will help make education in Lebanon a positive, fruitful experi- to raise awareness of individual human action on the environ-
ence for students, teachers and parents in some of Lebanon’s ment. Philippe joins Alexandra, a noted diver and oceans advo-
most challenging regions.” cate, on the Counterpart International Advisory Council.
IMC’s new program, which began earlier this month, will dra- Cousteau says his basic mission is “to empower individuals to
matically reshape 25 schools, transforming them into stimulating take action for a sustainable future,” which, according to LeLau-
educational environments conducive to learning and develop- lu, meshes seamlessly with the mission statement of Counterpart
ment. To achieve these goals, IMC, in collaboration with Leba- International.
non’s Ministry of Education and UNICEF, plans to: train teach-
ers to understand and identify behavioral problems in children Speaking from Fiji where Counterpart is implementing its noted
and address them creatively; offer teachers health education and Coral Gardens reef regeneration program, LeLaulu said Coun-
first-aid training; rehabilitate playgrounds and provide schools terpart was honored that Philippe Cousteau “recognized how his
with toys and recreational equipment; and encourage parents to efforts, combined with ours, will make a positive change for the
become involved in decisions about their children’s health and sustainable management of the ocean’s dwindling resources.”
well-being at school and in the community. ERD Aids Ahli Arab Hospital in Gaza Following Ongoing
ADRA Responds to Disasters Across the Globe Unrest
The Adventist Development and Relief Agency (ADRA) re- Episcopal Relief and Development (ERD) has provided emer-
sponded immediately to the needs of survivors of the severe gency assistance to the medical staff of Ahli Arab Hospital in
earthquake that destroyed hundreds of homes in northwestern Gaza following the intensifying conflict that led to Hamas taking
Japan on July 16, leaving thousands homeless and at least nine control of the region. The hospital is located in the Gaza Strip
people dead in its wake. The magnitude 6.8 earthquake left at area of Palestine and improves the health of people living in the
least 20,000 homes in the Niigata region without electricity and area, particularly during times of crises.
40,000 homes without water. The emergency room team worked non-stop as the fighting en-
ADRA provided initial funding as workers assessed damage and sued and increased its staff to handle the surge of patients seeking
responded to the needs of survivors. ADRA Japan also immedi- emergency room treatment. In order to accommodate the influx
ately began distributing emergency water supplies to earthquake- of patients, an extra ward was been opened and medical treat-
affected families, and will continue to expand its relief efforts ac- ment for the poor began through a free medical outreach pro-
cording to its assessments of survivors’ changing needs. gram twice a week. Emergency food baskets and commodities
were distributed to 300 families in need through the hospital’s
In addition to the earthquake relief, the ADRA has been prepar- social department and as a result, Ahli Arab Hospital began to
ing its extensive outreach network to cope with what is expected run out of food, medicine, drugs, and blood quickly.
to be an above average year for weather-related disasters. Since
January 2007 alone, ADRA has helped 64,000 people worldwide ERD has been working in partnership with the Episcopal Diocese
including projects for flood victims in Kenya, cyclone survivors of Jerusalem to provide emergency assistance to Ahli Arab Hos-
in Mozambique and tsunami survivors in the Solomon Islands. pital for extra emergency staff, additional medicine and medical
supplies, as well as food aid and commodities for patients. “The
“A natural disaster can strike at any moment,” said Frank Teeu- people of Gaza are so vulnerable after this prolonged and agoniz-
wen, bureau chief for emergency management at ADRA Inter- ing conflict. ERD will do all we can with Ahli Arab Hospital as
national. “With ADRA’s global network, we have the ability to they reach out to the wounded and sick,” said Janette O’Neill,
respond quickly to emergencies like hurricanes and typhoons. ERD Senior Director for Africa Programs.

InterAction President Reaches out NEWS FROM OUR PARTNERS
to Global Community
People from Developing Countries Testify About
By Matt DeGroot, Press Intern, InterAction
Impact of Europe on Their Lives
InterAction President and CEO Sam Worthington recently had a The European Union is the biggest economic actor and aid
series of meetings in Paris and Geneva focusing on the grow- donor in the world. What is its impact on developing countries
ing partnerships between American NGOs and their European and on the lives of the populations? How do the people living
counterparts. These meetings sought to advance InterAction’s in these countries really see the impact of Europe?
goal of enhancing its relationships with NGO platforms and
To find out, CONCORD is inviting people from developing
strengthening partnerships with organizations such as the Red countries to take photos illustrating how Europe positively
Cross Movement and United Nations agencies. or negatively influences their lives and their country. Any
The meetings began in Paris with representatives from Coordi- theme is allowed: environment, agriculture, migration,
nation SUD, Interaction’s counterpart in France. Coordination music, infrastructure, and health, to name a few. People from
developing countries will give free rein to their creativity and
SUD represents over 100 French NGOs that work for develop-
their imagination! Contributors should post their pictures and
ment, aid and emergency humanitarian action around the world.
comments on CONCORD’s website (www.concordeurope.
For the first time, InterAction and Coordination SUD created a org) before August 31.
formal relationship by signing a Memorandum of Understanding
that will strengthen collaboration between them and enhance All photos will be displayed website and citizens from all over
the world can vote online for the best 50 pictures through
the international efforts of both consortia.
August 31. Those fifty photos will then travel within Europe
Benefits of this new relationship include sharing information on for a number of years, and be display in an exhibition at the
the effectiveness of aid, strengthening other NGO platforms in EU institutions this autumn.
countries such as Chile, India and Senegal and strengthening This initiative has been launched by CONCORD, the
the partnership between NGO platforms in the North and South. European NGO Confederation for Relief and Development,
Information sharing programs will include activities such as a which campaigns to influence European decision-makers and
staff exchange. Above all, this relationship opens wider lines public opinion so that the impact of the Europe in developing
of communication that will ensure greater learning between countries will be a positive, respectful and sustainable one.
French and U.S. NGOs that will ultimately lead to a more effec- Echos Communication, which strives for the recognition
tive use of resources. of cultural identity and equal exchanges, is supporting
CONCORD in the implementation of this project. This call
The second half of his trip took Mr. Worthington to Geneva has been organized on the occasion of the 50th anniversary
where the Global Humanitarian Platform met in a ground-break- of the European Union in 2007 and has received the financial
ing session that created the first formal partnership arrange- support of the European Commission and the European
ment between major, relevant UN entities and non-UN humani- Cultural Foundation.
tarian organizations including humanitarian NGOs and the Red
Call to Join OneWorld Community Against Climate
Cross Movement. The entities involved are responsible for the
bulk of humanitarian work around the world. For the first time,
organizations including InterAction and its European counter- OneWorld is building a community
part signed a Principals of Partnership agreement with the UN. of individuals taking action against
This partnership paves the way for better coordination when climate change at our new social
networking site, OneClimate.
natural disasters or other humanitarian emergencies occur. The
net. On the OneClimate island
arrangement is also careful to respect diversity and the unique
in SecondLife (accessible through
characteristics of each organization. Throughout the next year, people interested
these Principals of Partnership will be applied around the world. in climate issues are interacting in
A related meeting for humanitarian NGOs is planned for Janu- real time – meeting up, attending
ary to continue discussion on how NGOs and the UN can best presentations, even gathering to
coordinate during disasters. watch the Live Earth concerts
together – all without emitting any
These partnership efforts are just the beginning of efforts to
carbon. The site
address the U.S. NGO community’s need to increase its col- offers everyone the chance to be inspired by others’ work,
laboration with the global NGO community. As Mr. Worthington add their voice to the growing global chorus of people taking
explained, “This agreement with Coordination SUD and our action against climate change, upload their cell phone videos
signing onto the Humanitarian Principals of Partnership reflect or pictures, and post their climate solutions.
InterAction’s aim to reach out to the Global NGO community,
to create new linkages and to help shape our evolving global
NGO community into a more effective and capable group of
organizations.” Email if you would like
to submit an announcement for this section.

