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The Latest Issues and Trends in International Development and Humanitarian Assistance


January 2007
Vol. 25, No. 1
We’ve all heard it before:
“Americans don’t care about
foreign affairs.” “Politicians
aren’t concerned with the
developing world—they’re
more interested in getting
re-elected, so they only care
about local issues.” Those in
the development community
know that these statements
aren’t true, and are increasingly
proving that fighting poverty
and injustice everywhere is
an American ideal. This issue
explores successful advocacy
efforts on the part of American
organizations working overseas,
as well as individuals at the
grassroots level working to
make a better world—both at
home and abroad.

Photos: courtesy of Karl Grobl (cover); Stephen M. Katx (above); Cheol Ham (right)

03 Letter from the President
04 Inside Our Community
05 Read!
10 Your Thoughts
28 Position Announcements

06 Foreign Assistance in 2007
12 Changing Policies Through Advocacy
14 Continuous Progress: Better Advocacy
Through Evaluation
18 Advocacy: Creating Positive Change

25 The 2006 Election Results: What Do They
Mean for Our Community?
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HAPPY 2007!
Dear Friends,

The InterAction staff and I are excited about this new year

and all the challenges and opportunities it brings. 2006 was
an extraordinary year of change for InterAction with a new WHY IS ADVOCACY IMPORTANT?
CEO, a new location, and a sharper strategic focus—and we Advocacy is about “building an
are expecting more big things this year. This is the year we ongoing relationship with a loyal
assert our authority in the humanitarian and development
debate, reclaim our collective space as a primary stakeholder
network of constituents ready to
in the delivery of U.S. foreign assistance, and effectively support the issues most important to
promote the interests of millions of displaced, disadvantaged, your organization” (from website of
and marginalized men, women, and children worldwide. Convio). It is about assembling with
like-minded citizens to express your
This issue of Monday Developments gives us a framework of
what to anticipate this year from Capitol Hill. As expected,
views to our lawmakers—essential to a
key on our legislative radar will be the 2008 budget and healthy democracy.
appropriations, with a special focus on additional funding
for the seven core humanitarian and development accounts. “Lobbying by 501(c)(3) nonprofits is a
With the near completion of our strategic goals, we are poised powerful strategy for making people’s
to provide our membership with clearly defined avenues for lives better and for building stronger
increased member participation. The new goals will enable communities.”
us to be more cohesive on our positions and to leverage, as a Center for Lobbying in the Public Interest
community, the unique contributions of our sector.

It is important that the new Congress focus on issues of
concern to our community and to the American people who
so generously donate their hard-earned dollars to many of MONDAY DEVELOPMENTS
our member organizations every year. Among the challenges
we will face this year: convincing our government that Managing Editor Monday Developments is
Julie Montgomery published 20 times a year by the
poverty reduction should be the guiding principle of U.S. Communications Department of
foreign assistance under the reformed State-USAID strategic Editors
InterAction, the largest alliance of
U.S.-based international development
framework, demonstrating to our donors that we are finding Robyn Shepherd and humanitarian nongovernmental
new and innovative ways to promote the value of a world Kathy Ward organizations. With more than
160 members operating in every
free of poverty, and responding to an American public that
Copy Editor developing country, we work to
continues to put faith in our programs through thousands of Hilary Nalven overcome poverty, exclusion and
small contributions—while at the same time calling on us to suffering by advancing social justice
and basic dignity for all.
be resourceful, to be relevant, and to be bold. Advertising & Sales
Josh Kearns InterAction welcomes submissions
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I look forward to working closely with you and wish you a Communications Department announcements. Articles may be
very happy new year. Nasserie Carew, Director reprinted with prior permission and
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Julie Montgomery, Publications encouraged.
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Tel: 202.667.8227 ISSN 1043-8157
circle because CCF focuses on what is happening to children
around the world,” noted Goddard.
Two New Members Join InterAction In looking at the challenges facing CCF over the next decade,
InterAction is pleased to announce the addition of two new Goddard commented,
member organizations: “Three billion people live in poverty around the world. And half
Population Communications International (www.population. of them are children. Children are the most vulnerable, and so
org) produces carefully researched and culturally sensitive radio they are the barometer of how the world deals with this major
and television programs, often using serial dramas, to help people issue. If you want to see what the world is really doing about
make choices that can improve their health and educational global poverty, look at the children. And since children tell us the
prospects. PCI’s dramas address a wide range of issues, including most about the future, that says a lot about the world’s future.
HIV/AIDS prevention, alcohol and drug abuse, literacy, That is important to me and is one of the reasons I was attracted
violence, and gender equality. to CCF. One of our biggest challenges for the future is how we
can effectively address the root causes of poverty.”
The Hesperian Foundation ( works to
strengthen the ability of poor people and communities to take Goddard is a graduate of Assumption College in Worcester,
greater control over their health and lives. For more than 30 Massachusetts and holds a Masters of Public Health, Health
years, Hesperian has developed and distributed vital health Education/International Health degree from the University of
information and educational resources that assist poor and North Carolina, Chapel Hill.
marginalized people to diagnose, treat and prevent common
health problems, as well as to organize to change the social Helen Keller International Wins Award for Sweet Potato
and economic conditions that undermine health. In addition Program
to producing such well-regarded publications as Where There Helen Keller International (HKI) and its partners received a
is No Doctor, Hesperian has also developed and distributed a $30,000 award from the Consultative Group on International
wide array of health education and organizing resources focusing Agricultural Research (CGIAR) for its orange-fleshed sweet
on disability, midwifery, dentistry, early childhood development, potato program in Africa. The program promotes the cultivation
and HIV/AIDS. and consumption of orange-fleshed sweet potatoes to improve
food security and combat vitamin A deficiency (VAD) in
World Concern President Paul Kennel Steps Down developing countries, a leading cause of mortality in African
Paul Kennel, longtime president of World Concern, left his post
at the end of December. In order to ensure a smooth transition, In sub-Saharan Africa, 42 percent of children under the age
Kennel will assist with World Concern’s operations until a of five suffer from VAD, a condition that greatly increases the
replacement is found. chances of becoming blind and significantly contributes to the
risk of death. Controlling VAD in sub-Saharan Africa will prevent
“I am wholeheartedly committed to the mission of World as many as 645,000 child deaths per year. Adding 100 grams of
Concern and its outreach to the poor and will assist my successor orange-fleshed sweet potatoes to a daily diet can help prevent
to ensure that our programs continue without interruption,” VAD in children and mothers as well as reduce the risk of child
said Kennel, who has served as president since 1995 and joined mortality.
the organization in 1982 as a field manager in Asia. “It has given
me a great deal of satisfaction to do this work, and I am thankful Sweet potatoes are widely grown in Africa, but the crops are
for the many great people I have been privileged to know and to almost exclusively white-fleshed varieties that have little or no
serve along the way.” beta-carotene needed for the body to create vitamin A. The
orange-fleshed varieties of sweet potatoes, familiar to Americans,
“As President, Paul has led a network of 900 skilled staff workers, are one of the best natural sources of beta-carotene. A study
1,300 volunteers, several hundred international partners, and done in Mozambique, led by Michigan State University, showed
thousands of donors in bringing life, opportunity and hope to the promotion of production led to a decrease in VAD, from 60
people in communities in 32 countries around the world,” said percent to 36 percent in participating households.
Robert Lonac, president of CRISTA Ministries, for which World
Concern is the international disaster response and development In order to encourage farmers, many of whom are women, to
agency. adopt orange-fleshed sweet potatoes as part of their production
and consumption, HKI implements behavior change and
New President Chosen for Christian Children’s Fund demand creation strategies, and provides training to front-line
workers, usually governmental or non-governmental agricultural
After a national and international search, Christian Children’s extension agents.
Fund (CCF) has named CARE’s Chief-of-Staff, Anne Lynam
Goddard, to serve as its eighth president. Looking forward, it is hoped that the program will expand
both within countries where it currently operates and into new
Goddard brings more than 27 years of development experience countries, including Cameroon, Côte d’Ivoire, Democratic
to CCF and has worked in international development in five Republic of Congo, Guinea, Mali, Nigeria, Senegal, Sierra Leone,
countries (Kenya, Egypt, Indonesia, Bangladesh and Somalia) Tanzania, and Zimbabwe. One goal of the program is developing
during an 18-year period. varieties of sweet potatoes based on specific eco-zones, including
“I started my career in 1974 as a social worker, focusing on child varieties that are drought, pest, and/or disease-resistant.
neglect and abuse cases. So, in a way, my career has come full

A New Weave of Power, People & Politics: The Action Guide
for Advocacy and Citizen Participation
By Lisa VeneKlasen with Valerie Miller, Just Associates

