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MONDAY

DEVELOPMENTS
The Latest Issues and Trends in International Development and Humanitarian Assistance

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Accountability
December 2007
Vol. 25, No. 12
InterAction
Features
03 Inside this Issue
04 Making Accountability Work: A
Constructive Role for Donors
06 The HAP Standard: Triple Distilled for
Humanitarian Program Quality
09 New Reproductive Risk Index from
Population Action International
10 Listening to Improve Accountability
13 Program Evaluation Standards: Raising
the Accountability Bar
14 Self-Certification Plus: Accountability,
Transparency, Effectiveness
16 Child Sponsorship Certification: Getting
it Right
17 Post-Crisis Community Recovery and
Renewal: Accountability Invisibility
18 Member CEOs Discuss Accountability
Challenges
21 Well-Being in Emergencies: The IASC
Guidelines on Mental Health and
Psychosocial Support in Emergency
Settings
MONDAY DEVELOPMENTS
22 Building Safer Organizations and
Managing Editor Monday Developments is published Accountability to Disaster Survivors
Julie Montgomery 12 times a year by InterAction, the largest
alliance of U.S.-based international 24 Code Blue: Non-Governmental
development and humanitarian
Editor
nongovernmental organizations. With Organizations Uniting to Support Public
Kathy Ward more than 160 members operating in Sector Health Services
every developing country, we work to
Copy Editor overcome poverty, exclusion and suffering 28 Accountability in Fleet Management
Nia Davis by advancing social justice and basic
dignity for all. 29 NGO Downward Accountability to Their
Advertising & Sales
InterAction welcomes submissions of news Beneficiaries
Josh Kearns
articles, opinions and announcements.
Article submission does not guarantee
Communications Department inclusion in Monday Developments. We
Also in this Issue
Nasserie Carew, Public Relations reserve the right to reject submission for
Tony Fleming, New Media any reason. It is at the discretion of our
Josh Kearns, Publications editorial team as to which articles are
Julie Montgomery, Publications published in individual issues. 33 CAREER DEVELOPMENT
Turning Love Into Work
Editorial Committee All statements in articles are the sole
Taina Alexander
opinion and responsibility of the authors. 34 Inside Our Community
Andrea Barron
Luisa Cordoba
Articles may be reprinted with prior 36 Inside InterAction
permission and attribution. Letters to the
Barbara Wallace editor are encouraged.
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Inside this Issue: Tackling Accountability

T
housands of people in our community are engaged in the day-to-day work of reducing
the devastating impact of poverty, providing humanitarian relief and responding to
natural and man-made disasters in every country of the world. Their direct experience
of the wide variety of conditions and circumstances in which our work takes place
provides a valuable advantage in meeting the challenge of developing evolving standards of
accountability for our sector.

Our unique perspective from this direct engagement with local communities in the expansion
of opportunities for the poor, and supporting access to education, health care, livelihood,
economic opportunity and other areas gives us the opportunity and the responsibility to define
the parameters and raise the bar on accountability.

Since 1994, our members have certified their compliance with InterAction’s Private Voluntary
Organization (PVO) Standards. Over the years these standards have been expanded and
adjusted as the sector’s examination of what it means to be accountable to partners, local
populations and donors has evolved.

The U.S. public shows its support for advancing human dignity and peace in the world through
contributions to InterAction members totaling around $7 billion annually. And as a result
of the tsunami, the public gained significant understanding of the need to further advance
humanitarian accountability.

InterAction leverages the impact of this
private support by advocating for the
expansion of U.S. government investments
and by insisting that policies and programs
are accountable to the realities of the world’s
poorest and most vulnerable populations.
Neither InterAction nor its members bear
lightly the responsibility of the trust the
American people place in us.

In this issue of Monday Developments, we
explore current thought on accountability.
To whom are we ultimately accountable
and for what? Is there a tension between
the expectations of our donors and those
of the recipient partners of our programs?
We explore the conflicts organizations face
with scarce resources, demanding missions
and the need to evaluate progress and
effectiveness. We hope that this issue’s
exploration of accountability will stimulate
an ongoing dialogue

Sam Worthington
President and CEO, InterAction

MONDAY DEVELOPMENTS December 2007 
Making Accountability Work:
A Constructive Role for Donors
By Lisa D. Jordan, Deputy Director, Governance and Civil Society Program, The Ford Foundation

I
n the final decade of the twen- nisms, evaluation techniques and mechanisms with high price-tags
tieth century, there seemed to audit mechanisms are proliferating act as barriers to entry. A required
be a broad-based consensus across the world. There is tremen- certification brand would make it
that non-governmental organi- dous competition in some fields difficult for fledgling organizations
zations (NGOs) were a good thing: amongst would be auditors and in to gain wider recognition amongst
as shepherds of development, as some countries between certifica- the public and donor organizations.
democratic agents and in making tion and rating regimes. From a de-
sense of globalization. NGOs were cidedly scarce array of options five In spite of these challenges, it is
seen as the core of active civil so- years ago, today the average NGO critical for NGOs to sort out their
cieties, supporting the delivery of is dizzy with the possible ways in accountability equations given the
public services and contributing to which to embrace accountability. importance of NGOs in address-
an ever-stronger wave of democra- ing some of our greatest collective
tization. By 2000, many NGOs were Sorting through the many mecha- challenges. Institutional donors can
no longer fledging organizations nisms and approaches on offer is a help. They have key roles to play
but multi-million dollar enterprises time-consuming process. Many of in encouraging NGOs to embrace
with increasing power and stature the accountability services on offer accountability, but it is not the role
affecting relationships between carry a hefty price tag. Some NGOs often foreseen for these donors.
states, shaping markets and busi- are reluctant to embrace those costs Would-be auditors and other ac-
ness practices. With this growing because they are not directly relat- countability service providers have
influence came increased scrutiny ed to the core missions of say, sav- gone straight to the donors who
and increased attention to ques- ing lives, educating children, de- have the power and the resources
tions of NGO accountability. fending rights or conserving nature. to create industry leaders and cut
They fear donors and the donor out the competition. Donors have
NGOs have responded to these public will count the accountability the opportunity to favor one mecha-
questions by examining their own regime as an administrative burden nism, to insist upon the use of one
practices, developing codes of or cost. This fear is not unfounded approach, and to increase the mar-
conduct, launching certification when some of the very transpar- ket for one service provider over
schemes, increasing independent ency measures publicize only the another. Donors should resist this
audits, developing sector-wide ratio of costs and not quality of ser- temptation.
standards for best practice and vice delivered. Even when the fi-
tightening management practices nances are available, accountability The growing field or market in
that improve performance. Univer- equations (the total accountability NGO accountability is very healthy.
sities and think-tanks are enhanc- practice embraced within an NGO), While it is tempting to “clean up
ing the field by researching how to when they are good, can and often the field” and make accountability
measure success in advocacy, com- do point to weaknesses in practice choices for NGOs through report-
munity empowerment, improving that need to be addressed. Change ing requirements, at this early stage
race relations and a wide variety of in practice is never easy to embrace of development it may be better to
social justice outcomes that count for any organization. The whole is- allow innovation to flourish and to
but are not easily countable. Be- sue can seem to be time consuming, seed many approaches.
yond the university-based research, a deviation from mission, threaten-
After all, all NGOs are not created
an entire industry has developed to ing and expensive. For small NGOs
equal. All fields (education, emer-
service the call for greater NGO ac- relying predominantly on volunteer
gency relief, conservation, rights
countability. Certification and rat- power and budgets of less than
defense and poverty alleviation)
ing systems, transparency mecha- $5,000, some of the accountability

 InterAction MONDAY DEVELOPMENTS
have unique challenges that NGOs the operational end of an NGO’s its mission. Environmental sustain-
must grapple with, beginning with work. If an NGO exists to provide ability, public policy changes, and
a multiplicity of stakeholders. What services, its accountability equation systemic poverty alleviation require
works for the institutional donor may should be deeply informed by the accountability mechanisms that re-
not always work for the NGO itself, stated needs of the beneficiaries. spect the time frames for sustain-
the individual donor, or the ultimate Today, very few of the accountabil- able outcomes – something that is
beneficiaries. On the global level, ity mechanisms on offer reflect the almost impossible to depict in short
it is hard to imagine an NGO ac- experiences or the voices of benefi- term increments. It is exciting to see
countability regime that could take ciaries. Generally the mechanisms NGOs developing accountability
into account the myriad of differing are donor-oriented. This third role is equations in these fields that fully
political contexts in which NGOs critical to the future of NGOs. Giv- reflect the complexity of operations
work, the increasingly hostile le- en the complexity of the goals and and respect the needs of multiple
gal frameworks to which NGOs missions that NGOs pursue – often stakeholders.
must adhere, the needs of different going where governments fear to
types of donor organizations, and tread and where the private sector The proliferation of accountability
the needs of the beneficiaries. Even cannot make a profit – aligning ac- experiments amongst NGOs is a
very simple things like requiring countability mechanisms with the cause for celebration. The robust en-
transparency can be highly prob- goals of the NGO and the needs ergy coming from the NGO commu-
lematic in situations where basic of the beneficiaries will further the nity in response to greater demands
rights are not respected. quest for solutions to some of our for accountability has sparked some
most intractable global problems. remarkable innovations which ser-
In this period of burgeoning inno- vice the beneficiaries first and put
vations, donors can play three roles. Donors can encourage NGOs to the mission of an NGO at the heart
The first is to continue to encourage develop accountability equations of its accountability equation. These
a multiplicity of approaches. Provid- that reflect their missions, the con- mechanisms service not only the
ing the resources and the space for text in which they operate and the specific goals and beneficiaries of
NGOs to experiment with different beneficiaries they wish to serve. It NGO action, but also greater goals
accountability techniques will in- is in our collective interest to make of participation and strengthening
evitably result in a richer field of in- sure that NGOs are learning orga- democratic practice. There are hun-
quiry. This is a stage where patient nizations, concentrating on improv- dreds of sector specific approaches
provision of capital will pay off. ing their actions toward more ef- today that did not exist five years
fective outcomes, and focusing on ago, many of which recognize the
The second role donors can play is greater responsibility toward core need to put beneficiaries first and
to support analysis on the pros and missions and populations served. take into account the context within
cons of different approaches that NGO efforts to empower those that which NGOs actually work. Inno-
are on offer to NGOs. Where can an they serve by developing account- vation in this direction is still in its
NGO go to compare the approaches ability mechanisms that respond to infancy and donors would serve all
undertaken by other NGOs in their the beneficiaries stated needs can nonprofits well by encouraging it.
field or innovations in other fields? only deepen participation in de- In the end, as NGOs embrace the
The small voluntary organization velopment practice, strengthen the accountability challenge, we will all
and the large professional agency NGO and service the goals of the be able to rely on NGOs to continue
should have access to a resource organization. When donors – in an to fulfill their promise as agents of
that helps them choose from the understood need for efficiency – ex- welfare delivery, social change and
many available accountability ser- pect an emergency relief organiza- innovators in public policy – helping
vices and approaches before choos- tion and a child sponsorship agency us find effective ways to approach
ing the accountability equation that to use similar impact indicators, to complex local and global problems
works for their organization. deliver in the same timeframe, or with lasting solutions.
to even be structured organization-
A third role for donors is to help
ally in the same way, it can create
embed the concept of accountabil- The views expressed are those of the author
a secondary paper trail that is ex- and do not necessarily represent those of the
ity in a deep and sustainable way Ford Foundation.
pensive to maintain, weakens the
by aligning their own needs with
focus on mission, and undermines
the needs of the beneficiaries at
the responsibility of the NGO to

MONDAY DEVELOPMENTS December 2007 
The HAP Standard: Triple Distilled for
Humanitarian Program Quality
By Nicholas Stockton, Executive Director, HAP-International

W
hile quality assurance terAction; and a process objection Although the Sphere Humanitarian
regimes have become expressed most often, but not exclu- Charter concludes with an under-
familiar components of sively by, Southern NGOs. taking “to develop systems for ac-
most commercial and countability within our respective
social markets, the international The normative issue raised by MSF agencies, consortia and federations”
humanitarian system has remained and the ICRC centered upon the and an acknowledgement “that our
largely unregulated either by it- threat that a technical standards fundamental accountability must
self or by statutory authorities. Of compliance scheme might pose to be to those we seek to assist,” no
course, effective statutory regula- the fundamental principles of the register has ever been created to
tion is more difficult when the sys- Red Cross movement. In a letter to record exactly who is making this
tem in question is a genuinely foot- the Sphere Management Commit- commitment. This has inevitably
loose, global enterprise played out tee, MSF argued that the essential prevented further progress on de-
across a multitude of jurisdictions. nature of humanitarian action is veloping a system for accountability
However, this merely emphasizes contained in the personal relation- to “those we seek to assist” within
the case for self-regulation and ship between the recipient and the the Sphere coalition, in large part
deepens the mystery surrounding helper, and because this is rooted because of the perceived juridical
the very slow progress in establish- in the spirit of voluntarism and the risks so entailed.
ing voluntary program quality as- ethos of human solidarity, it simply
surance as an accepted central part cannot be reduced to a contractual The critique of the process through
of the infrastructure of the inter- service delivery relationship gov- which Sphere developed the mini-
national humanitarian system. So erned by “industry standards.” Sec- mum standards was linked to the
what is the cause of this dawdling ond, the MSF letter suggested that project’s initial difficulty in engag-
in a system that normally prides it- states might attempt to manipulate ing Southern NGOs and disaster
self on its dynamism? a standards compliance verification survivors in the consultation pro-
system for political ends, thereby cess. Although a growing number
In 1998, while chairing the Sphere compromising the fundamental of Southern NGOs did participate
Project Management Commit- humanitarian principle of indepen- in Sphere’s “institutionalization”
tee, it became clear that the loose dence. phase, the project never did find
coalition of agencies involved in a satisfactory method of including
writing the minimum standards for The juridical critique, aired by Inter- disaster survivors in the standards
humanitarian response could not Action, concluded that the Sphere development process. Hence it was
hold together if the project were to Standards should only be aspira- possible without too much fear of
venture into the quality assurance tional, because to make any sort of contradiction to suggest, on behalf
or compliance verification domain, binding compliance commitment of disaster survivors, that a com-
as had been envisaged in the proj- would present an open invitation pliance monitoring or verification
ect proposal. The disquiet about to ne’er-do-wells and opportunis- scheme would be damaging to their
compliance mechanisms voiced tic lawyers to launch hostile litiga- interests.
at that time boiled down to three tion against NGOs. An interesting
major concerns expressed by three consequence of this fear is that As the Sphere Project did not de-
distinct constituencies: a normative the Sphere Humanitarian Charter velop a compliance verification
objection, as articulated by the In- concentrates, rather paradoxically, mechanism it is difficult to establish
ternational Committee of the Red upon the duties and responsibilities whether or not these various anxiet-
Cross (ICRC) and Médecins Sans of states, while studiously avoiding ies were justified. Even so, as MSF
Frontières International (MSF); a any reference to the “duty of care” and the ICRC were more concerned
juridical objection, as voiced by In- borne by humanitarian agencies. with their fears that technical stan-

 InterAction MONDAY DEVELOPMENTS
In late 2003, a core group of eight agencies founded a new independent
organization, set up inter alia to “monitor and report on the implementation of
HAP-International’s principles of accountability to beneficiaries and to accredit its
members accordingly” thereby establishing the humanitarian community’s first
international self-regulatory body.

dards might displace ethical prin- complaints handling and redress these agencies clearly appreciated,
ciples, it does seem that the process dimensions of the quality assurance a quality assurance scheme simul-
of standards compliance verifica- agenda outside the Sphere coalition taneously provides enhanced risk
tion per se was not the primary once it became clear back in 1988 management.
issue for these agencies. Rather, that these matters could not be tak-
their concerns were founded upon en forward inside Sphere. But as a Meanwhile in Geneva, the Human-
the perceived inadequacies of the London-based research initiative, itarian Accountability Project gave
substantive content of the Sphere the Humanitarian Ombudsman way to the Humanitarian Account-
standards, which were then further Project also encountered practical ability Partnership (known rather
provoked by the spectre of a com- difficulties in conducting consulta- confusingly as HAP-International).
pliance scheme. Thus, provided tions with disaster survivors; and in The Project’s action research in the
that a compliance verification or 2001 the initiative was superseded field had demonstrated that in most
quality assurance system actually by the Humanitarian Accountabil- humanitarian contexts self-regula-
encourages human solidarity and ity Project (HAP) hosted by the In- tion was the only realistic and af-
voluntary humanitarian action, and ternational Federation of Red Cross fordable option for humanitarian
that it is administered in a strictly and Red Crescent Societies. In an quality assurance. In late 2003, a
independent manner on an entirely attempt to address the challenge core group of eight agencies found-
elective basis, it should surely be of including disaster survivors in ed a new independent organization,
possible to allay their fears. consultations, HAP set up and ran set up inter alia to “monitor and re-
action research projects in Afghani- port on the implementation of HAP-
However, the nightmare scenario stan, Cambodia and Sierra Leone. International’s principles of ac-
of large NGOs being held legal- countability to beneficiaries and to
ly liable for millions of avoidable The need to strengthen account- accredit its members accordingly”
deaths in foreign public health di- ability practices within the humani- thereby establishing the humani-
sasters seems to have held the body tarian system was reaffirmed with tarian community’s first internation-
politic of U.S. NGOs in thrall and the exposure of sexual exploitation al self-regulatory body. However, in
to date humanitarian quality assur- and abuse of beneficiaries by aid early 2004, the new board of HAP-
ance has remained almost as dis- workers in west Africa. Such egre- International recognized that the
tant a prospect in the United States gious examples of an accountabil- task of monitoring compliance with
as it seemed back in 1998. This in ity deficit within the international the accountability principles that its
spite of President Clinton’s strongly humanitarian system spurred the members commit to upon entry was
worded proposition in 2006 that the Inter-Agency Standing Committee a sensitive, complex and potential-
system is actually very vulnerable to to develop and issue guidelines in- ly expensive matter. In response,
mistakes and thus also to legitimate tended to prevent further cases, and HAP-International embarked upon
claims for redress, while it continues to establish a new initiative called a consultation process to develop an
to operate without a robust volun- “Building Safer Organisations” accountability and quality manage-
tary quality assurance scheme able (BSO) hosted by the International ment standard that could be used
to confirm that its major actors are Council of Voluntary Agencies in assessing compliance with its ac-
operating their field programmes (ICVA). BSO’s aim was to develop countability principles in a fair and
with due diligence. capacity within the humanitarian consistent manner.
system at large to investigate alle-
The Humanitarian Ombudsman gations of sexual exploitation and However, HAP-International’s stan-
Project was the brainchild of a abuse. This paralleled develop- dard development project soon en-
group of agencies (including the ments by leading child sponsorship countered the same challenges that
British Red Cross, Oxfam GB and agencies within InterAction to de- have so often hampered the involve-
Save the Children UK) determined velop a more rigorous self-regula- ment of disaster survivors in other
to follow through the compliance, tory scheme to protect children. As humanitarian standards setting
continued on next page

