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The Latest Issues and Trends in International Development and Humanitarian Assistance

Who decides? And for what?
July 2007
Vol. 25, No. 7
In this issue, we explore the current debates around foreign aid reform. Learn what has worked in the past, what has not and where do NGOs see the
future of foreign aid. And most importantly, has foreign aid made a difference?


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Check out our resource page at 03 From the President: An Overview
04 Foreign Assistance Reform: Then, Now and Around
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07 UK Development Assistance
Up next month
Look for the August issue of Monday Developments 08 Does Foreign Aid Really Work?
featuring climate change and development.
10 InterAction Testifies at Senate Foreign Relations
Committee Subcommittee Hearing on Foreign
Assistance Reform
12 Foreign Assistance Reform: Advice to Incoming
MONDAY DEVELOPMENTS Director of U.S. Foreign Assistance and USAID
Managing Editor Monday Developments is published 12
Administrator Henrietta H. Fore
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Foreign Assistance Reform
In January 2007, the InterAction community applauded the above, InterAction has always argued that sustainable development
Bush administration’s addition of the words “reduce widespread and poverty alleviation are laudable goals in and of themselves that
poverty” to the top-line goal of its foreign assistance reform embody the finest principles of our nation. We strongly believe
program. We welcomed efforts to the increase in coherence of that an approach to foreign assistance that focuses on enabling the
U.S. foreign assistance, to build systems for accountability, and to world’s poorer countries to attain self-sufficiency and on providing
track how U.S. foreign assistance dollars are spent. We were also impartial humanitarian assistance accomplishes this, strengthens
confronted with a rapid reform process fraught with misdirected our nation’s reputation and advances our best national interests
efforts; and many within our community expressed serious around the world.
reservations about its direction and intent. To achieve some degree of complimentarity between the three
It was within this context, that InterAction engaged in a broad, pillars of U.S. foreign policy – defense, diplomacy and development
CEO-level dialogue to help shape our understanding of the – there must be both parity between them and respect for
current U.S. foreign assistance reforms and how they fit with development’s need to operate free from undue influence by
our community’s goals and the needs of the poorest and most diplomatic or security objectives.
vulnerable people around the world. Our deliberations advanced All of us recognize that our efforts to improve the well-being
NGO thinking about the ever-evolving foreign assistance of people occurs in a complex world. The challenges posed by
environment. The range of views within the InterAction conflict, elusive peace, injustice, power imbalances, failing states,
community is quite broad, with some reflected in this edition of human rights abuses, poor governance, militant ideologies, and
Monday Developments. I would like to share with you some key the consequences of increasingly scarce resources exacerbated by
points of our conversation. global warming all require greater attention in a more coherent
InterAction members have a long history of partnering with the U.S. foreign assistance framework.
U.S. government’s foreign assistance efforts while also raising Parts of the current reform process do move us towards a more
some $5 billion annually in additional private funding from the coherent foreign assistance program. Indeed, the evolution of
American public to support our programs. As good stewards of transformational diplomacy, or any future strategy for U.S. foreign
American generosity, we are committed to ensuring that U.S. assistance, must take advantage of the momentum of current
foreign assistance accurately reflects the lessons we have learned reforms and take an additional step of including the Millennium
over decades of implementing effective programs in the field. The Challenge Corporation, the President’s Emergency Plan for AIDS
following principles should shape the foundation of any effective Relief (PEPFAR), and other elements of foreign assistance in a
U.S. foreign assistance structure and make up the core language coherent framework. In this sense, the current reforms do not go
of any new foreign assistance reauthorization: far enough, and must be more comprehensive.
a In order to encourage self-sufficiency, foreign assistance Coherence across all civilian U.S. foreign assistance programs,
programs must include local ownership of programs and and a focus on improving the well being of the poor with the
partnerships with stakeholders. space to shape effective, long-term, and impartial programs that
a Sustainable development is a long-term process and requires enhance local capacity and work to meet mutually agreed upon
commitments that should not be compromised for the sake results: these are keys to the success of any reform. Simply put, for
of short or long-term political goals. foreign assistance to be effective, the development component of
a Foreign assistance programs must be coherent, not transformational diplomacy must be more equal to – and certainly
fragmented. Elements of the current reforms are a step in not subsumed under – defense and diplomacy. Ultimately, this
the right direction. requires the establishment of a Cabinet-level foreign assistance
a The goals of the U.S., other donor nations, recipient agency that operates and thrives alongside to the departments of
countries and multilateral institutions like the UN must as Defense and State.
much as possible be in harmony and reinforce each other.
For example, U.S. goals should support the Millennium As InterAction continues to work to create more effective U.S.
Development Goals (MDGs). foreign assistance within the current “F Reform” process, there is
a Humanitarian initiatives must be impartial and not be no fixed InterAction position. Rather, we will continue to promote
dictated by the strategic or political significance of any a bold agenda responsive to the inevitably changing environment
nation. in order to focus U.S. development and humanitarian assistance
a Gender equality must be placed at the heart of program on how to work with and improve the conditions of the world’s
strategies. poor and most vulnerable. We will continue our efforts to advance
effective foreign assistance reform, focused on vulnerable and
As we address immediate diplomatic and security challenges, poor populations, that truly leverages U.S. NGO attempts to help
our country continues to make investments that mitigate the create a better, more just and safer world for all.
destabilizing effects of the poverty, ignorance and hopelessness
that foster militant ideologies and conflict.
Yet, foreign assistance is more than a tool to achieve our national
security interests. It is also a critical instrument to further our role
as world citizens and to present an accurate picture to the world Sam Worthington
of American generosity and support for the people-centered, President and CEO, InterAction
democratic values we hold dear. Based on the principles outlined

JULY 2007 

Foreign Assistance Reform: Then, Now and Around the
By Noam Unger, Senior Manager, Foreign Aid Reform Project, The Brookings Institution

ixty years ago this month, the to U.S. foreign aid took hold when the our nation’s leaders of the necessity of
policy planning staff and many Kennedy administration worked with fundamental foreign aid reform nearly
other parts of the Department of Congress to create the Foreign Assistance half a century ago. The current Bush
State, not to mention the Ameri- Act of 1961 and the Agency for Interna- administration’s further segmentation of
can population, were busy thinking about tional Development (USAID). Amended foreign aid, the weakening of USAID,
“the European recovery problem.” They and adjusted over time, both still exist. and the muddled evolution of the For-
were scrambling to realize the vision eign Assistance Act of 1961 require a
The George W. Bush administration has
spelled out just weeks before in Secretary broad re-assessment of how U.S. foreign
exercised significant political will on dis-
of State George C. Marshall’s speech at assistance is mandated, funded, and man-
creet foreign assistance initiatives while
Harvard’s commencement. Policy mak- aged.
overseeing historic increases in over-
ers had to sort out real issues related to all U.S. foreign assistance levels. Our In 2006, the administration launched a
the mechanics of foreign aid – financing, government has invested in large new set of reforms (known to insiders as “the
delivery structures, regulations, require- initiatives, including the Millennium F process”) by creating a new position at
ments, the role of the private sector and Challenge Corporation (MCC) and the the State Department – the Director of
coordination with international partners. President’s Emergency Plan for AIDS U.S. Foreign Assistance – and by “dual-
The Conference of European Economic Relief (PEPFAR). However, it deliber- hatting” the designated director to also
Cooperation (the embryonic form of the ately placed these new institutions apart serve as the Administrator of USAID.
Organization for Economic Co-opera- from USAID for fear that the tangled Although the Director of Foreign Assis-
tion and Development) met in mid-July bureaucracy and the morass of pre-ex- tance is charged with “the transformation
of that year, enabling a number of Euro- isting legislation would encumber their of the U.S. government approach to for-
pean countries to join in the program’s speed and effectiveness. The adminis- eign assistance,” this new office (known
design and the needs assessment. The tration’s tendency to pursue fragmented as “F”) was not created with authority
Marshall Plan became a legislative act, and “quick fix” approaches comes at over the multitude of foreign assistance
launching the United States down a path considerable cost to our overall aid infra- organizations within the U.S. govern-
of federal institution building and infra- structure. Even prior to these large-scale ment outside of the State Department
structural reforms that began with the and independent initiatives, U.S. foreign and USAID. Even within the State De-
creation of the Economic Cooperation aid already suffered from disunity. With partment, the Director only has the man-
Administration. U.S. foreign assistance divided between date to provide guidance to the Office
Every decade since its inception, the Mar- USAID and the departments of State, of the Global AIDS Coordinator rather
shall Plan has witnessed executive and Agriculture, Defense, Commerce, Labor than direct authority over PEPFAR. The
legislative efforts to reform U.S. foreign and the Treasury (just to name several of same lack of direct authority also pertains
assistance. For the most part, these ini- many), it would pose no surprise to hear to F’s relationship to the MCC. Such li-
tiatives stalled in Congress, lacked Presi- critics decry our system as “bureaucrati- abilities raise concerns about budgeting
dential backing, suffered neglect in light cally fragmented, awkward and slow… decisions since it would seem that the
of domestic priorities or met with very diffused over a haphazard and irrational Director cannot take the big picture into
narrow success. Throughout this period, structure.” Those were the biting words account but must rather follow decisions
the most significant and lasting reforms that President Kennedy used to persuade already made on PEPFAR and MCC

The History of U.S. Foreign Aid Agencies (continued on next page)

1948-1951 1951-1953 1953-54
Economic Cooperation Agency (ECA) Mutual Security Agency (MSA) Foreign Operations Administration (FOA)
1951 Congress replaces the ECA with the 1953 Congress replaces the MSA with the 1954 The Mutual Security Act revises and
Mutual Security Agency. Foreign Operations Administration. consolidates all previous foreign assistance
legislation, creating the International
Cooperation Agency in 1954. Placed under the
authority of the State Department, the ICA has
less authority than its predecessors.

Every decade since its inception, the Marshall Plan has witnessed executive and
legislative efforts to reform U.S. foreign assistance. For the most part, these
initiatives stalled in Congress, lacked Presidential backing, suffered neglect in
light of domestic priorities or met with very narrow success.

programs and build around them. The In addition to such deep concerns, the replace Ambassador Randall Tobias at
historic failure of the International De- F process has also raised other criticisms. the helm of F and USAID, a window
velopment Cooperation Agency should Its implementation, for example, has of opportunity currently exists to shape
serve as a lesson about the dangers of been marked by a lack of buy-in among the Bush administration’s drive to retool
creating a coordination layer that actu- key stakeholders within the administra- foreign aid under the State Department
ally coordinates too little. tion, Congress and non-governmental and USAID. Essentially, Tobias’ depar-
development partners. ture provided an opportunity to apply
An additional fundamental concern
the brakes. Even before her confirma-
about the F process stems from the fact However, these reforms have also done
tion hearing, Fore has already stated
that the “dual-hatted” position essentially some good. The F process has resulted
that she will encourage wider consulta-
transforms the leadership role at USAID. in a more unified budgeting process that
tion. Assuming she is confirmed, she can
Designers of the F process claim that resolves the old problem of not being
also take steps in the short time left for
USAID as an agency has been elevated able to cross-reference State Department
this administration to improve morale
by raising the Administrator’s clout to a and USAID accounting due to differing
at USAID, strengthen the level of field
Deputy Secretary-level job with purview systems. F has developed a basic set of
input into the F process, and augment
over State-controlled accounts. The top- management practices and tools, includ-
transparency with regard to F’s decisions.
most leader at USAID, however, must ing an information management system
Prior to a new administration in 2009, it
now be an interagency arbiter when dis- with a standardized lexicon. Such im-
is unlikely that State and USAID will un-
putes arise, and as a result, the agency has provements allow for better awareness in
veil a fundamentally different leadership
lost a high-level champion. Some mem- Washington of our assistance programs,
structure that also takes into account the
bers of Congress are also nervous about objectives and funding levels in all coun-
broader array of organizations involved
this executive innovation because senior tries and regions. While it is useful for the
in foreign assistance across the executive
decision-makers under F are not Senate- USAID Administrator, the Secretary of
branch. The intervening time will also
confirmed. State and members of Congress to have
present a challenge for Congress to leg-
such elemental knowledge practically at
The administration-chosen path to fur- islatively resolve the conflict between the
their fingertips, it will be particularly in-
ther consolidate development assistance sector-based funding streams enshrined
teresting to see the results of forthcom-
under the State Department also sparks within the Foreign Assistance Act and
ing assessments of these reforms from
apprehension. At a recent Senate For- the country-based budgets designed by
the field perspective, such as the ongoing
eign Relations Subcommittee hearing on the F process. The new Director of U.S.
study by InterAction. Most of all, the ex-
foreign assistance reform, all the experts Foreign Assistance and USAID Admin-
ecutive-driven, limited reforms imposed
on a non-governmental panel, includ- istrator can and should set a tone for far
by this administration have served as a
ing leading thinkers from Brookings, the more significant reforms over the long-
spur to prompt consideration by Con-
Center for Global Development and In- term. As Fore already emphasized to the
gress and other stakeholders of a wider
terAction, openly worried about the sub- Senate more than a year and a half after
and deeper campaign that should involve
ordination of long-term development in- the administration’s reforms began, “We
statutory reform.
vestments to shorter-term foreign policy are at the beginning of this important re-
objectives. With the selection of Under Secretary form process, not in the middle, and not
for Management Henrietta H. Fore to at the end.”