Reviewed by John Ruthrauff, InterAction
In recent years many development organizations have adopted The authors also provide examples of problem statements
a rights-based development methodology. This requires from Ghana, India, and Zimbabwe. Also included are exercises
understanding new concepts and designing new strategies for examining the anatomy of a problem, developing an access and
implementation. A New Weave of Power, People & Politics, by Lisa control profile, problem identification tools, and use of focus
VeneKlasen and Valerie Miller, a guide on advocacy and citizen groups.
participation, gives nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) an As the guide explains, analyzing and selecting priority issues
incredibly useful resource to understand and implement this involve “… looking at the causes and impact of problems as well as
core element of rights-based development. The authors identify analyzing solutions. You need to decide which strategy is feasible
this advocacy approach as “an organized political process that for your group and which offers the most political gain.” Advocates
involves the coordinated efforts of people to change policies, tend to focus on specific policy decisions to the detriment of
practices, ideas and values that perpetuate inequality, prejudice broader issues. VeneKlasen and Miller stress the holistic nature of
and exclusion.” advocacy, reminding us that policy is only one, albeit an important,
The three-page section entitled “Navigating the Action Guide,” dimension of rights-based advocacy. Their Advocacy Impact
which summarizes key concepts that also provide a preview for Chart helps us examine the impact of advocacy on issues such as
each section, demonstrates the guide’s practical, hands-on nature. political space, culture, civil society, and the individual. Exercises
The guide includes 40 exercises to facilitate the advocacy process analyze the needs and potential of marginalized groups, enable
and has examples from dozens of countries. It also deftly calls problem identification and prioritization, and examine the causes,
upon the authors’ 50 years of combined experience conducting consequences, and solutions to those problems.
advocacy throughout the world. The guide is a necessary addition The authors examine different political systems and their “entry
to any reading list for staff working on advocacy in field offices, points,” such as national policy-making, courts, bureaucracy, and
policy departments, and with partner organizations. political parties. Phases of policy-making include agenda setting,
The first section provides an overview of the concepts of politics and formulation and enactment, implementation, and monitoring
advocacy, democracy and citizenship, power and empowerment, and enforcement. The guide also provides an overview of budget
and constructing empowering strategies. While gender is included analysis, international policy-making advocacy, and women’s
in the section on power analysis, examples and analysis of gender human rights advocacy. VeneKlasen and Miller point out that
issues are present throughout the book, woven into the content “[a]lthough a key advocacy goal is to create opportunities for
as an integral part of advocacy. The authors draw on the writings citizens’ groups to be directly engaged in policy processes,
of an international range of advocacy thinkers and practitioners engagement does not always impact policy decisions in the end.
including Hope Chigudu from Zimbabwe, John Samuel from the It is easy to believe that access to policy-makers will translate into
National Centre of Advocacy Studies in India, Margaret Schuler influence, but in practice this is rarely true.” In fact, many NGOs,
from Overseas Education Fund International and John Gaventa both north and south, make this very mistake in their dialogues
from the Institute for Development Studies in Sussex, England. with the World Bank and other international agencies. The concept
of claimed space versus invited space is particularly timely. If an
For development practitioners, section two is especially helpful,
organization forces its way to the decision-making table (claimed
providing examples of tools for planning advocacy campaigns
space), it is more likely to have influence than if the policy-makers
that build on an organization’s political vision and advocacy
invite organizations to a dialogue. The latter rarely provides the
strengths and weaknesses. The checklists for political credibility
opportunity for effective advocacy since it leaves the policy-
and constituent credibility are particularly useful. The guide uses
makers in control.
“structural analysis” to analyze outside ideological, political, and
economic factors with exercises such as “Naming the Powerful” The final section, “Doing Advocacy, Building Clout: Message, Tactics
and “Developing a Historical Analysis of the Political Landscape.” and Organization,” covers the media, lobbying and negotiations,
advocacy leadership development, and building alliances. The
The authors address the issue of defining targeted problems in
media overview provides recommendations for framing and
a clear and delimited way. They point out that “... many advocacy
delivering your message, choosing the right medium, and mass
strategies have difficulty in achieving their goals because the
media advocacy, with examples from Croatia and the Philippines.
problem they seek to address:
It also provides basic information concerning news conferences,
a is not clearly defined or understood; letters to the editor, television and radio interviews, and alternative
a is not perceived as a priority problem by a large number media.
of people—especially by excluded groups whom the A New Weave is one of the best available guides providing
advocacy is intended to benefit; and an overview of the advocacy process as well as concrete
a is not narrowed down sufficiently to a specific issue with recommendations for implementation. The 340-page book can be
a workable strategy.” ordered through Stylus Publishing at 1-800-232-0223 in the U.S. or

Just Associates (JASS) collaborates with activists worldwide to develop cutting edge analysis and how-to materials based on the
messy realities of social change in practice. Check out their other publications at


Photo: courtesy of Ron Storer
The new year will probably
bring unexpected developments
here in the halls of Washington,
DC and around the world,
developments that will require
BUDGET AND APPROPRIATIONS advocacy for our interests and
By Ken Forsberg, Senior Legislative Associate, InterAction the interests of those we serve.
That said, some advocacy
Action on appropriations in 2007 will start in late January with consideration opportunities are clearly
of a continuing resolution (CR) to fund government programs for the rest already on the agenda. In the
of the 2007 fiscal year (FY) (which ends September 30). Shortly thereafter, following section, we preview
in February, the President will present his proposed budget for FY 2008, five issues that are expected
as well as a request for supplemental funding for the wars in Iraq and
Afghanistan for the rest of FY 2007. The months that follow will be occupied
to be on the advocacy radar
with congressional consideration of a supplemental bill to respond to the screens of InterAction members
President’s request, followed by budget hearings, committee markups and during 2007: the federal
floor debates as Congress tries to formulate and pass its own concurrent budget and appropriations, the
budget resolution by April 15, setting out a spending limit for fiscal 2008.
Farm Bill, foreign assistance
Summer and fall will bring consideration of FY08 appropriations bills, first by
appropriations subcommittees, then by the full committee, then by the full reform, the HIV/AIDS PEPFAR
respective chambers, then by conference committees. program, and the Millennium
Challenge Corporation.
These bills and resolutions will determine what the U.S. government spends
on development and humanitarian programs during what remains of FY 2007
(for the CR and the supplemental) and FY 2008 (for the budget resolution
and appropriations bills), as well as determining to a significant extent how
that money is spent.

“Lives depend on robust funding
for these programs in the most
fundamental, immediate way possible.
Time will not stand still in refugee
camps, in war and famine zones, in
clinics, schools and maternity wards,
Photo: courtesy of Jeffrey Asutin

while we get our fiscal house in order.
Funding shortfalls in these programs
now will have irreversible human
consequences that cannot be undone
with additional funding later.”
Sam Worthington, President and CEO, InterAction,
in 12/21/06 letter to congressional leadership

80 percent of the world’s hungry people live in
rural areas. 90 percent of the U.S. counties that
have had poverty rates of at least 20 percent
over the last 30 years (‘persistent poverty
counties’) are rural counties.

By Emily Byers, Senior Policy Analyst, Government
Relations, Bread for the World
In 2007, Congress will reauthorize a piece of legislation
popularly known as the Farm Bill. As its name suggests, this
important legislation includes commodity support programs to
U.S. farmers. However, the Farm Bill is not just about farmers.
Photo: courtesy of Stephen M. Katz
It also covers domestic nutrition programs, notably the Food
Stamp Program, international food aid (including P.L.480), land
conservation, and rural development.
InterAction members are advocating for increased spending on IMPORTANCE
the seven core humanitarian and development accounts, global Farm Bill provisions affect poor and hungry people worldwide.
AIDS, and the Millennium Challenge Account. After several years For example, the Farm Bill determines the form and level
of stagnant funding in most of these accounts, rough calculations of U.S. food aid for humanitarian emergencies and ongoing
suggest that if the U.S. government wants to get serious about development overseas. Here at home, rural Americans are more
addressing extreme poverty, humanitarian emergencies, and likely to be poor and hungry than their urban counterparts.
health emergencies and epidemics like AIDS, it must, at a While the Farm Bill does provide an effective first line of defense
minimum, roughly double the funding levels in these accounts against hunger nationwide through the Food Stamp Program,
(relative to FY07 bills, for a total appropriation of around $15 most of its support for struggling rural communities is tied to
billion total for all these accounts). We are also advocating for production of five commodity crops. In addition, the damage
full funding of these accounts in the regular appropriations bills, that these commodity support programs, often called subsidies,
rather than under-funding them in the regular bills and then can inflict on poor farmers in developing countries, who comprise
adding funds in mid-year supplementals, as has become the the majority of the world’s hungry people, is well documented.
pattern in recent years. Broad reform of U.S. food and farm policy, including adjustments
This advocacy will occur in an increasingly tough fiscal to the commodity payment programs, is important to progress
environment. The budget is in deficit, and the Democrats now against hunger and poverty both in this country and around the
in control of Congress campaigned hard on the issue of fiscal world.
responsibility and returning the budget to surplus. They also
made promises suggesting increases in spending on domestic OUTLOOK
programs. The wars in Iraq and Afghanistan will also continue Despite talk last year of simply extending the current farm bill,
to require significant spending. It is therefore difficult to be the chairs of both the House and Senate Agriculture Committees
optimistic about funding for foreign assistance programs. recently pledged to open up the entire bill to changes. Writing
Nevertheless, InterAction and its members will fight hard and will likely begin in earnest after budget allocations are made in
make the case for the importance of such assistance for our late spring. Because the budget baseline for the bill is likely to
future. be much lower than the last time around, allocation will be a
major determinant of what the next bill looks like. The bulk of
RESOURCES the work should take place over the summer with the final bill
Overview of the Congressional Budget Process, Congressional completed by the Thanksgiving recess.
Research Service: The 2007 Farm Bill debate will likely be different than in past
Introduction To The Federal Budget Process, Center on Budget years. The political dynamics have changed as new constituencies
and Policy Priorities: have begun to get involved. One of these new constituencies
is comprised of groups that work primarily to reduce poverty
The Congressional Appropriations Process: An Introduction, and promote development in developing countries. A growing
Congressional Research Service: realization in the last few years that U.S. farm policy affects poor
resources/pdf/97-684.pdf people worldwide, reinforced by the Doha round of negotiations
U.S. Global Leadership Campaign, International Affairs Budget at the World Trade Organization, has added new voices to the
Page: debate.
continued on next page