MONDAY DEVELOPMENTS December 2007 
continued from previous page

processes. However, not consulting 3. Which of the measurable prac- the BSO project was transferred
with humanitarian aid recipients tices of humanitarian quality man- from ICVA in April 2007, HAP-In-
was not an option and eventually a agement identified by this process ternational now has the skills and
diverse group of disaster survivors are, by general consensus, afford- experience to train investigators to
willing to participate in develop- able and practicable in the great examine allegations of sexual ex-
ing the HAP-International standard majority of circumstances? ploitation and abuse. The BSO proj-
were identified. While the people ect has greatly strengthened HAP-
selected were not demographically Drawing upon the collective wis- International’s complaints-handling
or democratically representative dom of aid workers, disaster survi- service, making it better equipped
of disaster populations as a whole, vors, academics and other stake- to deal with a broader range of is-
it was possible to ensure that the holders, the HAP Standard is their sues stemming from malfeasance,
group of disaster survivors was bal- answer to these questions. Like a negligence or improper conduct.
anced with regard to gender and good whisky, the HAP Standard is
geographical representation and, triple distilled: first, to isolate the es- As the HAP-International humani-
most crucially, they brought to the sential practices that determine the tarian quality assurance service is
process authentic experiences of di- quality of humanitarian work; sec- rolled out more widely, we expect to
saster survival and the work of hu- ond, to retain just those practices be able to tell of a growing number
manitarian agencies. that are verifiable and measurable; of HAP-certified agencies that can
and third, to produce an end distil- be expected to deliver consistently
Once underway, the HAP-Inter- late that is affordable and applica- high quality and cost-effective hu-
national standard development ble in all but the most exceptional manitarian work. We are sure this
process involved hundreds of aid situations. However, because such is information that will help inform
workers, specialists and disaster circumstances do prevail in human- important decisions made by disas-
survivors. Throughout 2006 an in- itarian theatres from time to time, ter survivors, aid workers, job seek-
tensive series of workshops and the HAP Standard also incorporates ers, volunteers, private donors and
field trials were conducted in Eu- a compliance exoneration facility officials.
rope, Africa and Asia, culminating for those special cases when the
in a final drafting workshop in Ge- Standard should not be applied. As in other sectors of human endea-
neva in December of that year. This vour with the potential to both help
elaborate consultation process fo- Of course the development of the and to harm intended beneficiaries,
cused upon three crucial questions: HAP Standard was just the first step we may soon find legal opinions
towards establishing a complete concluding that serious engage-
1. What matters most in an agen- humanitarian quality assurance ment with a self-regulatory body
cy’s management system with re- system. The Humanitarian Ac- is a sign of due diligence, making
gard to influencing humanitarian countability and Quality Manage- humanitarian organizations less,
outcomes? ment certification scheme is per- rather than more, vulnerable to the
haps the most prominent element predatory attentions of opportunis-
In other words, which factors con-
in the system, as it represents the tic claims seekers.
trolled by the agency have the
culmination of a process whereby
greatest potential impact upon the But more importantly, we believe
an independent audit of an agen-
well-being of disaster survivors, that the HAP-International humani-
cy’s programme quality manage-
with well-being defined as a func- tarian quality assurance scheme has
ment system has confirmed that it is
tion of mortality, morbidity and dig- greater potential to improve the im-
compliant with the HAP Standard.
nity? Together, these functions and pact and outcome of the humanitar-
However, HAP-International also
processes constitute an agency’s ian system than any other humani-
provides an organizational base-
humanitarian quality management tarian reform package currently on
line analysis service (to assess what
system. offer.
organizational development is re-
2. Which elements of the agency’s quired to achieve compliance with
humanitarian quality management the HAP Standard), and mid-term For more information on the HAP Standard,
improvement plan reviews (to con- baseline analysis, certification scheme and
system can be measured either di- complaints handling support, please visit
rectly or through proxy indicators firm that agreed organizational de- www.hapinternational.org or email the
velopment plans have actually been author at nstockton@hapinternational.org.
within reasonable parameters of
complexity and cost? implemented). In addition, since

 InterAction MONDAY DEVELOPMENTS
New Reproductive Risk Index from
Population Action International
By Sarah Haddock, Research Assistant, Population Action International

W
hen a woman is health- The indicators of access to services
ier so are her family, and health outcomes reflect the di-
community, her coun- rect causes of vulnerability to death
try and our world. and injury for women around the
However, the bitter truth is that world. However, recognizing that
poor reproductive health threatens reproductive health outcomes are
the well-being and, in many cases, influenced by broader issues of in-
the very survival of women around equity in income distribution, ac-
the world. Indeed, more than half a cess to social services, and gender
million women (typically poor, un- relations, the study discusses the
educated and living in rural areas or linkages between these issues and
urban slums) die during pregnancy reproductive risk. have the highest unmet need for
and childbirth worldwide every contraception. Abortion policies are
year. Despite 20 years of campaign- A single reproductive risk index is restrictive, and infant and maternal
ing to improve the reproductive constructed from this range of in- mortality are high or very high. In
health status of women, the risk of dicators, and the 130 countries are Niger and Sierra Leone, a woman’s
dying in pregnancy or childbirth then ranked from highest to lowest lifetime risk of maternal death is
still shows the largest gap between risk and grouped into five risk cat- one in seven and one in eight, re-
the rich and the poor of all develop- egories. spectively.
ment statistics.
The report is an important advo- On the other hand, countries at low-
Working to improve these tragic cacy tool, showing that the risks est risk are industrialized countries
health outcomes and place women associated with childbearing vary with high incomes; China., Cuba
firmly at the center of development tremendously among countries and Singapore are the only devel-
initiatives, Population Action Inter- around the world. All of the 26 oping countries in this category.
national (PAI) has a long, success- countries at highest reproductive HIV/AIDS prevalence is low and
ful history of developing evidence- risk have low-incomes and all are early marriage is rare. Adolescent
based advocacy tools. In October in sub-Saharan Africa except Hai- fertility is generally low, although
2007, PAI released a new index that ti, Laos and Yemen – the poorest Cuba and the United States have
gauges the current status of repro- countries in their respective regions the highest adolescent fertility lev-
ductive health at the country-level – and Bangladesh. In the majority of els of countries in this category.
in 130 countries. these countries, levels of HIV infec- Skilled care during pregnancy and
tion range between moderate and childbirth is universal and contra-
The study, A Measure of Survival, high. Adolescent fertility is high ceptive use is high. Abortion is gen-
is organized around the concept of and very early marriage is common; erally not restricted, and infant and
a woman’s sexual and reproduc- in one-third of the countries, more maternal mortality are rare.
tive lifecycle, considered in terms than half of girls are married before
of four stages: sex, pregnancy, the age of 18. Skilled care during PAI has conducted three similar
childbirth and survival. Each stage pregnancy and childbirth is gener- indices of women’s reproductive
of a woman’s sexual and reproduc- ally limited, with Ethiopian women health status since 1995, all of which
tive lifecycle is measured in terms having the least access to such care unfortunately showed the same
of how healthy and how voluntary in the world. Contraceptive use is general clusterings of countries ac-
each is. generally low, at about 40 percent. cording to reproductive risk levels,
Yemen, Rwanda, Laos and Haiti particularly at the highest risk level.

continued on page 20

MONDAY DEVELOPMENTS December 2007 
Listening to Improve Accountability
By Mary Anderson, Executive Director, CDA Collaborative Learning Projects and Dayna Brown,
Director, Listening Project

O
ver years of organizing they reflected on and analyzed the does harm. Local people know that
collaborative learning impacts of international assistance agencies provide reports to donors,
projects (Do No Harm, for their societies, and provide the but many question why they do not
Reflecting on Peace evidence for the following initial get to see these reports and why do-
Practice, and others), questions findings. nors often do not check whether the
have arisen about the cumulative assistance they have provided has
effects of international assistance on The systems and structures of in- made a positive difference in recipi-
people, their communities and their ternational assistance limit oppor- ents’ lives.
societies. So, in 2005 we launched tunities and incentives for listening
the Listening Project to explore the in open-ended ways to people in Why is this important?
ideas and insights of people who recipient societies. If this evidence is borne out in future
live in societies on the recipient side conversations, the challenges to the
The evidence seems to show that international community cannot be
of international assistance efforts
international assistance agencies over-stated. It suggests the need
such as humanitarian assistance,
have developed often efficient de- for a fundamental rethinking of
development and peacebuilding.
livery systems that are often more the purposes and values of interna-
It is based on the belief that those
concerned with getting services and tional assistance and, subsequently,
who have intentionally crossed bor-
goods to people than with getting to a redesign of our systems to re-in-
ders to attempt to help other people
know and respect them. tegrate the importance of building
– and those who work with them
– must both listen carefully to the relationships (as well as delivering
In the places we visited, many
wise judgments of people in those goods and services).
people referred to international as-
societies about how these efforts sistance as “an industry” that is The systems of international assis-
have gone and be accountable to professionalized to meet delivery tance bias the ways that agencies
them. standards by employing certain and aid workers listen and do not
kinds of people, organizing needs listen, what they listen to, where
The Listening Project has facilitated
assessments, planning and proj- and when they listen, and to whom
listening exercises in Aceh (Indo-
ect activities according to specified they listen.
nesia), Angola, Bolivia, Bosnia and
systems, and reporting on pre-de-
Herzegovina, Cambodia, Ethiopia,
termined indicators (often related This is related to the first finding.
Kenya, Kosovo, New Orleans, Sri
to what is delivered at what cost). If the system is designed to deliver
Lanka, Thailand and Zimbabwe.
More and more, NGOs are using goods and services, the point of lis-
Over 225 staff members from more
the terminology of “customers” or tening to people in communities is
than 60 local and international
“clients” (i.e., “industry” language) to determine whether the goods and
NGOs have participated in the lis-
rather than “beneficiaries” to de- services have been delivered well:
tening exercises to date, holding
scribe those whom their efforts are Were they the right amount, of the
about 1,300 conversations with ap-
intended to help. Donors also focus right quality, delivered to the right
proximately 3,000 people. In each
on results-based management, a people and on time? Often the focus
location, teams listened to a broad
concept borrowed from the private is on gathering this information in
range of people, including those
sector. an “efficient” way to reduce costs of
who have directly received assis-
delivery and to ensure speed, leav-
tance, people who have not received People tell us that they do not get ing less and less time to listen to
assistance but have observed it, and to select the agencies that work in what people think about the effects
those who have been a part of the their communities, and that they of- of the assistance they received.
chain of delivery. The reports from ten have no way to hold the agen-
these listening exercises capture cies accountable when the work When aid agency staff are listen-
what we have heard from people as is badly done or, worse, when it ing for assessments of their service

10 InterAction MONDAY DEVELOPMENTS
delivery performance, they listen to
people who are in (not outside of)
the chain of delivery and they lis-
ten primarily for assessments of the
efficiency or effectiveness of their
projects. They often do not see the
importance of, and are not encour-
aged or rewarded for, taking the
time to talk to broader groups of
people about a broader range of is-
sues.

As a result, most aid workers hear
a lot about the problems of proj-
ects that fail to deliver what people
want. Through the Listening Proj-
ect, we also hear many comments
about this, some appreciative and
many critical. Some of the com-
ments are familiar and have been
around for many years: “The wrong Photo: courtesy of Diego Devesa Laux, The Listening Project.
people got the aid,” “you have to
know somebody to get aid,” “the cause time is necessary in order to a heaven!” They continually note
agency sent food we could not “listen to people,” “learn about the how little has been accomplished in
use,” “the seeds got here too late to real circumstances,” “get to know relation to the resources that have
plant,” and so on. What has become people,” and “show respect for been provided.
clear is that the specific mistakes people’s ideas and opinions.”
these comments highlight add up People tell Listening Project teams
to a much larger issue that cannot Why is this important? their ideas about how the “massive
be addressed through better project If we listen to a wider range of peo- funds” of outsiders could be bet-
planning or tinkering with aspects ple about a broader range of issues, ter spent. For example, some point
of delivery. we hear very different things. And, out that if agencies could analyze
if we hear these things clearly, we the situation with local people, they
The larger issue has to do with how will be more likely to create mecha- could pool their funds for greater
to relate to people in the countries nisms and systems for addressing impact. One example concerned
where agencies work. The evidence basic issues, rather than perpetu- a drought-prone location where
seems to show that the bias of lis- ating broad disappointment that separate agencies undertook small
tening to people involved in proj- “international assistance saves our water projects. People suggested
ects about these projects leaves out lives, but it does not change them.” that if these agencies had combined
a very large part of what is required their resources, they could have de-
to understand the larger context In many cases, the amount of aid veloped a comprehensive, lasting
that people live within, and to work and of money is not seen as the water system. In other countries,
with local people to diagnose and problem. Listening Project teams have heard
thus find ways of addressing the similar comments that the available
In one area, people spoke of the
circumstances that perpetuate their (and abundant) resources of aid
“excessive generosity of interna-
poverty or marginalization. could do more to address deeper,
tional agencies” noting that they
systemic problems if aid agencies
With remarkable consistency across received “too much.” In every loca-
would analyze the situation with lo-
many locations, including areas tion the Listening Project has visit-
cal people and combine resources,
that have experienced disasters ed people talk about the significant
rather than each running its own
such as the tsunami in 2004, people amounts of waste and mismanage-
projects.
say that aid agencies should “take ment of resources, noting, for in-
more time,” “invest the necessary stance, that “with all of the aid that There are two interesting aspects
time” and “go more slowly” be- has come into Kenya, it should be of this commentary. The first has to
continued on next page

MONDAY DEVELOPMENTS December 2007 11
continued from previous page

The Top Ten
do with waste. In several different countries,
people have described the “water bottle”
effect where assistance is passed from donors
to international NGOs or contractors to local Best Corporations in Global Development
NGOs or sub-contractors to community-based
organizations and finally to people in the Corporations have become important partners in
community, so that the last in line gets only a addressing global poverty – improving the lives of people
around the world by creating jobs, livable communities,
very small amount of the water after so many
educational opportunities and access to medical care.
have taken a sip. Even with this “wastage,”
however, people talk more often about how The InterAction Best Corporations listing will recognize
little has been accomplished with all of the companies that prioritize investment in people and
money that has been spent rather than about demonstrate a commitment to the fight against global
poverty.
the importance of having more.
Is your corporate partner making a difference in your
Second, the Listening Project has heard very program or the communities in which you work?
few complaints about the quantity of resources
available. Of much greater concern to people Nominate them to InterAction’s Top Ten Corporations in
is how aid is given. Many resent what they Global Development List!
call “pre-packaged” projects because these, The application is available online at www.interaction.org.
they say, signal arrogance and disrespect by Nominations will be accepted through December 31, 2007.
international agencies acting as if local people
do not have the analytic ability and wisdom to
engage on major issues affecting their lives.

Why is this important?
There is much discussion among donors and
NGOs about “coherence” and “coordination”
as solutions to international aid’s ineffective-
ness. Both of these ideas presume that it is
possible to establish an overall strategy or ap-
proach that will bring desired results. While
the idea that aid agencies should work with
each other, rather than each designing and
implementing its own projects, is appreciated
by local people, they also emphasize the cen-
trality of their own roles in this “working to-
gether” approach. If we listen to the insights
of people in recipient societies, any attempts
to coordinate or achieve coherence must start
with and totally respect their analyses.

Further, many of us who work internationally
continually try to raise more money, increase
our donor bases and provide more resources.
If we listen to the ideas coming from people in
recipient societies, we must adjust our think-
ing about the relative importance of getting
more money and instead find better ways of
responding to local capacities and insights InterAction is the largest alliance of U.S.-based international
and to be accountable to them. development and humanitarian nongovernmental organizations. Our
165 members operate in every developing country, working with local
communities to overcome poverty and suffering by helping to improve
More information and reports are available at their quality of life.
www.cdainc.com.

12 InterAction MONDAY DEVELOPMENTS
Program Evaluation Standards: Raising the
Accountability Bar
By Juan Carlos Alegre, Director of Monitoring and Evaluation, Save the Children Federation, Inc.

There is an increasing demand for greater accountability atic evaluative strategies and practices, and create standards
in foreign assistance, and international non-governmental by which organizations can assess their work. Drawing upon
organizations (INGOs), along with other players in the provision InterAction member organizations’ diverse experience base
of foreign aid, are pressed to provide credible evidence in order to achieve broad relevance for the community, the
demonstrating achievement of program results. As part of EPEWG produced the “Position Statement on Demonstrating
InterAction’s effort to help its member organizations increase NGO Effectiveness,” which the InterAction board of directors
their accountability to a variety of stakeholders including approved on September 20, 2005. It is this position statement
program participants, partners and donors, InterAction’s that provided the foundation for the SCP’s revised program
Evaluation and Program Effectiveness Working Group (EPEWG) evaluation standards.
recently submitted evaluation standards to InterAction’s
Standards Committee. These standards are now part of both With the new SCP process evaluation standards now ap-
the Self-Certification Plus (SCP) process and InterAction’s proved, the EPEWG will provide further guidelines to clarify
Recommended Standards and Guidelines. (See separate article and illustrate the revised standards. Additionally, to help In-
by Barbara Wallace on page 14.) The standards are intended terAction member organizations respond to these new stan-
for all InterAction member organizations regardless of their dards, the working group will prepare presentations on major
scope and size of operations. The revised evaluation standards, topics related to demonstrating effectiveness and will compile
recently approved by InterAction’s board of directors for a list of resources for program effectiveness and accountability.
incorporation into the SCP process, are defined as follows: The EPEWG will also issue recommended program evaluation
standards to complement the revised SCP standards. All will be
1. The organization incorporates relevant monitoring available on InterAction’s website.
and evaluation practices in its policy, systems and cul-
ture. This standard aims to assess design, monitoring This effort revises InterAction’s evaluation standards and devel-
and evaluation standards and policies that are in place ops and highlights resources that can help InterAction mem-
for programs and projects. It also seeks to ensure adher- bers comply with those standards. In so doing, it responds to
ence to professional principles and standards to foster one of the EPEWG’s two objectives, namely, to build the ca-
program effectiveness. pacity of InterAction and its members to demonstrate effec-
tiveness by: (a) serving as a practical resource for InterAction
2. The organization conducts regular and deliberate members and InterAction itself in monitoring, evaluation, and
evaluative activities to examine progress toward its program effectiveness; and (b) acting as a platform and a think
goals and mission. Regardless of the size and scope of tank in which InterAction and its members can develop new,
operations, the member organization will show how it creative ideas for evaluation and program effectiveness. The
regularly assesses whether or not it is on the right track EPEWG’s second objective complements the first: to inform
for achieving its intended goals and overall mission. communications and advocacy initiatives to influence the U.S.
and global aid effectiveness discourse.
3. The organization applies adequate financial and hu-
man resources for monitoring and evaluation. This stan- As the EPEWG begins taking on bigger tasks related to these
dard aims to ensure that the member organization not two objectives, it is eager to expand its membership to ensure
only allocates sufficient resources for program moni- that it represents the full range of InterAction members,
toring and evaluation activities, but also uses those re- drawing on InterAction members’ breadth of knowledge and
sources as planned/intended. experience and effectively responding to InterAction members’
needs related to evaluation and program effectiveness. To
These new SCP process evaluation standards emerge from join the EPEWG, please contact Hilary Nalven at HNalven@
three years of work that began when InterAction’s Board of Di- interaction.org.
rectors created the EPEWG to survey members’ evaluation ca-
pacities, support members’ needs for effectively using system-

MONDAY DEVELOPMENTS December 2007 13
Self-Certification Plus: Accountability,
Transparency, Effectiveness
By Barbara Wallace, Vice President, Membership & Standards, InterAction

I
nterAction members do not take a the broadening diversity The current Self-Certification Plus
lightly the trust placed in them amendments to include people process of validating compliance
by the American public through with disabilities in 2000; with the Standards became man-
direct donations, and, for some a the adoption of standards of- datory for all members in 2006. It
members, through government fering guidance in the pro- encourages organizational learning,
funding fueled by taxpayer dollars. tection of beneficiaries from advances best practices and helps
sexual exploitation and abuse ensure that InterAction members
Accountability is not only our re- and guiding NGOs in the ap- meet the highest standards of the
sponsibility, it is inherent in the mis- propriate use and movement international non-profit community.
sions and the core values that drive of pharmaceutical and medical The Standards further public trust
our organizations and the individu- resources in 2003; and confidence in InterAction mem-
als working in them who strive to a the adoption of standards bers. Indeed, in various aspects, the
save lives, alleviate suffering and covering whistleblower and InterAction PVO Standards exceed
support the world’s poor in devel- document destruction policies the prevailing standards of the Bet-
oping the capacity to thrive in self- in 2005; ter Business Bureau and the Nation-
sustaining communities around the a the inclusion of Minimum al Charities Information Bureau.
world. Because we are social profit, Operating Security Standards
rather than for-profit organizations, offering guidance on providing Through the Self-Certification Plus
the measure of our success is not staff security in 2006; and process, members explore their or-
measured by earnings, but by our a further refinement of standards ganizations’ compliance with each
accountability for the accomplish- for program monitoring and standard by examining organiza-
ment of our purposes and missions. evaluation in 2007. tional documents such as articles
Ultimately accountability to the of incorporation and by-laws, staff
public, our funders, our boards and Building on this tradition, all mem- and board of directors policies, and
staffs, and, perhaps most impor- bers and InterAction itself now un- operational practices. The organi-
tantly, to the people we serve is the dertake a rigorous self-certification zation then completes a checklist
foundation upon which all of our ef- called Self-Certification Plus every through which it certifies that it is in
forts are built. other year, using various types of compliance with each standard and
documented “evidence of compli- states the evidence used for its de-
Since 1994, each InterAction mem- ance,” to re-certify their compliance termination, or declares that it is not
ber organization has agreed to be with the Standards. in full compliance and provides its
bound by InterAction’s Private Vol- plan for achieving compliance with
untary Organization (PVO) Stan- Intended to ensure and strengthen the standard in question.
dards, a system of standards in the public confidence in the integrity,
areas of governance, finance, com- quality and effectiveness of mem- Any member that does not com-
munications with the U.S. public, ber organizations and their pro- plete the Self-Certification process
management practice, human re- grams, the Standards were created verifying compliance with the PVO
sources, program and public policy. when the overseas work of U.S. Standards is suspended from mem-
NGOs was dramatically increasing bership until it is completed. Any
The PVO Standards are continually in scope and significance. Defining member that identifies a standard
reviewed, added to and strength- the financial, operational, program- with which it is not in compliance
ened. Over the years, significant matic and ethical code of conduct and does not create and fulfill a
changes have been made such as: for InterAction and its member plan to satisfy the compliance re-
a the addition of gender and agencies, these high and objective quirement is also subject to suspen-
diversity amendments and standards set InterAction members sion from membership.
guidance for child sponsorship apart from many other charitable
programs in 1998; organizations.