AUGUST 2007 27
InterAction Member CEOs Launch Civil-Military Guidelines with
Department of Defense
By Linda Poteat, Senior Program Manager, Humanitarian Policy and Practice, InterAction

n July 24, InterAction CEOs joined colleagues from a common, open-source website. The Guidelines also suggest
the Office of the Secretary of Defense, Joint Forces a number of organizations or individuals that could serve as
Command, the Department of State’s Office of the a bridge between NGOs and the U.S. Armed Forces, such as
Coordinator of Reconstruction and Stabilization, USAID, the State Department’s Office of the Coordinator for
representatives of regional Combatant Commands and USAID Reconstruction and Stabilization and the UN’s Humanitarian
to celebrate the launch of the Guidelines for Relations between Coordinator.
U.S. Armed Forces and Non-governmental Humanitarian Orga-
During the launch event at USIP, participants discussed how best
nizations in Hostile or Potentially Hostile Environments. These
to disseminate the Guidelines and monitor their implementation.
Guidelines are the result of more than two years of hard work by
The Department of Defense announced that it would re-issue its
the Working Group on Civil-Military Relations in Non-Permis-
Joint Publication on Interagency, Intergovernmental Organization,
sive Environments, made up of representatives from all of these
and Nongovernmental Organization Coordination During Joint
organizations. The launch was held at the United States Institute
Operations (JP 3-08) to include these Guidelines, thus making
for Peace (USIP), which has been the mediating body for the
them part of military doctrine.
Working Group.
The Department of Defense will also send hard copies of the
The launch of the Guidelines represents a significant step forward
Guidelines to the doctrine, education and training communities,
in InterAction’s efforts to reduce the risks posed to NGO staff
as well as to the Services and the Combatant Commands with a
working in non-permissive environments such as Afghanistan
cover memo endorsement from the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs
and Iraq. In March 2005, the CEOs of several NGOs operating
of Staff. The Department of Defense has also invited InterAction
in these countries met with U.S. government civilian and
members to submit articles on the Guidelines to professional
military leaders to discuss how these communities can best relate
military journals.
to one another when operating in the same space. In keeping
with the humanitarian principles of humanity, impartiality and InterAction will send copies of the Guidelines to all of its
independence, NGO staff in the field wanted to maintain a member NGOs and will also disseminate the document to other
certain distance from the military. Many NGOs also believed NGO networks in Asia, Europe and the South, as well as to UN
that a clear distinction between their staff and the military agencies. The Guidelines will be publicized at the upcoming
would reduce the risk posed by perceptions of being to closely InterAction CEO retreat and will be discussed as part of a wider
associated with a belligerent group. However, as it is difficult to civil/military event at the InterAction Forum in May 2008.
work out relationships in the highly charged atmosphere of the The Guidelines are already available on the home page of the
field, the Working Group was formed to address these issues in a InterAction website.
neutral environment. Once the Guidelines have been widely distributed, the Working
The Guidelines contain recommendations to the U.S. Armed Group will need to determine how best to monitor their
Forces on how best to relate to NGO staff in the field, many implementation, as well as what steps to take in the case of non-
of which were derived from specific issues encountered in compliance by the U.S. military or member NGOs. Over time,
Afghanistan or Iraq. These include the requirement that military the Guidelines can be revised and improved based on practice.
personnel wear their uniforms when conducting relief activities In addition to tracking the distribution and implementation of
so as not to be mistaken for NGO staff. Other recommendations the Guidelines, the Working Group will address a number of
state that the military should visit NGO sites only by prior emerging policy issues such as U.S. Africa Command, the new
arrangement and that NGOs should not be referred to as unified command for Africa that will be officially stood up in
“force multipliers” or “partners” of the military, as this could October 2008.
compromise the perception of NGO independence.
It is important to remember that these Guidelines represent an
The Guidelines also include recommendations for NGO agreement between InterAction NGOs and the U.S. Armed
personnel, including the requirement that NGOs should not Forces, and so they are not binding concerning NGOs outside
have facilities co-located with facilities inhabited by military of the InterAction membership. However, the Department of
personnel and that NGO staff should minimize their activities at Defense has stated that it would use the Guidelines when relating
military bases and their activities with military personnel that are to all NGOs.
of a nature that might compromise their independence.
InterAction and its members will continue to educate the U.S.
One of the key elements of the Guidelines is the set of military on NGOs, humanitarian principles and emergency
recommendations on information-sharing and liaison response. InterAction staff regularly lecture at the National
arrangements. InterAction has in the past provided liaison officers Defense University, the Expeditionary Warfare Training Group
to military commands to advise on humanitarian issues, and this of the Atlantic, Fort Bragg and other venues, and continue to
option has been included in the Guidelines. There are also a attend various conferences and workshops in order to ensure that
number of suggested procedures for sharing information across NGO perspective is accurately represented.
communities, including shared access to assessments available on

Lessons on Partnerships
By Erica Sewell, Acting Executive Director, Institute for Multi-Track Diplomacy

s a field, multi-track diplomacy, involved went much further, including and its former program officers enhances
which involves nongovernmen- relationships with a member of the Paki- the organization’s profile and capabili-
tal entities in the diplomatic stani Kashmir Legislature, the U.S. Fed- ties by creating a network of contacts and
process, offers valuable insights eral Mediation and Conciliation Services, practitioners worldwide. These partner-
into best practices for developing part- the Kashmir Institute of International ships differ from collaboration with finan-
nerships. The experiences of the Institute Relations and individuals in both Pakistan cial donors or local NGOs, because rather
for Multi-Track Diplomacy (IMTD), and India. IMTD’s work has subsequently than aiding specific projects, they expand
founded in 1992 by Ambassador John continued in Kashmir and the project has and promote peacebuilding among
McDonald and Louise Diamond, are no expanded significantly based on the part- younger generations and strengthen IM-
exception. nerships formed. This project highlights TD’s influence throughout the world.
that developing partnerships requires a
IMTD expands peacemaking and peace-
steady, multi-step process based on trust
building to tracks outside traditional gov-
and can take years to evolve.
Best Practices
ernment-to-government channels (track
In 15 years of developing partnerships,
one) and involves nongovernmental ac- Bosnia. After observing the positive
IMTD has seen that there is more than
tors and informal actors to ensure conflict impact of IMTD’s work in Cyprus, a
one model for success. IMTD and the
is transformed both on the surface as well businessman named Dan Whalen sought
recipients of its support have achieved
as at a deeper level. to form a partnership with IMTD to
tangible benefits from the partnerships
engage in peacebuilding in Bosnia-Her-
IMTD does not intervene in a conflict that have been formed regardless of their
zegovina. After visiting Bosnia with Am-
unless requested to do so. As a result, composition. Since each partnership
bassador McDonald in 1999, Mr. Whalen
it focuses on developing partnerships develops in a unique way, meeting the
became personally committed to the idea
with local organizations and individuals. needs of all the parties requires different
of working with young people there as
IMTD defines a partnership as a relation- approaches and methods. IMTD’s years
agents of peace. Thanks to the financial
ship between professionals in the field of of partnership work highlight several best
support of Mr. Whalen, this partnership
conflict resolution and people affected by practices. First, when working on inter-
gave Bosnian youth the opportunity to
the conflict in which the parties are work- national projects, it is imperative to form
attend a year-long youth leadership ad-
ing together to achieve a common objec- partnerships with local organizations and
venture program, develop youth peace-
tive. Once invited to participate in the only intervene when invited by a party to
building projects in their communities,
peacebuilding process, IMTD works with the conflict. Second, it is crucial that all
and receive a college education. This
local partners on the ground to foster re- partners involved subscribe to the same
relationship shows that effective partner-
lations with the affected population. vision and goals for the project because
ships do not necessarily have to be with
often partners come from different back-
large organizations or NGOs but can be
grounds and fields. Third, one must
Programs and Practices formed with an individual who has the
be conscious of people or organizations
Examples from four IMTD partnerships desire to make a lasting impact.
that want to partner in order to further
provide insights into different lessons in Global Water. Global Water is an their own reputation or needs. Fourth,
building partnerships. NGO that researches safe drinking wa- all strong partnerships must be based on
Kashmir. In 1993 Ambassador Mc- ter and sanitation issues and is a sister trust. Trust can take a long time to de-
Donald formed a partnership with Shah organization to IMTD. Global Water velop and without it, the partnership may
Ghulam Qadir of Pakistan while at- develops projects to make clean drinking not work effectively. Finally, part of build-
tending a conference on Kashmir at the water more accessible to rural people in ing trust is having both sides demonstrate
United States Institute of Peace. Due to developing countries. The partnership a commitment to the endeavor, which is
insufficient funds, they were unable to between the two organizations is unique, the reason that IMTD makes a five-year
execute a project, but their relationship and together they have simultaneously commitment to each partnership.
continued. Then, in 1995, Ambassador addressed issues of water and peace. This
For the past 15 years IMTD has been
McDonald was visited by two lieuten- collaboration shows how NGOs with dif-
committed to international peacebuilding
ant generals, one from India and the ferent missions can partner in order to ex-
and through that obligation has formed
other from Pakistan, who wanted him pand the scope of their work and achieve
hundreds of local partnerships all over the
to solve the Kashmir conflict. Both had a greater result.
world with other NGOs, development
recently retired from the military after be- Program Officers. Since 1992, agencies, governments, universities, and
ing involved in two wars in which they IMTD has partnered with young profes- individuals. IMTD’s success in fostering
fought against each other over Kashmir. sionals from all over the world. Each se- positive partnerships has been our com-
Even though Ambassador McDonald mester, seven dedicated graduate students mitment to mutual respect and the build-
told them that he was unable to solve the join IMTD to serve as intern program of- ing of trust. There are no shortcuts to
conflict, it was the beginning of IMTD’s ficers. They manage and oversee domestic the development of strong partnerships
work in Kashmir. and international projects, infusing their but these efforts have a lasting impact.
When IMTD finally conducted its first own expertise and experiences into the
Kashmir project in 2000, the partnerships organization. The link between IMTD