continued from previous page its members appreciate and support Ambassador Randall Tobias’
RESOURCES efforts to streamline U.S. assistance and improve monitoring and
Bread for the World: evaluation, we believe that the process should be more open and
deliberative, and should include a formal process for soliciting
Hunger Report: feedback from the community of nongovernmental organizations
Oxfam, agriculture campaigns: (NGOs). It is NGOs, after all, that implement several billion dollars worth of aid programs overseas each year and have more
than 40 years of experience fighting poverty and alleviating
Church World Service, Sowing Justice Campaign:
human suffering in the developing world, and therefore are the
most credible source of information on effective development
The National Agricultural Law Center: policy and practice.
Under the new system, the USAID mission in each country must
FOREIGN ASSISTANCE REFORM submit an annual operational plan. The Country Operational Plans
By Evan Elliott, Advocacy Associate, InterAction for fiscal year (FY) 2007 are due in Washington, DC from “Fast
Track” and USAID-presence countries on January 31, 2007, at
ISSUE which point we will have a better idea about how resources will
In January 2006, Secretary be allocated at the country level and at the program level within
of State Condoleezza Rice each country. Following a review of the Operational Plans, the
announced her intention to Office of the Director of Foreign Assistance (Foreign Assistance
overhaul the U.S. foreign Bureau) will send a notification to Congress outlining how it has
assistance architecture to shifted funds from particular countries or accounts in a way that
bring it in line with her differs from the original FY 2007 budget justification.
vision of Transformational
Diplomacy—using America’s Our first opportunity to see next year’s country allocations will
diplomatic power to help be on February 5, when the FY 2008 budget is released. We
foreign citizens better their anticipate that the Foreign Assistance Bureau will present the FY
own lives, build their own 2008 budget using the existing account structures, and will also
Photo: courtesy of Karl Grobl
nations and transform their “crosswalk” them with the new program areas that have been
own futures. The resulting created as part of the reforms. This crosswalking process will
strategic framework for foreign assistance offers the following allow us to see exactly how the reforms are impacting funding
as the prime objective of U.S. foreign aid: “Helping to build levels for the programs that are most integral to alleviating
and sustain democratic, well-governed states that respond to the poverty and saving lives in the developing world.
needs of their people and conduct themselves responsibly in the
international system.” RESOURCES
Foreign assistance reform is important not only because it has
the potential to greatly affect the way InterAction’s member
organizations do their work in the field, but also because it
represents, to a certain extent, the politicization of aid dollars in HIV/AIDS: PEPFAR
a way that may not be most conducive to poverty alleviation and
The President’s Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief
humanitarian action. Because the new strategic framework for
foreign assistance mentions poverty alleviation as an explicit goal
By Nicole Bates, Director, Government Relations,
only once and is silent on cross-cutting issues such as gender, Global Health Council
InterAction members have become increasingly concerned
that the reforms do not capture the will of Congress and the
The President’s five-year, $15 billion global AIDS initiative
American people, who believe that aid should go to the world’s
(PEPFAR) operates today in 15 countries toward the goal of
poorest and most vulnerable people.
preventing 7 million new infections, treating 2 million people
Furthermore, the speed at which the reforms are taking place, living with AIDS-related illnesses, and providing care and
as well as the lack of transparency shown throughout the entire support for 10 million persons affected by AIDS. Authorized for
reform process, has been very alarming. While InterAction and five years, PEPFAR expires on September 30, 2008.

Prevention: 42 million people reached through community
outreach activities and education about sexual transmission.
Care: 4.5 million people, including two million orphans.
Treatment: 822,000 individuals receiving antiretroviral treatment.
Photo: courtesy of Cheol Ham

PEPFAR represents an unprecedented U.S. government Office of the Global AIDS Coordinator:
(USG) commitment to the fight against AIDS. PEPFAR is the
single largest USG investment in an international health issue. Official Program Audits and Review:
Through PEPFAR and contributions to the Global Fund to Institute of Medicine PEPFAR Implementation Evaluation:
Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria, the USG is the single
largest contributor to international HIV/AIDS assistance.
Center for Public Integrity:
While great progress has been made because of this investment,
challenges have arisen, including finding sustainable AIDS
interventions and financing. With the expansion of prevention, MILLENNIUM CHALLENGE CORPORATION
care and treatment services largely supported by USG efforts, By John Ruthrauff, Program Manager, InterAction
decisions about the future of PEPFAR will directly affect whether
and how HIV-positive people in the poorest countries receive ISSUE
health care. The Millennium Challenge Account (MCA) was proposed
by President Bush in 2002 and established in January 2004.
OUTLOOK The Millennium Challenge Corporation (MCC), the MCA
In 2007, attention will turn to a potential PEPFAR implementing agency, began slowly but by 2006 was approving
reauthorization. Signs point to an interest by the Bush significant compacts (agreements) with developing countries.
Administration and implementers to reauthorize PEPFAR on
schedule. However, discussions about the future shape of the IMPORTANCE
global AIDS program must occur within the context of foreign Recent multi-year compacts include $547 million for Ghana,
assistance reform, a shrinking core global health account and a $461 million for El Salvador, and $461 million for Mali. In
new Congress. Each of these could impact the tone and timing the first three years of operations, Congress appropriated $4.2
of PEPFAR reauthorization. While AIDS has received a lion’s billion ($994 million in fiscal year FY 2004, $1.488 billion in FY
share of global health and development resources in recent years, 2005, and $1.718 billion in FY 2006). By January 2007 almost
this historically protected (and favored) presidential initiative $3 billion had been committed to 11 countries.
must respond to the changing environment by considering
the broader global health, development and federal budgetary OUTLOOK
context in which it will exist in its next iteration. During 2006, Henry Hyde (R-IL), Chairman of the House
International Relations Committee (HIRC) and Tom Lantos (D-
The dialogue over the coming months will focus on what CA), the ranking minority member, developed a reauthorization
has worked and where there is room for improvement. Some bill for the MCA. Changes in the authorization language
advocates and implementers hope to address hot-button topics would have extended compacts from five to ten years, allowed
such as health care workers, abstinence-related language, two simultaneous compacts for each country, and required
nutrition, gender, vulnerable populations and access to medicines. congressional notification prior to the signing of compacts.
Other topics such as integration with other infectious diseases Although the MCC was ambivalent, the NGO community
and health programs, implementation strategies and plans to believed the changes would improve the functioning of the
address the next wave of AIDS-affected countries will also be MCC. InterAction’s MCA Working Group advocated in both
considered. the House and Senate for passage of the reauthorization bill.
Due to election losses and retirements, PEPFAR lost many of Unfortunately the bill had been developed late in the session.
its congressional champions. For the first time in many years, Although it passed out of the HIRC, it died on the last day of the
the AIDS community will need to cultivate new champions in 109th Congress due to concerns of a senior senator for whom
both chambers of Congress. The charge of the Congress and there was insufficient time to resolve his issues.
the community is to ensure that PEPFAR continues to save lives
in a way that is scientifically sound, culturally competent and With the retirement of the Chair of HIRC, Representative Henry
sustainable. Hyde, and the change of the majority party in both chambers of
Congress, it is unclear whether the reauthorization bill will be
introduced in the 110th Congress. In addition, the retirement
of the Chair of the House Appropriations sub-committee on
Foreign Operations, Representative Jim Kolbe (R-AZ), also
clouds the level of future MCA appropriations, which were
scheduled to reach $3 billion annually but have so far lagged
significantly below that level.

Millennium Challenge Corporation:
Center for Global Development MCC Monitor: http://www.

Photo: courtesy of Paul Morse/White House

Opportunities for Public Diplomacy
in USAID Programs
By Jerrold Keilson, Vice President, Operations, America’s Development Foundation

aced with a disastrous global loss “Public diplomacy” refers to programs designed to “promote
of respect, credibility, and stat- the national interest and the national security of the United
ure in the aftermath of recent
States through understanding, informing and influencing
foreign policy debacles growing
out of the U.S. invasion of Iraq, foreign publics and broadening dialogue between American
the need for a more robust and aggres- citizens and institutions and their counterparts abroad.”
sive public diplomacy effort has moved to
center stage. To date, there has been only
limited progress in combating a wide-
spread perception of the U.S. as a global
danger. Instead of pushing unpopular USAID programs are structured to help Significant numbers of international stu-
foreign policies, the U.S. would be better countries develop themselves economi- dents and future leaders have also come
off creating and strengthening informal cally, politically, and socially, and to re- to the U.S. on USAID’s short, custom-
links between people and incorporating spond to immediate humanitarian crises. ized participant training programs that
public diplomacy efforts into the mis- Public diplomacy is not a core mission of last less than three months, but these
sions of its agencies responsible for help- USAID, yet USAID activities can have programs also lack informal opportuni-
ing other nations. Programs of the U.S. a significant public diplomacy impact in ties to interact with Americans.
Agency for International Development two areas. The first is programs that offer
However, in 1985, USAID began train-
(USAID) offer untapped opportunities individuals from other countries train-
ing programs working specifically with
to contribute to public diplomacy and ing in the U.S. (“participant training”
Central American and Andean nations.
influence how people in other nations in USAID argot). The second area is in The umbrella program was called the Ca-
perceive America and Americans. adding a public diplomacy dimension to
ribbean and Latin American Scholarship
the technical work done by expatriate
As explained in What Is Public Diplomacy? Program (CLASP). Many CLASP pro-
Americans as project directors and advi-
(, “public di- grams incorporated a public diplomacy
sors on development projects.
plomacy” refers to programs designed dimension called “Experience America”
to “promote the national interest and designed to provide opportunities for
the national security of the United States Participant Training visitors to go beyond their formal train-
through understanding, informing and ing program by meeting with Americans
Training is one of USAID’s key develop-
influencing foreign publics and broaden- in day-to-day activities. Evaluations of
ment activities. Beginning in the 1960s,
ing dialogue between American citizens CLASP and related programs found that
USAID supported training through a va-
and institutions and their counterparts these programs met their training goals.
riety of scholarship programs that identi-
abroad.” Undersecretary of State for Many participants appreciated the op-
fied potential leaders in politics, business,
Public Diplomacy Karen Hughes has portunity to have some exposure, how-
civil society, and other professions and
championed three priorities in this re- ever limited, to American life. However,
brought them to the U.S. to study. Tens
gard: Experience America was expensive and
of thousands of people from more than a
considered a frill: nice to have, but not
a Support the President’s Freedom hundred countries obtained degrees with
critical to USAID’s core mission of pro-
Agenda with a positive image of support from USAID scholarships.
moting development. As a result, it was
Despite the potential major public di- not included in subsequent training pro-
a Isolate and marginalize extremists plomacy impact of this program, public grams such as those covering Central and
diplomacy was at best treated as inciden- Eastern Europe and the former Soviet
a Promote understanding regard-
ing shared values and common tal. USAID did run an add-on program Union.
interests between Americans and called the Mid-Winter Seminar to pro-
peoples of different countries, vide scholarship students insights into
cultures and faiths American life, culture, and values during Present USAID Public
school vacations, typically Christmas and Diplomacy Initiatives
USAID-supported development pro-
mid-winter break, but budget cuts forced While budget cuts have affected USAID’s
grams naturally fit in that third goal,
USAID to discontinue these programs in public diplomacy efforts, the agency does
which is also where we can find common
the 1990s and most opportunities for recognize the public diplomacy dimen-
ground with those who reject our poli-
this type of interaction occurred by hap- sions of its programs. For example, in
cies but remain intrigued by our values.
penstance. 2004, responding to the dramatic decline