International Cooperation Agency (ICA)
1959 The Draper Committee report recommends a unified economic and technical assistance agency outside the Department of State, long-range planning on
a country-by-country basis, and the decentralization of authority to the field. 1960 The Senate Foreign Relations Committee sponsors a Brookings Institution
report recommending the creation of a foreign aid department with cabinet-level status. The report proposes consolidating the Development Loan Fund, the
Export-Import Bank, the ICA and authority over the Food for Peace program. The Ford Foundation, however, calls for the consolidation of foreign assistance within
the Department of State.

JULY 2007 
Thanks to past foreign assistance efforts, tomorrow’s policy makers
are not preoccupied with “the European recovery problem,”
but they are busy thinking about how to improve America’s image in the world.
What lies around the bend is the key. The development on equal and independent security front, the post-9/11 strategic
Brookings-Center for Strategic and In- footing, alongside diplomacy and de- outlook places greater importance on ef-
ternational Studies (CSIS) Task Force on fense. The best practices, tools and les- fective foreign aid to prevent state fail-
Transforming Foreign Assistance in the sons learned from innovations such as ure and to build stable partners. With
21st Century found that the timing of the MCC, PEPFAR and the F process regard to poverty alleviation programs
fundamental reform proposals is decisive. would be incorporated into the new de- overseas, there has never been a greater
The findings of the task force (issued partment. Dating back to the Marshall constituency in this country and around
in Security by Other Means Brookings Plan, U.S. foreign assistance has always the world in support of such efforts. In
Press, 2007) show that for fundamental been a matter of both moral and strategic the run-up to the 2008 presidential elec-
reform to meet with success, among oth- imperatives; and that would not change. tion, candidates will increasingly build on
er requirements, it must be rolled out at Just as defense and diplomacy are part of such trends as they search for bold plans
the beginning of a new administration in our national security strategy, develop- to govern. Thanks to past foreign assis-
tune with executive and legislative sched- ment too would remain as such. Addi- tance efforts, tomorrow’s policy makers
ules. The next president, in collaboration tionally, while the alignment of foreign are not preoccupied with “the European
with Congress, may be able to capitalize aid and foreign policy is important, they recovery problem,” but they are busy
on the growing consensus that recognizes do not need to be housed within the same thinking about how to improve Ameri-
the need for significantly deeper reforms agency any more than military operations ca’s image in the world.
than those put forward by the current and diplomacy need to be controlled by To draw inspiration from our past, we
Bush administration. By rattling Con- the same executive department. need not look further than USAID’s
gress, the F process may even be priming Just as structured attempts to reform for- own website which highlights the origi-
the pump for reforms that ultimately lead eign assistance are not new, neither are nal reforms that gave birth to the agency
to the realization of an alternate vision the fundamental debates about the ap- and notes that it was thought that in or-
for U.S. foreign assistance. propriate location and authorities of for- der for the President “to renew support
The bi-partisan Brookings-CSIS task eign assistance within the U.S. bureau- for foreign assistance at existing or high-
force, along with InterAction and some cracy or about the relationship between er levels, to address the widely-known
of its member organizations, made sig- development assistance and military as- shortcomings of the previous assistance
nificant strides toward spelling out a bold sistance. Two encouraging trends have structure, and to achieve a new mandate
alternate path. That path includes the coincided, however, that point toward a for assistance to developing countries,
creation of a Cabinet-level department significant opportunity to launch major the entire program had to be ‘new.’”
that would consolidate much but not all improvements in how the U.S. manages
U.S. foreign aid and prominently place its foreign assistance. On the national

The History of U.S. Foreign Aid Agencies (continued from previous page)

1961-present 1979-95 2009
U.S.Agency for International Development (USAID) International Development Cooperation Future Cabinet-level Department?
Agency (IDCA)
1961 President Kennedy calls for a new program with 1979 President Carter establishes the
flexibility for short-term emergencies; commitment to
International Development Cooperation Agency
long-term development; commitment to education at all
to oversee USAID. 1981 IDCA loses funding
levels; emphasis on recipient nation’s roles through public
under the Reagan administration.
administration, taxes and social justice; and orderly planning
1985 The International Security and
for national and regional development. Secretary of State
Development Cooperation Act is the last
George Ball creates a task force on the reorganization of
general foreign assistance authorization
foreign assistance. Senator William Fulbright secures passage
enacted. 1995 The Foreign Affairs Reform
of the Act for International Development, authorizing the
and Restructuring Act abolishes IDCA, and
creation of the U.S. Agency for International Development.
USAID becomes a statutory agency, with the
1973 The Foreign Assistance Act (FAA) decrees that foreign administrator reporting to and under the direct
assistance should focus on food and nutrition, population
authority and foreign policy guidance of the
planning and health, and education and human resource
Secretary of State. The act also abolishes the Source: Adapted from Lael Brainard, Carol
development. 1978 Senator Hubert Humphrey attempts
Arms Control and Disarmament Agency and Graham, Nigel Purvis, Steve Radelet, and Gayle
to overhaul foreign assistance through the International Smith, The Other War: Global Poverty and the
the U.S. Information Agency, consolidating their
Development Cooperation Act. Millennium Challenge Account, Brookings Press,
functions into the Department of State. 2003, pp.162-163.


he United Kingdom’s cur-
rent priorities in develop-
ment cooperation are out-
lined in the Department
for International Development’s
(DFID) 2006 White Paper entitled
Eliminating World Poverty. Making
governance work for the poor. This
sets out the following key issues
for DFID: supporting good gover-
nance in developing countries and
internationally; tackling conflict
and insecurity; focusing on essen-
tial services for the poor; working
globally to address climate change;
and reforming the international de-
velopment system. DFID, the UK
government department respon-
sible for promoting development
and the reduction of poverty , is
also committed to giving more pri-
ority to promoting gender equality
and women’s empowerment, in all
aspects of its development assis-
UK aid has steadily increased in
Photo: courtesy of Karl Grobl
recent years, amounting to £6.85
billion in 2006, or 0.52 percent of
gross national income. The government has pledged to reach the 0.7 percent tar-
get by 2013 and to improve the effectiveness of its official development assistance
(ODA). The focus of its development assistance remains poverty reduction and the
achievement of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs), with a commitment
UK Development to spending 90 percent of bilateral aid on low-income countries.

The government’s focus on the MDGs and poverty alleviation is welcome, and
NGOs broadly support its commitment to address the issues outlined in the 2006
By Giorgiana Rosa, Policy Officer, British White Paper. There is widespread backing for DFID’s emphasis on essential services,
and its support to health, education, water and sanitation, and social protection. The
Overseas NGOs for Development (BOND)
focus on governance is largely welcome, but NGOs emphasize the need for long-
term support for strengthening domestic systems of accountability – including the
roles of parliaments, the media and civil society. There is also support for increasing
We invited InterAction’s counterparts the amount of ODA that DFID provides through budget support.
around the world to contribute Many UK NGOs want the government to be more ambitious and to aim to reach
the 0.7 percent aid target earlier, by 2010, and without counting debt relief, argu-
to Monday Developments. Last
ing that poor countries need both aid and debt cancellation. DFID is committed to
month, we heard from the French implementing and promoting the Paris Declaration on Aid Effectiveness (agreed in
NGO coalition, Coordination SUD. 2005 to improve the quality and delivery of aid) and fostering further improvements
This month the UK NGO coalition, in the international aid system. UK NGOs are urging DFID to improve its own aid
effectiveness by ensuring that UK aid is more predictable and transparent, and more
BOND, shares its perspective on accountable to citizens of recipient countries. They also want DFID to continue
development assistance in the to reform its conditionality policy to ensure that policy choices are led by recipient
United Kingdom. Look for more countries and emphasize that its technical assistance must also be owned and led by
articles in future issues. developing countries.
BOND is working with colleagues across Europe to monitor and advocate for prog-
ress on European Union aid commitments and pressing for “more and better aid”
by all European donors. We also continue to participate in ongoing collective cam-
paigning on global poverty eradication, in Europe and as part of the Global Call to
Action against Poverty.

JULY 2007 
Does Foreign Aid Really Work?
By Roger C. Riddell, Non-Executive Director, Oxford Policy Management and Principal, The Policy Practice

a Secondly, in the thirty years to Does aid really work?
2005, ODA increased in real terms The evidence presents a mixed picture
two and one-half times, while hu- of success and failure, providing plenty
manitarian aid increased seventeen- of examples that will bring comfort to
fold. those who believe that aid is beneficial,
a Thirdly, today, the biggest NGOs as well as some reassurance to those who
have budgets and oversee aid port- do not.
folios larger and more complex than But does most aid work? Certainly, a
those managed in the early 1970s by clear majority of discrete projects achieve
more than half of the leading official their immediate objectives, and the suc-
Photo: courtesy of IMC/Sara Terry.
bilateral donors including major do- cess rate has progressively increased over

nors such as Denmark, Norway and time, though the financial sustainabil-
oes aid work? For many, this
Sweden. ity of projects, especially those for poor
remains the central question
justifying the provision of aid. However, the focus of Does Foreign Aid people and poor communities, remains a
Twenty five years ago, Profes- Really Work? extends well beyond ques- serious problem.
sor Robert Cassen from the Institute tions of impact. It sketches out the his- Does most aid work at the sectoral,
of Development Studies in the United tory of aid and why it is given. All donors country and cross-country level? One
Kingdom led a team of international say that they give aid more moral reasons, part of the answer is that the higher the
scholars that concluded in a book enti- but what sort of moral obligations do outcome level – from sector to country-
tled Does Aid Work? that it broadly did. they have? This is an important and fast- level – the more reluctant evaluators are
However, that study did not silence aid’s changing area of aid relationships, but it to draw conclusions about the precise
critics. The merits of governments pro- is rarely the focus of attention within the contribution that aid makes. Yet this is
viding development aid to the world’s development aid community. If there is precisely what people want to know and
poorest countries has continued to be an obligation to provide aid, then there is what the public expects donors to be able
challenged with a succession of scholarly an obligation to provide enough aid and to show.
studies concluding either that aid – of- to ensure it goes to those who need it. Yet
ficial development assistance (ODA) – in current methods of raising and allocating The relationship between aid and devel-
general works, or that it does not. aid remain far removed from these basic opment outcomes is complex and differs
principles, and a large shortfall remains across countries and over time. What
Does Foreign Aid Really Work? is an at- many of the best studies do is help to ex-
in the provision of both emergency and
tempt to provide an updated analysis of plain why aid works and why it does not.
development aid.
this fundamental question and looks at Aid effectiveness depends critically on
the recent evidence. The newly released The book also looks at the different ways the commitment and capacity of recipi-
book, written by this author and pub- that the short-term political, strategic ents to use aid well, and donors need to
lished by Oxford University Press, ex- and commercial interests of donors con- understand the context – and especially
amines not only the impact of ODA but tinue to influence a number of crucial the political context – into which aid is
also the impact of humanitarian aid and dimensions of the aid relationship: how inserted. These studies also suggest that
the development and emergency aid pro- much aid is given; who aid is given to, even major constraints are rarely perma-
vided by nongovernmental organizations and for how long; the forms in which it is nent. What is particularly worrying is that
(NGOs) and private voluntary organiza- given; and the tying of aid. This is impor- donors often do not sufficiently under-
tions. tant because only just over 40 percent of stand the political context within which
ODA goes to the poorest 65 countries, they insert aid, including the importance
There are at least three important rea-
and explicit aid tying reduces the value of of gender and ethnicity.
sons why contemporary discussion about
ODA by more than 10 percent, or about
aid (development assistance) needs to Problems of aggregation and finding a
$15 billion per year. When these influ-
expand well beyond its traditional focus reliable counterfactual against which to
ences are combined with the volatility of
on ODA. judge aid’s impact continue to beset at-
aid and distortions in allocations caused
a Firstly, today, the combined total of by the short-term political and strategic tempts to make reliable generalizations
all aid implemented and adminis- interests of the major donors, there is a about the impact of aid – boring though
tered by NGOs and all humanitari- huge mismatch between aid needs, and non-academics find such musings. Data
an aid (and there is overlap between the overall provision of aid and how it problems also remain. In April, the Di-
the two) accounts for some 30 per- can be used. This easily reduces the po- rector of the UN’s Statistics Division, re-
cent of all ODA, and their share of tential developmental and humanitarian sponsible for monitoring the Millennium
total aid is continuing to rise. impact of aid by a half and possibly by as Development Goals (MDGs), acknowl-
much as two-thirds. edged that only 17 out of 163 develop-