AUGUST 2007 29
RESPOND This commentary is in response to the focus on foreign assistance
reform in the July issue of Monday Developments.

Why We Need Foreign Aid Reform
By William F. Reese, President and Chief Executive Officer, International Youth Foundation

e are all familiar with the ex- rationale and delivery system for effective ing country deserves a single plan – and
pression, “If it ain’t broke, foreign aid. USAID’s Acting Adminis- an agreement with the U.S. government
don’t fix it.” A Washington trator Henrietta Fore said precisely this – that it participates in designing. We,
sage added a corollary, stat- in her June 12 testimony before Con- as taxpayers and development partners,
ing, “If you can’t fix it, don’t (expletive gress: “We are at the beginning of this need to see goals, metrics and programs
deleted) with it.” important reform process, not the end.” on a country basis that are coherent and
Well, I am a realist who believes our for- Indeed, Development – the third “D,”
eign aid needs major fixing in this new along with defense and diplomacy, in Our community has been very ambivalent
century. But I am also an optimist who America’s triad to engage the world about the MCC. NGOs and many in the
thinks that well intentioned, progressive – needs no less than a Goldwater-Nichols press have criticized it: either for starting
bipartisan Americans can work together type reform both to fashion the “joint- too slowly or dumping money too quick-
to fix – and permanently improve – our ness” across our government’s disparate ly. We criticize it for buying or investing
official development assistance (ODA) set of ODA mandates, budgets and au- in “things” (e.g. infrastructure) versus
efforts. To do so, however, the NGO thorities and to bring coherence and the three-year projectized programs we
community needs to be more than a crit- effectiveness to America’s foreign aid. have come to love (be they basic educa-
ic. Indeed, we need to be a trusted mem- Goldwater-Nichols did this for the de- tion, micro-enterprise, child survival or
ber of a barn-raising party to fashion and fense establishment in 1986 as a way to whatever). In fact, when Undersecretary
build an effective foreign aid apparatus reshape our national security strategies in of State Alan Larson called the Millen-
that the developing world expects – and response to a changing world. Now it’s nium Challenge Account (MCA) “a new
that we Americans need – to promote time to apply that same spirit of reform Saturn Company for development,” he
both their interests and ours. and coherence to this newly prioritized was implying that the old automobile
development D. factories (USAID) couldn’t be relied
Why reform? Most agree that our foreign upon to deliver a brand-new product.
aid priorities are too many, the structure By commencing a process to coordinate
is outdated, the funding insufficient, the State and USAID, even while the Presi- For years, the NGO community has ad-
politics complex and the results over the dent’s Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief vocated that our government should in-
last decades often disappointing. (PEPFAR) and the Millennium Chal- vest more money in very poor countries
lenge Corporation (MCC) have separate over a longer period of time, addressing
Where we then quickly divide – whether priorities the host country owns and
authorities, the Secretary of State is field-
we are NGOs or foreign service profes- plans itself. In other words, we advocated
testing how parts of our official devel-
sionals, conservatives or liberals, Repub- for ODA disassociated from short-term
opment assistance can become mutually
licans or Democrats (or neither) – is over politics. Well, the MCC in many ways
supportive, complementary and certainly
what to do about it. offers just such an approach. Very few
more effective. She isn’t tackling yet a
Let’s face it. Our development commu- full merger of these functions – let alone of the current designated countries are
nity today is confused, and our messages important parts of our foreign aid that strategically important to long-term U.S.
are confusing. We are sending very dif- live in the Departments of Agriculture, security needs. They are simply deserv-
ferent messages to our would-be part- Defense, Health and Human Services, ing countries ready (presumably by vir-
ners (the Congress and the Executive Justice, and Labor just to name a few. tue of having met the MCC criteria) for
Branch, be it the current administration take-off and real transformation. If these
Secretary Rice asked at one point, “How countries can’t transform themselves,
or its possible successors) about what
much money is the U.S. Government then very few can.
we want and think. At times, we seem
spending on democracy programs in
to fear change and want to protect the To my mind, transformational develop-
country X?” That simple question – and
status quo, current funding and existing ment will only happen in reasonably gov-
the inability to answer it – speaks volumes
relationships. Yet at other times, we pro- erned, secure countries where people can
about the confusion our government is
pose dramatic innovations, such as the work, invest in and earn their futures.
in. Without a clear notion of how much
creation of a brand-new, first-ever, cabi- Education and health systems are pri-
money is being invested in a single coun-
net-level department for development. mary means to get there. Yet I feel the
try, and for what, how can we possibly
Lost in the mix, I fear, is a serious under- expect a global development effort to be NGO community pays too little atten-
standing of and engagement with Secre- understood and thus saleable to taxpay- tion to the issues and challenges that can
tary of State Condoleezza Rice over logi- ers and the Congress? promote sustainable economic growth
cal first-steps in what will politically and opportunities for the poor. This is anoth-
Former USAID Administrator Ambas- er reason why the MCC must succeed. A
realistically need to be an evolutionary,
sador Randall Tobias’ framework offers very clear, multi-year goal of a successful
step-by-step process to construct a new
us a good starting point. Each develop- MCC country would be increased direct