We welcome your thoughts.
Write us at

in how the rest of the world—especially of USAID officials and American con- USAID is missing a valuable opportunity
the Arab and Muslim worlds—perceives tractors who staff USAID-funded devel- to incorporate public diplomacy com-
the U.S., USAID established the Office opment projects around the globe. While ponents into its programs. In response,
of Public Diplomacy for Middle Eastern USAID contractors are hired to provide USAID should consider the following
and Middle East Peace Initiative Affairs. technical expertise and manage develop- measures:
Among other efforts, the office distrib- ment projects, they are ideally situated
utes information on USAID programs to to represent American life and culture to Strengthen the Office of Public Diplomacy
Middle Eastern leaders in the U.S., orga- individuals at all levels of the societies in by giving it a global mandate, making
nizes seminars for Middle Eastern lead- which they work. public diplomacy a cross-cutting theme
ers with senior U.S. officials, and briefs in USAID development programs, and
This is a significant lost opportunity.
ambassadors from the Middle East on providing financial support to include
USAID could become a major and effec-
USAID’s programs. public diplomacy efforts in USAID pro-
tive public diplomacy actor by including grams;
Another element of USAID’s efforts public diplomacy activities in its proj-
to improve the image of America in ects. For instance, it could include fund- Reinvigorate participant training programs
the world has been the establishment ing to train the senior American staff in that were once a key element of develop-
of a uniform branding requirement for key public diplomacy principles, provide ment projects. Doing this will give more
USAID-funded projects. Starting in publications on appropriate public diplo- potential leaders first-hand exposure to
2005, USAID standardized the use of macy topics, fund events, make changes America and will help counteract misper-
its logo—regulating its typeface, color, in perceptions of the U.S. among its ceptions about America;
and tagline on all development project- target populations an indicator of proj-
related publications. It is an unusual step ect success, and request information on Include public diplomacy components in
for a government agency, unless one un- public diplomacy activities in its project cross-cutting activities in USAID-award-
derstands the public diplomacy rationale. reports. ed implementation contracts and grants.
First of all, it is significant that USAID’s Set aside funding for publications, staff
There is an important caveat, however.
new tag line reads “from the American training, study tours, and the inclusion of
Public diplomacy cannot interfere with
people” (see illustration below), thus Experience America components in de-
USAID’s core mission of helping people
touting the project as a people-to-people velopment efforts;
in crisis situations and providing techni-
cal assistance to people, institutions, and Train expatriate USAID contractors in public
governments. Any effort to promote a diplomacy. At a minimum, USAID should
public diplomacy agenda would need to provide them with training and printed
be thought through very carefully. How- materials on American history, values,
ever, at a minimum, American aid work- and culture. They should not become
ers can be sensitized to their potential propagandists for the U.S. or lose sight
role as public diplomats. of their core mission; their focus should
Even without any formal change in poli- remain on promoting understanding of
cy or procedures, resources are available common values and shared interests.
for development professionals who wish However, the American water or agricul-
to become more familiar with public di- ture expert working in Jordan ought to
plomacy activities and practices. The Na- have some understanding of our system
program. Time will tell whether it has an tional Council for International Visitors of government so that, in the event their
impact on how people in other countries (, a national organization Jordanian counterpart asks them a ques-
view the U.S. or Americans. representing close to one hundred U.S.- tion as they are driving to a project work
based community groups, offers informa- site, the American can answer in a more
tion and opportunities for involvement complete, nuanced fashion.
USAID Employees and in public and citizen diplomacy efforts.
Contractors as Public The Public Diplomacy Council, affiliated This article is adapted from a chapter written
Diplomats with George Washington University’s by the author in the book America’s Dialogue
with the World, edited by William Kiehl and
School of Media and Public Affairs, or-
USAID has another opportunity to ef- published by the Public Diplomacy Council in
ganizes speaker forums and publications 2006. The views presented are the author’s and
ficiently expand its public diplomacy ef-
on public diplomacy. Numerous other do not necessarily represent those of ADF or
forts: it could make use of the hundreds the PDC.
sources are only a Google search away.

JANUARY 2007 11
Changing Policies Through Advocacy
By John Ruthrauff, Program Manager, InterAction

hen organizations wish to influence policy, they Advocacy is a powerful tool for achieving
have a range of strategy choices including educa- institutional changes. A successful campaign
tion, media work and research. Another strategy, requires a very disciplined approach, including
namely advocacy, consists of a series of planned a narrow focus on a specific issue, realistic
activities that organizations undertake to pressure
power analysis, targeted activities, and the
for policy changes related to a specific issue (based on an assess-
ment of which actors have the power to bring about the desired ability to adjust to changing situations.
change). Thus, an advocacy campaign can focus on change in an
organization, a government, a multi-national institution or even
a corporation. Within an advocacy campaign, lobbying is the
work of influencing specific legislation—generally in Congress or 6. Establishing relationships with allies and targeted decision-
the executive branch. So while lobbying can be part of an advo- makers is key.
cacy campaign, much advocacy work does not involve lobbying. 7. An advocacy campaign should work to model the values and
For example, the international debt cancellation campaign lasted principles for which the process is striving. Decision-making
over a decade and involved advocacy aimed at getting the G8 should be democratic and open, yet sufficiently rapid to be
countries, the World Bank and the International Monetary Fund able to respond to fast changing situations.
to agree to debt cancellation; lobbying, however, was needed to
pass legislation in individual countries to implement the agree-
While the following stages are listed in a typical order of imple-
Advocacy as a strategy has the advantage of intending to increase
mentation, the process of developing and implementing an ad-
the power available to organizations and alliances by winning
vocacy strategy is fluid and often does not occur in this specific
measurable victories. As explained by Lisa VeneKlasen and Val-
order. Each plan must be adapted to the reactions of targeted
erie Miller in A New Weave of Power, People & Politics, “Power can
individuals and institutions.
be defined as the degree of control over material, human, intel-
lectual and financial resources exercised by different sections of 1: GOAL
society. The control of these resources becomes a source of indi-
vidual and social power. Power is dynamic and relational, rather The goal or statement of a desired change in a specific policy or
than absolute … It is also unequally distributed—some individu- behavior should be agreed to by the participants. The goal must
als and groups having greater control over the sources of power be attainable since the purpose of an advocacy campaign is to win
and others having little or no control.” Building power is espe- victories and change policies and behavior.
cially important since changes in policy will not necessarily lead
to changes in behavior. Additional pressure is often needed to 2: POWER ANALYSIS
ensure that changes in an institution’s policies are translated into Power analysis, the identification and evaluation of key decision-
changes in behavior. Campaigning organizations often find they makers, is an examination of the individuals with the most influ-
get only as much change as they have the power to compel. ence over the goal. Before undertaking an advocacy campaign it
is key to understand the decision-making structure of the target-
This article describes stages useful for developing an advocacy
ed organization: methods, timing and the individuals involved.
strategy. Each advocacy effort will have distinct characteristics
If the key decision-makers cannot be identified, the goal may be
and needs to be adapted for the specific cultural, religious, and
political situation.
The power analysis focuses on networks, relationships, and influ-
ence between key individuals and institutions. It is important to
Principles understand who wants to influence the targeted policy and who
1. An advocacy campaign is a series of planned activities, not wants to maintain the current situation. Within these relation-
an isolated event. ships, the analysis should also identify those individuals who have
2. An initial advocacy strategy will need to be adjusted to take influence over or provide advice to the key decision-makers. It
into account the reactions of the targeted organization. is important to be realistic and not over-estimate your power or
under-estimate your opponent’s strength.
3. Leadership development is key to long-term success.
Leaders should reflect the diversity of the membership The power analysis may show that it will be extremely difficult
including gender, ethnicity, race, religion and class. or impossible to achieve the goal. If so, this is the time to select
a more realistic advocacy goal or end the effort before significant
4. To be successful, it is essential to focus energy and resources resources have been expended.
on a very specific issue.
5. Working on limited objectives for short-term change is 3: STRATEGIC ALLIANCES
useful to build experience, sharpen skills and stimulate Strategic alliances are important in order to build sufficient pow-
leadership development. er to achieve the goal. These alliances can be limited to the dura-
tion of the advocacy campaign. It is useful for a core group of

leaders or organizations to agree on the issue and a goal before
building a broader alliance. Selecting an advocacy goal after the
creation of an alliance can lead to delays and debates among alli-

ance members, as organizations may differ on what should be the
primary advocacy focus. STAGES IN AN ADVOCACY CAMPAIGN
Objectives are statements of desired changes in the short-term 1. Goal 5. Activities and Events
that will directly contribute to reaching the overall goal. In other
words, objectives are steps towards the goal. While a particular
2. Power Analysis 6. Work Plan
goal may suggest many possible objectives, it is important to se- 3. Strategic Alliances 7. Research
lect a limited number of objectives that are most likely to lead 4. Objectives 8. Evaluation
to the goal.