14 InterAction MONDAY DEVELOPMENTS
The Self-Certification Plus process liance, but which do not yet lend the 2006 SCP process 93 percent of
incorporates three sets of standards: themselves to clear or definitive those who completed a question-
core standards for governance and measures of compliance or to uni- naire about the process gave posi-
administration (Category I), core form or identical application by each tive responses about the usefulness
universal program standards (Cat- member. At this juncture, a mem- of the process to their organiza-
egory II), and organizational com- ber agency’s ability to demonstrate tions.
mitment standards (Category III). an organizational commitment to
make regular, deliberate progress Amelia Kendall from the American
Core Standards apply to all mem- toward meeting these broader in- Refugee Committee International
ber agencies, large and small and stitutional objectives over a reason- gave a typical response. She called
regardless of mission or program able but defined period of time is the process, “Very useful – espe-
focus. In Categories I and II, these more important than defining an cially as a yearly exercise.” She
include: absolute measure of compliance to explained, “The process gives us
these standards. a forum to discuss accountability
Governance and Administration: with all departments within the or-
a governance and board respon- These organizational commitment ganization and to establish a point
sibility, Standards include most of the diver- person in each department. … We
a fiscal management and ac- sity amendments and several stan- were able to pinpoint where some
countability, dards that deal with administration, policies need to be updated and/
a equal access rights, management, fundraising and pub- or strengthened; some still need to
a organizational integrity, and lic policy. Whenever and wherever be created and implemented. We
a management and human re- a member agency determines that were also able to see where we are
sources. it has not met a Category III Stan- lacking in systems and to prioritize
dard, it should develop an action investments in organizational ac-
Universal Program:
plan for becoming compliant with countability.”
a program development,
these institutional commitments
a monitoring and evaluation, In response to a question asking
by 2009. The action plan should
a accountability, and whether the SCP has meaning for
identify milestones and markers by
a fundraising and public disclo- the organization even though it
which it can effectively measure its
sure. remains a self-regulatory process,
annual progress.
she responded: “Absolutely. It’s a
While every effort was made to
For many of our member organiza- track record of our internal efforts
include in Self-Certification Plus
tions, the initial Self-Certification to improve organizational account-
only those program standards that
Plus (SCP) process was time con- ability.”
should apply to all agencies, some
suming. Many found that complet-
program standards considered here The next year for mandatory com-
ing it the first time required choos-
to be “universal” may actually not pletion of the Self-Certification Plus
ing a member of staff who could
apply to every agency, particularly process is 2008.
dedicate a fair portion of his or her
those that do not operate programs
time to gathering organizational
in the field. In such instances, the The logical next step in the evolu-
documents, analyzing these materi-
agency need not self-certify compli- tion of accountability standards
als against the standards, and doc-
ance with those standards, but must is independent verification of ac-
umenting the evidence gathered.
explain briefly why those standards countability. The Child Sponsorship
are not applicable. Given the urgent need for our work Certification Project (see separate
to alleviate suffering, end poverty article by Kenneth Giunta on page
Agencies that have field operations 16) is an example of this process, but
and literally save lives, and the
must also demonstrate that the hiring a social auditor to provide this
pressure by funders to minimize
policies and procedures defined by type of independent review can be
management costs, there is little
these Core Standards are reflected very expensive, particularly for the
room in the day-to-day functioning
in field manuals and other program smaller members of our community.
of non-profits to step back and in-
documentation. In 2008, InterAction will pilot a peer
vest scarce resources on reviewing
policies and documents; yet many review process with a variety of our
Self-Certification Plus will also ap-
found the process very rewarding members, which will provide an in-
ply to Category III PVO Standards
and to be a stimulus for updating dependent assessment with mini-
that reflect institutional commit-
policy and practice. In completing mal financial investment.
ments made by the InterAction al-

MONDAY DEVELOPMENTS December 2007 15
Child Sponsorship Certification: Getting it Right
By Kenneth Giunta

InterAction’s work on standards, accountability and program ef- dence of compliance for each standard led to important self-as-
fectiveness directly influences how its member NGOs manage, sessments that have fostered on-going internal dialogue among
govern and evaluate their programs and their outcomes. It is their staff and boards about the standards and the way each
designed, in part, to help member agencies determine how best agency monitors the effectiveness of their programs. Each of the
to define success, how to design constructive strategies and agencies readily admitted that knowing that an external party
mechanisms for evaluating what they do, and how to improve was going to review their policies and procedures led them to
results reporting. complete a more thorough self-assessment than would have
otherwise been the case.
InterAction’s on-going child sponsorship certification project
demonstrates in tangible terms that sincere, constructive collab- As a direct result of observations made by the audit teams, plans
oration can take place and that NGOs can establish a community are now under way among these five agencies to meet shortly
of practice to improve transparency and program outcomes. to share their experiences and to make more uniform and com-
prehensive their program monitoring and evaluation systems
While they share common program goals and their member-
and their methods for tracking the benefits received by spon-
ship in InterAction, the five well-established member agencies
sored children.
that run child sponsorship programs are essentially competitors.
They compete in the same markets for the same donor public fi- Perhaps the most exciting evolution in this initiative has been
nancial support, as well as in many of the same countries for the the shared recognition among the five agencies that compli-
delivery of program services to essentially the same beneficiary ance with standards, while important, does not assure effective
communities. They also share the same skeptical media report- program delivery or guarantee positive outcomes. Each of the
ing that often questions the way child sponsorship programs agencies rightfully asked that if developing and implementing
operate. the systems and policies needed for standards compliance does
not lead ultimately to sustained, positive program outcomes,
Collectively, their common goal has become to strengthen their
then why have standards at all? This was a revelation and an
systems and program outcomes, and to develop a system of
evolution in thinking among these five agencies that never
externally verified compliance with established standards that
would have taken place before the process began in 1998. Only
could definitively assure a weary public and donor community
through sustained work examining their systems of operation
that, as service providers to children, they are indeed “delivering
and the meaning of the standards did these agencies come to
the goods” as promised.
understand and appreciate that accountability to an established
The process of developing a certification process that they all set of guidelines cannot and must not be the end in itself. Rather,
could agree to and feel comfortable with took over five years. having standards and subscribing to a more rigorous compli-
Among the first challenges was the need to tackle the often am- ance system must be part of a systemic commitment to trans-
biguous and un-auditable language contained in InterAction’s parency and to an ongoing, regular institutional self-examina-
standards. The certification project forced the first real, in-depth tion of the systems, policies and procedures needed for each
reading of the standards since their inception in 1992. In many agency to provide appropriate, consistent and effective services
instances the standards referred to other guidelines, merely sug- to the children and families being served.
gesting that InterAction members “should be guided by them”
All now agree that it is a wasted opportunity to limit audit teams
rather than requiring that they “shall” follow those guidelines.
to simply assessing compliance with standards. When audit
Through several years of countless meetings and conference teams are in the field visiting program sites and speaking to
calls with agency representatives and their attorneys, the stan- beneficiaries, child sponsorship agencies are increasingly asking
dards were rewritten in many places, substituting “shoulds” to them to also assess program effectiveness and share their ob-
“shalls” and defining the types of evidence that would be need- servations with them. At the end of each audit cycle, it has been
ed to demonstrate compliance with each standard to an inde- suggested that these assessments and observations be shared
pendent auditor. with the other agencies and the broader InterAction community
Sitting around the same table and working toward a common in order to assist child sponsorship programs and overall NGO
goal, led ultimately to collaboration among these five agencies. effectiveness.
Even before the first certification audit was launched in October These five agencies continue to push the accountability enve-
2004, the agencies met, developed and shared a comprehensive lope, offering themselves up to increased scrutiny and external
set of child protection standards that each agreed to adopt and assessment. By their example they repeatedly demonstrate that
enforce. NGO community practice for accountability, transparency and
Following the audits, to an agency, they each found that the program effectiveness is not only possible but also necessary if
learning that took place as a result of their required self-stud- the sector is ever going to get it right.
ies that preceded the audits, as well as the observations made
about their programs by the audit teams was even greater than Kenneth Giunta is a private consultant and the former Senior
any benefit that might result from donor and public knowledge Director for Membership and Standards at InterAction. He staffed
of their certification. Indeed, the process of gathering the evi- this project for seven years from 2000-2007.

16 InterAction MONDAY DEVELOPMENTS
Post-Crisis Community Recovery and Renewal:
Accountability Invisibility
By Victoria Dunning, Vice President, Grantmaking Program, The Global Fund for Children

Natural disasters are typically times of great chaos and uncer- claims the unique role and value of CBOs in post-disaster sce-
tainty. Systems and infrastructure often fail under stress. Coor- narios, and instructs the funding and NGO community on better
dination, always a challenge, can sometimes collapse. In these practices for community recovery.
times, effective coordination and response are particularly
In some ways, the manifesto simply reiterated long-held tenets
difficult to tease out. Who is in charge? Who is answerable to
and principles elaborated on in other emergency and relief doc-
whom? Will people and communities be let down or will they
uments such as the Code of Conduct of the International Red
be effectively and equitably served as massive relief efforts un-
Cross and Red Crescent Movement and NGOs in Disaster Relief,
fold? And as individuals’ lives move forward, is there a defined,
and the Council on Foundation’s Disaster Grantmaking: A Prac-
accountable party or parties that meet their rebuilding needs or
tical Guide for Foundations and Corporations. The manifesto
are they faced with a bureaucratic, exasperating game of “pass
repeated the appeal for collaborative efforts and coordination
the buck?”
between civil society and government at both central and local
Following a natural disaster, community-based organizations levels. It also underscored the importance of meeting the needs
(CBOs) play a distinct and valuable role in a community’s recov- of women, children, and vulnerable populations as a central te-
ery and renewal. The CBO is often the first responder to offer net of relief, rebuilding, and recovery efforts, and attested to the
relief to its community in a disaster, but moreover, it is the last- importance of respect for and adaptation to local culture and
ing responder as community members move back into routines context of the affected community.
after emergency, relief and even rebuilding efforts have ended.
At first blush, the workshop and the manifesto may seem to have
In recognition of this critical role of re-knitting the fabric of com-
merely re-created a process typical of what is undertaken by the
munity life, The Global Fund for Children established dedicated
UN, multinationals and civil society at a global level and with
funding for community-based organizations in the recovery and
similar outcomes. Yet the workshop and the document have a
renewal process following disaster and crisis. Relatively new to
more subtle and implicit power. It is generated from the voice
funding relief and development work, The Global Fund for Chil-
and immediate witness of the community-based organizations
dren strategically established its grant criteria and has thus far
themselves. Further, the manifesto brings attention to the sec-
committed over $600,000 to 22 community-based organiza-
ondary, unintended effects of post-disaster programming and
tions affected by and supporting those affected by the 2004 In-
funding (such as mission diversion and funding skews). This
dian Ocean Tsunami, the 2005 Hurricanes Katrina and Rita in the
highlights the central importance of sustainable and integrat-
Gulf Coast and the 2005 Pakistan earthquake.
ed planning and funding for effective transitions from relief to
The learning from these organizations is not bounded by geog- recovery and, ultimately, to renewal of communities following
raphy, nor type of disaster. In response, The Global Fund for Chil- disaster.
dren convened twenty-two of its grantee partners from India,
The 22 CBOs that participated in the workshop were not timid in
Thailand, Indonesia, Sri Lanka, Pakistan, and the U.S. Gulf Coast in
demanding accountability of both governments and funders in
May 2007, in Mahabalipuram, India for a post-disaster recovery
supporting them in times of disaster. They declared that the im-
and renewal knowledge exchange workshop. While nearly two
plementers themselves are best qualified to make critical deci-
years had elapsed since the most recent tragedy (the Pakistan
sions on the use of funds. And they underscored the importance
earthquake in October 2005), emotions ran high, as participants
of fluid and flexible funding to adapt to changing needs. These
found both wonder and solace in common experiences. Today,
tenets require trust and transparency on the part of funders and
with the evocative third anniversary of the tsunami upon us, the
grantee partners.
fading memory of the Pakistan earthquake, and the failures of
emergency response in the Gulf Coast still readily apparent, we Perhaps, most importantly, the lessons from the workshop and
can examine with growing perspective the accountability chan- the manifesto remind us that particularly in times of disaster and
nels, or lack thereof, of each episode. distress, accountability is in itself a goal that must be integrated
in disaster prevention and preparedness. It is the mutually ac-
The four-day workshop focused on CBO experience and practice
countable relationships and partnerships established long be-
in implementing effective post-disaster programming. It culmi-
fore the chaos ensues that will carry those involved through
nated in the development of the participant-written Commu-
relief and rebuilding.
nity-Based Organization Post-Disaster Manifesto that powerfully

Perhaps, most importantly, the lessons from the workshop and the manifesto remind us that particularly
in times of disaster and distress, accountability is in itself a goal that must be integrated in disaster
prevention and preparedness. It is the mutually accountable relationships and partnerships established
long before the chaos ensues that will carry those involved through relief and rebuilding.

MONDAY DEVELOPMENTS December 2007 17
Member CEOs Discuss Accountability
Challenges
As part of this edition’s focus on accountability, we asked InterAction member CEOs for their
thoughts on the challenges they face being accountable to multiple stakeholders (beneficiaries,
donors, partners, policy-makers and the U.S. public) and how they have addressed those
challenges.

Too Many Standards Financial Accounting Standards policy-makers and the general pub-
The new outcry regarding Board has adopted a variety of stan- lic. We align our guidelines, suc-
accountability for results is, in dards for differing entities (colleges cess measures, resources and deci-
effect, “the other shoe dropping” and universities account for things sion-making to our ultimate goal of
in the wake of tightened financial differently from health care organi- ensuring that children in need are
accountability required by the zations or public welfare charities), safe, educated, healthy and better
partial adoption by the NGO standards appropriate to each type able to attain their rights.
sector of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act. of NGO should be developed and
agreed upon. When agreed upon, Currently, Save the Children is de-
Beneficiaries, donors, partners,
these standards should be consis- veloping an agency-wide account-
boards and other stakeholders are
tently implemented thus reducing ability framework for all program-
no longer content with being told
parallel and duplicative require- matic areas and operating contexts
by an organization that “we are
ments that negatively impact direct in which we work – emergency, tran-
doing good work here.” They also
and indirect costs. sition and development. This frame-
want verifiable evidence (parallel to
work will help us to assess program-
an independent audit for financial Daniel Pellegrom, President, matic and administrative strategies
purposes) that programmatic Pathfinder International
to achieve our goals with quality
progress (i.e. “impact”) which can
programs and determine whether
be linked to the organization’s
activities is demonstrable and
Building a Comprehensive we have sufficient quality assur-
measurable. This is a reasonable
Internal Framework for ance efforts in place. The develop-
requirement.
Accountability ment of this framework is a priority
Though Save the Children is ac- at Save the Children to strengthen
Unfortunately, unlike the account- countable to multiple stakeholders, our current efforts towards account-
ing side, there is no one body em- we recognize that our primary ac- ability to multiple stakeholders and
powered to determine the pro- countability is to produce positive to develop a culture of accountabil-
grammatic equivalent to GAAP and sustainable results for the chil- ity for quality results at all levels
(Generally Accepted Accounting dren we serve. In assessing the ef- within the Agency.
Principles), nor can independent fectiveness of our programs, we pri-
Charles F. MacCormack, President &
evaluators and impartial observers oritize listening to our beneficiaries
CEO, Save the Children
even agree upon the evidence each and measuring impact and outputs
will accept in making their indi- – especially for children – to help us
vidual determinations. As a result, understand not only whether our Accountability Through
organizations like Pathfinder are programs have achieved impact but Collaboration With
investing heavily and reluctantly whether we have done so in a man- Communities
in building multiple monitoring ner satisfactory to those we serve. Sometimes global conservation can
and evaluation frameworks, paral- be overwhelming: there is so much
Save the Children is committed to to do, the needs are so pressing,
lel systems of indicators and huge
accountability not only to our ben- and, to make it work, the needs of
databanks to hold the differently
eficiaries but to ourselves as an so many different individuals and
“sliced and diced” information re-
agency and to all of our external groups have to come into align-
quired by conflicting and confusing
stakeholders – donors, partners, ment. Rather than get discouraged
reporting requirements. Just as the

18 InterAction MONDAY DEVELOPMENTS
by this reality, WWF’s approach is to Even when dealing with major do- Far more than that, accountability
roll up our sleeves and start looking nors with program sophistication, must be innate to the management
for common ground. Collaboration performance expectations often go style of the CEO and other organi-
in the name of conservation is how beyond what might be reasonable zational leaders and woven into ev-
we’ve always worked. for the scope of their investment. ery day-to-day activity and decision.
Three years ago, a major donor of- Absolute honesty, a commitment
I was recently in Mozambique and fered us $5 million to absolutely end to transparency of all information
saw how collaboration in action world hunger (his explicit expecta- (with the exception of appropriately
produces meaningful change. The tion). Three years later, he remains confidential legal or personnel mat-
country is a study in contrasts. It a generous supporter of our work, ters) and a communication style
is one of Africa’s fastest-growing but also has far better-formed ex- that is clear, simple and accessible
economies, and also one of the con- pectations of what $5 million might to all audiences are at the heart of
tinent’s poorest countries. Along the do. accountability.
coast, fishing has been a way of life
for generations, but bad practices Regulators, media, professionals As a new CEO in 2004, I faced a
and overfishing had drained fish- (auditors and legal) and watchdogs particular challenge in reporting
eries and many people didn’t have are part of our accountability chal- to our board of trustees. The board
enough to eat. lenge. They also need education to was hungry for information about
help balance their non-expert ex- the organizational life of World
To help find a solution, local fish- pectations. Right now we are chal- Neighbors and felt closed off from
ermen and the government of Mo- lenging a major watchdog on their news and operational activities. I
zambique turned to WWF. We took accountability standards for inter- had to balance this against the valid
the broadest view possible of the national NGOs. Likewise, a few policy/operations line between my
issue by involving local stakehold- NGO auditors are suggesting that responsibilities and the role of the
ers every step of the way. The result Standard 157 of the Financial Ac- board. I opted for greater openness
met the needs of all involved: a sys- counting Standards Board should and crafted a comprehensive CEO’s
tem of marine protected areas man- apply to gifts-in-kind as well as its report format that was built with
aged by the local communities with intended target (securities); educa- input from all vice presidents and
fishing zones for resident fishermen, tion is needed for this type of ac- field offices. While this may be seen
commercial fishermen and for high- countability as well. as risky in drawing trustees into op-
end, low-impact tourism. What’s the erations, it has, in fact, had the op-
measure of success? Quite simply, Lastly, transparency is inherent posite and very positive effect. The
when the local fishermen hit the to this challenge. It brings its own trustees now trust that I am open
water now, they’re catching enough multiple levels of risk and reward, with them, that secrets will not be
fish to sustain their families. and often is viewed as synonymous kept and that they have full knowl-
with accountability – an incorrect edge of our life.
Carter S. Roberts, President & CEO,
understanding of the first order.
World Wildlife Fund Melanie Macdonald, President & CEO,
Joel MacCollam, Chief Executive, World Neighbors