New Column

foreign investment and job creation for
the poor. There are other reasons that
Career Development
MCC must succeed. First, if countries By Josh Kearns, Communications Associate, InterAction
really take off, they become models of
what increased ODA can do to help very Monday Developments always strives to be a good career resource for job seekers in the
poor countries meet their plans for trans- international development and humanitarian relief community. Along with our job listings, MD
formation. Second, if they succeed, they arms the job-seeker with pertinent information on trends and events in the field, on topics
can be models (economic and political) ranging from advocacy to food aid, HIV/AIDS and tuberculosis to news on the G8 and the
for other countries striving to reach the international financial institutions. Having digested a recent issue of MD, the reader can arrive
MCC threshold. The State Department’s at a job interview better prepared than his or her competitors, or at least we like to think so.
new F (foreign assistance) Bureau and In an attempt to make MD even more useful for job seekers, each edition will now include a
the strategic framework have not pleased column devoted to career development.
all by any means. Categories may not
Career Development aspires to be a meeting place for job seekers and human resources
fit each country easily. Goal attainment
professionals. To make this column as helpful as possible, you the reader will provide the
metrics can be discussed (sometimes to
content. We will take comments, questions, suggestions, articles and advice from you, and
death). But frankly, we need some or-
publish what we think you will find most useful, and what we think is most interesting. Job
ganizing framework to differentiate and
seeker: do you have a question you would like to ask an HR person? (Why didn’t you hire me?)
package our approaches. We simply can-
HR person: do you have a question you would like to ask a job seeker? (Why didn’t you use
not have 165 hand-embroidered strate-
the spell check on your resume?) All published submissions will be printed anonymously. Send
gic approaches for 165 countries.
your questions to us and we’ll help you solve the mysteries of the job hunt.
Some argue that major transformation
The theme of next month’s column is faith and development, so we want to
comes from thinking boldly, setting auda-
know: How comfortable would you be working for a faith-based organization
cious goals, and then implementing them
whose faith you do not share? Send your responses by email to Josh Kearns at
carefully and in proper sequence. I agree., with “Faith-based” in the subject line.
While the Bush Administration deserves
credit for big new financial commitments This month, we offer a list of online and print resources for job seekers of all levels.
to fight poverty, malaria and HIV/AIDS,
we must now develop structures, systems JOB RESOURCES
and human resources to manage these Volunteering
programs most effectively. In her recent Aid Camps International –
testimony, USAID’s Fore called this ap- Aid Workers Network Volunteers Guide –
proach “integrated planning…based on Ashoka –
[a] government-wide commitment to Food for the Hungry –
a shared goal – transformational diplo- Global Service Corps –
macy.” I urge the NGO community get International Service –
behind this new approach by working in Maryknoll –
good faith with an administration that Mennonite Central Committee –
still has 17 months to go, assessing our Peace Corps –
progress, and bringing more coherence, U.N. Volunteers –
cohesion, synergy and accountability to Volunteers Service Overseas –
disparate development needs.
For larger reforms to be attractive and Job Searches
doable, we need to see MCC flourish, InterAction Weekly Email Job Announcements –
PEPFAR continued, and then coordinate Aid Workers Network –
them with the various earmarks and pro- British Overseas NGOs for Development –
grams that live within today’s USAID. If Experience Development –
reform’s “baby steps” can be practiced Idealist –
and proven, we will then be ready, with International Career Employment Weekly –
progress and lessons learned today, to International Council of Voluntary Agencies –
finish the governmental reorganization Microfinance Gateway –
of foreign assistance – with progress and OneWorld –
lessons learned today – applied to and by People in Aid –
a new administration and Congress in Red R –
2009. ReliefWeb –

The world admires American efficiency Further Reading on Pursuing a Job
and effectiveness, and often points to our Do No Harm by Mary Anderson
Apollo program and our business inno- Another Day in Paradise by Carol Bergman
vations. Let’s work together to ensure Going Global by Marc Lindenberg
that our international cooperation and Humanitarian Enterprise by Larry Minear
development strategies can be the best Voices of the Poor by Deepa Narayan
they can be. A Bed for the Night by David Reiff

AUGUST 2007 31
Interested in placing a job announcements or advertisement? Email

policy, advocacy, campaigns, communica- within two highly respected, mission-driven

tions and private sector work. S/he will also non-profits agencies. Realize the difference
acts as a coach and mentor as well as team you can make while managing HR programs
leader and counsel to guide and coordinate for 140 US based and 48 international em-
the policy and communications programs of ployees who literally work to change their

Oxfam America. In collaboration with the world for the better each day. The Human
Vice President, the Sr. Counsel is respon- Resources Director will report to LIRS and
sible for the overall quality, efficiency and provide overall strategic HR leadership to
effectiveness of the policy and communi- both LIRS and LWR; oversee the develop-
cations activities of Oxfam America. S/He ment and implementation of human resourc-
Sr. Agriculture Director > Boston, MA will provide administrative, managerial and es policies, programs and services; serve as
Oxfam America is an international relief and programmatic assistance and support to the the chief human resources officer, consultant
development organization that creates lasting Vice President in the Boston office and en- and chief advisor on strategic and operation-
solutions to poverty, hunger and injustice. sures that OA activities in the DC office and al issues among and within the agencies; and
Because the majority of poor people in the those in the Boston office operate in close manage the payroll and benefits administra-
developing world depend on agriculture for coordination. The Sr. Counsel will supervise tion for Lutheran Services in America with
their livelihoods, Oxfam America and the all Campaign Managers in Policy and Com- 15 employees. The ideal candidate will have
Oxfam International confederation are mak- munications Division. Candidates should a breadth of technical and strategic HR expe-
ing an increasing strategic commitment to have a Master’s degree in a development-re- rience; a deep commitment to the core values
agriculture programs. The Senior Agricul- lated discipline, business administration, or of each agency; at least a bachelor’s degree
ture Director is responsible for developing, policy and minimum fifteen (15) years’ expe- in business administration, organizational
articulating and advancing Oxfam America’s rience in international development, design- psychology or communications; minimum
vision and mission for its agriculture-related ing and managing development programs at 10 years of experience in human resources
programs, internally and externally. S/he not-for-profit organizations, preferably with or a related field; excellent communication
will coordinate with Oxfam International af- some experience in distance management. and interpersonal skills; and a demonstrated
filiates worldwide to develop a conceptual Also experience dealing with: political risk; track record of proactive leadership and ini-
framework on agriculture and related topics. policy, advocacy and campaigns; and private tiative in developing and implementing HR
The primary responsibilities of the position sector engagement. View www.oxfamameri- processes and programs. Experience in the
will be to contribute to the conceptual devel- for a full job description. Please nonprofit arena is helpful. Salary commen-
opment of Oxfam America’s work on agricul- send cover letter and resume to jobs@oxfam- surate with qualifications and experience.
ture and related fields, including sustainable, Subject line: Sr. Counsel. Additional details, including full position de-
rural livelihoods, the agricultural impact of
scription, are available at:
climate change, and agri-business, especially Vice President for International Programs
as they relate to poor people. Work with coun- > New Windsor, MD Director of Strategic Affairs > New York,
terparts to ensure consistent strategy across IMA World Health, a non-profit organization NY
Oxfam International affiliates worldwide. advancing health and healing in communi- The Women’s Commission for Refugee
Advise program management and Sr. VP of ties the world over, seeks a professional with Women and Children is looking for an ex-
Programs on issues of strategic concern for strong interpersonal and leadership skills; perienced manager with a minimum of ten
the agency from an agricultural perspective. knowledge and experience in developing years of proven communications experience
Candidates will have an advanced university strategic partnerships with a diverse network including brand management, media rela-
degree (Ph.D. or equivalent) in agriculture, of donor and partner organizations; and a tions and marketing to provide vital leader-
agronomy, agricultural economics, develop- proven track record in proposal development ship as the Director of Strategic Affairs. The
ment sociology, rural policy and planning, and successful resource mobilization in sup- position will be responsible for the overall
or related field. 15+ years of progressively port of major international health program management of the Women’s Commission’s
responsible professional experience in in- services. Requirements include: Doctorate Communications department and ensure
ternational development, rural livelihoods or or Master’s Degree in Public Health or medi- that communications is integrated with the
related field. 5+ years of experience working cal doctor with significant public health ex- organization’s advocacy and fundraising ef-
in developing countries. Preferred fluency in perience; minimum five years’ documented forts at every level. This position will serve
Spanish or French. For a full job description international experience in field positions in on the senior management team and will be
visit Send cov- Africa, Asia or Latin America; and proven the primary external spokesperson to the me-
er letter and resume to jobs@oxfamamerica. proficiency in a second language such as dia. Please send cover letter and resume to
org, Subject: Sr. Ag Director. Please include French or Spanish. FT position with excel- Mary Jane Escobar Collins at marye@wom-
desired salary expectations. lent benefits. EOE. Send resume and salary
requirements to Ms. Carol Hulver, IMA, PO
Senior Counsel to the Vice President > Community Driven Reconstruction
Box 429, New Windsor, MD 21776. Fax
Boston, MA 410-635-8726. Email carolhulver@inter- Program Director/Chief of Party >
Oxfam America is an international relief and Democratic Republic of Congo
development organization that creates lasting The International Rescue Committee is look-
solutions to poverty, hunger and injustice. Director, Human Resources > Baltimore, ing for a Community Driven Reconstruction
The Senior Counsel to the Vice President MD Program Director/Chief of Party to imple-
for Policy and Communications will provide Realize the difference you can make. Balti- ment a large-scale, Community Driven Re-
strategic and conceptual leadership for Ox- more-based Lutheran Immigration Refugee construction program in the Democratic
fam’s policy, advocacy, campaigning, com- Service and Lutheran World Relief seek a Republic of Congo. This position will lead
munications and private sector engagement Director for Human Resources. This is an a Consortium to implement a large scale
activities. S/he will maximize the position- excellent opportunity for a dynamic, experi- CDR program in the DRC. If you are bilin-
ing, content, quality and impact of Oxfam’s enced HR professional to provide leadership gual English-French, with at least six years