Activities and events are the methods used to influence the key
actors who can bring about the desired change (actors identi-
fied in the power analysis). Activities should be based on the
power analysis and the need to focus on attaining an objective

or the goal. Activities can reduce the influence of opponents and
strengthen allies. Depending on the political situation, you may
also need to conduct a risk analysis of personal and institutional THE NUTS AND BOLTS OF ADVOCACY
security. Public demonstrations or confrontations are not neces-
sary for an advocacy campaign; they are rarely used and only as
a last resort. Analyzing
Possible activities and events include: l What do we want and why?
a building relationships l Who can make that happen?
a indirect persuasion l What’s our leverage?
a working in collaboration
a pilot projects
a documented research
a conferences l Trust is key!
a media work l Plan together from the beginning.
a study tours
a e-mails and letter writing Strategizing
a face-to-face meetings
a negotiations l What actions best suit our goals?
a demonstrations l What resources do we have to accomplish
Once a list of possible tasks has been identified; it is useful to Acting
develop a work plan: who will carry out each activity, timing,
l Congressional visits
resources needed and identification of urgent activities with the
highest priority. l Call and letter campaigns
l Street theater and marches
7: RESEARCH l Media outreach such as letters to the
Research is undertaken during both the design and implemen- editor and op-eds
tation of an advocacy strategy, as it is important to have accu-
rate information about the issues and opponents. For example,
during the power analysis it may be useful to research the key
decision-makers and the individuals who influence them and to l Is there data we can collect?
understand the decision-making process and timing within the l What will it look like when we have won?
target organization. Research is also necessary to develop alterna-
tive solutions. Research must be accurate and methodologically Media education
defensible in addition to being targeted for a specific audience.
l Don’t wait for the crisis moment.
8: EVALUATION l ALWAYS keep the media informed.
Evaluation should be conducted for each event or activity to im-
prove the next activity in the areas of leadership, impact, logis-
tics, and security (if needed).

For copies of the full advocacy methodology article with two case studies,

JANUARY 2007 13
By David Devlin-Foltz, Director, Global Interdependence Initiative, The Aspen Institute
and Edith Asibey, Principal, E. Asibey Consulting

any InterAction members have recognized the need strategic communications specialists in our Evaluation Learning
for public education and advocacy programs in the Group about their experiences with advocacy evaluation. We also
United States to complement their work overseas. commissioned background papers, conducted numerous inter-
As Bill Gates realized, focusing government resourc- views and reviewed the newly-emerging wealth of studies and
es effectively can make even enormous private re- tools focused on assessing advocacy impact, campaign design,
sources go much further. Sometimes only advocacy can prevent coalition management, and related topics. We distilled the results
governments—including our own—from undercutting the good into Continuous Progress (, a col-
work of local development partners. lection of free web-based tools designed to help donors and non-
More organizations are working to inform and engage the Amer- profits use smart planning and evaluation to learn how to advo-
cate more effectively. The site features an extensive list of recent
ican public on global issues. Their methods range from letter-
studies and tools available on evaluation, advocacy grantmaking,
writing groups gathered in church basements to a lone teenager
in his room concocting quirky and persuasive Flash animations; communications strategy, and studies of U.S. public opinion on
global issues and other related topics.
they could include artfully choreographed street theater near the
World Bank one day, and well-briefed delegations in the marble
halls of the Senate the next. As varied as the players and activities What are we up against?
and setting are, the common denominator is the desired goal: to
There are tough obstacles to effective advocacy. Measuring its
advocate, directly or indirectly, for policies consistent with global
impact is also challenging. When policy does change, donors and
development goals.
advocates naturally want to know who and what made the differ-
These are not small tasks. They do not lend themselves to the ence. But that is rarely clear-cut. Most change happens as a result
same precise metrics that funders and nongovernmental orga- of coalitional work; it is difficult to attribute results specifically
nizations (NGOs) often expect in assessing service delivery. No to any one partner. Sometimes events over which the advocates
one has a magic formula or a silver bullet for getting advocacy have no control simply break the right way at the right time. Or
precisely right. Bill Gates, we are told, is pretty smart. And even they do not. As Purnima Chawla wrote in a study we commis-
he claims simply that the Gates Foundation is “getting better at” sioned for the Evaluation Learning Group, successful campaigns
advocacy. Funders and advocates alike are increasingly asking the are usually “smart and lucky.”
same tough questions about how much advocacy to fund, and
what approaches to take. Perhaps the first and toughest question
is: “How do we know it’s working?”
How Continuous Progress Can Help
If luck plays such a large part, what good is planning and evalua-
The Global Interdependence Initiative, a program of the As-
tion? If your organization can rarely attribute success exclusively
pen Institute, set out to learn from advocates, grantmakers and


1) Reach Beyond the Beltway (beyond 2) Promote Coalition-building: Manifest the
Washington, DC): Avoid Preaching to the Strength of Our Numbers
Choir l Fragmentation means not “getting credit” for
l Organize teach-ins strength of your constituency (“divided we fall”)
l Take advantage of technology: use it to l Even in an chaotic environment, prioritize
engage state offices of elected officials and building relationships
local and national media l Be creative, engage universities, seek out alliances

“...When we started out, we didn’t think of having a dialogue with governments because we weren’t sure
enough about what we were doing to be able to go and say—look, put more money into vaccines, put more
money into AIDS. And it was four or five years into it that we began to say wow—even our resources are small
enough that we’re going to have to have advocacy. And so that’s a new capability that we’re getting better at.”
Bill Gates, Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation, on Charlie Rose

to its own efforts, how will donors be convinced to renew sup- The Guide for Grantmakers encourages grantmakers to define
port? Continuous Progress encourages systematic planning and their own goals for advocacy funding by laying out a vision for
interim evaluation to prepare better for that lucky moment when the desired policy change and the needed steps to get there. A
the “policy window” opens. We seek to legitimize building ad- well-crafted theory of change takes some of the “guesswork” out
vocacy capacity so that an organization is better positioned for of the funding process for both grant-seekers and grantmakers.
the next campaign—even if the window does not open during
the grant period. Finally, we seek to validate the importance of
contributing to a good outcome rather than insisting on attribu-
Collaboration: Opportunities for Shared
tion as the sole standard of success. Learning
Continuous Progress proposes a collaborative approach to plan- Continuous Progress brings to life the possibilities offered by
ning and evaluation that can help advocacy groups spell out their collaboration between grantmakers and advocates during plan-
assumptions about who will do what and to what end. It also ning and evaluation. We encourage clear, focused and more
encourages grantmakers—private foundations, corporate foun- constructive dialogue between donors and their current or po-
dations and other giving institutions—to do the same: be clear tential grantees. The tools make it easy. A special icon tells us-
about their own advocacy goals and expectations of their grant- ers when they can jump to the corresponding discussion in the
ees, and agree to work with grantees to change course as neces- other guide. Suppose that you are an advocate preparing for a
sary as an advocacy effort unfolds. We recommend “formative conversation with your grantmaker midway through a grant, for
evaluation,” in the jargon of the field. In other words, less “got- example. You will find suggestions in the advocate guide. You
cha” and more “helpya.” will also find an icon: click on it and you will pop over to the sec-
tion in the grantmaker guide that suggests a series of questions a
The Guide for Advocates helps groups plan and evaluate their grantmaker might want to pose in such a conversation.
work within a dynamic policy environment. We show users how
to define specific and measurable goals, and provide tips for de- The guides focus on helping organizations track incremental
veloping a “theory of change.” We provide tips to help advo- progress and share what they learn to build the capacity of indi-
cates establish baselines, benchmarks and indicators to monitor vidual organizations and the advocacy field as a whole. Staying
progress. Measuring impact requires more than counting col- true to our own principles, we welcome your feedback about
umn inches and responses to electronic alerts, so the guide offers ways to improve the tools. The team at Continuous Progress
suggestions and links to other publications featuring ideas for Technical Assistance is ready to help you do your work better.
more meaningful measurements. The guide also offers tips for Together, we can make continuous progress!
building capacity to advocate more effectively as an organization
or in coalitions. Real-life examples illustrate the points discussed Note: The authors would like to acknowledge Justin van Fleet and Tarek
Rizk for their support in developing Continuous Progress, and Josh
in each section. Weissburg for his assistance with this article.

3) Keep your Eyes on the Prize 4) Capture the Interest of Capitol Hill: Take Me
l Focus on values and vision (not policy details) to Your Leader
l Thou shalt avoid jargon: keep the message simple l Which elected leaders hold the key positions you
l Use your grassroots strength to influence them.

JANUARY 2007 15
JANUARY 2007 17

Photo: courtesy of Jon Warren

Throughout the world, InterAction members are helping
people in developing countries realize their own potential
to create positive change. The focus of each group’s
advocacy efforts can vary greatly: from politics, to health,
to the preservation of indigenous cultures. Here we present
a small sample of some of the work our members are
doing in the field. Though the issues are all different, each
program has the admirable goal of engaging people and
their governments in promoting the advancement of the
poor, the undermined and the oppressed.

Compiled by Evan Elliott and Robyn Shepherd, InterAction.
A special thanks to all InterAction members that
contributed to this article.