Educating Constituencies World Emergency Relief

Our greatest accountability chal- Accountability and
lenge is balancing public expec- Accountability to Board Overhead Costs
tations of what results of what Members
stakeholders want delivered, with Achieving accountability with multi- One of the greatest challenges
realities of what is possible. Human ple constituents in any not-for-profit faced by NGOs when working
reality is that most people have organization is a never-ending task. with multiple donors is that many
opinions, but fewer know what they There are, of course, the usual tools “cap” allowable indirect charges
are talking about or seek further that honor this requirement: an- to an award. NGOs have always
elucidation. Unfortunately, we do nual reports and audited financial struggled to find money to pay for
not have financial or H.R. resources statements, regular CEO reports to administrative overhead costs – a
to help resolve this problem with the board of trustees, periodic mes- term often undefined, but gener-
many of our stakeholders, in spite sages to all staff, updates to donors ally contrasted with expenditure
of our marketplace experience. and involvement of all key players going directly to programming. The
in strategic and budget planning. increasing trend amongst funders
continued on next page

MONDAY DEVELOPMENTS December 2007 19
continued from previous page
continued from page 9
other than the U.S. government of provide a strong explanation of how
limiting administrative costs to a set investment in overhead can add val- Despite the many successes made in
percentage is disturbing and coun- ue to an organization’s work. Some recent decades, stark disparities per-
terproductive. make it a virtue to minimize admin- sist between the countries at highest
istrative expenditure by stressing in reproductive risk level and those at the
NGOs that have negotiated an in- solicitations or proposals that only lowest.
direct cost rate agreement (NICRA) five or eight percent of a contribu-
with an agency of the U.S. govern- Aiming to improve women’s health and
tion or award goes toward adminis-
ment are required to allocate orga- reduce these inequities, PAI launched
trative costs.
nizational indirect costs to all “cost an advocacy campaign called What’s
objectives” (projects) using the Many NGOs work with very limited Your Number? to encourage advocates
same rules. Limiting a recipient’s access to unrestricted funding and to use the reproductive risk rankings
ability to recover costs through in- rely heavily on the ability to recover to lobby their country officials, donors
direct allocation diverts rather than all costs of operations from our proj- and other influential actors.
increases money going to program. ect-specific grants. The concept of
One key recommendation of the report
It forces the recipient to raise funds “full cost recovery” is vital to our
is to design health interventions ac-
from other donors, cut essential survival, and we need to find ways
cording to the local context. While the
costs, or, in some cases, makes it to convince our non-federal funders
Reproductive Risk Index points to the
impossible to accept the limited of the importance of supporting
national-level reproductive risk, the
award. our work in this way. Promoting
factors influencing reproductive risk
desirable levels of investment in
Administrative costs have always vary from one community to another.
operations requires a new ap-
received bad press. The criticism Therefore, efforts to reach women, men
proach. Toward that end, the Asso-
rests on four false premises: and youth with comprehensive sexual
ciation of PVO Financial Managers
and reproductive health information
(APVOFM) has established a work-
1. Expenditure on adminis- and services must be locally led and
ing group that hopes to change the
trative overhead is wasteful implemented.
attitude, over time, of some key do-
compared to programmatic
nors to international programs. We The study also recommends increased
spending;
would welcome your involvement focus on the distribution of reproductive
2. The ratio of indirect to direct in creating materials, mechanisms health services. Because poor reproduc-
costs is inversely proportionate and procedures to educate funders tive health and inadequate access to
to an NGO’s efficiency; on this matter. services are concentrated among poor
3. NGOs spend excessive people, focusing on the distribution of
By focusing on staff in the areas of
amounts on administrative services is paramount. Ensuring access
finance, grants, contracts, human
costs; and to skilled care before, during and after
resources, information technol-
4. Administrative overhead childbirth will save the lives of women
ogy and administration, APVOFM
costs in NGOs are unnecessary. and their babies.
works toward providing NGOs with
the tools, information and support PAI hopes that A Measure of Survival
Contrary to public opinion, money
to build successful infrastructures will serve as an important tool for ad-
spent on information technology,
within their own organizations. We vocates to make the case for increased
human resources, finance, planning
do this through training, network- funding and strong policies for sexual
and governance both support and
ing, shared resources, good prac- and reproductive health and rights.
underpin the programmatic work
tices, benchmarking surveys and Knowing each country’s reproductive
of NGOs. Greater investment in
advocacy that assist our members risk is an important step toward achiev-
administration is likely to increase
in building and leading teams who ing safe, healthy and informed policy
NGO efficiency rather than de-
will become essential partners in and program decisions that can protect
crease it.
accomplishing the mission of their the world’s poorest women.
The premise that all spending on organizations.
overhead represents poor value for
Alison Smith, Executive Director, For a free copy of the report, visit PAI’s website
money must be challenged. NGOs APVOFM at www.populationaction.org/order, or view and
and other non-profits have failed to download it at www.populationaction.org/mos.

20 InterAction MONDAY DEVELOPMENTS
Well-Being in Emergencies: The IASC Guidelines on
Mental Health and Psychosocial Support in Emergency
Settings
By Mike Wessells, Senior Child Protection Advisor, Christian Children’s Fund, and Mark van
Ommeren, Scientist, Department of Mental Health and Substance Abuse, World Health Organization

Traditionally, humanitarian interventions in emergencies fo- The heart of the Guidelines are 25 action sheets that cover top-
cused mostly on meeting basic physical needs and establishing ics such as coordination, assessment, social and legal protection,
security. In the past two decades, humanitarians have increas- care for humanitarian staff, community self-help, early child de-
ingly recognized that emergency affected people suffer signifi- velopment, mental health and psychosocial support in the pro-
cantly due to: the mental anguish of losses, deaths, attacks and vision of general health care, care for people with severe men-
displacement; the loss of social supports and familiar routines; tal disorders (including severe presentations of post-traumatic
and ongoing protection threats. As one conflict-affected elder stress disorder), harmful substance use, non-formal and formal
said, “the NGOs came and gave us food and shelter, but who education, and information dissemination. Overall, the bulk of
helped our spirits?” the guidance is on social interventions rather than clinical, indi-
vidual interventions. A distinctive feature is the view that all sec-
The sources of mental and psychosocial distress in emergencies
tors have a responsibility to promote mental health and psycho-
are diverse and reflect problems that arise before, during and af-
social well-being by virtue of the way in which basic needs are
ter an acute event such as a tsunami or an armed attack. Numer-
provided for. For example, how shelter is organized for displaced
ous individuals suffer from pre-existing psychological problems
people affects mental health and psychosocial well-being since
(such as severe mental disorders) or social problems (such as po-
people living in overcrowded camps may report that lack of pri-
litical discrimination and oppression). During emergencies, new
vacy is their greatest concern. This view contrasts with an older
problems arise due to losses, displacement, family separation,
view that mental health and psychosocial support is something
and protection threats such as recruitment and trafficking. After
to be done only after basic survival needs have been met.
emergencies, affected people suffer from social effects, includ-
ing being discriminated against as displaced people, being de- The Guidelines stand on six key principles: human rights and eq-
tained illegally, or being stigmatized as “rebels” or “rape victims.” uity, participation, Do No Harm, building on available resources
Moreover, many people experience psychological effects, such and capacities, integrated support systems, and multi-layered
as problems with anxiety and depression, which for many – but support systems. These reflect an empowerment model and
not for all – decreases with time. In addition, some issues arise emphasize that mental health and psychosocial support is to a
due to unintended side effects of humanitarian efforts. Harm large extent about what affected people do for themselves. A
may be caused by poorly coordinated humanitarian response, key point is that the Guidelines move beyond the tired debate
the labeling of everyone as “traumatized,” failure to inform all about which is more important: (a) clinical care, or (b) commu-
segments of the population about available aid, or harmful in- nity self-help and social support. These are two sides of a coin,
terventions. and multi-layered supports require attention to both.
The breadth of these issues challenges everyone to help orga- The Guidelines (available at http://www.humanitarianinfo.org/
nize a multifaceted, comprehensive response. This response iasc/content/products) are a useful resource both at the prac-
should go far beyond attention to traumatic stress, which is only tice and policy levels. For practitioners, they outline key steps
one aspect of a much wider set of issues. Unfortunately, there to be taken during the emergency. Coordination groups may
has, until recently, been no systematic, consensus guidance on use them as a checklist to identify gaps in multi-sectoral sup-
how to respond effectively and avoid harmful practices. port and to guide program development. They can also be used
as a lever in urging governments in emergency-affected coun-
This gap has been filled by the IASC Guidelines on Mental Health
tries to take an appropriate approach and to develop effective
and Psychosocial Support in Emergency Settings (IASC, 2007).
disaster response plans. For donors, the Guidelines offer a set of
These inter-agency, global guidelines, which were launched
benchmarks by which proposals can be judged. The important
in Geneva in September and on November 29 at InterAction,
task ahead is for all actors, whether practitioners or donors, to
define minimum recommended responses. These are the first
implement these Guidelines to protect the dignity and reduce
steps to be taken in emergencies and that lay the foundation
the suffering of people living through emergencies.
for subsequent supports. The Guidelines are the product of col-
laboration among 27 UN agencies, intergovernmental agencies
and international NGOs, including InterAction members such as The authors co-chaired the IASC Task Force that developed the
American Red Cross, CARE, Christian Children’s Fund, Interna- Guidelines.
tional Medical Corps, International Rescue Committee, Mercy
Corps and Save the Children.

MONDAY DEVELOPMENTS December 2007 21
Building Safer Organizations and
Accountability to Disaster Survivors
By Coleen Heemskerk, Radha Ivory and Katharina Samara, formerly of the Building Safer Organizations project

F
or many, the issue of sexual tion by humanitarian workers, with on investigating complaints and
exploitation and abuse by an absence of regulation, monitor- designing and implementing safe,
humanitarian workers is a ing and redress for victims creating accessible complaints mechanisms.
story beginning in West Af- practical impunity. The impression These learning program workshops
rica. In Sierra Leone, Liberia and of management inaction was com- were conducted in six different re-
Guinea, allegations against human- pounded by agency delays in re- gions around the world, where they
itarian workers and peacekeepers sponding and the dramatic media have been held on a rolling basis
scandalized the international com- coverage in 2002 that unleashed an ever since. The workshops have
munity in 2002 and prompted a ma- international furor. built skills, changed attitudes and
jor re-evaluation of organizational generated enthusiasm for a more
strategies to prevent and respond Unfortunately, when the UN sent effective organizational response.
to abuse. an investigative team to the refu- Yet many workshop participants re-
gee and displaced persons camps, ported challenges in implementing
Consultants engaged by Save the witnesses were unwilling to speak their new-found skills due to a lack
Children UK and the Office of the to them. As a result, the team could of understanding from management
UN High Commissioner for Refu- not substantiate the cases cited in and support in the field.
gees (UNHCR) went to West Africa the report. However, they did find
in 2001 and 2002 to report on the ex- other cases and gaps in organiza- BSO responded with a series of
periences of children living in situa- tions’ prevention and response ca- management workshops to con-
tions of armed conflict. During their pacities. vince managers of the risk of sex-
research, the consultants found al- ual exploitation and abuse by their
legations of widespread abuse by The exposure of abuses in West Af- staff. At the same time, BSO began
peacekeepers and humanitarian rica catapulted the problem of ex- providing expertise and financial
workers. These workers often used ploitation and abuse into the public support to field-based networks
the very humanitarian assistance realm. The first standardized inter- tackling sexual exploitation and
intended to help refugees as tools of national policy response was initi- abuse of disaster survivors. Manag-
exploitation, extorting sexual “fa- ated when a joint UN-NGO task ers and staff expressed support for
vors” for small amounts of money, force formulated six core principles further collaboration. Nevertheless,
food stuff, plastic sheeting, educa- guiding the behavior of humanitari- with some exceptions, the momen-
tion and the like. While the prin- an staff. These principles were later tum dissipated once participants
ciple targets were girls between 13 enshrined in a UN bulletin for UN were back in their organizations
and 18, the consultants also report- partners and staff. Furthermore, the and the networks were slow to get
ed cases of abuse against younger exposure led to activities to spread off the ground.
children and suspected unreported good practices in implementing
cases against boys. Further investi- these principles in different loca- There are a number of explanations
gations indicated that exploitation tions around the world. for the slow pace of organizational
of young women was endemic. change. Firstly, organizations are
In the aftermath of these events, the not easily persuaded to look past
Building Safer Organizations (BSO) West Africa as the source of the
Failure of management project was created as part of a problem. Similarly, analyses around
systems NGO global partnership to prevent solutions rarely look beyond stan-
Despite the large number of cases and respond to sexual exploitation dard gender-based violence pro-
documented by the consultants, no and abuse by encouraging NGOs gramming projects for solutions.
agency reported receiving com- to introduce safer and more acces- Secondly, there is a tendency to be
plaints from staff or refugees. It sible complaints mechanisms and overly optimistic in projecting the
was therefore not surprising that to improve the quality of investiga- pace of organizational change and
the consultants cited management tions when complaints are received. about how easily initial enthusiasm
practices as a clear contributing In 2004, BSO began training staff will be translated into transforma-
factor to the occurrence of exploita-

22 InterAction MONDAY DEVELOPMENTS
tive action. A third major stumbling an indication of where the humani- they are systematically consulted
block has been an inability to per- tarian community is at in terms of about the issues at the heart of their
suade senior managers that sexual public commitments to improve survival. Awareness campaigns for
exploitation and abuse is an ongo- prevention and response to sexual colleagues working in organiza-
ing and universal strategic risk re- exploitation and abuse. tions are on-going, but similar ef-
quiring strategic solutions. forts to ensure that beneficiaries
BSO/HAP is therefore conducting a understand their rights and how
beneficiary-based perception study to complain when those rights are
Managerial courage in four countries (Bangladesh, Ke- violated are less vigorous. As the
Sexual exploitation and abuse is nya, Namibia and the Thai-Bur- perceptions of disaster survivors are
the end result when organizations mese border) to understand what the ultimate measure of whether
do not hold themselves account- disaster survivors want from a com- or not NGO initiatives to prevent
able to the people they say they are plaints handling system. Recipi- and respond to sexual exploitation
there to assist. Ongoing engage- ents of humanitarian assistance are and abuse are effective, these early
ment with disaster survivors and asked whether they feel safer as a findings indicate that the humani-
local NGO staff over the three-year result of NGO activities since 2003 tarian community needs to imple-
life of the BSO project indicates to address the risk of sexual exploi- ment standards on accountability.
that preventing and responding to tation and abuse by staff. Through
the most egregious forms of abuse site-based discussions, transect We believe that organizations im-
of beneficiaries cannot be sustain- walks through camps, observation plementing the HAP standards will
able unless exploitation and abuse and random visits to homes and find themselves better equipped to
are addressed as part of broader targeted interviews, we ask ben- address a variety of issues affecting
accountability and quality manage- eficiaries the extent to which they the lives of the communities they
ment approaches. consider mechanisms to be in place work with. We particularly believe
and effective and whether agencies that the standards create a viable
Most organizations include a com-
consulted them when developing framework for improving programs
mitment to disaster survivors in
those mechanisms. to prevent and address sexual ex-
their vision statements, but it is rare
ploitation and abuse.
for that to be accompanied by the Concurrently, BSO is asking local,
managerial courage to be tested national and international organi- In conclusion, for BSO, the legacy
against an objective standard of zations around the world to com- of West Africa is a double-edged
accountability to disaster survivor. plete a survey, the Sexual Exploi- sword. On the one hand, the
Many staff working in the humani- tation and Abuse Prevention and “shock” of the scandal launched
tarian sector are frustrated by how Response Tally Sheet, to evaluate the problem of sexual exploitation
few agencies explicitly demon- their prevention and response ca- and abuse by humanitarian work-
strate how they hold themselves pacities and to self-identify weak- ers into the international arena,
accountable. Over the last couple of nesses and strengths. After consult- persuading major players to take
years, Humanitarian Accountabil- ing a broad range of stakeholders, important policy decisions. On the
ity Partnership International (HAP) BSO developed this survey for or- other, there is a perception that sex-
(see separate article in this issue of ganizations to reflect on their poli- ual exploitation and abuse is only a
Monday Developments) developed cies and processes, awareness rais- West Africa scandal, a historically
specific accountability standards in ing, investigations capacities and and geographically isolated case,
consultation with disaster survivors consultation and cooperation with and is no longer instructive because
and aid workers. The BSO project staff, other agencies and, most im- of the policy advances that occurred
chose to merge with the HAP as the portantly, beneficiaries. in its wake. In reality, exploitation
next logical next step in the process and abuse are the result of the ex-
of creating incentives for organiza- A comparison of these two studies treme discrepancies in power be-
tional action at the higher levels of will illustrate the extent and points tween workers and beneficiaries
management. of convergence and deviation be- – discrepancies that are inherent
tween organizational and con- in all relief situations. Through our
sumer perspectives. Early analysis
Research and advocacy indicates that disaster survivors de-
merger with HAP, BSO hopes to
strategy: consulting scribe enormous barriers to formal-
contribute to the solution that will
disaster survivors ly complain about even the most
lead the humanitarian community
In addition to its usual capacity to reform humanitarian action and
basic day-to-day concerns, and inform every aspect of our program-
building activities, in late 2007, the
are therefore unlikely to complain ming through consistent, respectful
BSO/HAP team began a research
about egregious and dangerous and serious dialogue with the peo-
and advocacy strategy to provide
abuse. They also do not feel that ple we claim to serve.

MONDAY DEVELOPMENTS December 2007 23
Code Blue: Non-Governmental Organizations Uniting
to Support Public Sector Health Services
By Wendy Johnson, Director of New Initiatives, Health Alliance International

Over the last decade, unprecedented tribution to the human resource crisis,
political will has been focused on ad- dubbed “internal brain-drain,” which
dressing the growing and multiple occurs when NGOs and other inter-
health crises affecting the developing national institutions lure government
world. Funding from bilateral aid pro- workers away from front-line clinical,
grams like the U.S. President’s Emer- public health and managerial jobs into
gency Program for AIDS Relief (PEP- high-paid program administration po-
FAR), multilateral agencies such as the sitions, thereby exacerbating the very
Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculo- problems they are attempting to solve.
sis and Malaria, and private donors like
Some NGOs, aware of these pitfalls, are
the Gates Foundation has increased by
exploring and implementing innova-
tens of billions of dollars.
tive ways to strengthen health sys-
Sharp increases in available funding, Photo: courtesy of Jiro Ose. tems and build public human resource
primarily aimed at curbing the HIV capacity. Clearly, NGOs can have a
epidemic, have lead to tremendous positive effect by providing innovative
growth in the NGO community and a multitude of different technical assistance, by directing funding to support the public
projects and approaches, many with limited and in some cas- system that might otherwise go elsewhere, by training the lo-
es, wide-spread success. For example, although the ambitious cal health care workforce, and by supporting national strategic
goals of the World Health Organization’s 3 by 5 campaign (three plans and monitoring and evaluation systems. Perhaps more
million on antiretroviral medicines by 2005) were not realized, difficult for NGOs is the challenge to “do no harm”: that is, limit-
the campaign galvanized diverse governments, organizations ing their own potentially negative effects on the public health
and institutions to dramatically expand treatment access so that system. The process requires NGOs to honestly assess their own
now nearly two million people are on antiretrovirals worldwide. practices and their unintended consequences and to recognize
that working though the public system often takes longer and
Despite these advances, consensus is growing that gains in
requires the NGO to share decision-making power.
some areas, like HIV treatment, are severely limited while in oth-
er areas, like maternal child health, ground is being lost due to As a guide for international NGOs working to limit their harm-
weak public health systems and most critically, the severe short- ful effects and maximize their contributions to strengthening
age of qualified health workers in the poorest countries. Often public health systems, several health-focused NGOs including
donors pressure NGOs to produce short-term gains in a limited ActionAid, Health GAP, Partners in Health, Physicians for Human
population, creating conflict with the longer-term and more dif- Rights, Health Alliance International and others are developing
ficult task of building strong, high-quality national health care a code of conduct. The code will define and describe specific
systems able to provide comprehensive health services to an actions and practices to be encouraged or avoided for NGOs
entire population for decades to come. concerned about strengthening health systems in the countries
where they work. Although other codes exist outlining ethical
National health systems have degraded over the years because
NGO practices, none that we are aware of clearly address NGO
of a lack of basic investment, sometimes due to misplaced pri-
practices and their effect on human resources and national
orities or corruption, but often directly attributable to austerity
health systems. The draft, still in development, addresses hiring
measures or structural adjustment programs, the burden of high
and compensation practices, training health workers, the man-
debt payments, and other conditions imposed by institutions like
agement burden created by multiple NGO projects, and the role
the International Monetary Fund designed to reduce public ex-
of NGOs in advocacy and in engaging communities and linking
penditure in social services including health. International NGOs
them to formal health systems.
work in a constrained environment, where governments’ ability
to address their own health problems may be severely curtailed In recent years, program “sustainability” has become a byword
while NGOs have more flexibility. NGOs can quickly hire more of international health policy. And yet it is clear that without a
staff at higher salaries or acquire specialized equipment to sat- well-funded and healthy state, sustainability will be a mirage.
isfy vertical funding demands or create an idealized project serv- Through initiatives like the Code of Conduct, we hope to ensure
ing one limited population in a small geographic area. The result that “health for all” is not a thousand-year project or forever out
is a fragmented and inequitable health care delivery system, of reach.
where viral load measurement may be available, but cesarean
sections are not; where one district has a state of the art hospital For more information about the International NGO Code of Conduct
while the next district has only an empty cement-block building for Health System Strengthening in Developing Countries, or to
without running water or electricity that serves as a make-shift participate in the development and drafting of the Code, please
health post. Recent attention has been focused on the NGO con- contact the author at wjohns@u.washington.edu.