Interested in placing a job announcements or advertisement? Email

of senior international management experi- to better meet the needs of women and girls, Baltimore, MD
ence, and a strong grasp of both consortium and contribute to design, implementation and The International Youth Foundation (IYF) is
management and community driven recon- monitoring of IWHC’s international policy a nonprofit organization that prepares young
struction-type programming, please apply at program together with President, Vice Presi- people to be healthy, productive and engaged dents, and Senior International Policy Advi- citizens. IYF seeks a Program Director for
sor. Cultivate relationships with colleagues Workforce Development in Latin America
Planning, Monitoring & Evaluation and stakeholders, maintain knowledge of and the Caribbean for the Employability
Research & Analytics Manager > Little issues, policies and networks, and write and Center in Baltimore, MD. Responsibilities
Rock, AR present on primary topics; collaborate with include providing leadership in designing
Heifer Int’l, a progressive, world hunger, program officers. For more information: and managing IYF’s youth development
non-profit org seeks an individual to man- Apply by email: activities focused on workforce develop-
age all aspects of the Planning Monitoring & or fax 212-979-9009. ment in Latin American and the Caribbean,
Evaluation processes which directly relate to No telephone calls please. taking signature program entra 21 model
statistical analysis & reporting, data integrity to scale, and developing other employabil-
& data access for Heifer. Duties: ensure that Director of Development > Berkeley, CA
ity programs in the region. Requirements:
info from the prog info system/database is Seva Foundation seeks a highly competent
Master’s Degree in field relevant to IYF’s
accessible at multiple levels; define, manage and creative Director of Development to help
mission and programs, at least 10 years work
& produce custom reports from the system/ lead an intensive process of expansion and
experience in international development and
database for use in prog’s & the prog info growth. The ideal candidate will have 7-10
experience managing complex international
team; & work w/ Information Technology years of fundraising experience with a proven
programs and budgets with multiple funders,
Dept., as well as other depts, to ensure coor- track record of closing major gifts from indi-
large grantmaking component, and a strong
dination & integration of the prog info sys- viduals, foundations and corporations. Expe-
learning and evaluation component. Strong
tem/database w/ other depts. Ideal cand will rience with comprehensive campaigns and
communication skills, both oral and writ-
have strong knowledge of planning, monitor- planned giving programs preferred. Must be
ten, including public speaking. Bilingual in
ing & evaluation techniques using complex able to simultaneously fundraise for three or
Spanish and English. Fluency in Portuguese
database. Knowledge of Spanish highly de- more diverse programs, develop and manage
a plus. See complete job description for
sired. Bachelor’s degree, + 7 yrs exp in mon- calendar of fundraising activities, lead and
more details at Submit ap-
itoring & evaluation. Master’s degree in the mentor Development Department team, and
plication to
social sciences w/course work in monitoring collaborate with Communications Director
& evaluation/statistics pref’d. Ideal candi- on marketing, public relations and commu- Monitoring & Evaluation Expert >
date will demonstrate a good understanding nications outreach. Experience with interna- Research Triangle Park, NC
of databases & electronic systems for moni- tional programs a plus. Must have an aptitude RTI International ( seeks an
toring & evaluation. Competence w/SPSS & for working in a highly diverse environment accomplished professional with significant
other statistical packages necessary. Work in and ability to interact with a wide variety of experience in applied M&E for international
an int’l org & exp in the use of computers constituencies. Approximately 25% travel. development. Responsibilities include work-
for monitoring & evaluation are req’d. Salary Bachelor’s or comparable degree and CFRE ing with RTI and project partner staff across
$48, 160-54, 180 + benefits. Closing date preferred. Send your resume and cover letter all programs to strengthen understanding and
8/16. For more info about our org, detailed to with subject line: Develop- promotion of accurate M&E concepts and
job desc, & online application visit www. ment Director. Seva Foundation is an equal state-of-the-art proven practices. Ph.D. pre- HEIFER INT’L IS AN opportunity employer. ferred or Master’s Degree in a social science
EOE/AA EMPLOYER BY CHOICE. Advocate > Washington, DC field relevant to health, governance, and/or
Purpose: the Advocate is the core program education. At least ten years’ experience
Director of Development > New York, NY working in M&E in international develop-
International Women’s Health Coalition position at the staff level for Refugees Inter-
national. Advocates travel to countries and ment. Please visit RTI’s website for full job
seeks a Director of Development in our NY description and to apply: https://erecruit.rti.
office, responsible for the design, implemen- regions experiencing humanitarian crises and
carry out assessments of the level and causes org/PRODRECRUIT/,DanaInfo=.agfov6Ex
tation and evaluation of IWHC’s strategy to 0qIy2s,SSL,SSO=U+index.htm??&JobOpe
move from a $6 million budget in FY2007 of displacement. These assessments involve
interviews and discussions with displaced ningId=10934. RTI is an independent orga-
to $10 million in FY2010. Build on a strong nization dedicated to conducting innovative,
revenue base of private foundations and Eu- persons, UN and NGO personnel, and gov-
ernment officials. Upon completion of the multidisciplinary research that improves the
ropean governments, while growing support human condition.
from individuals and corporations in the U.S. assessment missions, Advocates are respon-
and Europe. Accountable for: fundraising sible for writing up their findings in short Representative, CWS Overseas Processing
results; building a productive, well-function- reports called bulletins and devising and car- Entity > Accra, Ghana
ing team; and working with senior manag- rying out an advocacy strategy to advance
their recommendations. Please see Refugees The Representative is responsible for the ad-
ers, program staff, an active Board and vol-
International website for full description of ministration and oversight of the Overseas
unteers. For more information: www.iwhc.
position. Application Process: applicants Processing Entity Headquarters in Accra,
org/jobs.cfm. Apply by email: recruitment@
should submit a cover letter, cv, writing sam- Ghana. OPE Accra processes eligible refu- or fax 212-979-9009. No telephone
ple and references to . Ap- gees in West Africa for the U.S. Resettle-
calls please.
plicants should specify “Advocate Position” ment Program and operates under the terms
Senior Program Officer, International in the subject line. The position will remain of a cooperative agreement between the
Policy > New York, NY open until filled, and only finalists will be U.S. government and Church World Service
International Women’s Health Coalition contacted for interviews. (CWS). CWS/OPE is expected to process
seeks a Senior Program Officer in our NY 6,000 refugees in West Africa which will re-
office. S/he will participate in a unique initia- Program Director Latin America and
tive reshaping the global HIV/AIDS response Caribbean Employability Programs > continued on next page