Advocacy and Governance: l Concerted press outreach drew timely attention to the coali-
Building Coalitions in tion’s efforts to lobby local governments to allocate funds for
Central and Eastern Europe youth programs as well as support for a national youth policy
and a new government agency for youth.
By Elizabeth Coleman, Institute for As Serbia heads into parliamentary elections on January 21, civil
Sustainable Communities (ISC) society is proving to be a constructive force in a campaign, or-
ISC’s advocacy programs have resulted in ganized by ISC and its partners, urging all citizens to vote. The
successful campaigns and policy reform on is- campaign seeks to energize youth, many of whom are unem-
sues from people with disabilities in Ukraine ployed, through posters and leaflets, interactive candidate and
to AIDS prevention in Macedonia to youth issue fora, and a basketball tournament that likens importance of
engagement in Serbia. As important as these fair elections to fair competition in sports.
issues are, our focus is on helping citizens be- The campaign’s signature is “Glas može sve,” or, “your vote can
come informed and effective advocates, the do everything.” Taking its cue from the fact that “glas” means
foundation of a successful democracy. both vote and voice, one TV ad features an opera star who shat-
We view advocacy as the practice that gives ters a glass as she sings “Use the power of your voice. Why let
individuals and organizations their voice in others decide for you?” The message also points to a long-term
society and as the means, not a threat, to ef- goal: to build on this work and to restore people’s faith in their
fective government. In Macedonia, Russia ability to define their future.
and Ukraine, ISC has developed an approach
in which: Advocating Against Sexual and Gender-
ISC funds specific advocacy projects—with- Based Violence in the Great Lakes Region
out prescribing issues to be addressed—aimed
at achieving tangible results on behalf of a By Michael Kleinman, CARE Regional Advocacy Advisor
clearly defined set of constituents. Success for East & Central Africa
comes more easily when people work on is- CARE Burundi, CARE DRC (Democratic Republic of Congo),
sues that deeply matter to them, and success CARE Rwanda and CARE Uganda recently came together to
breeds success. form the Great Lakes Advocacy Group, which works to reduce
l ISC helps communicate the results of violence against women (also known as gender-based violence or
these campaigns so that citizens and GBV) in the region by empowering women’s groups to advocate
nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) at the local, national and regional levels.
begin to recognize that they can help Statistics can only begin to give a sense of the scope of the prob-
determine their futures, as well as hold the lem. In Burundi, a study by CARE found that 91.4 percent of
government accountable for its promises. the people interviewed had either been raped or knew someone
l Government, businesses, media and who had been raped. CARE Rwanda found that 25.2 percent of
citizens begin to recognize that NGOs Rwandan women were victims of sexual violence over the five-
have an essential role to play in social, eco- year period ending in 2004. Similarly, research conducted by
nomic and political decision-making, and CARE in northern Uganda found widespread incidents of sexual
NGOs become trusted, respected partners violence in camps for internally displaced persons.
with a seat at the table. The situation is most dire in the DRC. There are no country-
Focus on Serbia wide statistics on the number of women raped over the course of
In Serbia, where ISC began working in 2002, we have helped the conflict, which has killed approximately four million people,
create national and local coalitions of youth organizations, in but observers agree that rape has been carried out systematically
close cooperation with our partner, Civic Initiatives. In 2005 as a weapon of war.
and 2006, the national coalition carried out a campaign to shift GLAG’s main focus to date has been developing a methodology
the public view of youth from that of a problem to a potential for how to most effectively work with local women’s associations
resource in addressing broader community issues. to address GBV at a community-level, especially given the sensi-
Highlights: tivities involved. To that end, GLAG has developed a series of key
operational guidelines, including:
l “Bottom up” campaigns to promote youth policy advocacy
and inter-ethnic cooperation in 13 communities including l Make sure interventions are contextualized and sensitive to lo-
Pozarevac, the hometown of Slobodan Milosevic, where cal concerns and gender roles. The GLAG methodology is based
young activists had contacted the youth coalition, asking to around helping women’s associations themselves articulate the
participate. actions they consider essential to address GBV at a local level,
and then supporting them as they engage in advocacy to con-
l Local discussions based on a documentary film, State of EXIT, vince authorities and other relevant actors to take these actions.
which told the story of two young people jailed under Milos-
evic who started a music festival and inspired youth people l Ensure that interventions “do no harm”. To that end, men must
to do something. This prompted a surge of participation in be involved from the beginning—particularly local government,
youth organizations and the coalition. religious and traditional leaders.

l Training trainers further expanded the national coalition’s l Recognize that men themselves can be change agents, and,
therefore, include men in advocacy whenever possible.
outreach to additional towns.
continued on page 21

JANUARY 2007 19
continued from page 19

Over the next few months, using these guidelines, CARE pro- Field-Based Advocacy Supporting Save the
gram staff in each of the four countries will begin delivering a Children’s Programs in Asia
series of advocacy capacity-building trainings for grass-roots
women’s associations, and then support their efforts to advocate By Sarah Roma, Save the Children
with local authorities. At the same time, CARE will also begin Save the Children is increasingly working on field-based advocacy
collecting data on what specific actions women at the community efforts to increase our ability to achieve real and lasting change
level think need to be taken to address this issue. This, in turn, for children. In order to accomplish our program goals and re-
will feed into advocacy, led by networks of women in the region, sults for children, many of our country offices have conducted
to strengthen national governments’ and donors’ GBV policies successful experience-based advocacy to achieve important na-
and programs. tional policy changes. We continue to further strengthen our
ability in this area. The following are a few examples of some of
CSOs Advance Policy Reform in Central Asia recent advocacy achievements in Asia. Save the Children works
and Azerbaijan in more than 50 countries, including the United States, and has
also achieved similar results around the world.
By Altinay Kuchukeeva, Counterpart International l Newborn Health in Bangladesh
Counterpart’s Civic Advocacy Support Component in Kazakh- In order to achieve sustainable change for newborn health in
stan and Kyrgyzstan, implemented under the USAID-fund- Bangladesh, Save the Children staff successfully advocated for
ed Civil Society Support Initiative program in Central Asia, a comprehensive national policy that supports newborn health,
strengthened democratic culture and built constituencies for incorporates newborn health indicators into the health informa-
reform by building the capacity of NGO coalitions to carry out tion systems, and allocates 11 percent of the national training
national advocacy. During the course of the program, Counter- budget to newborn health. Save the Children country offices
part provided advance advocacy trainings and targeted technical from Bolivia to Mali have achieved similar successes.
assistance to a competitively selected, core group of 10 NGOs in l School Health and Nutrition in Nepal
each country, and provided advocacy campaign grants to eight Realizing that there was no national strategy or guidelines on
advocacy coalitions. Advocacy campaigns conducted by these co- school health and nutrition, Save the Children’s office in Nepal
alitions resulted in several policy changes including: worked with a coalition of government and NGO staff to create a
l Adoption of the National Rehabilitation Program in Ka- national school health and nutrition strategy and get it endorsed
zakhstan, increasing the 2006-2008 budget allocation for and approved by the Ministries of Health and Education.
disability NGOs from $2 million to $27 million. l Adolescent and Reproductive Health in the Philippines
l Passage of amendments to the tax code by the parliament of In partnership with a network of health service providers, Save
Kazakhstan allowing NGOs to engage in social enterprise and the Children staff has been successfully advocating to make ado-
state social procurement activities. lescent reproductive health a priority in the Philippines. Results
include: the prioritization of adolescent reproductive health by
l Amendments to the Law on Advertisement banning daytime
the Department of Health of the National Capital Region; a
TV and radio advertisement of tobacco and alcohol products
city ordinance and budget allocation for adolescent reproduc-
in Kyrgyzstan.
tive health from the city mayor and council allowing for further
l Allocation of $25,500 in the budgets of three cities for the reach of Save the Children’s initiatives; and, the formalization of
demarcation of land parcels around multi-unit apartment the Adolescent-Friendly Reproductive Health Services Network,
buildings. a partnership of government, service providers and NGOs com-
l Adoption of a new law by Kyrgyzstan’s Ministry of Justice mitted to supporting and implementing adolescent reproductive
regulating tariff rates in the telecommunications sector. health as a priority.

In October 2006, Counterpart and its partner NGOs in Azer-
baijan launched a series of advocacy stakeholder meetings in four CSOs and the Media Take on Corruption in
regional capitals: Ganja, Sheki, Guba, and Lenkoran, with a final Tanzania
meeting in Baku. This robust, nation-wide dialogue is thought
By Theo Macha and Johanna Carstens, Pact Tanzania
to be the first of its kind in Azerbaijan. Over 250 representa-
tives from government, civil society, private sector and the media Civil society organizations (CSOs) and the media can play roles
came together to identify issues of mutual concern and priority as watchdogs and disseminators of information on corruption
in policy areas affecting poverty reduction and sustainable devel- in countries like Tanzania where rampant corruption affects the
opment at the national, regional and local levels. This initiative country’s development and hits hardest people living in poor and
was part of the USAID-funded Civil Society Project, a central marginalized communities.
component of which is promoting civic activism and strengthen- But what if CSOs lack resources to work efficiently? What if jour-
ing the capacity of civil society organizations to effectively advo- nalists are barely trained for their jobs, poorly paid and face insuf-
cate at the local, regional and national levels. As a result of the ficient legal protection? What if media owners and government
meetings, the stakeholders have built consensus on the priority officials have grown accustomed to the spoils of favoritism? In
issues, leading to a framework for civic participation and advo- Tanzania this is the reality.
cacy in local, regional and national initiatives that can be sup-
ported by the Government of Azerbaijan, the private sector, and In response, Pact Tanzania, with funding from USAID, held a
the donor community. series of meetings and workshops for CSOs, journalists and the
media owners’ association to publicize information about cor-
continued on next page