ing countries currently have adequate and poor communities is that they them- different donors. In 2005, the number of
trend data and that even those countries selves are fully aware that small, discrete aid transactions was estimated at 60,000
only have adequate data for fewer than projects are unlikely on their own to – three times the number less than ten
half the MDG indicators. solve the systemic, structural and political years ago – while the average size of each
problems that so often create or perpetu- transaction has progressively fallen. On
A small but growing number of scholars,
ate poverty, and limit opportunities for average, there are 54 separate aid proj-
including some in the major aid agencies,
wealth creation and its more equitable ect implementation units in each recipi-
have begun to question whether promi-
distribution. ent country. In 1990, no aid recipient
nence should continue to be given to
country had to interact with more than
such studies as even the best were never
40 individual donors. Today, at least 30
meant to prove aid works in aggregate: an Does humanitarian aid work?
recipients must deal with more than 40
impossible task given the sheer number The study of humanitarian aid was tradi-
of variables that can influence aggregate tionally considered less important for two
growth and the difficulty of accurately reasons: because it seemed more obvious Though not widely known, there have
capturing them quantitatively. and clear that emergency aid was needed, been repeated calls for these systemic
and because it was widely assumed that issues to be addressed. For instance, 60
of all aid, humanitarian aid seemed to years ago at what many see as the birth
The impact of NGO aid.
“work.” of official aid, U.S. President Harry Tru-
What does the evidence tell us about the
man called on rich nations not merely to
contribution that NGOs make to devel- The evidence, incomplete though it is,
provide aid but to work together to pool
opment? There are far more data and in- certainly confirms that plenty of good
their aid resources together to make aid
formation on the impact of their activities is done by emergency aid. Yet it also re-
effective. Almost 40 years ago, the Pear-
than is commonly believed, though the veals significant problems: insufficient
son Commission on aid and development
gap between what NGOs do and what amounts provided, a huge mismatch be-
said, even then, that there were too many
we know about the impact of their differ- tween need and where emergency aid is
agencies giving aid, and that aid needed
ent activities is still wide. With very few allocated, incomplete needs-assessments,
to be separated from the short-term po-
exceptions – such as CARE (US), Oxfam and a significant failure to protect. As-
litical interests of individual donor coun-
(UK) and BRAC, the large Bangladesh sessments of the quality of emergency
tries. Ten years on, the Brandt Commis-
NGO – NGOs remain reluctant to share evaluations rate too many as “poor” and
sion judged that the world ought to have
any information on project failures, and there is still a huge reluctance by many
already moved away from voluntary aid-
almost no NGOs place in the public do- agencies to place evaluations of their ef-
giving, and that aid funds for the poor-
main, or have easily accessible on their forts in the public domain, especially
est countries ought to be raised through
websites, regular information on the im- those that are more critical.
some sort of automatic mechanism and
pact of their different activities.
dispersed without the repeated interven-
Across a growing number of donor Aid’s systemic problems. tions of donor governments. Five years
countries, the current gap between what While more aid is certainly needed, one of ago, the Zedillo Panel argued that stable
NGOs do and evidence of its impact on the main messages of the book is that far and contractual aid resources should be
poverty will require increasing attention. greater attention needs to be focused on provided. And in a smaller way just over a
Some of the available evidence, partial the systemic issues that significantly reduce year ago, the new British Prime Minister,
and patchy though it is, suggests the fol- the overall impact of official aid. Three in Gordon Brown, made a plea for the sep-
lowing: particular should be highlighted: aration of aid activities from short-term
a Most discrete projects for poor com- (1) Aid is still provided in insufficient political interests, pleading specifically
munities run by NGOs successfully quantities to meet the needs of the poor- for the operational work of the Interna-
achieve their immediate objectives, est countries, a major cause being that tional Monetary Fund to be independent
but many are not financially sustain- official aid-giving remains an entirely vol- of political influence in order for its work
able without continuing external untary decision made separately by each to be more credible, authoritative and ef-
help. donor government. fective.
a However, exceptionally few discrete (2) The aid provided is not allocated in While more aid is needed, the greatest
wealth creating or service delivery any systematic way to ensure it goes to challenge for the aid community lies in
projects provide sufficient benefits those who need it most. Indeed, because addressing the systemic issues that con-
on their own to enable poor people aid-giving is still profoundly influenced tinue to reduce aid’s impact. What is
to escape permanently from pov- by the political, strategic, commercial and needed is to create an aid system relevant
erty, though many have helped to historically rooted interests of the donors, to the needs of the 21st century. This de-
empower poor communities. distortions between aid needs and the ac- bate has scarcely begun.
Indeed, one of the main reasons why so tual aid provided exist and persist.
many NGOs have expanded their advo- For details on Does Foreign Aid Really Work?
(3) The humanitarian and development see
cacy, lobbying and campaigning activities impact of aid continues to be severely un- general/subject/Economics/Developmental/
in recent years and have continued to fo- dermined by the fact that recipients must ?view=usa&ci=9780199295654. From 1999 to
cus on the empowerment of poor people 2004, the author was the International Director
interact with dozens and often scores of of Christian Aid.

JULY 2007 
InterAction Testifies at Senate Foreign Relations Committee
Subcommittee Hearing on Foreign Assistance Reform
By Estrellita Fitzhugh, Program Manager, Government Relations, InterAction

n June 12, 2007, the Senate and consolidation across all government Ms. Fore discussed Secretary of State
Foreign Relations Commit- agencies and programs providing assis- Condoleezza Rice’s goal for a revamped
tee’s Subcommittee on In- tance. foreign policy that reflects post-9/11
ternational Development and realities and would replace what some
“Let me be clear,” Sen. Menendez noted.
Foreign Assistance, Economic Affairs believe is an unaccountable foreign as-
“USAID is not a perfect agency and I’m
and International Environmental Pro- sistance system. She also spoke of a “new
not against reform, but I am against tak-
tection, held a hearing entitled Foreign unity of purpose for foreign aid and a
ing money, power, control and expertise
Assistance Reform: Successes, Failures growing consensus that global develop-
away from one agency inside the U.S.
and Next Steps. The hearing was chaired ment is both a moral ideal and a national
government that was designed with de-
by Sen. Robert Menendez (D-NJ), and interest.” Ms. Fore also referred to “de-
velopment and fighting poverty around
also attended by ranking Republican Sen. velopment policy” – apparently acknowl-
the world as its core mission… I believe
Chuck Hagel (R-NE), and Sen.Robert edging it as a distinct part of U.S. foreign
that reducing poverty should have been
Casey (D-PA), Sen. Russ Feingold (D- policy:
at the center of any foreign assistance re-
WI) and Sen. Richard Lugar (R-IN). form from the beginning.” During question and answer time, Sen.
Henrietta Fore, Acting Director for U.S. Menendez questioned Ms.Fore on sev-
Foreign Assistance and Acting Admin- He also clearly laid out his expectations
eral details of the F reform process im-
istrator of the U.S. Agency for Interna- of Fore’s office and the administration:
plementation, including plans to close
tional Development (USAID), appeared “I for one do not intend to preside over specific USAID missions; the risks of
for the Bush Administration. Lael Brain- the slow death of USAID… Let me be shifting funding for some development
ard of the Brookings Institution, Steve clear: I expect the administration to activities from traditional Development
Radelet of the Center for Global Devel- make significant changes in the reform Assistance (DA) funds to the Economic
opment and Sam Worthington of Inter- process… The administration should ex- Support Fund (ESF) funds; and the de-
Action, appeared on the private witness pect significant and detailed oversight of cision-making process for budget allo-
panel. foreign assistance reform from this sub- cations, country operational plans and
The hearing was the subcommittee’s first committee and from Congress.” other issues.
under Sen. Menendez’s chairmanship In his opening statement, Sen. Hagel, Ms. Fore said many of those issues are
and its first consideration of the foreign while not as critical, expressed similar still under discussion. She gave an un-
assistance reform effort, known inside concerns. He noted the need to review equivocal “yes” to his final two ques-
the administration as the “F process.” the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961 to tions: (1) Would she honor congressional
Chairman Menendez stated that for- achieve meaningful reform, the lack of directives; and (2) if she did not support
eign assistance reform is a priority to the a “comprehensive approach” in the cur- a given directive, would she consult Con-
subcommittee, and that he and ranking rent process and inadequate consultation gress on the matter.
Republican Sen. Hagel would together on all fronts:
explore its current status and future di- When asked what percentage of foreign
rection. “The State Department and USAID do aid she directly controls, she responded
not control all foreign assistance, particu- that it is a little less than 80 percent. Wit-
Sen. Menendez’s opening statement larly with the recent growth in non-mili- nesses on the nongovernmental panel
clearly laid out his concerns about the F tary assistance projects run by the De- later challenged this, asserting it is closer
process to date: a perceived lack of trans- fense Department that the chairman has to 55 percent.
parency and limited consultation; the already noted,” Sen. Hagel said. “You
failure to focus on poverty alleviation; Ms. Fore also made a number of strong
need to have all of the relevant executive
the fact that many major U.S. foreign statements indicating a clear shift in ap-
branch agencies involved. You need to
assistance programs fall outside its ambit proach from that of her predecessor,
consult closely with the dedicated profes-
– including the Millennium Challenge Randall Tobias. She promised more
sionals in your organizations. You need
Account, the President’s Emergency transparency, more field involvement “in
to consult and work closely with Con-
Plan for AIDS Relief, and programs cov- every stage of the budget process” and
gress. You need to reach out and engage
ered in the budgets of the Department more real consultation with Congress,
the hundreds of private organizations
of Defense and other federal agencies; the university community, the govern-
that actually implement assistance proj-
the diminished status of USAID as the ment’s development partners, the donor
ects and are on the ground around the
government’s flagship foreign assistance community and government agencies.
agency; and the lack of real coherence She also said the F process was still in the