AUGUST 2007 33
Interested in placing a job announcements or advertisement? Email

continued from previous page

sult in approximately 4,000 African refugee Bill & Melinda Gates
applicants in West Africa for departure to the
U.S. The Representative works closely with Foundation
the UNHCR, IOM and U.S. government offi-
cials to coordinate all aspects of West African
refugee admissions to the U.S. Preference Program Officer,
is given to candidates who are U.S. citizens,
have a Master’s Degree or equivalent in in-
Reproductive Health,
ternational relations, business or public ad- Associate Director, Public Global Health Advocacy,
ministration, familiarity with U.S. Resettle- Policy and Advocacy Seattle, WA
ment Program and U.S. resettlement policy,
previous work experience in domestic refu-
Lutheran World Relief(LWR), The Global Health Advocacy group
gee resettlement preferred, work experience
overseas, preferably in Africa, a minimum of an international nonprofit works to improve the awareness of
five years experience managing staff, opera- organization, works to end poverty and commitment to the major health
tions and budgeting for a complex non-profit and injustice by empowering some interventions that will reduce global
organization and a basic knowledge of U.S. of the world’s most impoverished health inequities.
immigration law. Send resume and cover communities to help themselves.
letter by August 31, 2007 to cwshr@church- With partners in 35 countries, This position will be responsible , fax to 574.266.0087, or for driving the development and
we seek to promote sustainable
mail to HR Manager for Intl Staff, Church management of strategies, plans
World Service, PO Box 968, 28606 Phillips development with justice and and a portfolio of grants that will
Street, Elkhart, IN USA 46515. dignity by helping communities promote an accelerated response
bring about change for healthy, by both developed and developing
Associate Director, Institutional Giving safe and secure lives; engage in country governments to support the
And Grants > New York, NY Fair Trade; promote peace and foundation’s Reproductive Health
Unique opportunity for creative self-starter.
reconciliation; and respond to priorities. The Program Officer will
Establish a comprehensive grants program
emergencies. bring leadership to the identification
for HIAS, the 125 year old Jewish int’l hu-
and selection of partners and creativity
manitarian organization assisting refugees
to the implementation and management
and immigrants. Research, write and report The Associate Director, Public
on grants from government agencies, NGOs, of new and existing programs and
Policy and Advocacy will: partnerships. The Program Officer
private foundations, corporations and Jew- Collaboratively, design and
ish federations. Recommend and implement will collaborate closely with other
implement an advocacy strategy Global Health program and other
organizational strategies for grant seeking.
Establish and maintain personal relation- to promote more peaceful and advocacy team members to leverage
ships with program officers and directors. just U.S. policies, especially and coordinate all efforts related to
Collaborate closely with directors of HIAS on issues related to Africa. implementing the Reproductive Health
international and domestic programs and de- Maintain substantive links with Advocacy strategy. The Program
velopment staff. Maintain organization-wide U.S. Lutherans, ecumenical and Officer will bring a depth and breadth
schedule for communications with grant- of experience in and knowledge
interfaith organizations, LWR
making institutions. Five plus years of grant of donor and developing country
partners and other organizations governments’ global health activities
writing and grants management with dem-
onstrated track record in obtaining grants re- that promote peace. Research, and mechanisms, including legislative
quired. Experience with government grants write and edit action alerts, and administrative; international public
and knowledge of immigration/refugee position papers, web updates health needs; grassroots and leader-
services and humanitarian assistance field and other documents intended level campaigning; and working with
preferred. Knowledge of Jewish foundation to educate LWR’s constituency and supporting non-governmental
world a plus. M.A. preferred. Candidate must on advocacy issues. Represent organizations engaged in policy and
possess strong analytic, written and verbal advocacy work.
LWR as part of key U.S.-based
communication skills and the ability to write
on a variety of topics and juggle multiple coalitions and other relevant
An advanced degree in public health,
assignments simultaneously. Send resume coordinating bodies, as well as public policy, international relations,
w/cover letter indicating salary history/re- maintain contact with other U.S.- or a related field and a minimum of
quirements to: HIAS, Inc., HR Dept. at: 333 based agencies working for peace 10 years’ experience, preferably with
7th Ave., NYC 10001; FAX (212) 760-1833; and development. a strong mix of service in either the EOE M/F/D/V. public or non-profit sectors both in the
Successful candidates will have at U.S. and abroad.
least 3 years’ relevant experience.
LOOKING FOR A JOB? If you are interested in applying for
More details can be found at lwr.
this position, please visit http://www.
Subscribe to our weekly job org. Please submit a cover letter
listing at and resume to WorkingWithUs/Jobs/JobsSearch.htm.

Interested in placing a job announcements or advertisement? Email

A special opportunity for InterAction member CEOs to work with their peers on
strategic issues and to gather informally.

Women’s CEO Retreat CEO Retreat 2007
November 5 November 6-7
At the request of InterAction members, we will Possible workshop and discussion areas include:
have a retreat for InterAction women CEOs prior InterAction in a Global Community
to the CEO Retreat. Examine our relationship with NGO platforms in the north
Focus areas include: and south
Ensuring gender equality as a part of the Civil-Military Relations
development agenda Explore the effects on InterAction member organizations
Unique challenges of being a woman CEO Elections 2008
The value of gender diversity on boards and How can we make our voice heard?
staff, including recent research findings Board Relationships
Women CEO networks and roundtables How to maximize your effectiveness with your Board of
Directors and other CEO management topics

Both retreats will be in Washington, DC. Watch for invitations!
*If you are not a CEO and you read this, please invite your CEO to attend.

Sphere Training Course Certificate Course in Preventing Violent Conflict
October 1-2, 2007
The Sphere Humanitarian Charter and Minimum Standards training
course is designed to give people who work in the humanitarian sector Washington, DC
the skills they need to apply Sphere throughout their work both at field
and head office levels. We welcome applicants from non-profit and
for-profit firms working in disaster relief and humanitarian assistance. The U.S. Institute of Peace is offering a two-day certificate
This three-day course highlights the principles upon which Sphere is
course in developing strategies to prevent violent conflict.
based, provides knowledge of the standards and looks at practical issues
in its application. In particular, the course will cover the Humanitarian This course will provide students with a strategic framework
Charter, Disaster Assessment, Analysis, Program Planning and Sphere for the prevention of large-scale violent conflict, reinforced
Monitoring & Evaluation. with an experiential learning component. The strategic
framework describes three broad preventive strategies: (1)
Space is limited and reservations will be made on a first-come first serve
counteracting global risk factors (systemic prevention),
typically through strengthening global institutions and/or
Date: October 2, 3 and 4, 2007 regulatory mechanisms; (2) addressing underlying structural
Time: 9:00am – 4:30pm conditions in high-risk states (structural prevention) by
Venue: Farragut Conference Center – focusing on long-term drivers and mitigators of conflict, such
1725 I Street, Washington, D.C. 20006 as governance, social well-being, rule of law, etc.; and, (3)
Price: $500 Registered Non-profit (PVOs)
halting and reversing active escalation toward large-scale
$900 For Profit and academic violence (operational prevention) by targeting the decision
organisations. 3 day training including making of parties to an incipient conflict. For each broad
manual, lunch and morning and afternoon tea strategy, instructors will discuss critical objectives for
analysis and warning as well as for preventive actions. The
Registration: Email: or
course will also highlight a set of cross cutting leadership
Call (202) 822-8052 ext. 447
responsibilities in the areas of institutional capacity and
preparedness, prioritization and planning, and timing and

Contact: Aaron Teeter, 202-429-3825,

AUGUST 2007 35
Interested in placing a job announcements or advertisement? Email

Legislative Associate for
Humanitarian Affairs

Washington, DC
InterAction seeks a Legislative Associate for Humanitarian Affairs to facilitate advocacy by our crisis-specific
humanitarian working groups. These working groups consist of staff from InterAction member organizations that
meet regularly to share information and coordinate work on issues related to refugees and/or internally displaced
persons, natural disaster response and post-conflict reconstruction and recovery. This work includes advocacy on U.S.
policy toward relevant countries or regions, as well as on aspects of U.S. relationships with the United Nations, the
World Bank and other bodies. Working groups active currently are focused on Afghanistan, the Democratic Republic
of Congo, Iraq, Northern Uganda, Sri Lanka and Sudan.

The Legislative Associate for Humanitarian Affairs will be part of InterAction’s Public Policy Unit, work closely with the
Senior Legislative Associate and report to the Senior Director of Public Policy and External Relations. S/he will work
closely with the Humanitarian Policy and Practice Team to assist and coordinate the working groups’ advocacy efforts.

QUALIFICATIONS: Ideal qualifications include congressional experience and/or advocacy experience, at least a
bachelor’s degree, experience abroad, experience with or interest in humanitarian and/or development work, good
people skills, research and organizational skills, and the ability to juggle multiple tasks and prioritize.