24 InterAction MONDAY DEVELOPMENTS
New Visions to End Poverty
Participate in InterAction’s Forum 2008
May 6-9, 2008 | Washington, DC
The InterAction Annual Forum is the premier gathering of
international humanitarian and development professionals. More
than 700 leaders and practitioners meet to discuss timely issues
affecting the NGO sector and share best practices and cutting edge
work from the field.
Participate in thematic panels and roundtable discussions
Hear from expert keynote speakers
Join peer-to-peer exchanges
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For more information about participating, exhibiting, or sponsoring:
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Photo: courtesy of Darcy Kiefel
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6ISITWWWAIDANDTRADEORGORTELEPHONE  
Accountability in Fleet Management
By Dante A. Disparte, General Manager, Marketing & Solutions Development, Kjaer Group A/S

T
he humanitarian sector em- spective, by five years or 150,000 Social and Environmental
ploys in excess of 130,000 kms, the typical project 4x4 will in- Accountability
4x4 vehicles, with an an- cur between $56,000 and $80,000 in Financial costs are not the only con-
nual operating cost near- operating costs. cern when it comes to the state of
ing $1 billion. In order to replen- fleet management in the humani-
ish this fleet, approximately 20,000 While there is talk of an accountan- tarian sector. The vast 4x4 fleet
new vehicles are procured annually cy shift in the humanitarian sector enables millions of beneficiaries to
at an estimated $700,000,000. to International Financial Report- be reached. With 65 percent of the
ing Standards (IFRS), which calls fleet deployed in Africa, the region
These vehicles are a vital link in the for vehicles and other assets to be farthest from achieving the Millen-
humanitarian supply chain, yet how depreciated over time, it will only nium Development Goals (MDGs),
they are managed speaks to the ur- serve as a rudimentary form of fleet this particular link must not break.
gent need for greater professional- management. We must remember Yet, at present, the 4x4 link in the
ism and accountability in humani- that for many agencies vehicles humanitarian supply chain is show-
tarian fleet management. represent the second largest oper- ing signs of stress and decay.
ating cost after staff expenses; and
they are more than likely procured
Financial Accountability with donor funding, for which a
While many agencies have ad-
dressed occupational safety using
The prevailing practice in vehicle
greater degree of accountability is mechanisms like insurance and
procurement is that they are ex-
required. other tools, few have taken active
pensed at the moment of purchase.
Effectively, this amounts to vehicle continued on page 32
assets disappearing on the most
critical financial radar, the balance
sheet. The result of this practice is
that few humanitarian agencies are
aware of the lifetime financial im-
pact of owning and operating a fleet
of vehicles. A further consequence
of this practice is that the financial
benefits of disposing of vehicles ac-
cording to a cost-effective lifecycle
(e.g. five years or 150,000 kilometers
(kms)) are not reaped. Exacerbating
the accountability challenge, most
humanitarian organizations have
a 10 percent margin of error when
asked how many vehicles they have
in operation. To put this in perspec-
tive, for a fleet of 100 vehicles this
amounts to $350,000 in assets that
cannot be accounted for.

Adding to the spiraling costs, ve-
hicles are used excessively, not only
in terms of age but mileage. It is not
uncommon to see vehicles serving
in humanitarian projects that are
more than 15 years old and have in
excess of 800,000 kms on the odom-
eter reading. To put this into per-

28 InterAction MONDAY DEVELOPMENTS
NGO Downward Accountability to Their
Beneficiaries
By Taina Alexander, Program Manager, InterAction

Accountability to beneficiaries or
“downward accountability” con-
cerns accountability to the poor and Does downward accountability by LA: Unfortunately, the incentives
their empowerment. It is a process NGOs have an affect on their em- are mostly internal – e.g. principle,
in which the beneficiaries’ voices powerment of the poor? value, ideology (the knowledge
that it is the only way we can ac-
play an important role in defining LA: Accountability is central, funda- tually make a difference) – rather
and measuring the success and im- mental to empowerment of people. than external. There is very little
pact of an NGO’s work. It is believed You cannot empower people in a pressure for actual accountability,
that empowerment results in the process in which you are keeping although there is a lot of rhetoric.
greater participation of the poor power! By bringing people into de- There are constant pulls away from
and gives them a feeling of owner- cision making, by giving them pow- accountability to the poor and ex-
ship through personal investment er in the work we do with them, we cluded people we work with. It is so
in solving the problem at hand. give people experience managing much more comfortable and easy
Therefore, NGOs should give more money, making decisions and criti- for most development workers to
cally analyzing their lives and the draft a report for a donor, than it is
consideration to their approach to
world around them. for us to facilitate a process of ana-
downward accountability, since
lyzing our work with a community,
that will affect empowerment out- KG: One can only conclude that the where we have to confront the mis-
comes in marginalized communi- jury is still out. Downward account- takes we made, negotiate different
ties. Or is this so? ability adopted as a kind of tick-the- interests and be incredibly creative
box, superficial window dressing on in figuring out how to get people
In this question and answer piece, standard projects is deeply prob- discussing. So we say we don’t have
Laurie Adams, Director of Impact lematic and unethical. But account- a choice: we have to do this logi-
Assessment and Shared Learning ability systems that truly transfer cal framework, this report, by this
analytical, decision-making and deadline and we don’t have time to
from ActionAid in Johannesburg,
evaluative power to the people we properly engage.
and Kent Glenzer, Director of the
claim to be serving (all three forms
Impact, Knowledge, and Learning of power are essential) can give the KG: It is a rare donor that puts ac-
Team, Care USA and Research As- poor greater control and ultimately countability to the poor, the most
sociate, Center for the Study of Pub- produce more meaningful results. marginalized, uppermost in its
lic Scholarship, Emory University, Moreover, such systems can alter strategies or ways of working with
tell us how their organizations en- relations of power in positive ways international NGOs or local orga-
gage with, build relationships with within those very communities. For nizations. But there are still strong
and are accountable to their benefi- this to be successful, however, it is incentives for an organization like
ciaries. They share their thoughts pretty clear that those communities CARE to do so despite this lack of
about how they regard downward must be the primary party to which donor focus. First, the history of de-
we are accountable. Such directions velopment in the colonial and post-
accountability and empowering the
and mechanisms of accountability colonial eras can, in many ways,
poor. They also suggest mecha-
must take place during all phases of be read as a tale of the limitations
nisms to meet these popular yet our work: before, during and after of donor-driven, donor-account-
controversial development objec- donor contracts. I think that one-off, able action. That is the intellectual
tives. project-driven forms of so-called and empirical incentive. Second,
downward accountability are most- there are the coalitions, networks
ly fairy tales. and collaborators in the develop-
ing world with whom an organi-
What are the incentives, if any, for zation like CARE works. Many of
NGOs to practice downward ac- them have deep roots and histories
countability to their beneficiaries?
continued on next page

MONDAY DEVELOPMENTS December 2007 29
continued from previous page
of accountability and responsibil- genuine interest in the lives of oth- thing; rather, it exists because the
ity to the poor. We cannot work in ers. With regard to our own staff, system of development aid has pro-
partnership with them if we remain this means valuing both the profes- duced this state of affairs. It is not
accountable merely to donors or sional and personal spheres, and an accident.
governments. That provides a prag- with “neighbors” (CARE Burundi
matic and practical incentive. Third, eschews the labels “beneficiary” I am not at all sanguine about, for
we find that in our programs that do or even “participant”), this means example, what the international
achieve noteworthy levels of such listening attentively to their stories community generally does in these
accountability we achieve greater, of change and valuing them as pro- kinds of cases: generating new do-
deeper and more lasting changes viding critical input into CARE’s di- nor, professional or intergovern-
that address the underlying causes rections. mental requirements and rules to
of poverty and social injustice. That “ensure” that NGOs are “down-
is a programmatic incentive. How can NGOs be held account- wardly accountable.” That is inject-
able for adopting and maintaining ing a conventional solution into a
Do NGO values and their world downward accountability to the system that has long designed out
views play a part in their approach people they serve? – or repelled like a virus – the pos-
to (and strength of) downward ac- sibility of that solution succeeding.
countability? LA: The best way is for people to Instead it will simply be gamed. I
demand accountability: for the am much more hopeful about a
LA: Yes, as explained above. people we work with to actually movement led by NGOs that would
organize and say “this is not good put forth a coherent, systemic and
KG: Values and assumptions about enough” when we come with top- systematic set of changes needed to
development are the strongest de- down, unaccountable programs. really “put the last first.” However,
terminant of an NGO’s account- But most people we work with don’t let’s not kid ourselves: it will not be
ability norms and strategies. Such feel they are in a position to do that. easy to accomplish. Let’s also not
values get translated into what an They would rather have whatever make the error of thinking that ac-
NGO works on and how it works. little benefit we might bring; they countability to and by communities
There are many different niches in are afraid to risk losing it. They are is a panacea, or that it is always the
this broad organizational ecosystem also steeped in the culture of pow- most important type of accountabil-
we call development. Meaningful er where they may even feel they ity for NGOs.
accountability to the poor has less don’t have a right to demand more.
salience if your work is focused, for Despite new accountability charters What are some examples of best
example, at the level of a follow-up and initiatives, we have very little practices in downward accountabil-
to the Kyoto Protocol or moving for- emphasis on downward account- ity, particularly instances in which
ward the Paris Declaration. A dif- ability. This could be strengthened. donor expectations are also met?
ferent calculus occurs at the level We as peers can hold each other ac-
of, say, a poverty reduction strategy countable. We could organize peer LA: Our Kenya programme uses
paper process. NGOs work at both reviews of each other’s practice. We “transparency boards.” In every
these levels and NGOs also work at could highlight and reward orga- community, the project budget is
grassroots level, where perhaps the nizations that practice downward displayed prominently and pub-
importance of accountability to the accountability. In the UK, for exam- licly, and there are regular reports
poor is clearest. If an NGO merely ple, ActionAid was just recognized of how money is being spent. This
values size and financial growth, it for having the best transparency has led communities to demand the
makes meaningful downward ac- and accountability policies by One- same of the local government, and
countability more difficult, although World. This helps us reinforce and the church.
not impossible. If an NGO values maintain these practices internally
scientific progress and technical In India, Nepal, Sri Lanka and Thai-
and with our donors, even as we
fixes (think green revolution tech- land, our programmes have social
are under pressure to take a differ-
nologies), it may be less concerned audits in which the community is
ent approach.
with whether it is accountable to invited to closely examine and cri-
the poor than if its results benefit KG: We are facing a systems prob- tique the finances of the project.
the poor. Our field staff in Burundi lem. And it has a history. You need
(a place in our system that has been A community-based partner no lon-
only imagine the counterfactual:
undergoing one of the most ex- ger funded by ActionAid sought
imagine that we had too much
citing shifts in systems and forms funding from the European Union
downward accountability and
of accountability) tell me that the using a systems diagram that
had to figure out how to encour-
most critical success factor to alter- showed all the complex linkages
age more upward accountability.
ing power relations between CARE between causes of poverty (as ana-
My point here is that we have this
and the poor – of more meaningful lyzed by the community) and indi-
problem not because of misfortune
forms of accountability, that is – is a cated where the partner would in-
or because we’ve overlooked some-
tervene. When the EU asked for a

30 InterAction MONDAY DEVELOPMENTS
“logical framework,” this organiza- take these ratings and insights impact measurement systems that
tion challenged the EU representa- seriously and they are meaning- are meaningful to community mem-
tives to try to reduce that diagram fully incorporate this information bers. We have found that we must
into that linear format. The EU rep- into performance management work hard with local staff – often
resentatives realized it was coun- processes. A number of programs very well educated staff who have
terproductive to try to impose their have explicitly included community worked hard to get to positions of
linear format for tracking change members in interpreting monitoring authority and expertise – to recog-
and gave the organization money and evaluation data and embedded nize how their own approaches,
anyway. mechanisms through which par- their own assumptions about who
ticipants can effect changes in pro- is the expert and who should be
Similarly, a donor asked Action- grams strategy, tactics or measure- measuring and counting success,
Aid’s human security team to pro- ment. I say “a number of programs” discourage such forms of account-
vide reports in formats not useful because I am not talking here of ability. Recruiting has to change.
for downward accountability. The run-of-the-mill community feed- Decision-making structures and
team invited the donor to one of our back meetings or superficial annual processes need to change. You have
participatory review and reflection community, or local government re- to find legitimate and meaningful
processes (which involve the “ben- ports which we in the NGO world ways for the community to engage
eficiaries” monitoring the work). sometimes mention as substantive and influence your work. This fre-
The donor decided the monitoring forms of local accountability. Rath- quently means finding alternatives
and accountability systems were er, these are forms of power sharing to long-standing, “participative”
better than their own format and al- that allow the poor to alter project processes with which our staff are
lowed ActionAid to have the money processes, objectives, and invest- familiar, because those techniques
using our own systems rather than ments. We are also testing ways to long ago became weapons of the
its own. make our own program logics (i.e. powerful.
theories of both social change and
KG: I greatly admire efforts I have program interventions), more ex- What types of NGOs are more likely
seen made by colleagues like Ac- plicit to all categories of social ac- to feel obliged to be accountable to
tionAid. We in CARE have tried, for tors in the communities we serve. their beneficiaries and what mech-
example, to learn as much as we can This kind of process goes deep into anisms can they use? How can
from their Accountability, Learning the assumptions upon which actions the lessons they learn be broadly
and Planning System (ALPS), which are premised. When done well, it shared?
we think improves the way we talk results in transformational learning
about success and challenges with for all parties. A fourth practice that LA: NGOs that treat social devel-
the poor, and among NGO workers is only nascent in CARE, but which opment as a process of change fo-
themselves. We also have watched I think will grow a lot in the coming cused on human transformation
with interest the really important years, is making very explicit – and rather than technical solutions are
changes in global governance at discussible – the power dynamics probably more likely to understand
ActionAid. World Vision’s commit- within any development project fi- the importance of downward ac-
ment to stay with communities over nanced from outside. It is amazing countability. As noted above, it is
long periods of time (which you also the kinds of relationships and new a complete contradiction to set out
find in Save the Children’s work) ideas, both local and extra-local, to empower people without hand-
has influenced our current strat- that can emerge when we all – de- ing over power! But downward ac-
egy. Such long-term commitments velopment worker, local chief, local countability is also important for or-
are foundational to meaningful ac- government official, expert, farmer, ganizations that do service delivery,
countability to communities. Heifer excluded caste or ethnic group – ac- as the services need to be appropri-
International also has some simple tually share what we all know about ate and only the “beneficiaries” can
and powerful forms of local ac- the rituals of development and de- really say what services are indeed
countability that are reciprocal in velopment projects, things we usu- appropriate.
fascinating ways. There are many ally leave tacit. I don’t think there
more examples I could cite, from One way to share lessons learned is
can actually be legitimate, mean-
groups north and south, from which to give more attention to the issues,
ingful forms of accountability to the
we are learning a great deal on this as this publication is doing. Find-
poor without this conversation.
question. ing ways to get into other media is
These practices require changes important. In South Africa, a devel-
Within CARE, we have had some inside our organization. If we need opment group is collaborating with
interesting, early success with com- new ways of listening, generating, state television on a reality show on
munity scorecards. These score- synthesizing and using informa- development, with different proj-
cards allow communities to judge tion that comes from communities, ects in different communities; that
our work. The leadership of CARE we need to build those skills. It re- is one way to increase public atten-
Country Offices insists that staff quires new kinds of monitoring and tion. Peer reviews is another way to
continued on next page

MONDAY DEVELOPMENTS December 2007 31
continued from previous page
continued from page 28
share experience. Internally, we have
steps to protect their personnel when they are most vulnerable – behind the
learned it is essential to have highly
committed, creative, skilled frontline wheel of a car. It should be said that any discrepancy in occupational safety
staff, to make an extra effort to open standards between international and local national staff should be comprehen-
yourself up to critique, to be account- sively addressed.
able and to facilitate accountability.
Managers and an internal organiza- Not one of the MDGs addresses road safety, yet the eight goals rely on a func-
tional culture that help staff working tional and safe transport system in order to be achieved. When surveyed, 70
directly with people to whom we percent of the largest humanitarian fleets do not have a drivers’ training pro-
should be accountable are also nec- gram. This begs the question whether the 130,000 humanitarian 4x4s are help-
essary. You have to actively work to ing to combat the road safety calamity – which each year kills more than one
show donors that their needs can be million people and causes 20 million preventable injuries – or are contributing
met without imposing systems that to it.
decrease downward and other forms
of accountability. Thankfully, this question has been asked before and organizations like The
Fleet Forum, an association representing 60,000 humanitarian vehicles, are
KG: I think local NGOs are already
taking the lead in addressing road safety. The Fleet Safety Project, which was
under a lot of pressure (sometimes by
international NGOs like my own) to recently highlighted in the UN Secretary-General’s remarks on road safety,
have firm constituencies in the places will help humanitarian organizations instill a culture of safety in their fleet
they work. The era of briefcase, capi- operations and a greater degree of social accountability to their personnel,
tal-bound NGOs may well be ending, drivers and vulnerable road users. (More information is available at www.
although many of those NGOs have fleetforum.org.)
greatly enhanced their bases over the
last fifteen years. Social movements The environment is often overlooked when it comes to humanitarian fleet op-
have long been much more account- eration, because the challenges faced by fleet managers are too immediate:
able to their memberships than NGOs availability of spare parts, salvaging vehicles, cost recording. Yet, actions can
like CARE, although that very form of be taken to reduce the environmental footprint of the fleet. For one, motorcy-
accountability creates both opportuni- cles, which outnumber 4x4s three to one, can be gradually replaced with four
ties and constraints. There is no per- stroke engine motorcycles, which the UN Environment Program recognizes for
fect answer here. Let me limit myself their negligible environmental impact and lifetime costs.
here to international NGOs, whose
staff constitute an important set of
readers of Monday Developments.

I think development NGOs are more
likely to feel such an obligation, al-
though we all know the fuzzy lines be-
tween emergency, rehabilitation and
development work. I think that inter-
national NGOs truly concerned about
this issue need to establish internal
policies requiring certain norms and
forms of accountability, and then need
to see these through the entire logic
of both program cycles and organiza-
tional support functions. However, I
go back to the nature of the system in
which we are embedded. I think the
most important thing NGOs can do
right now is join together to identify
and then lobby for the concrete, prag- Organizational Accountability
matic changes in international aid The tools and methodologies to address the challenges outlined above are
modalities that would put such forms readily available and widely used in the commercial fleet sector. While there is
of accountability on the front, rather a skills gap in humanitarian fleet management, there is no shortage of willing
than back, burner. and able professionals to take on these challenges. Their biggest obstacle
is that the organizations they work for view fleet management as a service
function and not a strategic function. A paradigm shift is required in all aspects
of humanitarian fleet management that calls for greater professionalism and
accountability.

32 InterAction MONDAY DEVELOPMENTS
CAREER DEVELOPMENT

Turning Love Into Work
This month’s column is drawn from Caryn Sweeney’s article “Toward a (Livable) Career in International
Development.” It first appeared in the Transitions Abroad magazine in spring 2007 and offers practical
tips for leveraging a love of travel and other cultures into a career in the non-profit sector.