beginning stages, suggesting that oppor- agreements based on partnerships. He agency to coordinate all U.S. foreign as-
tunities for stakeholder input remain. concluded his opening remarks by not- sistance, possibly at the Cabinet level.
InterAction President and CEO Sam ing the importance InterAction and its Sen. Lugar challenged Mr. Worthing-
Worthington testified as the first of three members place in partnerships, including ton’s suggestion concerning an indepen-
witnesses from the NGO community, those with the world’s poor, the Ameri- dent Cabinet-level agency by asking how
stressing the role of development as- can public, Congress, the Department of public support for the establishment of
sistance as an equal and separate “leg” State and USAID. a proposed Department of Development
of the administration’s “three Ds” ap- Lael Brainard of the Brookings Institu- could be created. Mr. Worthington not-
proach to foreign policy – defense, de- tion and Steve Radelet of the Center ed that the last 10 years have witnessed a
velopment and diplomacy. He noted that for Global Development offered similar dramatic increase in U.S.-based organiza-
while strategic interests are important, critiques of the current reform process, tions, faith-based and secular, successful-
“meeting the needs of people plagued while also providing some historical con- ly raising awareness and becoming active
by chronic instability and lifting people text. Dr. Brainard explained how the lack on international issues. He cited the re-
out of poverty are laudable goals in and of coherence in U.S. foreign assistance cent launch of the ONE Campaign, with
of themselves.” While noting a few posi- prior to the Kennedy Administration a membership of 2.4 million, and the ex-
tive aspects of the process – enhanced led to the first comprehensive reform in ample of Heifer International, which has
accountability, resource tracking and in- the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961. She 500,000 supporters in the U.S.
cluding poverty alleviation as a top goal recommended that in the current reform The other panelists agreed. Dr. Brain-
– he was largely critical of the process to process, the U.S. should learn from ex- ard noted middle America’s rationale
date. He said that the lack of transpar- periences of nations such as the United for supporting foreign assistance is still
ency and real consultation with imple- Kingdom in reorganizing their own bi- largely moral and humanitarian driven,
menting organizations has undermined lateral assistance. Dr. Radelet argued that as evidenced by the outpouring of dona-
the process. Poverty alleviation has U.S. assistance, if perceived as not influ- tions after the tsunami in Asia. As further
not been fully integrated in the strate- enced by U.S. self-interest, has a greater evidence of this support, Dr. Radelet
gic framework of the reform process, he public diplomacy dividend than if it is pointed to recent debt relief campaigns
said, and U.S. foreign assistance remains seen as a product of U.S. self-interest. and articles in the popular media, such
fragmented. He added that under the In critiquing the current reform process, as those in the recent issue of Vanity Fair
current framework, national strategic he called for a more effective monitor- devoted to foreign assistance and condi-
interests threaten to eclipse the poverty- ing and evaluation program to better de- tions in Africa.
focused development; and that more termine whether and how development
comprehensive reform would require leg- goals are achieved. Drs. Brainard and
For more information on this hearing, visit
islation. Mr. Worthington cited examples Radelet both recommended establishing
of the impact of the reform process on an independent high-level development
the government’s 2008 fiscal year budget
recommendations that underscored his
concerns about a shift away from devel-
opment-driven assistance towards “stra-
tegic countries.”
“Let me be clear. USAID is not a perfect
Mr. Worthington also called for the es-
tablishment of a “Cabinet-level agency agency and I’m not against reform, but I am
for international relief and development
alongside the Secretaries of State and against taking money, power, control and
Defense,” noting this would likely be a
long-term goal. He said that in the short
expertise away from one agency inside the
term, InterAction would work for sub- U.S. government that was designed with
stantive reform within the current pro-
cess, and said he looked forward to work- development and fighting poverty around
ing and consulting closely with Acting
Director Fore. He recommended that the world as its core mission… I believe that
the administration abandon its plan to
concentrate resources in nine countries reducing poverty should have been at the
that have been accorded priority status
based on their strategic value to U.S.
center of any foreign assistance reform from
foreign policy interests and reverse the
trend within USAID towards increased
the beginning.”
reliance on contracts as an implementing -Senator Robert Menendez (D-NJ)
mechanism and away from cooperative

JULY 2007 11
Foreign Assistance Reform: Advice to Incoming Director of U.S.
Foreign Assistance and USAID Administrator Henrietta H. Fore

The recent announcement of the nomination of Henrietta H. Fore to be the new Director of U.S.
Foreign Assistance and USAID Administrator marks a new chapter in the ongoing process of
foreign assistance reform, first announced by the Bush administration in 2006. We recently
asked our readers: (1) what her first two actions should be; (2) what parts of the restructuring to
keep and what parts to remove; and (3) what part of foreign assistance they would reform. The
following are some of the comments we received. (Note that she is already serving in these two
roles in an acting capacity while awaiting confirmation by the Senate.)

Bill Boteler Sarah Newhall, President and CEO, Pact, and Lou
Stamberg, Pact Board Member
I would stop putting so many restrictions on foreign aid that are
based on judgments about ethical sexual behavior. Specifically, I The United States of America should have the best global de-
would allow full funding of family planning. velopment organization in the world, one that operates accord-
ing to clear values, principles and goals. We need to be growing
Marc J. Cohen, Ph.D., Research Fellow, Food strong allies not adversaries. The distinction between our foreign
Consumption and Nutrition Division, International Food policy agenda and our vision to improve the quality of life for all
Policy Research Institute citizens must be clearly framed. This is key to achieving both our
long and shorter-term goals.
Foreign assistance reform must address the question of “stove-
piping” aid into sectoral programs. If aid is to contribute to sus- We must broaden the constituencies contributing to and lever-
tainable poverty reduction, it cannot artificially separate agricul- aging resources for development partnerships through positive
ture, infrastructure, health, nutrition, education, microfinance, engagement with host country governments, civil society orga-
empowerment of women and environmental protection. People nizations and with responsible corporations investing overseas.
experience problems and have needs that overlap sectoral bound- This is the most effective way to invest in peace and community
aries in multiple, complex ways. stability. We live in the age of connectivity and building social
capital is more critical than ever for the United States.
In the same vein, reform needs to find practical and effective
methods to link relief and development. Practice in this area has Our development methodologies must be evidence-based and
not matched nearly 20 years of rhetoric, with the result that hu- reflect sound and tested methodologies incorporating local
manitarian assistance too often does not help people restore and knowledge into our practice. Global mandates should be bol-
restart sustainable livelihoods in the aftermath of crisis. stered with unified measures of performance. We need to resist
the “quick fix” and realize that our responses to the global chal-
Third, relief and development programs should consistently lenges we face in many areas including health, education, job
treat poor people in developing countries as subjects, not objects creation and global climate change will require building local
– i.e., as active agents of positive change, rather than as passive capacity if they are to achieve any lasting impact. Ultimately, we
beneficiaries of aid. Research shows that participatory and em- will fail if we assume that externally-driven agendas can sustain
powering programs are more effective. And in any event, such an the improvements we seek to achieve.
approach is the right thing to do.
USAID has a track record of forging partnerships based on mu-
Finally, although more aid money does not necessarily mean bet- tual respect and trust. In any restructuring effort, this commit-
ter aid, the United States and other donors must do much more ment to such partnerships should be the central pillar. People-
to meet their pledges to expand overall aid and especially aid to to-people community building is central to meeting our national
Africa. interests.

Dr. John Coonrod, Vice President, The Hunger Raymond C. Offenheiser, President, Oxfam
Project America
The first of the two actions would be to focus resources on grass- Externally, I would immediately seek to refocus public debate
roots level strategies that have proven to meet the Millennium on how and why the U.S. does humanitarian and development
Development Goals on a sustainable basis: namely those that inte- work. While recognizing that good development may serve dip-
grate (a) social mobilization to empower the poorest of the poor lomatic and defense goals like the so-called “war on terror,” we
to be the key actors in their own development; (b) strengthening will never fight poverty effectively until we care about that fight
local democracy as the forum through which the poorest of the for its own sake. America must strengthen its global standing by
poor can mobilize resources and keep government accountable; being far-sighted, compassionate, principled and ultimately effec-
and (c) interventions for gender equality to empower women to tive in helping the world’s poor lift themselves out of poverty.
be the key change agents. The second action would be to invest
in policy reforms that support those same three goals. Internally, I would address the operational constraints under-
mining USAID’s capacity and reputation overseas, particularly
Some elements of the move towards “national ownership” of in personnel and procurement. USAID is understaffed across the
development have tended to disempower the poor and reinforce board and continues to lose good personnel, while procurement
injustice. Reforms should be structured to ensure the empower- delays are setting back programs around the globe.
ment of the most impoverished segments of society, particularly
women. The significant progress made in understanding and organizing
information on U.S. government development expenditures is
I would look seriously at restructuring the sustainable develop- an essential first step for program evaluation, garnering addi-
ment programs of USAID along the lines of an NGO-led, funds- tional support for development and far more strategic allocation
matching program similar to that used in the Netherlands. This decisions.
would be more cost-effective, and would enhance the reputation
of USAID worldwide as a humanitarian expression of the Ameri- The current reform process covers only USAID and the Depart-
can people. ment of State. Until the process includes the Departments of
Agriculture, Defense, Treasury, and others and new entities such

continued on next page

JULY 2007 13
continued from previous page
accompanying indicators, whose obsessive focus on counting in-
as the Millennium Challenge Corporation, it will do little more puts and outputs serves to mask rather than illuminate concrete
than rearrange dwindling resources amongst a compromised set impact.
of institutions.
USAID and the Departments of Defense and State should col- George F. Ward, Jr., Senior Vice President for
lectively agree that more U.S. overseas development assistance International Programs, World Vision US
(ODA) should be civilian-led and poverty alleviation-focused, I would submit the following note to her.
rather than being implemented by the military to achieve short-
term political or security goals. From 2002 to 2005, ODA Dear Director Fore:
through the military went from approximately 6 percent to 25 I urge you to start your work as Director of U.S. Foreign Assis-
percent of our overall ODA. Department of Defense funding tance and USAID Administrator with a visit to a nation devastat-
requests this year continue this trend. Soldiers do not want to ed by AIDS, such as India or Lesthoto. Spend the hours neces-
be responsible for the war against global poverty. Until the U.S. sary in meetings with senior government officials, but devote the
government refocuses its civilian expertise and energy on creat- most time possible to the people whose lives are centered around
ing real opportunities for poor people to lift themselves out of open-pit fires and open sewers. You will witness firsthand the evi-
poverty, we will neither see lasting development impact nor con- dence of a troubling trend: the AIDS pandemic is undermining
tribute to making our world safer in the long run. the progress fostered by decades of U.S. foreign assistance.
During your visit, you will meet some of the more than 15 mil-
Yolonda Richardson, President, The Centre for lion children orphaned by AIDS. You will see how AIDS destabi-
Development and Population Activities (CEDPA) lizes families, communities and entire societies, leaving children
Immediate Action: Commit to gender integration throughout without the care and support necessary to grow up, survive and
the foreign assistance process, particularly related to procure- thrive. The AIDS pandemic is the greatest humanitarian disaster
ment requirements. of our time, placing a generation of children in jeopardy.
Reform to Preserve: The effort to rationalize the work of all the Once you return to Washington, your second major action should
different agencies involved in foreign assistance is extremely im- be to devote substantial time and political capital to ensuring that
portant. This should continue. The multiple reporting require- Congress directs 10 percent of all global AIDS funding toward
ments, standards and agendas of various donors require interna- the care of orphans and vulnerable children. As Director, you
tional partners and host-country governments to maintain huge will make a difference by helping secure this Administration’s
management structures. The cost of maintaining these systems legacy of compassion for and commitment to those affected by
means fewer resources actually reach those most in need. this tragic disease.
Aspect to Reform: Foster greater coordination at the country
level with other donors in a process driven essentially by the Dr. James M. Wile, Director, International
countries’ priorities. Development, International Reading Association
Our foreign aid must commit to insuring that all individuals
Erin Tunney, Senior International Policy Analyst, – children, youth, adults, males and females – achieve high levels
Bread for the World of competency in reading and writing. Neither sustainable eco-
nomic growth nor stable and secure societies can exist without
The first priority should be to begin rebuilding USAID’s opera- a broad-based population with the levels of literacy competency
tional capacity and morale: restoring its ability to plan, imple- sufficiently capable to participate in the era of information and
ment and evaluate effective development assistance. This loss of technology. Our foreign assistance in education has traditionally
competence and capacity has led to its diminished role in the cur- focused on classroom interventions, often generic approaches to
rent U.S. foreign assistance structure as reflected in the “trans- interactive pedagogy. What is painfully missing is a systematic and
formational diplomacy” reforms and the second-class citizen focused effort to increase effective, critical reading competencies.
status of poverty-focused development, rhetoric notwithstand- But this cannot be achieved through classroom intervention pro-
ing. Along with rebuilding Agency credibility, USAID leader- grams alone. Classroom teachers have the least control over the
ship should move the organization in the direction of operating education process. Small wonder then that despite considerable
a learning organization that employs best practices and the latest investment of human and financial resources, our foreign assis-
available expertise and information. Such a move would benefit tance to support teaching has had minimal impact on improving
all partners in the development community. reading and writing competencies in the developing world.
The focus on USAID institutional capacity must be accompanied To achieve this prime objective, our foreign assistance must work
by a renewed emphasis on long-term poverty-focused develop- collaboratively with national ministries to remove inefficient or
ment: building countries’ capacity in health, education and ag- ill-informed policies presently acting as barriers to developing
riculture and stimulating sustainable, pro-poor growth. This re- high levels of competency in reading and writing. And we must
newed development emphasis should begin with the recognition be willing to sustain our efforts long enough so that impacts on
that individual country circumstances are unique and require a student reading achievements can be adequately and reliably as-
carefully tailored program to fit their needs, rather than a simplis- sessed. Our fiscal and intellectual resources can be a strong scaf-
tic conceptual framework that dictates what programs, and even fold for constructing education infrastructures that will lead to
success, should look like. Ms. Fore should start by revisiting the equitable and effective education for all.
ill-conceived “Standard Program Structure and Definitions” and