To apply, please email a cover letter, resume, and writing sample to Applications will be
accepted until the position is filled. See InterAction’s website for more details:

Project Coordinator for
Gender Equality and
E-Learning Initiative

Washington, DC
The Project Coordinator will oversee the production of an interactive E-learning Tool on Gender Equality in
Humanitarian Action under the auspices of the Inter-Agency Standing Committee (IASC) Sub-working Group on
Gender in Humanitarian Action. The Project Coordinator will develop and finalize an E-learning tool in consultation
with and for use by members of the UN and NGO community drawing on expertise in gender, adult pedagogy, and
humanitarian assistance.

The overall objective is to strengthen the understanding and capacity of humanitarian actors from the NGO and UN
communities on the importance of gender equality programming and how it can be implemented in practical ways
in the delivery of humanitarian protection and assistance programs. The proposed E-learning Tool, in the form of a
CD-Rom/Internet-based learning tool, will cover the basic information on what gender equality programming is, why
it is important, and provide simple approaches to sector-specific actors on how to ensure the needs of women, girls,
boys and men are being met in humanitarian situations. The IASC Gender Handbook will form the foundation for this
creative training approach.

This is a 12 month position. Interested parties please send resume and cover letter to Veronika Martin at hpowell@

Interested in placing a job announcements or advertisement? Email

Solicitation for Bids
Consultancy on NGO Staff
Well-being in Darfur and Chad

InterAction, the largest alliance of U.S.-based NGOs working in relief and development overseas, is soliciting bids
for a consultancy to assess NGO staff well-being in Darfur and Chad. The Terms of Reference for the consultancy
and the quotation submission requirements are listed below. Interested applicants should send their bids for
the consultancy to Jim Bishop at by Friday, August 17, 2007 with the anticipation that
work could begin in September (though there is flexibility understanding that some bidders may already have

Terms of Reference for Staff Well-being Consultant(s)
The purpose of this consultancy is to strengthen the ability of InterAction members to meet the psychosocial needs
of national and international staff working in Darfur and eastern Chad. Specifically, the consultancy will review the
efficacy of policies and programs to:

Prepare staff to work in high threat and high stress environments.
Prepare staff for and support staff after critical incidents.
Mitigate cumulative stress.
Respond to other common stressors (quality of life issues, logistics, working in a multi-cultural environment, etc.).

The consultant(s) will visit selected NGO headquarters in the U.S., as well as country offices in Khartoum and
Ndjamena/Abeche and field offices in Darfur and eastern Chad. The consultant(s) will hold focus group discussions
and select individual interviews with field staff, both national and international. The consultant may also propose
additional methodologies.

The consultant(s) will produce a final report that includes:
1) a review of policies, programs and/or other interventions currently in place to support staff and mitigate stress;
2) an assessment of the adequacy of these policies, programs and interventions in these complex and highly
insecure environments;
3) recommendations for realistic adjustments in these policies, programs and interventions that should result in a
reduction of stress for field staff;
4) recommendations to InterAction about activities and/or deliverables that would contribute to improved
practice within the humanitarian community; the recommended activities/deliverables should be appropriate
for inclusion in an amended grant with USAID’s Office of Foreign Disaster Assistance (OFDA). These
recommendations could form the basis of a “Minimum Operating Standards in Staff Well-Being in Insecure

Duration of Consultancy: TBD (level of effort and size of consulting team to be suggested by consultant).
Location of Consultancy: U.S., Khartoum, Darfur states, Ndjamena/Abeche, eastern Chad.

Desired Qualifications:
Background in psychology, social, counseling or allied mental health field.
First-hand knowledge of NGO field work.
Demonstrated success in organizational consulting, analysis and development.
5-7 years of experience in the field of staff well-being, particularly in regards to work carried out in highly
insecure environments.
Knowledge of French a plus (for work in Chad).

InterAction expects to be able to award the contract to the successful bidder within 30 working days
of the closing of this call for bids. For complete description, including the quotation submission
requirements, please visit

AUGUST 2007 37
Interested in placing a job announcements or advertisement? Email

Beautiful Meeting Facility
Free Weekend Use
Want to write for Monday
Developments? Could your group use a rent-free facility in
Santa Barbara for a week-end meeting?
We are seeking contributions for the October
issue on “State of the World: Progress Being
The Eleos Foundation, a multi-faith
Made in Development.”
organization committed to ending world
We are looking for first-hand perspectives poverty, is offering InterAction members
from recipients in the field on how a full-service facility on the campus of
international development and humanitarian
Pacifica Graduate Institute rent-free. It
aid programming has made a difference in
their lives. can sleep up to 76 overnight guests from
Thursday to Sunday. You’ll enjoy meeting
Do you know someone that would be perfect? rooms of various sizes and the tranquility of
Contact Julie Montgomery by August 31, 2007 at
open spaces in beautiful surroundings. Paid meal services are available. Availability is
limited to specific weekends.
For more information and to apply, contact

Budget Officer “The mission of Medical Teams International
is to demonstrate the love of Christ to people affected by
International Relief and Development (IRD) seeks a
disaster, conflict and poverty.”
Budget Officer based in Arlington, VA. The Budget
Officer will prepare cost proposals for submission
to donor agencies and will be responsible for the
U.S.-based Positions:
development, implementation and monitoring of the
Regional Manager East Asia
organization’s administrative budget. The Budget Officer
Senior Technical Advisor, Health
will work closely with the CFO in developing budget
Commodity Support Officer
scenarios and ensuring the compliance of budgetary
procedures and guidelines.
International Position:
Community Health Project Manager - Indonesia
A bachelor’s degree in accounting, finance or equivalent
and a minimum of five years’ experience in costing and
pricing for an international non-profit required.
Visit our website at for further
Please submit your cover letter and resume to kwarren@
Medical Teams International, 14150 S.W. Milton Ct.
Portland, OR 97224

Interested in placing a job announcements or advertisement? Email

Senior Program Officer Math Content Specialist Representative,
Natural Capital Project Are YOU ready to take YOUR Southern Africa
teaching/education experience
World Wildlife Fund (WWF), the to the next level and work CHURCH WORLD SERVICE has
global conservation organization, an opening for a Representative for
internationally? If so, the Southern Africa. In consultation with
seeks a Senior Program Officer to Academy for Educational the Regional Coordinator for Africa,
lead the policy and finance work of Development (AED) currently the CWS Representative develops and
the Natural Capital Project. This
has open positions for Math guides CWS programming in Southern
Project is a collaboration among Africa to achieve Regional Objectives.
Content Specialist in Doha, Qatar.
WWF, The Nature Conservancy, The CWS Representative oversees all
AED is paying a competitive
and Stanford University, focused CWS operations in Southern Africa,
on integrating ecosystem services salary along with free housing, identifies opportunities for CWS
into conservation and development project laptop and cell phone, Program Office engagement and support,
efforts worldwide (www. business class ticket to Qatar and provides program interpretation for
transportation allowance. CWS constituencies and donors, and The
as guided by the Regional Coordinator,
policy and finance group builds on seeks to add value to the work of CWS
the Project’s science and mapping This position will be working
member communions in Southern
work to devise and recommend with the Supreme Education Africa and maintains key relationships
policies and payment schemes Council of Qatar. The Math in Southern Africa with an emphasis on
to reward the conservation of Content specialist will be ecumenical and interfaith institutions
ecosystem services. Position will working with a team to and networks. Qualified candidates
be responsible for working with strategically manage project will possess a minimum of a Bachelor’s
field programs to identify potential degree in a related field, a Master’s
activities in all areas surrounding degree in a related field is highly
policy and payment opportunities, Math coursework to ensure that desirable, excellent interpersonal skills,
building broad partnerships with teacher quality and development teamwork skills, written and verbal
development institutions and with is accelerating and student communication skills, facilitation and
leaders in private financial markets, achievement is improving; organizational development skills, and
and developing the overall strategy computer skills; 4-7 years of experience
s/he will provide daily technical
for the policy and finance group (in in an overseas management role in a
assistance to the math teachers development organization; experience in
close collaboration with other group
and necessary leadership to administration of overseas development
members at WWF, TNC, Stanford,
and elsewhere). independent school operators and or humanitarian assistance programs
teachers. in Southern Africa or elsewhere in
Africa is highly desirable; experience
Basic requirements include: in both development and humanitarian
significant and successful The ideal candidate must have a
arenas preferred; demonstrated
experience in international policy, Master’s Degree and five years’ commitment to ecumenical cooperation;
conservation finance, or related teaching experience. experience providing funding and other
fields, with advanced degree in support to local non-governmental
law or policy preferred. Excellent To learn more about the position organizations very useful; previous
analytical and communication and to apply, applicants should experience living and working in
assigned country/countries desirable;
skills, creativity and an ability send resume with cover letter experience facilitating disaster response
to lead by persuasion and build referencing position title and and development programs desirable;
consensus. Strong organization reference #BPQatar to: AED/HR, fluency in English, written and spoken
skills and experience in fundraising 1825 Connecticut Avenue, NW, is required and a working knowledge of
and project development. Washington, DC 20009; fax: 202- Portuguese desirable. Send Resume and
Cover Letter by 8/31/2007 to Human
884-8413, or email to:employ@
AA/EOE Women and minorities are Resources Manager for International For additional Staff, Church World Service, 28606
encouraged to apply. To apply visit
information, visit our website at Phillips Street, PO Box 968, Elkhart, IN, 46515. Fax 574.266.0087, E-mail:
jobs.cfm # 28033