JANUARY 2007 21
continued from previous page

ruption in the country. These meetings were important in build- this past November. This new PROFILES Advocacy Group
ing cohesion among anticorruption champions across all sectors. plans to make a presentation to the next Cabinet meeting and to
Two parallel approaches emerged to fight corruption: (1) a CSO the president. Following the workshop, one of the communica-
campaign to mobilize citizens to demand public accountability tion experts also published an ironic article in one of the main
and transparency; and (2) a comprehensive program to train newspapers entitled Our Leaders are Severely Malnourished, making
journalists in investigative journalism. the case that wise policy would support greater funding for nu-
l CSOs Empower Communities to Fight Corruption
With a grant from Pact Tanzania, the Tanzanian NGO Haki-
Kazi Catalyst implemented a program to fight corruption in the Advocacy for the Environment and Local
health sector. Through public training events, citizens learned Livelihoods in the Andes
about the harm corruption does and about their constitutional
right to quality health services at government-established rates. By Stephen Sherwood, Andes Area Representative, World
Citizens also learned of other constitutional rights they have to Neighbors
enforce good ethics in society. As one workshop participant ob- l Conservation of Biological Resources
served, “We are from the grassroots. Due to our ignorance we Andean cosmology views “seeds” broadly to include the biologi-
have been used to blessing corruption. We need empowering cal resource—i.e., crops, pasture, trees, animals and even soil mi-
workshops like this to enable us to change our mindset on ways crobes. As part of a regional effort to assure local food security
of fighting corruption.” and sovereignty, World Neighbors is working with diverse local
To help citizens to understand how decisions on public expendi- partners to assure rural ownership and control of “seed” systems
tures are made, HakiKazi also conducted community trainings to through the recovery of traditional knowledge, modern know-
explain how citizens could track budget allocations in different how, and individual and collective action to rebuild seed access
sectors. Now citizens are beginning to hold public hearings and and exchange systems. This includes the strengthening of barter
to demand accountability from village government leaders. economies.
With Millennium Challenge Account (MCA) funding from Pact l Elimination of Highly Toxic Pesticides
Tanzania, dozens of experienced local CSOs such as HakiKazi In developing countries, highly toxic pesticides kill more people
Catalyst are also carrying out an anticorruption program fo- than wars and homicide combined. Exposure to highly toxics
cused on community-based public expenditure tracking activities represents about 90 percent of the entire health burden associat-
throughout the country. ed with pesticides. Studies have found that highly toxic pesticides
cannot be used safely in developing world conditions, and that
l Strengthening the Media
there are no incidents to date in which their elimination has had
The second approach to combating corruption focuses on
a harmful effect on rural economies. The World Neighbors An-
strengthening the role of media. Pact Tanzania, under the MCA
des area program and its partners are advocating the elimination
project, is collaborating with the Tanzanian chapter of the Media
of highly toxic pesticides from the region and around the globe.
Institute of Southern Africa to implement a comprehensive cur-
World Neighbors has found that highly toxic pesticides can be
riculum to train journalists in investigative reporting on the pub-
replaced through ecological literacy, farmer-led experimentation
lic expenditure tracking process. CSOs will continue to receive
and farmer-to-farmer exchanges, such as the learning-action pro-
training in working with the media to expose corruption and to
cess enabled through the Farmer Field Schools.
report on good government performance.
l Cultural Survival of Indigenous and Other Rural Peoples
Modern societies in the Andes have actively marginalized indige-
Using PROFILES to Build Advocacy Coalitions
nous and other rural peoples, excluding them from the potential
in Ethiopia and Malawi benefits of development. This has contributed to mass emigra-
tion from rural areas to urban centers and to other countries.
By Helen Stiefel Heymann, Academy of Educational
While migration may lead to immediate financial rewards for
Development (AED)
rural people, studies have found that it ultimately produces a
PROFILES, developed by the Academy for Educational Devel- breakdown of social fabric, which in turn produces social conflict
opment, is a process for nutrition policy analysis and dialogue and environmental degradation. World Neighbors is concerned
designed to quantify the consequences of malnutrition using about the revitalization of rural life. We strive to help commu-
computer-based models and to demonstrate the contribution nities advance their basic livelihoods, well-being and empower-
that improved nutrition can make to human and economic de- ment objectives so that they no longer need to abandon their
velopment. families, communities and way of life.
In Ethiopia, a team of 20 nutrition experts from universities, l Reconstruction of Healthy Food Systems
government and nongovernmental organizations at the national Commoditization (i.e., placing a price on the multiple aspects
level and from three regions attended a PROFILES workshop of rural life, such as land, crops, and time) and the increasing
in October. Follow-on dissemination meetings presented the re- distance between producers and their markets—tendencies that
sults and implications to high-level stakeholders. One goal is the define social modernization over the last century—have under-
approval of the recently drafted national nutrition strategy, with mined healthy food systems. In the Andes, these tendencies have
an emphasis on children under two and mothers, and the con- led to the replacement of highly nutritious, yet low market val-
tinuous implementation of essential nutrition actions. ue traditional crops (e.g., quinoa, lupine beans, amaranth, and
In Malawi, a multi-sectoral group of 15 government and com- mashua) with less nutritious alternatives, such as processed foods
munication technical experts attended a PROFILES workshop and food-like products that are contributing to malnutrition in

rural areas and obesity in the cities. World Neighbors is working Improving Front-Line Access to AIDS
with community health promoters to analyze the reasons behind Treatment in Haiti
this tendency and to identify opportunities for reconstructing
healthy food systems, drawing on traditional and locally available By Chantal Calvel, Concern Worldwide
food sources.
With a current prevalence rate of 3.1 percent, Haiti—the poor-
est country in the Western Hemisphere—shares the highest HIV
Mainstreaming Advocacy, One Step at a rates in the Caribbean with the Bahamas and Trinidad-Tobago.
Time While antiretrovirals (ARV) are available, it is estimated that only
18 percent of the 40,000 patients in Haiti requiring ARV treat-
By World Learning for International Development Staff ment are actually receiving it.
The mainstreaming of short- and long-term advocacy in nations Recognizing that improved health for the most vulnerable is
where civil society is underdeveloped requires culturally informed achievable, Concern Worldwide has been working to improve
strategies, realistic approaches and a healthy dose of patience. access to quality health care in Haiti since 2003. The main ob-
World Learning’s USAID-sponsored projects in Angola and Ro- jective of our Urban HIV&AIDS Partnership Project is to im-
mania accomplish this task with a phased strategy that begins prove access to quality care for the most vulnerable populations
with community-based organizations working collaboratively by reinforcing the capacity of health institutions to:
with the government and leads to the institutionalization of ad-
l Improve reproductive and HIV&AIDS services that they cur-
vocacy and public policy development. The approach positions
rently offer.
NGOs to emerge as the connective tissue between government
and community-based organizations. l Provide care to people living with HIV.
In Angola, the NGO Sector Strengthening project focuses on When the project started in 2003, there were only two centers in
developing services in education, HIV/AIDS, and food secu- the entire country offering ARVs. In 2004, the first hospital be-
rity/land rights. For example, a coalition-conducted media cam- gan distributing ARVs and 15 other public and private hospitals
paign is helping convince parents not to bribe school officials in quickly followed. Unfortunately, ARV distribution at hospitals
exchange for passing exam grades. severely restricts access for most people because of the distances
involved, high transportation costs, and long waiting times. The
The Romanian Civil Society Strengthening Program targets
Haitian National Policy allows ARV distribution only under the
government accountability, citizen participation and measures to
direct supervision of a medical doctor, which limits the ability of
prepare NGOs to cope with the transition into the European
more conveniently located front-line health centers to distribute
Union. Two current project examples include efforts to track ab-
senteeism in Romania’s parliament, and a push to reform treat-
ment of the mentally disabled. For Concern Worldwide, it was important that ARV treatment
be available at first-level institutions in order to ensure:
In Angola, Romania, and elsewhere, World Learning for Inter-
national Development has identified five phases of advocacy and l Closer proximity to care (to avoid the difficulty and expense
approaches that can successfully advance advocacy through to of traveling long distances).
institutionalization: l Better treatment compliance and closer relationship with
l Start with immediate needs. Begin by addressing basic citizen health providers in smaller clinics (given the utmost impor-
needs. In Angola, for example, organizing around human rights tance of trust between care provider and patient).
will generate little response and risk alienating participants, Our aim was to convince the Haitian government of the feasibil-
but focusing on access to HIV/AIDS drugs will mobilize the ity of providing ARV treatment at first-level health institutions
community. staffed by Haitian nurses and doctors. We engaged in a series
l Establish a solid advocacy base. Work with a core group of of activities to advocate for improved access to ARVs including:
NGOs to prioritize issues and develop advocacy training. Buy- analyzing the decision-makers; identifying obstacles and argu-
in from group leaders is not enough to ensure success, which ments used to justify opposition to first level ARVs; working in
will demand NGO staff committed to the advocacy role. partnership with people living with HIV; involving the health
center personnel in addressing the challenges; and involving in-
l Build core competencies. Provide training, technical
fluential people in the advocacy.
assistance and research support (e.g., by university professors
and legislative consultants) to help NGOs understand and carry In light of these advocacy efforts, the first-level health centers
out specific approaches. supported by Concern Worldwide began dispensing ARVs in
January 2007. As a result of Concern Worldwide’s success, the
l Institutionalize. Mainstream advocacy within organizations. At
World Health Organziation is currently organizing trainings
this stage, NGOs emerge as policy- and rights-based advocacy
throughout the country for those involved at the first-level to
organizations with long-term advocacy strategies and action
enable them to expand use of this new care option.
Concern Worldwide is committed to minimizing the impact of
l Establish partnerships. Strengthen national and local
HIV&AIDS on the world’s most vulnerable people. In the past
advocacy efforts through synergy by establishing coalitions and
year, we have operated 17 HIV&AIDS programs in 12 coun-
linking with cross-regional and international NGOs and donors.
tries, impacting 2,162,500 people. We integrate HIV&AIDS
For more information on these and other World Learning proj- awareness in the following ways:
ects, visit
l Raising awareness and supporting HIV&AIDS education
continued on next page