JULY 2007 15

Aid Effectiveness and Absorptive Capacity: Which Way Aid
Reform and Accountability?
By Paolo de Renzio, Research Associate, Overseas Development Institute

Two factors have shaped the reluctance to scale up aid:
worries over aid effectiveness and absorptive capacity
and a perceived lack of progress on the governance agenda.

he aid system is at a crossroads. In macro and micro constraints that recipi-
2005, rich countries pledged to ent countries face in using aid resources The opinions in this article were written
drastically increase development effectively. Large additional flows of ex- for a high level policy forum bringing
assistance to help low income ternal resources can strain government together senior DFID and NGO staff,
countries fight poverty. The Commis- capacity for macroeconomic manage- MPs, private sector representatives,
sion for Africa recommended a doubling ment, planning and budgeting, and ser- Africanists, development academics
of aid to the African continent in order vice delivery to a point where additional and key journalists for a discussion
to accelerate income growth and spur aid may not be effective in achieving its on the future of Africa in the run-up to
progress towards the Millennium Devel- intended results. Increasing levels of aid the G8 meeting in Germany (6-8 June).
opment Goals (MDGs), and its recom- dependence may also undermine com- The forum was held on May 2, 2007
mendation was taken up by G8 leaders mitment to necessary reforms and local in London. This article was originally
at Gleneagles. Recent figures, however, accountability mechanisms. published in May 2007 by the Overseas
show little sign of aid being scaled up. Development Institute.
In 2006, excluding debt relief for Nige-
ria, aid to Sub-Saharan Africa increased Increasing levels
by only 2 percent. The Africa Progress of aid dependence The key question then is what can be
Panel, set up by Tony Blair to monitor may also done to ensure that aid (whether it in-
G8 commitments, recently called for a creases or not) is channeled in ways that
renewed effort to deliver on agreed aid
address absorptive capacity constraints,
targets, and for a more responsible and commitment to maximize its effectiveness and promote
long-term view of support to African necessary reforms better governance. These three issues are
countries. But at the recent G8 meeting and local heavily intertwined, as stronger country
in Germany, world leaders failed to come institutions will be better able to use aid
up with significant new commitments. accountability mechanisms.
effectively, but aid itself can undermine
Many rightly blame donor countries for institutional strengthening, for example
not living up to their promises, but there by relying excessively on external exper-
are some underlying tensions in this de- Governance trends in Africa have also tise or bypassing government systems.
bate that deserve to be highlighted. Apart failed to reassure donors that additional Two accountability tensions are at the
from the domestic political difficulties aid will not fuel patronage, corruption
faced by donor governments in justifying and conflict. In late 2005, Ethiopia and
The key question then
massive increases in foreign aid, two fac- Uganda, two countries held up as good
tors have shaped the reluctance of donors examples by the donor community, suf- is what can be done to
to stump up large additional amounts of fered severe governance crises which ensure that aid
aid: worries over aid effectiveness and led to reductions in aid levels. The NE- (whether it increases or not)
absorptive capacity, and a perceived lack PAD-led Africa Peer Review Mechanism
of progress on the governance agenda is making very slow progress. The cases
is channeled in
which was meant to represent Africa’s of Zimbabwe and Sudan have shown the ways that
side of the Gleneagles deal. The effec- limited capacity of regional bodies to in- address absorptive
tiveness of aid in reducing poverty has tervene and address difficult governance capacity constraints,
recently come under increasing scrutiny, situations. Yet, few people would disagree
with numerous critics claiming that aid that, at least in the short term, additional maximize its effectiveness
can do more harm than good, and that aid is one of the few options available to and promote better
the aid system needs to be drastically re- assist African countries in improving the governance.
formed. Absorptive capacity relates to the living conditions of their population.

forts. This tension can be witnessed in
the recent surge in special purpose aid
Figure 1
delivery channels (e.g. vertical funds for
The tensions of aid accountability interventions in specific areas such as im-
munization) that focus on clear impact
indicators, but at the same time often
To domestic audiences in donor countries by-pass the domestic systems, processes
and institutions that are meant to sustain
such impact in the long-term.
Resolving the tensions and contradic-
For impact on For impact on tions highlighted above will require the
AID concerted efforts of many players. Some
institution ACCOUNTABILITY development
building outcomes of the key messages to be taken into con-
sideration are:
a The focus on short-term devel-
opment impact, dictated by the
MDGs, cannot come at the expense
To domestic audiences in recipient countries of the long-term institution build-
ing needed to ensure that develop-
ment impact is sustainable.
a The predictability and pace of ad-
ditional aid flows are as important
heart of this contradiction (see Figure 1), Ultimately, aid effectiveness as their availability in order to avoid
relating to two key questions: ‘account- absorptive capacity bottlenecks.
ability to whom?’ and ‘accountability for
needs to be
a The aid architecture should be re-
what?’ judged
considered in order to reduce ac-
against countability tensions. An obvious
Accountability to whom? the evidence of positive solution would be to strengthen
impact. multilateral institutions.
There is an inherent tension between the
inevitable accountability of donor agen- a Aid delivery mechanisms should
cies to their parliaments and taxpayers wherever possible. Yet, as the results of take absorptive capacity constraints
in rich countries and their necessary ac- a recent survey clearly show, the benefits into account, putting an emphasis
countability to domestic institutions and of this approach are being very slow to on strengthening (or at least not
beneficiaries in recipient countries, who materialize, given the clear difficulties undermining) country systems and
are directly affected by aid policies and that donors face in “shifting aid account- institutions.
interventions. This second dimension ability downwards” and placing greater a Harmonization and alignment ef-
has often been overlooked. Under pres- trust in recipient governments’ policies forts should continue to be em-
sure from domestic constituencies, donor and processes. phasized, but with a more explicit
agencies may define priorities and pro- recognition of the challenges of
mote policies that are not suited to local
Accountability for what? promoting genuine country owner-
circumstances. In some countries, for ex- ship and better governance.
ample, funding for HIV/AIDS programs Ultimately, aid effectiveness needs to be
overshadows the financing available for judged against the evidence of positive a The public in donor countries
the health sector as a whole. And given impact. In recent years, the focus has should be better informed about
the need to report at home, donors have rightly shifted towards results, and global the need for and the nature of a
often relied on fragmented projects with campaigns on the MDGs have added a responsible and long-term engage-
parallel management systems. In order sense of urgency. While such focus on ment with African countries.
to address this problem, a new aid ap- performance has to be supported, the
proach has been promoted, underpinned tension that the aid system faces relates to For further information on the event, including
by the Paris Declaration on Aid Effec- the potential trade-off between focusing podcast, video and further downloadable
tiveness. It is based on donor efforts to on short-term development impact (e.g. materials, visit the conference websites at:
provide more predictable support, better putting children into school, ensuring forum.html and
coordinate their activities, align behind the availability of drugs in health posts)
To comment on this opinion, please contact the
policies defined by the recipient govern- and building sustainable institutional author at
ments and rely on government systems capacity for long-term development ef-

JULY 2007 17
Exploring the
Changing Ways
Filmmakers and
Nonprofits Interact

By Kate Schuler, MFA Candidate, Film and Media Arts, American
University, and Jamie Corbett, Master’s Candidate, Public
Communication, American University

ore than 70 filmmakers, The morning’s group session explored Blood of Yingzhao District, said filmmak-
nonprofit leaders, distribu- best practices for partnership. The ideal ers and their partners must acknowledge
tors, foundation managers, collaboration yields films that are both that their agendas are distinct and not
network executives and aca- true to the filmmakers’ visions and ben- always in harmony. While Lennon was
demics met to explore how to collabo- eficial to a nonprofit’s cause; in practice, exploring the issue of AIDS in China,
rate on social action campaigns that in- partnership presents incredible chal- SARS gripped the nation. A public health
clude “films with a message” – a concept lenges. Moderator Jackie Judd, Vice campaign he developed with the Ministry
called “filmanthropy.” Filmanthropy is at President and Senior Advisor for Com- of Health reached more than 350 million
the center of an ongoing, international munications at the Kaiser Family Foun- people, but Lennon made clear that the
discussion of how to engage the public dation, asked panelists to explore the public health campaign was kept separate
in civil discourse. In an entertainment- idea of how filmmakers and non-profits from the documentary, and the Chinese
driven society, how can the media best be can leverage each other’s strengths to government had no control and did not
used to encourage audiences to engage in make good partnerships for effective so- interfere with the film.
civic discourse and become more socially cial action campaigns. Gillian Caldwell,
Participants agreed that the concept of
responsible citizens? Profit pressures ren- Executive Director of WITNESS, said
filmanthrophy raises questions that will
der corporate media increasingly unwill- the rising cachet of documentary films
be answered only as this type of col-
ing to take the risk of treating difficult is- creates unique opportunities to mobilize
laboration continues. Larry Kirkman,
sues in a substantive way. Are non-profit people around a broad range of issues.
Dean of American University’s School of
advocacy groups or philanthropists the WITNESS, which empowers local ac-
Communication, closed the conference
new best source for media funding? tors to use video in their human rights
by highlighting the important role in-
advocacy campaigns, has created a kind
Increasingly, social-issue documentaries dependent filmmakers play. At the same
of YouTube for human rights called the
involve complex, strategic marketing and time, he said, nonprofit organizations
HUB. The website enables people to up-
outreach campaigns, which include non- bring valuable networks, knowledgeable
load and connect their own human rights
profit partners, websites featuring stream- people and new competencies to the ta-
related video, pictures, music and other
ing media, robust ancillary resource sec- ble. “There are so many opportunities,”
connect to campaigns on the WITNESS
tions and links to social networking sites, he said.
as well as public events. Amnesty Inter-
He also left the group with the thought
national, CARE, the Sierra Club and “It’s not helpful to divide funders ver-
that in the near future, the two groups
WITNESS are all deeply involved in ei- sus artists,” said Center for Social Media
may not be so distinct. “Now everyone’s
ther funding documentary films or using Director Pat Aufderheide. “Partnerships
a media maker,” he said. “The 20-year-
media to get out their message. work well when you’re meeting each oth-
old at a nonprofit is probably going to
ers’ needs with your core competencies.”
The Filmanthropy Workshop, held at be a documentary maker, and where do
She also highlighted the importance of
Discovery Communications headquarters they sit at this table?”
managing expectations on both sides,
in Silver Spring, Maryland, on June 16,
being clear about your goals, knowing
was the culminating event of SILVER- For more information about the Filmanthropy
your strengths and what you bring to the
DOCS, a documentary festival put on by Workshop, including a complete rapporteur’s
table and reaching out to organizations
the American Film Institute and Discov- report and other valuable resources, visit soc.
that bring different competencies to the
ery Communications, and was hosted by
American University’s School of Com-
munication and the Institute for Strategic Still, Tom Lennon, producer of the Acad-
Communication for Nonprofits. emy Award winning documentary, The

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On Track to Beat the MDG Deadline to Reduce Poverty
By Andrea Barron, Adjunct Professor of History, George Mason University

Taking it easy in the late afternoon sun in a village set deep in heavy forest near Tarkwa, Ghana. Photo: courtesy of Nicky Lewin.