As a study abroad student and later adviser, I encountered stu- you saw, heard and felt. Becoming a cultural being is the first
dents whose ideals of international careers were as varied as step toward a successful international career of any type.
the countries to which they set off. The majority, however, fell
Don’t be a complacent traveler. Research different ways for
into two camps: the wanna-be jetsetters, who would embark on
getting below the surface of a country before you go. In
glamorous careers in the corporate world; and the idealists, who
South Africa, certainly go on the township tour, but then
planned on living in righteous poverty as they helped eradicate
also ask your guide privately if it would be possible to set
disease, illiteracy and despair.
up a visit to a hospital to visit and read to children, or to go
to a school and answer questions about your home country.
Fortunately, one doesn’t have to be Angelina Jolie or a Peace
Again, these experiences and how you relay them during job
Corps volunteer in order to work internationally.
interviews may make the greatest impact on the interviewer
Based on tips from colleagues and friends in many of these or- and give you a shot over someone who is well-traveled but
ganizations, the following is a do and don’t list for breaking into not well-lived.
and succeeding in an international NGO career. Don’t assume only experienced, older staff get sent on in-
ternational assignments. Older, more experienced staff are
Do develop one or two regional foci as early as undergradu- often weary of the field, particularly if they have children
ate studies. Developing an expertise in Francophone West and families. Not to mention, as a junior to mid-level staffer,
Africa or Central Asia will make you much more lucrative to you’re a lot cheaper to send. In my first five years with my
organizations that work in those areas. organization, I was sent to seven countries.
Do study the rest of the world too. There are lots of other Don’t forget you still have to pay your dues. Paying dues
places and sometimes, an organization just wants evidence is a common theme in the world of work, but that doesn’t
of your ability to understand current issues in a global con- mean there aren’t ways to pay them faster. Volunteer early
text. and often for grunt work. If your organization hosts foreign
Do volunteer or intern for local internationally-focused or- dignitaries or high-level international workers, volunteer to
ganizations. World Affairs Councils, refugee groups, cultural stay late to guide guests to the venue or to put together ma-
societies and activist organizations are all good choices for terials. Finally, learn as much as you can about the regions in
starting your network. You may be the one who makes and which you want to work.
presents the nametag for the French ambassador to the Don’t forget language skills. Foreign language skills can be
United States before a function, and he may be delighted a critical tool in working with other cultures rather than just
to hear about your recent study in Grenoble and introduce in other cultures. But if you are a researcher, a manager, or
you to his wife, who is on the board of an organization that a provider of technical assistance, language skills may be
is hiring…. secondary. You will likely have a locally-based colleague
Do study abroad. The options are endless. Two weeks, six who can help you with translation. However, you’re not off
months, a year, in every location from England to Ecuador, the hook: learning some basics of the local language will
studying language, sculpture or the art of the deal. Where not only show your respect for the people you’ll work with,
isn’t even as important as what you make of it while there. it can also be a wonderful icebreaker as you struggle with
Overcoming the challenges of living and learning in a new each other’s languages!
culture will show prospective employers that you have good
adaptation and acclimation skills. For many, making a living in the NGO world is the happy me-
dium between working for a multinational corporation and
Do pursue higher degrees. Masters and doctoral degrees working in voluntary poverty (both of which are fine and noble
aren’t essential for working internationally. But they do help callings on their own, if that’s your preference). There are draw-
build your knowledge base in a particular region or issue, backs, from being at the whims of donors and governments, to
and they give you access to some of the most accomplished long overtime hours, to non-profit salaries, to red tape. But at
and talented folks through seminars, campus events and the heart of many of these organizations is a belief in participa-
conferences. tory and collaborative development. Those who work with NGOs
Don’t discount any experience. Are you a babysitter for your know that people around the world are capable of solving their
Colombian neighbor’s children? Do you spend every Friday own problems if they are provided with the means, tools, and
at your favorite Ethiopian restaurant? Did you skip the spring expertise to do so. By working in the NGO world, you become
break mayhem for a day in Mexico to explore some inland one more asset in this fight.
ruins? Engage everyone in conversation and reflect on what

MONDAY DEVELOPMENTS December 2007 33
Inside our COMMUNITY

HIV Prevalence Among Russian Street Youth is a expert on women and HIV, and passionate advocate for
Call to Action women’s empowerment and the protection and fulfill-
A study published in the journal AIDS reports that 37.4 ment of women’s rights. She has worked at ICRW since
percent of street youth between the ages of 15 and 19 sur- 1988 and has served as its president for 10 years.
veyed in St. Petersburg, Russia are HIV-positive, placing
street youth in Russia among the populations most at-risk As a leading international authority on women’s role in
for HIV around the world. The study, conducted in 2006 development, ICRW tackles the world’s most pressing
by Doctors of the World-USA (DOW), the U.S. Centers problems – poverty, hunger and disease – and demon-
for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and the City strates that a focus on women and gender is necessary
AIDS Center in St. Petersburg, found that factors such as for lasting social and economic change. The D.C.-based
injection drug use, unsafe sexual practices, homelessness organization operates an Asia regional office in New Del-
and orphanhood were prime drivers of HIV transmission hi, India, and project offices in Secunderabad, India, and
in this group. The alarming rate exceeds previous esti- Kampala, Uganda.
mates.
Air Serv International Appoints New CEO
“These results underscore the urgent need to increase The Air Serv International board of directors has appoint-
efforts focused on youth,” said DOW Executive Director ed Christopher H. Johnson as their new Chief Execu-
Tom Dougherty. “Information on how HIV is transmitted tive Officer, with a mandate to develop a strategic plan,
is not enough – we must reach out to at-risk youth with spearhead a new business and special projects initiative
programs that engage them and give them hope for a fu- and launch new services consistent with its humanitar-
ture.” ian mission. He replaces Mike Webb, who has served the
organization capably since January of this year.
Without treatment and support, many of the HIV-in-
fected youth will die between the ages of 20 and 30. Johnson previously served with various law firms in New
Strengthening comprehensive services for street and York and Washington, as well as in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia,
at-risk youth, including drug rehabilitation, educational specializing in international commercial, corporate and
outreach, housing, vocational training, and family sup- finance practice. Born in Munich, Germany, Johnson was
port programs is vital to curbing high-risk behaviors and educated at Princeton University and New York Univer-
preventing further spread of HIV. sity Law School.

With local government and non-governmental partners, He joined the Air Serv International board in 2004, was
DOW has established a range of interventions to engage elected chairman in November 2005, and served as in-
street youth, link them to treatment, care, and support, terim CEO from June, 2006 to January, 2007. “I am hon-
and prevent new infections. This low threshold model ored to have been asked to lead Air Serv International at
has shown encouraging results. Fifty-four percent of all a time of ever more pressing humanitarian and develop-
positive youth have remained active in the program to ment needs,” said Johnson. “Under Mike Webb’s lead-
date, 38 percent are linked to health and psychosocial ership we have been growing in our identity and sense
services, and 35 percent are linked to care at the St. Pe- of purpose, and in aligning our values and attitudes with
tersburg City AIDS Center. the mission. We are now solidly positioned for sustained
growth, building on our core strengths.”
The program operates with the support of USAID, the
City of St. Petersburg, private foundations (Ford Foun- Michael Walsh, Former Head of OAA, to Join
dation, MAC AIDS Fund and others) and corporations APVOFM
(Johnson & Johnson). For more information, visit DOW’s Michael Walsh, the former head of the Office of Acquisition
website: www.doctorsoftheworld.org and Assistance at USAID, recently accepted a position
as the first Director of Training and Member Services at
ICRW President Awarded 2007 “Women Who the Association of PVO Financial Managers (APVOFM).
Mean Business” Award In his former position, Walsh was responsible for $8
Geeta Rao Gupta, president of the International Center billion in contracts and grants worldwide. In addition to
for Research on Women (ICRW), has received the Wash- bringing great experience and
ington Business Journal’s annual “Women Who Mean expertise in the government
Business” award. She was one of twenty-five recipients grant-making and contracting
for 2007. The selected women were also recognized in a process, Walsh has firsthand field
special supplement in the November 30th edition of The experience, having served as a
Washington Business Journal. contracting officer for USAID in
Bangladesh, Egypt and Kenya,
In its fourth year, the award honors the Washington re- and as a Peace Corps volunteer
gion’s most influential and successful businesswomen, in the Philippines. His operating
who are trail blazers and accomplished professionals in experience includes overseeing
their fields. Rao Gupta is an internationally renowned a large division for procurement

34 InterAction MONDAY DEVELOPMENTS
management, as well as work in food aid,
disaster relief and infrastructure development. InterAction Welcomes HELP Commission
With the addition of Mike Walsh to its team, Report, Calls for Creation of U.S.
and the opening of an office in Washington, International Development Department
DC, APVOFM looks forward to expanding its
training opportunities through more USAID Beyond Assistance, a new report by the HELP Commission, stresses the need
rules and regulations workshops in the field, for a stronger, more strategic role for foreign assistance in the U.S. govern-
offering training in a wider number of areas ment. The bipartisan commission was charged by Congress to investigate
including contracts, grants and sub-awards, and recommend ways to strengthen U.S. foreign assistance.
risk management, and introduction to finan-
InterAction welcomes the report and supports its central theme – that the
cial management. Expanded member services
system the U.S. government uses to deliver foreign assistance is in dire need
will include mentoring and emerging leaders,
knowledge sharing activities, leadership de- of reforms to improve its structure, increase its prioritization relative to diplo-
velopment, and increased efforts in advocacy macy and defense, and significantly increase funding for foreign assistance
with USAID, the Department of State and the programs. InterAction fully endorses the Commission’s recommendation
Department of Labor. that Congress and the White House work together to rewrite the Foreign As-
sistance Act of 1961 to address shortcomings and reframe American devel-
Having a base in Washington will strengthen opment assistance to fit the context of the 21st century.
APVOFM’s dialogue with U.S. government
officials on matters of policy and day-to-day InterAction and its members are pleased the Commission tackled the tough
grant and contracting concerns. Walsh’s expe- task of recommending significant reforms. InterAction concurs with the find-
rience at USAID will help APVOFM members ing that the first goal of any new structure should be to elevate development
understand and work more effectively with to a more equal footing with diplomacy and defense. InterAction has offi-
USAID as well as address issues beginning to cially recommended the creation of a cabinet-level department for interna-
surface at other federal agencies doing inter- tional development since 2006, and strongly endorses the position of several
national work. Almost half of APVOFM’s 190 HELP Commissioners who have called for a similar structure in the report.
members are located in the DC area.
While the structure favored by the majority of commissioners – which would
unify assistance currently administered by the State Department, USAID, and

UN Deputy Secretary-
other federal agencies with monies from the 150 Account into one cabinet-
level department – seeks to elevate the role of development and humani-
General Discusses 2008 tarian response in American foreign policy, it would still give the Secretary
Agenda with InterAction of State ultimate control over development assistance. Because of this, and

Members
because the proposal would so greatly alter the U.S. foreign affairs landscape,
we need more time to examine it before making detailed comments on its
UN Deputy Secretary-General Dr. Asha- merits or faults.
Rose Migiro visited InterAction on De- The following are among the report’s recommendations that InterAction sup-
cember 14 for a meeting with members to ports to accompany a revamped and reauthorized Foreign Assistance Act:
discuss the UN development and humani-
tarian assistance agenda for 2008. A significant increase in funding for disaster relief and internation-
al development programs.
Since taking office February 1, 2007, Dr.
Migiro has focused on development, Creation of a rapid-response fund for humanitarian crises around
poverty, gender and Africa-related issues the world, so long as it is fully funded and the funding does not
for the UN. She has been vocal about the come at the expense of other humanitarian relief programs.
links between gender and poverty, and Improvement of USAID’s technical capacity by increasing the num-
has urged the UN to resolve its gender ber of direct-hire employees and reforming its human resources
imbalance. At the recent European Union policies so it can attract top development professionals at all ex-
and African Union summit in Lisbon, she perience levels.
led the UN delegation and personally met
Creation of a new USAID business model that embraces risk, al-
with African leaders from Cote D’Ivoire and
lows for flexibility in program design, and focuses demonstrating
Somalia to discuss issues of governance
results through improved monitoring and evaluation.
and conflict.
Alignment of U.S. trade and development policies so as to offer
A transcript of her remarks is available at
developing countries more and better access to U.S. markets.
www.interaction.org.

MONDAY DEVELOPMENTS December 2007 35
Inside INTERACTION

CEOs Build Community and Capacity at Annual Retreat
By Andrea Barron, Adjunct Professor of History, George Mason University

Sixty CEOs recently gathered together in early Novem- vide services to African refugees in the Washington, DC
ber for InterAction’s annual CEO Retreat. The two-day metropolitan area and to be a voice for African refugees
retreat featured keynote speaker Henrietta Fore, the Act- nationwide. The organization now has 12 sites, including
ing Administrator of USAID, and Congresswoman Nita one in Phoenix and another in Las Vegas. At the retreat,
Lowey (D-NY), Chair of the House Subcommittee on Teferra met Dennis Lifferth, President of Latter-Day Saint
State and Foreign Operations. Sessions addressed issues Charities and now they are discussing a partnership in
such as how the U.S. presidential election will impact which Latter-Day Saint Charities would provide cloth-
foreign assistance, civil-military relations, global partner- ing, food and medical supplies to African refugees in the
ships and strengthening the relationship between CEOs Phoenix and Las Vegas sites.
and their boards of directors. For the first time InterAc-
tion also held a one-day retreat for women CEOs. At the Women’s Retreat, CEOs also discussed collaborat-
ing on issues of common concern. For instance, Popula-
According to Barbara Wallace, InterAction’s Vice-Presi- tion Action International president Amy Coen and June
dent for Membership, the hope was that the retreat Zeitlin from WEDO (Women’s Environmental and De-
would “enable CEOs to see themselves as a unified body velopment Organization), spoke about a joint project on
leading major humanitarian and development efforts in how climate change affects women. “Climate change is
the world.” She noted that CEOs have a unique perspec- already happening to the poorest women in the poorest
tive on the issues affecting their countries,” Coen said. “Re-
work. “We wanted to give them ducing the availability of clean
an opportunity to strategize Many development and humanitarian water and making it more dif-
together and support them in organizations started in someone’s living room ficult for them to raise crops.”
building the capacity they need by people with a good idea... But as non-profits
as leaders.” In 2004, when Elizabeth
become successful and grow to a certain point,
Latham became executive
they need a high level of business expertise to
Melanie Macdonald, President of director of the U.S. Commit-
manage their large, complex organizations.
World Neighbors, has had years tee for the UN Development
InterAction wants to provide our members’
of experience as a CEO includ- Programme (UNDP-USA), she
executives with the support to do this.
ing directing CUSO, Canada’s first focused on “professional-
version of the Peace Corps, and izing” the small agency and
advising other CEOs as head of complying with the best prac-
her own consulting firm. But because World Neighbors is tices standards InterAction sets for all its members. The
somewhat isolated in Oklahoma City, Macdonald rarely UNDP-USA educates Americans about UNDP’s role in
has the chance to meet with her peers. “We had fallen off international development and encourages Americans,
the radar screen of international development,” she said. especially young professionals, to support the UN Mil-
“And that is something I wanted to change.” lennium Development Goals. Latham said that attend-
ing the retreat came just at the right time, since “now we
“Although we are small,” Macdonald explained, “we have become professionalized enough to really benefit
have an excellent model which uses a community orga- from the advice and expertise of InterAction CEOs.”
nizing approach with impoverished rural communities.”
She saw how effective this model can be when she vis- CEOs said they would like more of the kind of training
ited 50 World Neighbors villages in Burkina Faso last offered at the retreat, as well as sessions on special areas
February. She was amazed at how villagers had been of common interest, i.e., fundraising and how to balance
able to triple their agricultural production in just a few multiple demanding priorities. “Many development and
years, “turning deserts into gardens.” Macdonald says humanitarian organizations started in someone’s living
that at the CEO Retreat she was able to share and learn room by people with a good idea,” Wallace said. “But
from other CEOs in the development community and put as non-profits become successful and grow to a certain
World Neighbors back in the center of that community, point, they need a high level of business expertise to
where it belongs. manage their large, complex organizations. InterAction
wants to provide our members’ executives with the sup-
For Tshehaye Teferra, head of the Ethiopian Community port to do this.” She said that InterAction’s Annual 2008
Development Council (ECDC), the retreat was a chance Forum (May 6-9) will include a special track designed for
to network and possibly form partnerships with like- CEOs and their boards to expand effectiveness in gover-
minded leaders. Teferra founded ECDC in 1983 to pro- nance and leadership.

36 InterAction MONDAY DEVELOPMENTS
Report on the Foreign Assistance Reform Monitoring Project:
InterAction Staff Research in East Africa
By Hilary Nalven, Program Associate, InterAction

“Mulibuti!” Two InterAction colleagues and I received
instantaneous welcomes while visiting a small rural vil-
InterAction’s FARM: Overall Research
lage outside of Lusaka, Zambia this past November. After Scope and Next Steps
some of the bumpiest off-road driving I have ever experi- In the focus countries of the FARM study (Honduras, Ghana, Kenya,
enced, we arrived at the central gathering spot of a local Nepal and Vietnam), local researchers conducted two rounds of in-
community with whom some of our InterAction members terviews with staff of U.S. private voluntary organizations, local NGO
do development work.
partners, and others knowledgeable about U.S. foreign assistance.
InterAction staff also conducted a single round of interviews in six
The purpose of our visit to Africa was to conduct research
additional countries: Bosnia and Herzegovina, El Salvador, Nicara-
in Tanzania and Zambia for the Foreign Assistance Re-
gua, Serbia, Tanzania and Zambia. Approximately 250 interviews
form Monitoring Project (FARM), a year-long InterAction
were conducted in total. InterAction will capture these exchanges
study to find out the effects of “Transformational Diplo-
in five primary country reports and a final synthesis report to be
macy” on development work in the field. Interviews with
staff of InterAction’s member organizations accounted for released by the beginning of February. InterAction will also incor-
most of our time, but interacting with local communities porate the evidence gathered from this field-based research in its
made for the trip’s most memorable moments. advocacy in order to better inform and influence public policy.

After official introductions and a lively traditional dance,
various individuals talked about how a USAID-funded able land, yet food security is one of its main develop-
program, which is also supported by private voluntary ment needs. Additionally, although PEPFAR funding to
contributions from the American public and by donated fight HIV/AIDS is pouring hundreds of millions of dollars
gifts in kind from the corporate world, has made a posi- into Zambia, restrictions have made it difficult to use this
tive difference in their lives. Their progress includes the funding to improve the country’s weak health systems.
care and protection of orphans and vulnerable children,
agricultural development, acquisition of life-skills to bet- I asked a long-time local staffer of our host NGO why he
ter deal with HIV/AIDS, the training of community health thought development in his country has been so slow – a
workers, and the empowerment of local leaders, particu- question that clearly goes far beyond the scope of this
larly women. article. However, he stressed a couple main points re-
garding U.S. foreign assistance in Zambia. First, the U.S.
Members of the community told us about the challenges government has inefficient, uncoordinated structures
that they still face. One man described how they were for delivering aid. Consequently, some regions are com-
able to build a school, but cannot afford to install win- pletely neglected while others have many different do-
dows or hire enough teachers. Another woman told us nors funding duplicative projects in the same geographic
of having to walk over four hours to the nearest health area. Second, program mandates and timelines are pre-
clinic to get tested for HIV/AIDS and tuberculosis, from determined in Washington and lack perspective about
which her husband had recently died. She had to make what is actually needed – and can be feasibly implement-
two more treks back before finally obtaining her results, ed – on the ground. All too often, directives are inflexible
let alone receiving treatment. We also spoke to an eigh- and implementers are unable to create comprehensive
teen-year-old boy who had become the primary caretak- programs that address the recipient communities’ most
er of his three younger siblings after both parents passed pressing needs. For those following the current debate
away. When asked what he wanted in life, the boy simply in Washington about the U.S. foreign assistance reforms,
replied, “Seeds to grow food, to be able to attend school these comments probably sound quite familiar.
and then to have a girlfriend once I know I can take care
of a family.” As the FARM study comes to a close early next year, it has
the potential to bring voices from the field into the Wash-
I left the rural village inspired by the spirit of these peo- ington conversation about how to improve the effective-
ple and the impressive progress they had made, in large ness of U.S. aid. It is InterAction’s hope that this study, in
part due to the help of the USAID-funded program. This combination with the momentum already underway, will
feeling was paradoxically accompanied by frustration bring about changes that result in truly effective, poverty
with the remaining challenges that are disturbingly un- alleviating foreign assistance that addresses the needs
necessary. For example, Zambia is a peaceful country and priorities of its intended recipients.
with a relatively low population and vast amounts of ar-

MONDAY DEVELOPMENTS December 2007 37
Interested in placing a job announcements or advertisement? Email publications@interaction.org

charged with migrating donors into ma- contacted.