AUGUST 2007 39
Interested in placing a job announcements or advertisement? Email

I. Partners of the Americas - historical background/organization description

Established in 1964, Partners of the Americas brings together citizen volunteers from Latin America, the Caribbean and
the United States to build opportunity, foster leadership and create mutual understanding among the people of our hemi-
sphere. The organization exemplifies the idea that people working together can make a difference. We pair U.S. states with
Latin American and Caribbean countries in international partnerships that focus volunteers’ skills and energies on common
concerns of social, economic, and cultural development. We draw on this network of enduring linkages among professionals,
institutions, and communities to mount a diverse array of activities and professional programs. These initiatives range from
disaster assistance to cultural exchange, from strengthening democracy to preventing domestic violence, and from building
the rule of law to better managing our natural resources. Partners represents a committed base of volunteer professionals –
doctors, farmers, artists, city administrators, business people, professors, students, community leaders – as well as staff in the
Washington, DC and several field offices. The CEO will find a unique moment to lead the organization toward new horizons.

II Seeking Chief Executive Officer with following attributes:

a. A senior level professional with significant experience, recognition and demonstrated achievements in
administrating staff and volunteers of a successful international NGO or private sector institution, development
agency, foundation or institution focusing on Latin America, the Caribbean and the United States.

b. A fundraiser who has a track record of demonstrated successes in obtaining revenues, major grants – restricted and
unrestricted – private, public and corporate revenues, as well as annual volunteer giving.

c. An individual who is a visionary with a high energy level and is willing to commit four to seven years to reframing
and repositioning Partners as a leading hemispheric PVO with relevant niches that meet the needs of its constituent
groups including major donors, grantors and volunteers.

d. An individual who is willing to be creative in sharing the challenge and leading the charge with board members,
staff and volunteers.

e. A decisive and disciplined administrator who has a firm grasp on inter-american affairs, is able to articulate the
Partners of the Americas vision effectively and undertake the necessary challenges to move through a transitional
period and elevate the organization to a higher plateau.

f. An individual who is a “mover and shaker” within the area of development and understands the importance of
strategic alliances, institutional linkages, people-to-people programs and exchanges.

g. An individual who has demonstrated success with legislative advocacy, marketing and institutional image building.

h. The candidate should have the ability to communicate effectively in English, with working knowledge of Spanish
and/or Portuguese. French a plus.

i. A candidate who has lived and/or worked in Latin America/Caribbean and the United States and has knowledge of
grassroots development.

Please send resumé, cover letter, and a list of three references to by August 31, 2007. Partners of the
Americas is an Equal Opportunity Employer.

Interested in placing a job announcements or advertisement? Email

Clements International continues to meet the
unique international insurance needs of
individuals and organizations abroad, now as
it has for more than five decades. Our
programs provide complete international
insurance protection including worldwide
coverage for automobiles, property, liability,
health and life. In addition, we offer critical
insurance protection for projects in high risk
areas including Kidnap & Ransom and War &
Terrorism coverage.

1.800.872.0067 or 1.202.872.0060

AUGUST 2007 41
Interested in placing a job announcements or advertisement? Email

National Director-India
CCF-India, one of the largest International child development
organizations in India, is seeking a National Director.
Responsibilities include providing the vision and strategic
leadership for the program in India, full operational
responsibility for the country program, articulating the vision
and mission, and designing and implementing a strategic plan
to address the causes and effects of poverty and other adversity
conditions on children in the country.

Postgraduate level degree, 10+ years of experience managing
development work in a senior management position working
with INGOs and 3+ years of international/overseas work
experience. Prior working experience in India. Demonstrated
strong management skills. Outstanding written and oral
communication skills and proved ability in the English
language. For full description please visit our website www. EOE M/F/D/V

The International Rescue Committee
responds to the world’s worst crises,
helping refugees running from the horrors
of war and persecution. We rescue their SENIOR MANAGER, GRANTS
lives with immediate relief. We rescue their
futures by supporting them through
recovery toward renewal. We rescue their SUDAN COUNTRY OFFICE - Khartoum
freedom, enabling those given a new
Save the Children is a leading emergency response, relief and development
home in the U.S. to become settled and
agency striving to improve the lives of women and children in need around
self-reliant. For 75 years, the IRC has been the world. We are currently seeking a Senior Grant Manager to work in
raising alarms with a global call to action close collaboration with the Country Office Finance Manager and Re-
and restoring hope, dignity and opportu- gional Finance/Administration Managers to provide efficient and effective
nity for vulnerable people worldwide. management of the Country Office grant portfolio. S/he will efficiently
manage the Grant Management System for the Sudan program - ensuring
the timely posting of all grant documentation requiring approval, oversee-
Add your skill and passion to our ing responses provided to approver questions and constantly liaising with
worldwide team of professionals in: Home Office to ensure approval is expedited in a manner to accommodate
the high grant turnover. As the in-country expert on donor regulations,
Health • Finance • Program Management • the Manager will ensure that the management systems are compliant
Community Development • Protection • with donor requirements; inform finance, administration and program
Gender Based Violence • Operations • staff if specific grant requirements are not consistent with Sudan Country
Post Conflict Development • Education Office Policies and Procedures; and advise on and ensure the setting-up
of mechanisms to meet donor requirements. Qualified candidates should
possess a Masters degree in relevant field plus a minimum of 5 years of
professional experience in the above fields. Strong knowledge of Grant
Apply now at: Management and Donor Regulations (USAID, UN, and EC preferred);
solid computer skills in Excel and database systems; and proficiency and knowledge of Sun System Software preferred. Strong organizational skills,
attention to detail and proven willingness to work in a team is critical for
success. Please visit our Career Website at http://www.savethechildren.
From Harm to Home org/careers/index.asp and apply online for position # 3400 EOE

Interested in placing a job announcements or advertisement? Email

AUGUST 2007 43
1400 16th Street, NW, Suite 210
Washington, DC 20036
Phone: (202) 667-8227
Fax: (202) 667-8236

InterAction is the largest alliance of U.S.-based
international development and humanitarian
nongovernmental organizations. With more than 160
members operating in every developing country, we
work to overcome poverty, exclusion and suffering by
advancing social justice and basic dignity for all.

Today and always . . . As the world faces uncertainties, our
firm stands as a beacon of integrity in
look to your CPA for guidance the business community. Independence
and ethical accounting practices are
important to us.
Our firm is built
on lasting values . . .
Serving the Washington nonprofit community for more than 25 years.
Auditing, A-133 compliance • Worldwide on-site field office audits • Internal control review • Grant proposal assistance
Subrecipient activity review • Expat and inpat tax preparation • Outsourced accounting
Contact our PVO Specialists:
Robert W. Albrecht, CPA Andreas Alexandrou, CPA

4550 Montgomery Avenue, Suite 650N
Bethesda, Maryland 20814

Member of CPAmerica International – a worldwide network of independent CPA firms dedicated to the integrity of the profession.