The five-year, $547 million MCA Ghana Compact was signed in August 2006, and the first funds were disbursed to Ghana this past March.
The Millennium Challenge Corporation awarded Ghana its largest grant to date.
hen President George Bush tricts become more productive, develop
launched the $5 billion Mil- commercial skills and gain more access
lenium Challenge Account to credit. Ghana’s transportation infra-
(MCA) to provide develop- structure will be improved by upgrad-
ment support for poor coun- ing the national highway and rehabili-
tries that “govern justly, tating smaller roads. There is also $101
invest in their people and encourage million for rural development to mod-
economic freedom,” Ghana was exact- ernize rural banks and provide electric-
ly the type of country he had in mind. ity, education, and water and sanitation
According to the World Bank, Ghana’s facilities to the rural poor. The MCA
per capita income is only $450 per year Ghana team expects to see significant
– higher than for poorer African coun- increases in basic food crop production
tries such as Niger ($240) or Tanzania and in the export of pineapples, papa-
($340), but lower than for Cameroon yas, mangoes and Asian vegetables,
($1,000) or Senegal ($700). mainly to Europe but to other markets
as well.
While Ghana’s economy has grown
by more than 5 percent per year since The MCA Ghana project may indeed
2001, millions of Ghanaians, especially send more pineapples to Europe, but
the 70 percent who live in rural areas, will this mean reducing poverty and
still do not have access to safe drinking achieving the United Nations Millen-
water, electricity or adequate health nium Development Goals (MDGs) en-
care. The mortality rate for children un- dorsed by the U.S. and the rest of the
der five is 112 per 1,000 births. While world seven years ago? According to
lower than the average regional rate of the Center for Global Development’s
163 per 1,000 children for all sub-Saha- MCA Monitor website, “a lot is at stake
ran Africa, Ghana’s child mortality rate in Ghana’s MCA compact. It is a big-
has remained the same for ten years money test of the MCC’s approach to
despite economic growth. ‘poverty reduction through economic
growth.’ Success will be a boon for
Ghana has been referred to as an island Ghana’s poor, for the MCC’s political
of stability in the volatile West Africa support and for continued faith in US
region. It has had four consecutive fair development assistance more broadly.”
elections and Secretary of State Con-
doleezza Rice has called its president, Darius Mans, Managing Director for
John Kufuor, “one of the best examples Anglophone and Lusophone Africa at
of a new Africa in which responsibility the MCC, acknowledges that the MCC
counts.” This past January, President Ghana Compact “is not aimed specifi-
Kufuor was elected as chairman of the cally at obtaining the MDGs.” But he
African Union. says that is because the Compact is
based on Ghana’s own Poverty Reduc-
So it was not surprising when the Mil- tion Strategy, which focuses on agricul-
lennium Challenge Corporation (MCC), tural modernization and transport. “We
the U.S. government entity that runs feel very strongly about country owner-
the MCA, awarded Ghana its largest ship; it is up to the country to determine
grant to date. The five-year, $547 mil- its own priorities.”
lion MCA Ghana Compact was signed
in August 2006 at a ceremony held at Sylvain Browa, Senior Manager for
the State Department and attended by Partnership and Development Impact
President Kufuor and Secretary Rice, at InterAction, says “putting the re-
who chairs the MCC Board of Direc- cipient country in the driver’s seat is
tors. The first funds were disbursed to a positive development because the
Ghana this past March. people receiving the aid are the ones
who know what they need.” But what
The MCA is committed to “poverty re- about achieving the MDGs that Presi-
duction through economic growth,” a dent Bush said he supported at the
different focus than most international UN’s 2002 International Development
development aid. The Ghana Compact Conference in Monterrey, Mexico?
prioritizes economic growth by provid-
ing the bulk of the funds for moderniz- Darius Mans insists that Ghana is on
ing the country’s agriculture and trans- course to achieve the first MDG, which
portation system. The funds will be used calls for reducing extreme poverty by
to help small farmers in 23 targeted dis- half by 2015. And he says that the social

JULY 2007 21
Darius Mans says Ghana is right on track with its poverty reduction program, and that it is doing so well that poverty
will be halved before the 2015 deadline set by the Millennium Development Declaration. Let’s hope he is right.

A small girl taking it easy in the shade of her house. Photo: courtesy of Nicky Lewin.
services, including education, that the $547 million grant for Development Cooperation Bert Koenders noted that Dutch
provides will help Ghana achieve the second MDG (achieving support has helped cut the rate of HIV/AIDS infection in Gha-
universal primary education by 2015). “Social services are on na (the focus of the sixth MDG) and contributed to Ghana’s
a fast-track, 35 schools will be rehabilitated even before the Home Grown School Feeding Program to improve children’s
end of this calendar year.” health and school attendance, another “important Millennium
Development Goal.”
The United States is not the only country with its eye on Gha-
na. Canada, the Netherlands and the United Kingdom are The Canadian International Development Agency (CIDA) has
among the major bilateral donors, along with the World Bank contributed over $1 billion (about $946 million in current USD)
and other multilateral donors. But unlike the U.S., these other in development aid to Ghana since it became independent
donors connect their support explicitly to the MDGs. The UK in 1957, including $55.8 million (around $52 million USD) in
Department for International Development (DFID), for ex- 2005-2006. CIDA focuses on “sectors that directly support the
ample, says its aim is “the elimination of poverty, in particu- Millennium Development Goals” including gender equality, a
lar through the achievement of the MDGs by 2015.” In 2006, “critical area of Canadian focus.” One CIDA funded project,
DFID provided over £78 million (approximately $157 million) for instance, has set up gender desk offices in Northern Ghana
in bilateral aid to Ghana, and proudly states that it supported to involve more women in decision making around water and
delivering over two million insecticide-treated bed nets to sanitation issues.
Ghanaian children to reduce child mortality, the aim of the
fourth MDG. Darius Mans was in Ghana last March to celebrate the coun-
try’s fiftieth anniversary of independence from Britain. He met
The Netherlands considers Ghana a priority country in Africa; with representatives from DFID, the World Bank and other ma-
Dutch investors see it as a gateway to West Africa. It plays a jor donors, all of whom are as optimistic as he is about Ghana’s
key role in the New Economic Partnership for Africa (NEPAD) progress. Mans says Ghana is right on track with its poverty
and contributes to UN peace operations in West Africa and reduction program, and that it is doing so well that poverty
elsewhere. The Netherlands provides around 60 million eu- will be halved before the 2015 deadline set by the Millennium
ros a year ($80 million) to Ghana. This past March, Minister Development Declaration. Let’s hope he is right.

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JULY 2007 23
Markets for Development
By Dennis Whittle, Founder and CEO, GlobalGiving

f the ten largest companies
operating in the United States
in 1990, only two remained
among the top ten a decade
later. Why? Fierce competition, not only
among existing companies, but from new
entrants as well. With some exceptions,
a well-functioning marketplace rewards
companies that provide the best products
and services – and punishes those who fail
to deliver. Those who fall in the rankings
must either improve their performance
or languish; thousands of companies go
out of business each year.

By this measure, how does the market
for non-profits and international devel-
opment fare? Of the top ten non-profit
organizations in 1990, eight maintained
or increased their market share. And of
the top ten official aid agencies in 1990, Photo: courtesy of GlobalGiving/PlanetRead
how many do you think remained on the
list in 2000?
pertise and funding increased dramatical- Funding flows to the developing world
When the World Bank was established ly. Indeed, there are now about 187,000 have increased steadily. Official aid from
after World War II, so little expertise and returned Peace Corps volunteers, not the U.S. now totals about $28 billion per
money was dedicated to international de- to mention tens of thousands of NGO year, remittances are nearly $61 billion
velopment that it made sense to concen- staff and people who have worked for annually, private capital flows are more
trate most efforts in a single institution. USAID, the United Nations, and other than $69 billion, and some estimate that
But as the decades passed, relevant ex- bilateral agencies. private giving is as high as $34 billion per
year. There are even new official agen-
cies, including the President’s Emergen-
cy Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR) and
the Millennium Challenge Corporation.

But things are changing. China has re-
cently emerged as a major donor to de-
veloping countries, especially in Africa,
where it has committed approximately
$5 billion in new aid over the next three
years. Since aid from China generally
contains few strings or conditions, tradi-
tional aid agencies are facing direct com-
petition for the first time. Western agen-
cies are exploring ways to get China to
agree to aid standards, and in parallel, are
looking at how they can provide better
service to recipient countries – a direct
outcome of competition.

So, while the idea that expertise and
funding should be housed in one place is
long gone, a curious thing has happened
over the years. As new agencies and or-
Photo: courtesy of GlobalGiving/Kashmir Earthquake Relief
ganizations have emerged, a deleteri-

ous (if well-intentioned) conspiracy has
materialized: that these agencies should
cooperate rather than compete. For the GlobalGiving: A “Bottom-Up” Approach
past decade, “partnership” has been the
rallying call. “If only we partnered better, GlobalGiving is fostering a “bottom-up”
we would make more progress.” How- approach to development, enabling people
ever, in practice, partnership has meant,
to discover and support hundreds of worthy
“You do that, and I will do this, and we
causes and high-impact, grassroots projects
will agree not to compete with or criti-
cize each other.” The result is a lack of throughout the developing world and close
competition – an oligarchic cartel. to home. Founded by two former World Bank
executives frustrated by the limitations of
As private sector examples have demon- “top-down” development, GlobalGiving is the
strated, competition fuels not only effi- first online marketplace that allows community-
ciency, but also social and technological based groups to post projects and gives donors total choice and control in
innovation. If Microsoft tried to “partner giving. Borrowing from the concept of the wisdom of crowds, GlobalGiving is
with” (i.e. collude with) Google, anti-
built on the premise that large groups of people are smarter and make better
trust regulators would immediately step
decisions than an elite few – no matter how brilliant – and that people are
in. So why do regulators not intervene
when the World Bank, UN and large eager for a new, more efficient, effective way to give to development projects
NGOs agree to partner (collude)? and make a difference.

Until about 1800, per capita income in GlobalGiving connects people with as little as $10 to give – professionals,
the world remained roughly flat. Begin- students, Girl Scout troops, college fraternities, Fortune 500 corporations,
ning in 1800, innovation began to drive retirees – to a panoply of great ideas they might not otherwise find:
rapid per capita income increases in the motorcycles for public health nurses in Zimbabwe, literacy programs for girls
industrial world, in marked contrast to
in rural Morocco, business training for women in Guatemala, help for blind
poor countries. But the international
children in Mongolia. All projects go through a rigorous due diligence review,
aid industry has not catalyzed the same
increase in productivity – while interna- donors choose the projects they wish to support, donations are disbursed
tional development spending over the to projects within 60 days, and project leaders post regular updates letting
past 50 years is estimated at $2 trillion, donors know how their contributions have been put to work.
there has been little to show for it.
Since its founding in 2002, GlobalGiving has directed over $5 million in
The good news is that the groundwork funding to more than 900 projects in 89 countries. Currently, over 400
is in place to have a real market-based projects representing over 70 countries are posted on the GlobalGiving
model for development. There are plenty
of actors and money; and the rise of the
Internet creates the information flows -Joan Ochi, GlobalGiving
needed to operate. GlobalGiving, an
online marketplace for international giv-
ing that I founded along with another
World Bank colleague, is based on the reached approximately $6.87 billion in advocates of the traditional approach,
idea that anyone, anywhere can connect 2006, a 51 percent increase over 2005 good intentioned but incapable of imple-
to and support good development ideas estimates (the U.S represents slightly menting “Big Plans” at the local level,
generated from any source, including the more than 50 percent of total online giv- and “Searchers,” agents for alternative
community itself. This illustrates how ing worldwide). All indications are that approaches to change that characterize
the Internet is making new approaches the trend toward online giving will con- many of the entrepreneurial project lead-
a reality. Indeed, large institutions them- tinue. ers on GlobalGiving.
selves are beginning to recognize the
potential for bottom-up solutions: from The real challenge is directing resources Many institutions and organizations will
the Omidyar Network to the Develop- to the approaches with the highest im- find it hard to adapt for fear it will gut
ment Marketplace at the World Bank to pact – letting the institutional chips fall their core way of doing things. But as
venerable institutions such as the Rock- where they may. This does not necessar- author Clayton Christensen argues in
efeller Foundation, which is piloting ini- ily require new institutions; it is more of Innovator’s Dilemma, the introduction
tiatives to seek and support solutions at a mindset. In The White Man’s Burden, of “disruptive technologies” – in this
the grassroots. William Easterly, an New York Univer- case new, more efficient ways of making
sity economics professor and former development happen – will continue to
According to the ePhilanthropy Founda- World Bank economist, describes the redefine the marketplace and drive inno-
tion, estimated online giving in the U.S. continuing debate between “Planners,” vation.