POSITION
jor and planned gift commitments while Senior Director, Public Sector
stewarding the integrity of the program Development > Washington, DC metro
within the assigned region. Assure ap- area
propriate marketing of the program in International AIDS Vaccine Initiative (IAVI).
ANNOUNCEMENTS the region through newsletters, recogni-
tion and solicitation materials. Promote
Mission is to develop safe and effective
HIV vaccines for use worldwide. Current
and represent CCF in its relationships budget of $90 million; staff of 200. Job
with individuals, community agencies, is to lead effort to raise money from the
Foundations Officer > Richmond, VA organizations and the media. Bachelor’s U.S. Government and other public sector
Christian Children’s Fund is seeking a degree with advanced training, experi- funders. See full job announcement at:
Foundations Officer to provide leadership ence working in a self-directed regional www.SlesingerManagement.com.
and guidance on adopting a successful area on fundraising goals; maintain the
strategy to gain entry into the Founda- highest level of confidentiality related to Policy Positions > Washington, DC
tions marketplace. Pro-actively seek intel- donor and prospect information; ability CARE USA, one of the world’s leading hu-
ligence on new grant funding opportuni- to work independently and with flexibil- manitarian, development and emergency
ties from major US Foundations, research ity to achieve quarterly goals; ability to relief organizations dedicated to fighting
and analyze Foundations that will be cultivate prospects and make direct time- global poverty, is expanding its Washing-
attracted to international work with chil- ly solicitations of donors, demonstrated ton, D.C. policy office. CARE seeks talent-
dren, lead the process of identifying key ability to set and achieve or exceed goals ed, committed professionals who want to
Foundations to target for cultivation, and and meet deadlines; and travel and some make a difference in the world to fill the
coordinate the preparation of funding weekend work required. For further in- following positions: senior policy advisors
proposals. Represent the organization formation and to express interest in this and legislative assistants. These profes-
in Foundation related events, networks position, please visit www.christianchild- sionals will be expected to coordinate a
and affinity groups. Bachelor’s degree, rensfund.org EOE M/F/D/V. diverse public policy and advocacy port-
Master’s degree preferred, 5-7 years expe- folio. Requirements: Graduate education
Short- And Long-Term Humanitarian or equivalent in relevant areas, substan-
rience with a non-profit organization re-
Assistance, Disaster Preparedness, tive legislative/congressional experience;
quired, prefer experience in international
And Risk Management Experts > Latin previous work with international affairs,
economic, and social development and
America And The Caribbean global environmental, development and/
knowledge of child centered internation-
Chemonics International seeks short- and or international health issues; be ener-
al development. Five to seven years expe-
long-term technical experts for antici- getic and innovative thinkers; possess
rience in grant fundraising with proven
pated DOD- and USAID-funded projects excellent written/oral communication
track record of attracting grant funding
in Latin America and the Caribbean. Re- skills. We also have an opportunity for
from within the Foundations market-
sponsibilities include: disaster prepared- an administrative assistant who will work
place. Extensive experience identifying
ness and mitigation training, training closely with other support staff in the
and cultivating long-term Foundation
needs assessment, risk and safety disaster Washington DC office and throughout
partnerships. Proven expertise in writing
assessment, logistics and relief supplies the organization to ensure the smooth
grants for major private foundations. Do-
coordination, institutional strengthen- operation of the Policy and Advocacy
mestic and international travel required.
ing. Qualifications: Academic degree in a team. This high-responsibility position in-
For complete details and to express inter-
relevant field or comparable international cludes daily tasks such as travel support,
est in this position, please visit www.chris-
experience; Minimum five years of dem- meeting logistics, document manage-
tianchildrensfund.org EOE M/F/D/V.
onstrated experience in relevant technical ment, office management and communi-
Development Officer Major Gifts/ area; Proven ability to build and maintain cations. Please apply online at www.care.
Planned Giving, Western Region > collaborative relationships with donors org/careers.
Westen U.S. and multiple local counterparts; Interna-
Development Officer for Christian Chil- tional experience with SOUTHCOM’s Hu- Senior Technical Advisor, Governance
dren’s Fund (CCF) to support the territory manitarian Assistance Program, the Office and Civil Society > Baltimore, MD
of Southern California, Arizona, Nevada, of U.S. Foreign Disaster Assistance, or sim- Catholic Relief Services, the overseas re-
Colorado and Utah. Seeking a dynamic, ilar programs preferred; Demonstrated lief & development agency of the Catholic
professional leader with at least five experience in organizational capacity- community is seeking a Senior Technical
years of experience in both productive building, training, or information dissemi- Advisor, Governance and Civil Society.
major gifts and/or planned giving pro- nation; Fluency in Spanish preferred but CRS seeks to expand its programming in
grams. This position plans, maintains and not required; French and Portuguese de- governance and civil society, promoting
manages the organization’s major gifts/ sirable; Work experience in Latin America greater citizen participation in decision-
planned giving activities for an assigned and the Caribbean preferred. Application making and good governance to achieve
region. Responsible for developing and Instructions: Send electronic submissions poverty reduction and political account-
implementing programs that maximize to HADP@chemonics.com by December ability for greater equity and social cohe-
resources to develop financial support 25, 2007. Please outline relevant work sion. The Senior Technical Advisor pro-
for the long-term growth and sustain- experience in your cover letter. No tele- vides leadership and technical support to
ability of CCF. The Development Officer is phone inquiries, please. Finalists will be country programs and regional program

38 InterAction MONDAY DEVELOPMENTS
Interested in placing a job announcements or advertisement? Email publications@interaction.org

staff to ensure high quality program de- The International Rescue Committee, a settings. Proven experience developing
velopment and implementation and world leader in relief, rehabilitation, pro- health staff capacity, implementing and
agency-wide learning. This includes ex- tection, post-conflict development, is supervising staff trainings; Experience
ternal representation and networking to seeking a Field Coordinator for its Sudan working with, supervising staff in a multi-
influence developments in the sector and program. The Field Coordinator-Kass will cultural setting; Ability to write reports
keep abreast of emerging trends and best be responsible for managing and over- and proposals; Strong computer skills:
practices. To find out more information seeing all programmatic and operational Windows, MS office programs email pro-
about this position and to apply please issues within IRC’s Kass Field Office. The grams; Previous experience working with
go to www.crs.org. Field Coordinator will ensure the overall international partners. Proficient English
implementation of quality programs in and French written and spoken required.
Director of Finance > Sudan
Kass and surrounding rural areas as well Apply at www.ircjobs.org.
The International Rescue Committee,
as the adherence of all Kass Field Office
a world leader in relief, rehabilitation, Country Director > Democratic
staff to IRC-Sudan financial, logistics and
protection, post-conflict development, Republic of Congo
HR/Administration policies and proce-
is seeking a Finance Director for overall The International Rescue Committee, a
dures. Apply at: www.ircjobs.org.
fiscal management responsibility of the world leader in relief, rehabilitation, pro-
IRC Sudan Country Offices (South, West Program Coordinator > Sudan tection, post-conflict development seeks
and North-East Sudan). As a member of The International Rescue Committee, a a Country Director to provide strong and
IRC Sudan Senior Management Team, world leader in relief, rehabilitation, pro- proactive leadership in the DRC program.
the Finance Director will guide and over- tection, post-conflict development, is Requirements: Degree or equivalent ex-
see the work of the finance unit, and seeking a Program Coordinator for its Su- perience in Business Management or
will liaise with the Regional Controller, dan program. The Program Coordinator Operations. Five years of oversees experi-
Country Representative, Deputy Country will be responsible for providing supervi- ence; human resource management skills;
Representative Southern Sudan and the sion and management support for all the fluent in spoken and written English; Able
Directors of Programs and Operations on sector program activities in the site. The to understand, communicate and work in
financial and budgetary matters. Apply person would play the role of focal point French. Must be culturally sensitive and
at: www.ircjobs.org. for all the program and grants aspects in have the ability to identify and work with
the field office. The Coordinator will also a multi-ethnic team. Strong computer
Director of Programs > Sudan
ensure all national program manager po- skills. Apply at www.ircjobs.org.
The International Rescue Committee, a
sitions are able to perform to agreed upon
world leader in relief, rehabilitation, pro- Community Driven Reconstruction
standards and that training and support
tection, post-conflict development, is Chief of Party > Democratic Republic
to strengthen their responsibilities is in
seeking a Director of Programs. The DP of Congo
place. Apply at: www.ircjobs.org.
has the responsibility to ensure IRC pro- The International Rescue Committee,
grams across Sudan are of the highest Grants Coordinator > South Sudan a world leader in relief, rehabilitation,
standard in terms of quality in respect The International Rescue Committee, a protection, post-conflict development
to design, implementation and monitor- world leader in relief, rehabilitation, pro- seeks a Chief of Party. REQUIREMENTS:
ing. S/he will lead strategic programmatic tection, post-conflict development, is Advanced degree in relevant field; 6 years
planning sessions for all IRC Sudan. As a seeking a Grants Coordinator for its South of overseas experience, including at least
member of IRC Sudan’s country manage- Sudan program. The Grants Unit Coordi- 3 years of senior management experi-
ment team, the DP will be a key decision nator will provide strategic direction to ence in community recovery or CDR-type
maker for the Program able to display the unit’s work in terms of ensuring qual- programming; Previous experience with
leadership, innovation and accountabil- ity grants management, strengthening consortium management, preferably in
ity. Apply at: www.ircjobs.org. the donor base, assessing needs and de- a Chief of Party-type position. Experience
veloping grants management capacity of in Africa, in large scale programs; and in
Director of Operations > Sudan
the field based teams as needed, ensuring managing programs of similar budget
The International Rescue Committee, a
compliance with donor requirements, en- size and strong budget management
world leader in relief, rehabilitation, pro-
suring quality information management skills; Fluency in both French and English;
tection, post-conflict development, is
related to programs / grants, and support Strong computer skills. Apply at www.ir-
seeking a Director of Operations. Based in
all aspects of the proposal development cjobs.org.
Khartoum s/he will be responsible for sup-
and reporting processes. Apply at: www.
porting IRC Sudan’s complex programs in Deputy Director of Operations &
ircjobs.org.
Darfur, North & East Sudan & ensuring Finance > Liberia
systems and policies are harmonized with Health Coordinator > Chad The International Rescue Committee, a
IRC’s southern Sudan office based in Juba The International Rescue Committee, a world leader in relief, rehabilitation, pro-
& its field sites. The DO will be responsible world leader in relief, rehabilitation, pro- tection, post-conflict development seeks
for the overall field office management, tection, post-conflict development seeks a Deputy Director responsible for the over-
particularly in the West Sudan program, a Health Coordinator. Qualifications: Pro- all operation of the organization. S/he will
and also the Khartoum office operations fessional health degree as nurse, nurse manage the finance, operations, procure-
functions of IRC Sudan. Apply at: www. practitioner, MD, or MPH. Three years pro- ment, administration, human resources
ircjobs.org. fessional experience implementing and and information technology teams. S/he
managing health programs in refugee will work closely with the Deputy Director
Field Coordinator > Sudan
continued on next page

MONDAY DEVELOPMENTS December 2007 39
Interested in placing a job announcements or advertisement? Email publications@interaction.org

continued from previous page

of Programs and Field Coordinators
in resolving and preventing issues,
and ensuring that IRC Liberia oper-
ates without the limitations set out
by the context. Requirements: Mas-
ters in Business Management, Op-
erations; 6-8 years of management
and leadership experience. Apply at:
www.theirc.org.

Director, Marketing & Legacy Capacity Building
Coordinator > Sierra Leone
Development The International Rescue Committee,
a world leader in relief, rehabilitation,
The Director of Marketing & Development is protection, post-conflict develop-
responsible for meeting annual revenue targets ment seeks a Capacity Building Co-
and maintaining the organization’s diversified ordinator responsible for planning,
funding base by developing marketing coordinating, and directing capacity
opportunities, retaining customers, ensuring building programs for IRC West Af-
excellent customer service and managing rica staff and local partners. Require-
a team. The position reports to the Chief ments: Bachelors plus advanced de-
Marketing Officer. Responsibilities include: gree in international development
Maintain and increase the efficacy of existing or a related human development
offline marketing and fundraising channels. field as well as a minimum of 4 years
Develop e-mail, telemarketing, print and of professional experience in inter-
other offline marketing channels and outreach national development, staff devel-
opportunities. Provide leadership to the US opment, program management or
Marketing and Fundraising Staff to help direct related field. Apply at www.ircjobs.
reports meet their individual fundraising org.
and marketing goals, thereby contributing to
fulfillment of the organization’s goals. Plan, Finance Controller > Sierra Leone
develop and implement testing strategies and The International Rescue Committee,
creative for campaigns. Optimize performance a world leader in relief, rehabilitation,
based on analysis of marketing campaigns. protection, post-conflict develop-
Work closely with agency counterparts on ment seeks a Finance Controller to
list planning, merge purge, creative and work with our programs in Sierra
reporting. Work with the Major Giving staff on Leone. S/he has overall policy and
strategy for upgrading existing sponsors and management responsibility for the
donors. Ensure excellent customer service by finance and accounting functions
developing, institutionalizing and enforcing for the country program. Control-
customer service standards. Report regularly lers’ responsibilities include general
on metrics and enhance management reports controllership, staff training, man-
and tools. Contribute to the development of agement, and treasury and budget
the organization’s marketing and fundraising functions: Requirements: Bachelors
strategies in the U.S. degree in Accounting, Business Ad-
ministration, Commerce or Finance
Requirements: Seven or more years of and a minimum three years of mana-
marketing experience with demonstrated gerial experience in the financial
success in direct response marketing. At least 2 area of a non-profit organization or
years of direct-response marketing experience five years in an international com-
in direct mail. Strong analytical skills required. mercial organization. Apply at www.
Direct Response Marketing experience in ircjobs.org.
television, e-mail or online a plus. Consider
joining our organization at this exciting time in
our expansion. We offer a competitive salary WANT TO RECEIVE MORE
and a comprehensive benefit program. JOB LISTINGS?
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Developments. Sign up online at

40 InterAction MONDAY DEVELOPMENTS
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Pandemic Coordinator, Washington, DC
The Pandemic Coordinator will lead InterAction’s efforts to improve the capacity of the NGO community to respond to a highly
pathogenic influenza (HPI) pandemic.
Responsibilities: Daily management of InterAction’s Pandemic Preparedness project; Travel to and facilitate regional NGO
coordination meetings; Hold bi-quarterly coordination meetings in DC; Identify the existing range of NGO response capacities in
a pandemic situation through an online capacity map and database; Facilitate the articulation of a planning framework for NGO
pandemic response; Coordinate the development of business continuity plans; Facilitate the sharing of information on HPI pandemic
preparedness and response; supervise technical consultants.
Qualifications: The Pandemic Coordinator position will have: A minimum of ten years experience (including four years in the field)
in international relief work at increasing levels of authority; Overseas experience in the management of NGO disaster response;
Proven coordination, networking, team building, and interpersonal skills; Excellent written and oral communication skills; Excellent
leadership, negotiation, and administration skills; Availability for international travel on short notice; and Minimum basic knowledge
of computer and internet technologies.
To apply: Please email a cover letter and resume to ebellardo@interaction.org. Applications will be accepted until the position is
filled. All applicants must be able to provide documentation that they are legally eligible to work in the United States for an extended
period of time. The positions will remain open until filled. No phone calls please. This is a 12-month position. Salary: $150,000 plus
benefits.

Program Associate, Humanitarian Policy and Practice Team, Washington, DC
InterAction, the nation’s largest alliance of international relief and development NGOs, is seeking a full-time Program Associate to
work on InterAction’s Humanitarian Policy and Practice Team (HPPT).
Responsibilities:
The HPPT Program Associate will: Provide administrative and substantive support to the HPPT, with a particular focus on activities
related to grants management, refugee protection, and issues related to UN/NGO partnership; Organize and report on meetings
and workshops; Maintain HPPT web pages, manage email lists; Supervise interns; Provide information to InterAction members, US
Government agencies, UN agencies, other partners, and the public.
He or she will report to the Senior Program Manager for Protection & Refugee Affairs and to the Vice President of Humanitarian Policy
and Practice.
Qualifications:
The HPPT Program Associate will have: Bachelor’s degree in relevant field; Previous experience or strong interest in international
humanitarian assistance and displacement issues; Excellent organizational and administrative skills; Strong writing and computer
skills; Attention to detail; Ability to interact with others in a professional manner; Previous grant management experience a plus.
Salary about $30,000, depending on qualifications. Excellent benefits package.
To apply:
Please email a cover letter and resume to Heather Powell, hpowell@interaction.org. All applicants must be able to provide
documentation that they are legally eligible to work in the United States for an extended period of time. The position will remain
open until filled. Only finalists will be contacted. No phone calls please.

MONDAY DEVELOPMENTS December 2007 41
Interested in placing a job announcements or advertisement? Email publications@interaction.org

Chief Financial Officer, Washington, DC
InterAction, the largest coalition of U.S.-based international not-for-profit organizations (NGOs) focused on the world’s poor and most
vulnerable people, seeks a highly qualified CFO to fill key functions within its leadership and to ensure effective financial management
within the organization.
As a member of InterAction’s Leadership Team, the CFO works closely with the President and other senior staff to shape the overall
management and direction of InterAction. He/she works with InterAction’s Leadership Team to create a transparent and highly
professional budgetary and financial management culture. The Chief Financial Officer (CFO) is responsible for managing and
establishing accounting policies, long range financial planning, procedures and controls within Generally Accepted Accounting
Principles, applicable federal, local laws grants, contract regulations and other funding source guidelines and administer personnel
benefits (including health insurance and retirement plans. The CFO oversees a Finance and Administration staff for day-to-day
operations.
This position has three major functions: Financial Management, Office Administration, and serving as a member of the Leadership
Team and InterAction’s senior management. InterAction is currently increasing its capacity to advance the goals of the US NGO
community and requires a CFO that can help the organization manage its growth. Qualifications: Master’s degree in accounting
or CPA; Team player with strong financial, organizational, management and communications skills Minimum 10 years working
experience, preferably with Non-Profit organizations Substantive knowledge of A-133, A1-22, A-110 and government funding
regulations; Extensive knowledge of accounting software Experience with administration of employee benefits, including health
plans. Please send inquiries and resumes by January 11th to Mariam Ehsanyar, MEhsanyar@interaction.org. No phone calls please.

Government Relations
World Wildlife Fund (WWF), the global conserva-
tion organization, has three exciting opportunities
InterAction Project Coordinator for available within its Government Relations team.
We are looking for energetic, creative, analytical,
Gender Equality E-learning Initiative independent thinkers and problem solvers expe-
The Project Coordinator will oversee the production of an interactive rienced at working with Congress and the Admin-
E-learning Tool on Gender Equality in Humanitarian Action under the
istration on conservation programs, policies, appropriations; and
domestic and international conservation issues. Ideal candidates
auspices of the Inter-Agency Standing Committee (IASC) Sub-working
will have subject matter expertise in international development,
Group on Gender in Humanitarian Action. The Project Coordinator
natural resource conservation, climate change, energy, agricul-
will develop and finalize an E-learning tool in consultation with and ture, fisheries and species conservation. Overall responsibilities
for use by members of the UN and NGO community drawing on include finding policy solutions to difficult challenges in conser-
expertise in gender, adult pedagogy, and humanitarian assistance. vation and natural resource management through advocacy; edu-
The overall objective is to strengthen the understanding and cation and outreach; research; and communication. Builds and
capacity of humanitarian actors from the NGO and UN communities fosters collaborative partnerships with WWF colleagues and ex-
on the importance of gender equality programming and how it can ternal partners (Congress, federal agencies, environmental groups,
be implemented in practical ways in the delivery of humanitarian industry representatives and academia) to negotiate, develop and
protection and assistance programs. The proposed E-learning Tool, explain WWF’s position on relevant issues. The closing date for
in the from of a CD-ROM/internet-based learning tool, will cover the
accepting postings is January 31, 2008.
basic information on what gender equality programming is, why it is
-Director, US Gov’t Relations (28086)
important, and provide simple approaches to sector-specific actors
-Sr. Program Officer, US Gov’t Relations, Fisheries and Marine
on how to ensure the needs of women, girls, boys and men are being Portfolio (28085)
met in humanitarian situations. The IASC Gender Handbook will form -Program Associate (28087)
the foundation for this creative training approach.
Interested parties please send resume and cover letter to Heather AA/EOE Women and minorities are encouraged to apply. To ap-
ply, please visit http://www.worldwildlife.org/about/jobs.cfm.
Powell at hpowell@interaction.org.