JANUARY 2007 23
continued from previous page

l Advocating on behalf of people living in extreme poverty pharmaceutical giant, Bristol Myers-Squibb (BMS), in which the
who are infected and affected by HIV&AIDS court declared the BMS’ AIDS drug patent application in Thai-
land illegal—a ruling that made it possible for Thailand to pro-
l Increasing HIV&AIDS prevention, treatment and care ser-
duce a generic version of an ARV in a buffered tablet form that
vices for the poorest.
was previously only available as a powder and was very difficult
for people living with AIDS to tolerate. TTAG also successfully
African Youth Unite as Advocates advocated for the repeal of a national policy that excluded inject-
ing drug users from anti-retroviral access.
By Population Action International (PAI)
With Thailand’s groundbreaking commitment to providing uni-
PAI’s Zambian partner Lentswe La Rona (LLR), or Young Afri- versal access to treatment for PLWHA, there has been a rapid
can Advocates for Rights, has launched a campaign among Afri- scale-up of a national ARV medicines program to provide free
can youth leaders to advocate for quality, evidence-based sexual- treatment to over 40,000 people. Existing networks, such as the
ity education. Thai Network of Positive People (TNP+), of which Suwanna-
A formal network of youth leaders from across Africa and a sec- wong is the founding chairman, are helping with the massive
retaria based in Lusaka, Zambia, LLR currently has 30 members effort of building a treatment infrastructure. An unfortunate side
from Benin, Botswana, Burkina Faso, Cameroon, Democratic effect of this is that other critical areas of need for PLWHA, such
Republic of Congo, Gabon, the Gambia, Ghana, Kenya, Malawi, as advocacy and leadership building, are increasingly left unmet.
Mozambique, Nigeria, South Africa, Swaziland, Senegal, Sier- TTAG has stepped into this gap—providing advocacy training
ra Leone, Tanzania, Uganda, Zambia and Zimbabwe. In turn, on the grassroots level. TTAG has created a highly effective com-
these members work with over 5,000 young leaders throughout munity-based model for developing local groups and networks in
Africa. order to help PLWHA groups function independently of hospi-
The new campaign will assist young Africans in holding their tals and improve their advocacy on access to treatment issues.
governments, donors and NGOs accountable to prior commit- Working with key partners, including TNP+ leaders and provin-
ments they have made to teach a comprehensive approach to cial and district government offices and hospital staff, TTAG is
sexual health. The campaign is also aimed at ensuring adequate using a participatory approach to create independently function-
resources are present for the rollout of such education. ing support groups. TTAG provides skills and information on
The campaign has empowered African youth leaders to moni- the disclosure of status, stigma and discrimination, treatment ed-
tor sexuality education in their countries, specifically focusing on ucation, advocacy and communication as well as methods to help
how many resources are being given to evidence-based sexuality build bridges between local groups and their local resources.
education, and how far commitments have been upheld. A good
example of this was a project that LLR undertook with Youth
Vision Zambia to evaluate the impact of the Poverty Reduc-
tion Strategy process, and to reposition sexual and reproductive
health in the fifth National Development Program. The govern-
ment of Zambia invited LLR to assist in this integration work
in both the National Development Program and in the sector
committee on population issues.

The Thai AIDS Treatment Action Group
By American Jewish World Service
Some one million people in Thailand are living with HIV/AIDS.
Roadblocks to care are steadily being overcome due to effective
advocacy efforts on the national and grassroots levels thanks to
Paisan Suwannawong and the organization he founded, the Thai
AIDS Treatment Action Group (TTAG, pronounced Tee-tag).
American Jewish World Service, as TTAG’s first funder in 2002,
has been supporting TTAG’s ARV treatment advocacy and pre-
paredness programs and the organization’s unique approach to
developing leadership and activism with the most marginalized
Suwannawong, a former injecting drug user who grew up in
one of Bangkok’s slums, emerged from among one of the most
stigmatized HIV-positive populations in the world to mobilize
people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) to demand treatment,
services and lives of dignity from the Thai government, corpora-
tions and international donor organizations.
Representing TTAG, Suwannawong was one of several success-
ful plaintiffs who won a precedent-setting court case against

The 2006 Election Results: What Do
They Mean for Our Community?
By Ken Forsberg and Evan Elliott, InterAction

he people have spoken—or at least the (according to House International Relations
the Associated Press) roughly 40 percent of voting-age
citizens who voted on November 7. The results of 435
Committee/House Committee on Foreign
elections for House seats and 33 for Senate seats handed Affairs
control of both chambers to the Democrats for the first With the Democrats taking control, changes are already under-
time since 1994. In this new 110th Congress, Democrats have way. First, the name of the committee has changed from Inter-
picked up six seats in the Senate and more than 30 in the House. national Relations to Foreign Affairs (House Committee on
Representative Nancy Pelosi (D-CA) was sworn in as Speaker of Foreign Affairs). Former ranking Democrat Representative Tom
the House on January 4, and Senator Harry Reid (D-NV) is the Lantos (D-CA), the former ranking Democrat on the commit-
new Majority Leader in the Senate. What does it all mean for the tee, has also assumed the chair. In the press release announcing
international development and humanitarian community? Let’s the committee’s name change, Chairman Lantos noted that the
start with a look at where the work gets done: in the committees. committee had been known by its new moniker for all but four
Tables at the end of this article list all foreign relations autho- years of the span between 1822 and 1994. On the Republican
rizing and appropriating committee members and their status. side things have changed, with the Chair Representative Henry
What follows is a summary review and discussion of those as- Hyde (R-IL) retiring, and the second-ranking Republican on
signments. the committee Representative Jim Leach (R-IA) going down
to defeat. Next in line in seniority was Representative Christo-
Senate Foreign Relations Committee pher Smith (R-NJ), followed by Dan Burton (R-IN), but House
Republicans do not use seniority alone to choose their leaders,
(SFRC) and rank was not necessarily decisive. Representative Ileana Ros-
Senator Joseph Biden (D-DE) remains on the committee, and Lehtinen (R-FL), who was the fourth ranking in seniority, had
has switched from ranking minority member to committee Chair. contested the Republican committee leadership position in the
Senator Richard Lugar (R-ID), the former chairman, has stayed past, and has now been named to that position in this go-round.
on as the ranking minority member. The committee lost three Representatives Hyde and Leach were both strong allies for our
members: Senator Paul Sarbanes (D-MD) to retirement, and community, as was representative Sherrod Brown (D-OH), who
Senators Lincoln Chafee (R-RI) and George Allen (R-VA) to won a Senate seat, so their departure will be felt and their re-
losses. The loss of Senators Sarbanes and Chafee, reliable allies of placements will be of particular interest. Retiring members Rep-
our community, will be particularly felt. For the various subcom- resentatives Katherine Harris (R-FL) and Mark Green (R-WI)
mittees, assignments and leadership have not been finalized. also opened up two seats on the committee.

Senate Appropriations State/Foreign House Appropriations Foreign
Operations Subcommittee Operations Subcommittee
The Democratic leadership has not changed: former ranking Representative Nita Lowey (D-NY) has assumed the subcom-
member Senator Patrick Leahy (D-VT) gave no indication that mittee chair. The departures from the committee were all on
he would move anywhere else and has assumed the chairman- the Republican side, the most important being the retirement
ship of the subcommittee. On the Republican side, on the other of Representative Jim Kolbe (R-AZ). Representative Kolbe has
hand, things are changing, as former subcommittee Chair Sena- been a champion of the poor who will be sorely missed. Also
tor Mitch McConnell’s (R-KY) ascends to the Senate Republican absent on the Republican side this session will be Representatives
leader position (with former leader Senator Bill Frist (R-TN) re- Don Sherwood (R-PA) and John Sweeney (R-NY). Joe Knollen-
tiring). Minority Leader McConnell is staying on the subcom- berg (R-MI) and Mark Kirk (R-IL) are at the top of the seniority
mittee, but is relinquishing the Republican leadership position line for Republicans, although seniority alone may not determine
on the subcommittee to Senator Judd Gregg (R-NH). The the Republican leader of the subcommittee.
subcommittee loses Senator Mike DeWine (R-OH), who failed
in his reelection bid. Many in our community consider Senator
DeWine a key champion.
House Appropriations, Full Committee
As in the Senate, leadership of the full House Appropriations
Committee has remained the same, with the gavel passing from
Senate Appropriations Full Committee the former chair, Representative Jerry Lewis (R-CA) to the for-
Leadership of the full Appropriations Committee is mostly un- mer ranking Democrat, Representative David Obey (D-WI).
changed aside from the transfer of the chair’s gavel: Senator
Robert Byrd (D-WV) has assumed the chair, while Senator Thad
Cochran (R-MS) will be ranking Republican. continued on next page

JANUARY 2007 25
The bottom line is that there is less reason than ever to think that support for foreign assistance
and development work will fall strictly along party lines.

continued from previous page

Discussion House Foreign Relations Authorizing and Appropriating Committees
What is the upshot? In some circles there is a temp-
tation to assume that Democrats are more inter-
nationalist and therefore more willing to invest
in humanitarian and development work overseas.
Based on that assumption, some are inclined to
celebrate the Democratic ascendance to power as
a good thing for the InterAction community. Cer-
tainly, the ascension to chairmanships by Senators
Biden and Leahy and Representatives Lantos and
Lowey would seem to bode well for support for
such work.
However, a couple of arguments can be made
to temper that optimism. First, a number of key
champions for investing in the world’s poor were
on the Republican side and have now been lost to
retirement or defeat at the polls: Representatives
Hyde, Kolbe and Leach, as well as Senators DeW-
ine and Rick Santorum (R-PA) come to mind. Sec-
ondly, this election brings into Congress a number
of more centrist Democrats. Whether “centrist”
will in these cases translate into “less internation-
alist” remains to be seen. The bottom line is that
there is less reason than ever to think that support
for foreign assistance and development work will
fall strictly along party lines.
Additionally, the new Congress will face a tough
fiscal environment, with considerable domestic
spending pressures and the continued drain of
the Iraq and Afghanistan wars. Leadership will be
looking for places to cut spending, and foreign as-
sistance will provide a tempting target. Supportive
leadership on our committees may make only so
limited difference in such an environment. Ulti-
mately, then, perhaps only cautious optimism is in
The final determination of the funding levels for
fiscal year 2007 (which began October 1, 2006),
which will be set by a yet-to-be-debated Continu-
ing Resolution, along with the emergency supple-
mental appropriations bill for war-related expenses
that is expected in February, will provide initial in-
dicators of the priorities of the 110th Congress.

The following tables list the membership of the
House and Senate foreign relations authorizing and
appropriating committees from the last Congress,
and the related election results from November 7.
Members are listed in order of seniority, and the
listing for each House member includes informa-
tion on the congressional district that they repre-
sent. Changes are in italics.

Senate Foreign Relations Authorizing and Appropriating Committees

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