JULY 2007 25
USAID and the Strategic Use of Development Assistance
By Megan Sobel, Graduate Student, Security Studies Program, Georgetown University

ost of the work of the U.S. sanctuary by increasing U.S. foreign as- Department, the Department of Defense
Agency for International sistance to remote areas (which provides and other offices at USAID, conducted
Development (USAID) is tangible evidence of the good will of the a joint assessment of extremism and ter-
currently in countries that United States) and by boosting the abil- rorism in a number of countries in the
face a heightened risk of conflict and in- ity of governments to provide services Sahel in 2005 and a follow-on assessment
stability. Continued engagement in such to their citizens in otherwise isolated or in Mauritania in late 2006. These assess-
difficult regions has obliged USAID to unreached areas. USAID continues to ments found that development assistance
reconsider “development as usual” in be the humanitarian assistance arm of can and should play a role in helping
exchange for more targeted assistance. the U.S. government, but it is also being to stabilize these countries by identify-
Manifestations of conflict in the form of used to proactively mitigate conflict and ing and engaging high-risk populations
extremism, insurgency and terrorism are promote a more peaceful world. and high-risk regions. This large-scale
increasingly tied to issues of U.S. nation- joint activity has provided the basis for
al security, and USAID is aptly poised to USAID is adapting its assistance mod- targeted USAID programming in Chad,
use development assistance as a positive els in order to work in conflict-affected Mali and Niger. This programming in-
“soft” tool to address the underlying or conflict-prone regions and to achieve cludes youth development, former com-
causes of conflict in fragile states. The re- both stabilization and development ob- batant reintegration, education, media
cent work of USAID’s Office of Conflict jectives. Using development assistance programs, peace-building, conflict man-
Management and Mitigation (CMM) in to reduce the causes of conflict usually is agement and infrastructure projects. For
the Trans-Sahara region of Africa, the not as simple as promoting more demo- example, in Niger, the USAID-funded
Middle East and Asia speaks to the grow- cratic reforms or reducing poverty. For Maradi Youth Development program
ing trend to use development assistance example, as poverty alone does not suf- aims to foster civil society values among
more strategically to address the root ficiently explain the emergence of terror- urban youth and involves Islamic schol-
causes of conflict. Developing culturally ism, simple economic development will ars in developing a peace and recon-
acceptable and locally endorsed programs not reduce the potential for violence and ciliation course to be taught in targeted
and non-violent alternatives is one of the extremism. Economic growth or unequal schools. Reaching out to youth, a group
major challenges. distribution of benefits that exacerbate particularly at-risk for extremist activity,
pre-existing divisions and economic gains and working with influential leaders are
The events of September 11, 2001 dem- that are thwarted by corruption may ac- both integral components of targeted de-
onstrated that a failed state thousands of tually fuel conflict and instability. The velopment assistance.
miles from the United States can drasti- reality is that underlying conditions that
cally affect U.S. security. Today, USAID extremists and insurgents seek to exploit CMM is also working closely with the
is engaged in many challenging environ- are present in many countries, but the USAID Mission in Yemen to promote
ments, representing both the reality of actual incidence of conflict is more lim- development that aims to stabilize con-
where development is needed most and ited. These factors necessitate a strategic flict-affected areas of the country. One
the U.S. government’s interest in help- and targeted approach by USAID. CMM CMM-funded program is designed to
ing to stabilize potentially volatile situ- provides the agency with guidance on extend the reach of the Government of
ations. The 2002 U.S. National Secu- the intersection of conflict and develop- Yemen into the northern tribal areas in
rity Strategy highlighted development ment and is at the forefront of USAID’s order to provide better services to a cur-
alongside diplomacy and defense. The strategic implementation of development rently underserved and isolated popula-
2003 National Strategy for Combating programs worldwide. tion. This program also aims to support
Terrorism then identified 4 “Ds”: de- peacebuilding and reconciliation be-
feat terrorist networks, deny groups ac- USAID is currently engaged in the tween tribal leaders who have long been
cess to support and sanctuary, diminish Trans-Sahara region of Africa through embroiled in conflict, as well as to build
the underlying conditions that terrorists the Trans-Sahara Counterterrorism Part- stronger ties between tribal leaders and
seek to exploit and defend the homeland. nership (TSCTP). USAID has been very the central government. CCM also funds
USAID has been given responsibility for clear that while the TSCTP is largely a peace-building program in the north-
the third “D” of diminishing underly- driven by counterterrorism objectives, western Sadaa region of Yemen, where
ing conditions. However, USAID also “soft” power plays an equally important Shiite groups are involved in an insur-
helps deny groups access to support and role. CMM, in partnership with the State gency against the central government.

Want to know what the American public thinks about development assistance?
Check out key findings and critical advice from recent polls and surveys of the American public on hunger, poverty and
development assistance at InterAction’s latest Monday Developments’ online resource page. Visit

This program promotes community em-
powerment and provides local infrastruc-
ture. While these two programs differ in
their approaches, both are designed to
mitigate and manage conflicts within the
country and curb extremism.

USAID is also actively involved in devel-
opment programming that targets con-
flict in Mindanao, the southern region of
the Philippines where separatist conflicts
have raged for decades. USAID has been
engaged in projects to support conflict-
affected populations and to reduce con-
flict in Mindanao since the early 1990s.
After the 1996 peace agreement between
the Government of the Philippines
(GRP) and the Moro National Libera-
tion Front (MNLF), USAID broadened
its programming to support the reinte-
gration of over 25,000 former MNLF
combatants, recognizing the importance
of successful reintegration to long-term Photo: courtesy of Karl Grobl.
stability in the country. Over time, the
violence in Mindanao has spread to en- Some may cringe at the more strategic ment rhetoric refers to strengthening de-
compass a complex array of criminal, in- use of foreign aid, but this concept is not mocracy and good governance, the U.S.
surgent and terrorist elements. USAID new. USAID’s longstanding work in the government needs to be realistic about
has assisted the GRP in addressing the Philippines shows how development as- its ability to transform societies into ones
underlying conditions, such as poverty sistance has a history of being used to that meet our expectations versus what
and underdevelopment, that have al- prevent, manage or mitigate conflict. is acceptable in the region or country in
lowed terrorists to exploit local residents The difference is that today, when two- question. USAID must continue to fa-
and allowed violence to thrive in places thirds of the places where USAID does cilitate non-violent outcomes rather than
like Mindanao. To counter this threat, work are fragile states, the strategic use export rigid guidelines. Reaching out to
USAID currently supports a wide array of development is becoming the norm. local actors with the capacity and willing-
of programs that seek to address local The recent trend has been to put conflict ness to bring about change will help en-
grievances and to foster positive relation- prevention and mitigation at the center sure that programs are locally-endorsed
ships between the GRP and its citizens of the development agenda and to explic- and culturally acceptable, which, in turn,
by addressing issues such as economic itly acknowledge that USAID can target makes those programs most likely to
disparities, perceived historical neglect its programming to espouse counterter- curb conflict and extremism. Strategic
and discrimination. Programs include rorism objectives and to further national development necessitates more than a
providing young professionals from con- security. “quick fix” approach, though pressure
flict-affected areas with internships with often exists to elicit results within a short
USAID is heavily engaged in targeted time frame. For strategic development to
the national government, increasing ac-
development, but the agency is moving be most successful, USAID will need to
cess to justice for marginalized groups,
forward with caution, recognizing that embrace a fluid approach and rely on les-
expanding public services delivery, pro-
there are risks and challenges to this type sons learned in the process.
viding better education resources and
of approach. CMM consciously labels
helping local governments to be more
itself as a “learning organization.” The
transparent and accountable. CMM pro- The author is also an intern in the USAID
goal is to provide alternatives so that Office of Conflict Management and Mitigation.
vides the USAID local staff with techni-
people are empowered and do not em- However, the information and views presented
cal assistance on its conflict-focused pro- in this article are solely those of the author and
brace extremism or violence. One chal-
gramming. For example, in 2005, CMM do not necessarily represent the views or the
lenge is to accept that what may work in positions of USAID or the U.S. government.
led a conflict vulnerability assessment to
the Western world may not work in other
help identify and address key sources of
contexts. Though much of the develop-
conflict and tension in Mindanao.

Want to stay informed on foreign assistance?
Get the latest news from Participate in the Center for Global Development’s blog at www.cgdev.
org Stay up-to-date on the latest research at

JULY 2007 27
Because of this generous leadership gift from the Laura Ellen and
Robert Muglia Family Foundation and additional contributions,
Habitat for Humanity Launches Online Advocacy Tool ERD has set a goal to raise another $1 million from individuals,
parishes, dioceses, and other institutions in the western part of
Habitat for Humanity International has launched an online the United States by the end of 2007.
advocacy tool to allow supporters to voice their opinions to U.S.
policymakers on issues related to affordable housing. IRD Announces New Director of Food Security and New
According to the United Nations, nearly 1.6 billion people Cambodia Country Director
worldwide live in substandard housing. In the United Sates
International Relief and Development (IRD) announced today
alone, 95 million people, nearly one-third of the nation, have
that Thoric Cederström has joined its global headquarters staff as
housing problems including paying a large percentage of their
Director of Food Security, bringing total staff for the Arlington-
income on housing, overcrowding, poor-quality shelter and
based NGO to 70 people.
homelessness, according to the National Low Income Housing
Coalition. The online initiative is part of Habitat for Humanity’s As Director of Food Security, Cederström is responsible for
growing focus on raising awareness of poverty housing issues overseeing successful programs including Better Foods for Better
in the United States and worldwide. Habitat’s overall advocacy Lives, which is in its seventh year of facilitating local production
focus is on raising awareness and developing attitudes that create of soy-enriched fortified rice and wheat noodles in two countries.
additional affordable-housing opportunities by encouraging and The program distributes food products to school children and
facilitating action to change the systems that lead to poverty provides income to adults who work at the facilities. Cederström
housing. will also be working to expand and develop programs in Africa,
with a focus on Chad, Kenya, Niger and Sudan.
The online advocacy pages allow visitors to learn about
congressional bills related to affordable housing, identify their “I am ready to roll up my sleeves and start working with some of
elected officials and send messages encouraging those officials to the finest professionals in food security,” said Cederström.
vote in favor of policies that support affordable housing. Those Cederström joins IRD from Counterpart International, where
who register on the site will receive e-mail alerts when housing- he was Vice President of the Food Security and Sustainable
related legislation comes up for a vote in the U.S. Congress. Agriculture Division and the Global Health and Nutrition
The online advocacy tool is accessible by visiting www.habitat. Programs. He has a doctorate in development anthropology and
org and selecting “Be An Advocate” under the heading of “Get agricultural/natural resources economics from the University of
Involved.” The site can be accessed directly at: http://www. Arizona in Tucson and is an adjunct professor at University of Maryland – College Park in the Department of Anthropology.