42 InterAction MONDAY DEVELOPMENTS
Interested in placing a job announcements or advertisement? Email publications@interaction.org

DR Congo Ceramic Enterprise:
Business Plan - Consultant
BACKGROUND: Women for Women International (WfW) provides women survivors of war, civil strife, and other conflicts with the tools and resources
to move from crisis and poverty to stability and self-sufficiency, thereby promoting viable civil societies. We do this through a multi-layered core program
of direct aid and emotional support, rights-based education and economic development. WFW operates Chapter offices in Afghanistan, Bosnia and
Herzegovina, DRC, Iraq, Kosovo, Nigeria, and Rwanda and Sudan. 100% of staff in all country offices is national.

WFW-DRC has an opportunity to pilot a social enterprise in ceramic production. As of July 2007, however, no concrete market linkages had been
made and training program graduates, while continuing to practice at the facility, had not yet produced marketable products. Before considering further
investment in this facility, WFW is in need of a strategic analysis to ensure that this enterprise is a viable opportunity and a business plan to guide its
implementation.

RESPONSIBILITIES AND WORK TASKS: Women for Women International (WFW) seeks a consultant with a strong background in enterprise
development to craft a comprehensive business plan for a ceramic production social enterprise in Bukavu, DRC. The analysis conducted in the business
plan should lead to a “Go or No-Go” recommendation based on social, business/financial and risk criteria outlined in WFW’s Income Generation Strategy.
If the enterprise is deemed viable, the business plan will ultimately serve as a blueprint to attract investors to enable the successful development of the
enterprise. The Consultant will be expected to engage in this project in cooperation with appropriate staff members from WFW-DRC and Washington.
While on the ground, the consultant should plan to engage as needed with the DRC Country Director, Finance Manager, Program Manager, Income
Generation Manager, Ceramics Trainer and others as required.

QUALIFICATIONS: Understanding of ceramics industry in developing nations; Strong track record in creating business plans for viable enterprises;
Demonstrated skills in market and enterprise analysis; Understanding of social enterprise; Knowledge of the eastern DRC and regional markets;
Experience conducting analysis in challenging, post-conflict, developing country environments; Excellent English writing skills; Spoken Kiswahili and/or
French language skills will be an asset; Capacity to engage and work respectfully with national staff

TO APPLY: Please forward resume and cover letter via *email preferred to adonnelly@womenforwomen.org , fax 202.293.0853 or mail to: Women for
Women International, ATTN: Annette Donnelly, Global Programs Unit, 4455 Connecticut Avenue, NW, Suite 200, Washington, DC 20008.

Episcopal Relief and Development (ERD) is the international relief and development agency of the Episcopal Church of the United States.
ERD, an independent 501(c) (3) non-profit organization, is in the midst of an highly successful malaria education and prevention program
in Africa know as NetsforLifeSM. NetsforLifeSM is an innovative partnership of faith-based groups, the private sector and governments. It
is scaling up for a major expansion starting in 2008. As such, ERD is seeking an Executive Director for NetsforLifeSM based in New York
City.

Executive Director, NetsforLifeSM, building on existing plans, will develop a fifth-year business plan and budget ($50 to $60 million)
in partnership with key stakeholders. Plan will need to ensure adequate capability and capacity to deliver a successful program (people,
systems, processes, knowledge). Accountable for execution of the plan, maximizing opportunities for growing funding, driving down cost
and mitigating risk. Develop risk management strategy that ensures all program activities are carried out in line with all governance and
compliance regulations. Grow the international profile of NetsforLifeSM through appropriate fora, speaking engagements and sharing best
practice and results with other NGOs as well as the broader ‘malaria community’. Supervise three full-time Directors/Managers and one
shared Admin Assistant. This position requires 35% travel to remote and potentially dangerous locations (possible week or more).
The Executive Director must have 10 years program experience in the NGO or commercial sectors. Pre-requisites includes: Development
experience with Africa strongly preferred, BA and advanced degree (MBA or International Policy), strong communications skills, strategic
thinking & decision making. Excellent leadership of a small dedicated global team is essential to achieve strong integration, linkage and
partnership in the community based-program. Advanced program management and finance & accounting along with expertise in using
statistics and financial information jointly with intuition and judgment will be indispensable. A first-hand understanding of community
development, integrated health in Africa, and the complexity of the issues of poverty are essential. Experience with Global Fund/ USAID/
PMI /WHO malaria protocols and guidelines will be helpful. The Executive Director will have ultimate accountability for all decisions
relating to the program.

For more information about Episcocal Relief and Development or NetsforLifeSM please visit www.er-d.org. For a full description visit
the section “About us” in our website. Salary is commensurate with experience and includes a generous benefits package. EOE, m/f/d/v
encouraged to apply. Submit a cover letter with salary requirements and a resume to erdjobs@er-d.org (include Executive Director in the
subject line).

MONDAY DEVELOPMENTS December 2007 43
Interested in placing a job announcements or advertisement? Email publications@interaction.org

Manager, Africa Programs

Ipas, a global non-profit leader in reproductive health, seeks a Manager for Africa programs, based in
North Carolina. Ipas’s mission is to improve women’s sexual and reproductive health, and promote
women’s reproductive rights. Reporting to the Regional Director, the Manager is responsible for the
semi-annual planning and budgeting cycle and will work closely with Country teams and the NC
Africa team in planning, developing proposals/budgets and reports. The Manager supervises the Africa
program team in North Carolina and works closely with the Regional Director to support program
offices in Ethiopia, Ghana, Kenya, Nigeria and South Africa. An estimated 35% travel required.
Requirements include: minimum Bachelor’s degree in relevant field (health, women’s development); at
least 6 years relevant experience in sexual reproductive health and rights or other relevant areas; proven
management, budgeting, analytic, problem-solving skills; demonstrated ability in proposal, report
writing and budgeting; experience living in an African country and French/other African language
preferred; excellent cross cultural and sensitivity skills; strong interpersonal, communications and
supervision skills and strong computer skills, including in Microsoft Office. We offer a competitive
salary and generous benefit package. Interested parties should submit cover letter and resume to
jsolomon@globalrecruitment.net. No phone calls please. Please visit our website at www.ipas.org for
more information. EOE

Regional Director for Africa

Ipas, a global non-profit leader in reproductive health, seeks to hire a Regional Director for Africa based in
North Carolina. Ipas’s mission is to improve women’s sexual and reproductive health, and promote women’s
reproductive rights. The Regional Director is responsible for strategic planning, program development, and
supervision of program offices in Ethiopia, Ghana, Kenya, Nigeria and South Africa. An estimated 40% travel
required. Specific responsibilities include: providing leadership in strategic planning of regional and country
programs with country teams; ensuring appropriate human resources to meet regional and country objectives.
Supervises directors in five countries providing leadership in proposal development, collaborating with
country and technical teams, and responsible for reporting to donors; representing Ipas with government, NGO
partners and donors and advocates for Ipas mission at national, regional and international fora. Requirements
include: Master’s degree in relevant field; at least 10 years progressively responsible experience in sexual
reproductive health and rights; demonstrated ability in program design and proposal writing; excellent oral
and written communication skills; proven management, budgeting and supervisory skills; minimum 3 years
overseas experience in Africa with French or an African language desired; strong interpersonal, team building,
representational and diplomacy skills; excellent fundraising ability and experience with multi-lateral, bi-lateral
and private donors and strong computer skills, including power point presentations. We offer a competitive
salary and a generous benefits package. Interested candidates should submit cover letter and resume to Jill
Solomon at jsolomon@globalrecruitment.net. Please visit our website at www.ipas.org for more information.
EOE

44 InterAction MONDAY DEVELOPMENTS
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Assistant Director
Washington, DC
The Asia Foundation (TAF) seeks an Assistant Director for its Washington, D.C. office. The Assistant Director is responsible for
providing program support to field offices with donor communities including USAID and the State Department; representing The Asia
Foundation in meetings on an as needed basis in support of country and regional funding priorities; assisting with Washington-based
program initiatives and outreach; monitoring foreign assistance and foreign policy and regulatory policy developments as they pertain
to the Foundation and the Asia region; liaising with Washington-based organizations and TAF staff as assigned; assisting with proposal
development, reporting and work plan development, and monitoring and evaluation plans with field offices and the San Francisco Bid
and Proposals unit; and planning events and organizing programs as assigned.

Experience. At least eight years of work experience in an international development organization. Experience overseas, particularly in
Asia, highly desirable. Familiarity with USAID or other U.S. government contracting and procurement procedures, monitoring and
evaluation design, and understanding of Congress desirable. Experience in designing and implementing exchange programs, outreach
and event planning helpful. Strong communication, organizational and written skills essential. Demonstrated capacity to exercise
independent initiative and judgment essential. Ability to manage multiple tasks. Demonstrated commitment to the goals and values of
The Asia Foundation.

Education. Master’s Degree in International Relations, Government, Economics, or other relevant fields. Or, the equivalent work
experience.

We offer excellent benefits and salary commensurate with experience. Please submit your application directly by visiting our website:
www.asiafoundation.org and selecting “Employment Opportunities.” Be sure to include a cover letter along with your resume, or your
application will not be accepted. Application deadline is January 11, 2008. The Asia Foundation is an equal opportunity employer.
EOE/M/F/D/V. No phone calls please.

JHPIEGO seeks candidates for the following Baltimore, MD based positions. Email resumes to hr@jhpiego.net. Visit www.jhpiego.org for full job
descriptions.

CHIEF FINANCIAL OFFICER
Needed to direct the organization’s finance and accounting practices worldwide and provide expert advice and guidance on all financial matters.
Qualifications: Advanced degree with 10+ years’ progressively responsible experience in international private sector financial operations required.
Experience must include strong financial management and project management skills and the ability to support a process improvement environment.
Experience must also include knowledge of USAID grants administration and accounting requirements and sound understanding of management
information systems requirements and connectivity issues in an international environment.

BUSINESS DEVELOPMENT OFFICER
Needed to manage proposal development process and provide support to the technical and program teams in both headquarters and field offices.
Qualifications: BA with 3+ years’ proposal development experience in international development or global health environment required. Experience
must include strong project management, writing and editing skills. Knowledge of USAID and other donor policies and procedures also required.
Ability to work in complex fast-paced environment with multiple tasks and deadlines is essential. Experience working or living in a developing
country and French language skills preferred.

FOUNDATION OFFICER
Needed to support the Director in developing the overall strategy for foundation fund-raising.
Qualifications: BA with 3+ years’ fundraising experience in the foundation arena required. Must have in-depth knowledge of international and U.S.
foundations and extensive proposal writing experience, preferably in the context of global health. Proposal writing and demonstrated track record
of successful wins within the foundation world required. Ability to travel required, experience working or living in a developing country preferred.

SR. PROGRAM COORDINATOR
Needed to coordinate and support programmatic, financial, monitoring and administrative functions for the Angola and Mozambique programs.
Qualifications: BA with 3+ years’ international development or global health experience required. Experience must include strong project
management, writing and editing skills. Proposal development experience and knowledge of USAID and other donor policies and procedures also
required. Fluency in continental Portuguese required; translating and proofreading materials from English to Portuguese preferred. Experience
working or living in a developing country preferred.

MONDAY DEVELOPMENTS December 2007 45
Interested in placing a job announcements or advertisement? Email publications@interaction.org

WWI Microfinance Afghanistan
Program Director

JOB SUMMARY:
The Program Director is responsible for the overall implementation of WWI Afghanistan Microfinance (MFI), including the MFI’s
strategic goals, the expansion of the program into new areas, growth of loan portfolio and client base, overall management of the MFI’s
financial systems, internal controls and budget, the administration of the program’s policies and standards, and the management and
development of a competent staff to implement program initiatives. The Program Director will oversee preparation and maintenance of
the MFI’s business plan, operating budgets, periodic financial analysis and compliance with internal audit controls.

DUTIES and RESPONSIBILITIES:
Leadership and Oversight: Provide overall management supervision and support for the MFI. Maintain strong working relationships
with WWI Afghanistan. Microfinance Board of Directors and WWI headquarters to implement WWI Afghanistan MFI’s strategic
initiatives and business plans. Guide and maintain the MFI’s move to operational sustainability. Ensure compliance with WWI
Afghanistan Microfinance policies and maintain procedures that provide effective and efficient systems for delivery of financial services
to clients. Promote high standards for customer service in keeping with the mission of the organization. Promote honesty and integrity
in all activities of the program. Promote and maintain donor relationships and participate in the Afghanistan Microfinance Association
organization and with other microfinance organizations.

Management of the Credit Program: Provide effective leadership and management of the credit staff and ensure compliance with the
credit program’s lending policies. Access and manage commercial credit as needed. Manage and monitor the MFI’s program goals and
produce status reports for the Board of Directors, WWI, MISFA, and others as required. Analyze and manage the loan portfolio to ensure
a minimal level of risk. Manage the loans in arrears by taking appropriate action. Evaluate, recommend, and deliver loan products that
meet the needs of clients. Manage the loan approval, disbursement, collection, and monitoring processes within the program’s policy
guidelines. Supervise all centers and expansion into new areas. Maintain strong relationships with the areas’ leaders. Manage the business
development efforts of the credit staff to build new client relationships and expand into new areas. Manage and track goals for the credit
program. Prepare reports to update management on the success of the program.

Management of the Financial Systems and Controls: Ensure compliance with international accounting standards. Ensure compliance
with WWI MF financial policies and procedures. Manage internal workflow and organizational structure to promote efficient safe and
sound financial practices. Manage internal controls and periodic audits of the financial systems and tools. Maintain strong internal cash
management controls. Analyze the use of loan tracking and accounting systems for data integrity and enhanced capabilities. Responsible
for the generation, integrity, and prompt delivery of required reporting for MISFA, external auditors, and donor agencies. Generate
financial and credit reports for the WWI Board of Directors, WWI headquarters, and for internal use for analysis and evaluation of the
program’s success. Implement the financial goals of the MFI’s business plan. Monitor profit plans and related performance results,
reacting as necessary to ensure control over routine expenditures and the collection of appropriate revenues.

Human Resources Management: Create an environment conducive to individual development, productivity and achievement, ensuring
open lines of communication. Responsible for the management of all personnel. Maintain effective recruitment practices to hire
competent and qualified staff. Maintain an effective evaluation process that promotes the development of our staff and offers advancement
opportunities. Adhere to WWI Afghanistan MFI personnel policy. Ensure staff are knowledgeable of products, services and procedures.
Monitor staff interactions with clients ensuring motivation and guidance. Demonstrate the standards of customer service staff is expected
to emulate in interactions with clients. Ensure staff maintains confidentiality of client information.

Knowledge, Skills, and Experience Needed: Strong commitment to working with women and women’s issues. Five to eight years
experience in a management position. Eight to ten years experience in banking, accounting, business, microfinance or other finance-
related occupation desired. Ability to manage and motivate employees. Ability to travel locally and internationally. Ability to handle stress
and work under pressure. Fluency in English. College or university degree in accounting, finance, business administration or a related
field. Computer skills in word processing and spreadsheet. Experience in training facilitation. Experience working with international
organizations.

To Apply: Please forward resume and cover letter via *email preferred , fax 202.293.0853 or mail to: ATTN: Human Resources
Department, 4455 Connecticut Avenue, NW, Suite 200, Washington, DC 20008. Email: humanresources@womenforwomen.org.

46 InterAction MONDAY DEVELOPMENTS
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The International Rescue Committee
responds to the world’s worst crises,
helping refugees running from the horrors
of war and persecution. We rescue their
lives with immediate relief. We rescue their
futures by supporting them through
recovery toward renewal. We rescue their
freedom, enabling those given a new
home in the U.S. to become settled and
self-reliant. For 75 years, the IRC has been
raising alarms with a global call to action
and restoring hope, dignity and opportu-
nity for vulnerable people worldwide.

Add your skill and passion to our
worldwide team of professionals in:

Health • Finance • Program Management •
Community Development • Protection •
Gender Based Violence • Operations •
Post Conflict Development • Education

Apply now at:

IRCjobs.org

From Harm to Home

MONDAY DEVELOPMENTS December 2007 47
Interested in placing a job announcements or advertisement? Email publications@interaction.org

Controller - Pakistan

ARC is an international nonprofit, nonsectarian organization that has provided humanitarian assistance and training to millions of beneficiaries
over the last 27 years.

Key responsibilities include: Finance - Supervise Finance staff. This includes ensuring they are properly trained and know what performance
expectations are. Manage day to day accounting functions including regular cash verification, Bank and Balance sheet accounts reconciliations,
Deferred Revenue sheets, Monthly closing, timely submission of financial report to Head quarter, Donors etc. Maintain up-to-date, accurate
accounting system, including: computer data entry and paper file system. Prepare timely budgets, cash requests and accounting reports. Monitor
grant spending and projections. Assist in preparation of budgets for all proposals. Complete monthly balance sheet reviews and periodic inter-
company reports. Administration - Ensure that all procurement follows all aspects of ARC procurement policy including requirements for
competitive bids. Verify inventory of assets and control stocks of consumable supplies as produced by logistics department. Ensure adequate
security, supervise guards, and maintain controls on all properties. Establish and maintain communications systems, including, telephone, fax,
radio and e-mail. Control vehicle fleet; ensure that ARC vehicle policies and procedures are being followed. Coordinate incoming and outgoing
personnel and cargo; facilitate immigration (visas) and customs as necessary. Human Resources - Implement personnel policies. Maintain
expatriate staff monthly payroll, time sheets and attendance records. Maintain local staff personnel files. Ensure local staff are paid in accordance
with ARC policy and local labor laws. Supervise all local non-program staff; finance assistants. Arrange for staff training as appropriate. Carry out
staff appraisals for finance, administrative and logistics staff. Organize and lead orientation and training sessions for staff both in the field and in
Pakistan. Other appropriate duties as assigned by the Country Director.

The successful candidate will have: 3-5 years overseas experience in finance/management for an NGO. Minimum 2 years of supervisory
experience. Experience in multi-cultural and multi-level programs. Bachelors degree required in Finance, Accounting, or related field; advanced
degree preferred. Experience with international donors and grant requirements. Ability to work with a team in an intense environment. Strong
computer skills in Microsoft software products: Excel, Word, outlook etc and accounting software. ACCPAC experience strongly preferred.
Excellent written and oral communications skills as well as leadership skills. Ability to prioritize multiple tasks and meet deadlines. Flexibility,
sense of humor and good interpersonal skills. Demonstrated training ability. Fluency in English required.

INTERNATIONAL MEDICAL CORPS
IMC is a global, humanitarian non-profit organization dedicated to “The mission of Medical Teams International
saving lives and relieving suffering by providing health-care training is to demonstrate the love of Christ to people
and medical-relief programs worldwide. IMC is a private, non-political,
non-profit, non-sectarian organization with the organizational flexibility
affected by
to respond rapidly to emergency situations. IMC’s mission is to improve disaster, conflict and poverty.”
the quality of life through health interventions and related activities that
build local capacity.
US-Based Positions
IMC is getting ready to start up new operations in Zimbabwe. IMC is Senior Technical Advisor, Health - Portland,
looking for candidates to fill the following positions around February Oregon Representative, Washington D.C. -
2007. Zimbabwean nationals will be given priority.
Washington D.C.
NEW ZIMBABWE POSITIONS:
Country Director
Medical Director
International Position
Finance & Admin Director Country Director - Sri Lanka
Medical Doctor
Nutritionist
Trainer Visit our website at www.medicalteams.org for
Nurse/Midwife further information.
Medical Teams International, 14150 S.W. Milton
Please visit our website: http://www.imcworldwide.org
Please Apply Online / Reference Monday Developments Ct. Portland, OR 97224

48 InterAction MONDAY DEVELOPMENTS
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MONDAY DEVELOPMENTS December 2007 49
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50 InterAction MONDAY DEVELOPMENTS
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301-951-9090
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