ERD Receives Leadership Gift to Support Women’s Mrs. Laura Bush Visits Zambian WORTH Program
Empowerment Programs Rural women participating in WORTH, a women’s empowerment
Episcopal Relief and Development (ERD) has received a program, hosted Mrs. Laura Bush at a gathering of their village
leadership gift to support its programs working with women bank members on June 28, 2007. The women were eager to
globally to fight disease, hunger and poverty. The gift was given show Mrs. Bush not only how they manage the operations of
by the Laura Ellen and Robert Muglia Family Foundation. their bank, but how funds are invested in micro-enterprises that
they also manage themselves. As the owners and members, they
Close to 80 percent of ERD’s program beneficiaries are women. save together, make loans to one another, manage the accounting
ERD’s integrated community development programs give and distribute the interest on their loans back to group members,
women access to resources and tools that promote self-reliance while also learning basic literacy and entrepreneurial business
and support families and communities worldwide. With Anglican skills. The WORTH women told Mrs. Bush about their pride
and ecumenical partners, ERD works with local communities to as successful bankers and business women and the difference the
protect women and their children from preventable diseases such additional income from their banking and small businesses makes
as HIV/AIDS and malaria, provide opportunities for women to to their families.
earn an income through small business development programs
and teach women improved farming techniques. Visiting both the Tufune WORTH group and a local market
where many of the group members are engaged in small business
The Women’s Development Fund, which empowers women ventures, Mrs. Bush observed the ingenuity and success of these
through ERD’s ongoing programs that focus on primary health “micro-enterprise projects, where women are able to take care
and food security, was launched on June 21, at The Edgewater of themselves, support themselves – many of them are widows –
in Seattle, Washington through the generosity of Laura Ellen because of loans that they make to each other” as she noted during
and Bob Muglia. an exchange with Zambian First Lady Maureen Mwanawasa.
“I am delighted that ERD’s Women’s Development Fund has In Zambia the WORTH program targets HIV-affected
been launched with an extraordinarily generous gift of $1 million communities and specifically works with caretakers of orphans,
from the Laura Ellen and Robert Muglia Family Foundation,” people living with HIV/AIDS and other vulnerable populations.
stated Robert W. Radtke, ERD’s President. “The Women’s Mrs. Bush mentioned the benefits of integrating HIV
Development Fund will support women’s empowerment prevention with WORTH’s multifaceted approach for women by
strategies in all of ERD’s programs: from eradicating malaria, to “empowering them to provide for themselves and their families,”
fighting hunger to ensuring safe drinking water and basic health which is of particular importance in HIV-affected communities.
“We are thrilled that Mrs. Bush was able to see a WORTH

Email if you would like Alexander, Bediako Join the
to submit an announcement for this section.
InterAction Staff
InterAction is pleased to welcome the following two
group on her brief visit to Zambia. Village banking has become new members of its membership and standards team:
an important strategy in combating HIV/AIDS, which rapidly
drains the resources that families have when illness strikes” said Taina Alexander joins InterAction as program manager
Marcia Odell, long-time Director of WORTH, who accompanied for the membership and standards team, with
Mrs. Bush on her visit to the Tufune WORTH group. supervisory responsibility for membership relations,
The WORTH program, which incorporates literacy, business PVO Standards and special projects.
and banking is being implemented in six countries in Africa and
one country in Asia. Since WORTH began, nearly 100,000 Taina, originally from Finland, recently returned to the
women have started their own village banks. These are fully United States after living and working 20 years in
self-sustaining, and now WORTH women, on their own, are developing countries in South and Central America,
teaching other women how to save together and to launch and East Africa, Middle East and Central Asia with
manage their own WORTH banks. The WORTH program is
funded under a PEPFAR grant administered by Project Concern her triplets and her husband who works for CARE
International with technical assistance from Pact. International.
Her last assignment was in Egypt as a Program
Letter to the Editor Manager for the Community Services Association. Prior
June 29, 2007 to that, among other things, she worked in a private
I am writing regarding an anti-corruption article in the microfinance foundation in Uganda, in a FINNIDA-
June 2007 issue of Monday Developments. As you know, funded forestry project in Guatemala, in the Finnish and
that issue explored the role of NGOs in major development Norwegian Embassies in Nicaragua and at the United
Nations headquarters in New York.
I would like to express my concern regarding the article
entitled: “Civil Society’s Role in Anti-Corruption: An Having witnessed the meaningful changes in
Iraq Case Study.” The article written by Craig Davis, poor peoples’ lives that can be made through the
Director, Civil Society Division, International Research international development and humanitarian work of
and Exchanges Board (IREX) describes the anti-corruption effective NGOs, she is committed to serving the needs
program activities of a USAID-funded Iraq Civil Society
Program (ICSP) implemented by America’s Development of InterAction member organizations and supporting
Foundation (ADF) but does not identify ADF as the U.S. their accountability and impact assessment efforts.
NGO providing such assistance in Iraq. From the credits
Andrea Bediako joins InterAction’s membership and
in the article, a reader would think that the anti-corruption
program in Iraq was implemented by IREX, not ADF. standards team as a senior program associate after
Craig Davis did work from April 2005 until August 2005 volunteering with Promotion et Développement Humain,
as ADF’s Anti-Corruption Director in Iraq before later a small humanitarian organization in Togo, West Africa.
leaving ADF to join IREX. However, IREX has had no
As a volunteer, she worked with local staff to support
involvement in our ICSP anti-corruption program activities
in Iraq. and monitor the health of people living with HIV/AIDS
and other life threatening diseases, assist street
ADF is very proud of its successful work from September
2004 – June 2007 assisting almost 2000 Iraqi civil soci- children and address other social service cases.
ety organizations. Our civil society development activities
Prior to volunteering, Andrea worked as a project
included building civil society resource centers for NGO
capacity building and providing training, technical assis- manager at Democracy Data and Communications
tance and grants to NGOs focused on working in anti-cor- where she provided financial management for a variety
ruption, as the article states, as well as women’s advocacy, of political action committees. She holds a degree
human rights and civic education. We would be pleased to in sociology from the University of Michigan and a
share some highlights on this program with Monday Devel-
master’s in public administration from Michigan State
opments in a future issue.
University. Andrea also serves as an honorary member
Michael Miller of Assistance d’Urgence aux Enfants Vulnérables, a
President nonprofit organization for street children based in Togo,
America’s Development Foundation
for which she helps identify grants and partnership
Note from the Editor: Look for an article on ADF’s work in opportunities.
Iraq in the August issue!

JULY 2007 29
Interested in placing a job announcements or advertisement? Email

and be eligible to legally work in the US. Ap- professional degree) or equivalent experience

ply at, Job # 1096. (7+ in international relief and development
field). Strong knowledge of SPHERE stan-
Senior Program Officer, Eurasia > dards required.. Previous field leadership
Washington, DC and program design experience required.

ANNOUNCEMENTS World Vision Washington DC is looking for
a Senior Program Officer (Technical Special-
ist) with 7+ yrs experience in international
Send resumes to:
World Vision, founded in 1950, is the largest
non-profit Christian humanitarian organi-
development to join our Eurasia public fund- zation serving the world’s poorest children
Communication Manager, Global Forest & ing team. Advanced degree: e.g. MA, MPH, and families in nearly 100 countries. We are
Trade Network (GFTN) > Washington, DC MBA required. Proven experience in grant dedicated to helping children and their com-
World Wildlife Fund (WWF), the global con- management, program design, implementa- munities worldwide reach their full potential
servation organization, seeks a Communica- tion and M&E, USAID rules and regulations by tackling the causes of poverty. Our work
tion Manager to liaise closely with other staff required. Excellent writing skills, effective extends assistance to all people, regardless of
in the GFTN and offices within the network on cross-cultural communication and relation- their religious beliefs, gender, race, or ethnic-
implementing GFTN’s marketing and com- ship building with local staff and major do- ity.
munications strategies; developing the annual nors critical. Up to 30% travel to the region
workplan, leading the marketing and commu- to support program development opportuni- Director, New Business Services Unit >
nications activities, tracking it’s annual prog- ties and assist with management issues. Must Arlington, VA
ress. This includes external communications be in agreement with World Vision’s State- Winrock International is seeking a seasoned
strategy critical to advancing Forest Program ment of Faith (see for professional with a minimum of ten years ex-
targets. Position requires a Bachelor’s de- more details) and be eligible to legally work perience in new business development for an
gree or equivalent experience in marketing in the US. Apply at, international development organization with
or communications required. At least three Job # 1098. a proven successful track record of awards
years relevant experience and proven ability with various donors. The ideal candidate will
to produce copy for external communications Program Officer, Latin America > have a MBA or master’s degree in relevant
on demand and under tight deadlines. Thor- Washington, DC field. Extensive experience with USAID so-
ough understanding of marketing strategy, World Vision Washington DC is looking for licitations is required. Qualified applicants
desktop publishing software, online market- a Program Officer (Technical Specialist) with may email resume and cover letter to jobs@
ing and communication tools, excellent oral, 5+ yrs experience in international develop- with HRM/NBS as the subject.
written communication skills are essential. ment to join our Latin America team. Ad- Application deadline is July 9, 2007. EEOE/
Ability to understand programmatic work, vanced degree: MA, MPH, MBA preferred. AA.
build, implement marketing and communica- Proven experience in grant management, pro-
tions strategies hat will promote program ini- gram design, implementation and monitoring Director of Communications >
tiatives. Spanish or French fluency desired. and evaluation (M &E) strongly preferred. Washington, DC
For information about the GFTN, please visit Full fluency in Spanish required. Excellent The National Cooperative Business Asso- AA/EOE Women writing skills, effective cross-cultural com- ciation promotes and enhances all aspects
and minorities are encouraged to apply. To munication and relationship building with of cooperative businesses domestically and
apply, please visit http://www.worldwildlife. local staff and major donors critical. Up to internationally. Our membership includes
org/about/jobs.cfm Job #27167. 30% travel to the region to support program organizations in all sectors including: Agri-
development opportunities and assist with culture, Housing, Utilities, Credit Unions,
Senior Program Officer, HIV/AIDS Global management issues. Must be in agreement Food, Worker, Healthcare, Childcare and
Portfolio > Washington, DC with World Vision’s Statement of Faith (see Purchasing. Yet there is still a great opportu-
World Vision Washington DC is looking for a for more details) and nity for enormous growth. Director of Com-
Senior Program Officer (Technical Specialist) be eligible to legally work in the US. Apply munications is responsible for enhancing the
with 7+ yrs experience in international devel- at, Job # 1363. positive image of NCBA and its related or-
opment to join our HIV/AIDS public fund- ganizations: CLUSA - our international pro-
ing team. Advanced degree: e.g. MA, MPH,
Senior Technical/Program Specialist, OFDA
Expert > Washington, DC gram with projects in 13 developing nations.
MBA required. Proven experience in grant CDF - our 501(c) (3) sister organization and
Will bring and maintain expertise in OFDA
management, program design, implementa- dotCooperation - our subsidiary that owns
programming, guidelines and regulations,
tion and M&E, USAID rules and regulations the .Coop domain name. Responsible for all
maintain OFDA grant proposal and tracking
required. Excellent writing skills, effective communications including (but not limited
system, represent World Vision’s US office
cross-cultural communication and relation- to) Cooperative Business Journal (6 times per
to OFDA and participate in regular OFDA
ship building with local staff and major do- year), Co-op eNews - electronic newsletter
meetings and forums. Will also advise World
nors critical. Previous field experience w (11 times per year), and CF & TC Updates (4
Vision staff on OFDA grant acquisition, men-
HIV/AIDS programming required. Fluency times per year). Resume, cover letter and sal-
tor, and build capacity to improve World
in French, Spanish or Portuguese a big+. Up ary history to: NCBA -Attn: HR, 1401 New
Vision’s OFDA programming. Must be able
to 30% travel to the region to support pro- York Ave, NW, Ste 1100, Washington, DC,
to travel internationally, often on short notice,
gram development opportunities and assist 20005. Full ad on our web
up to 33%. Previous experience coordinat-
with management issues. Must be in agree- site:
ing CHE response a huge plus. Advanced de-
ment with World Vision’s Statement of Faith
gree (e.g., Masters degree, Doctorate, or other
(see for more details)

Interested in placing a job announcements or advertisement? Email

Council and Web Associate > Los Angeles, have Masters degree(s), 4+ years’ profes-
CA sional experience, excellent communications
Reporting to the Director of the Human Rights skills, fluency in English and proficiency in
Watch Council in HRW’s Los Angeles office, Mandarin, demonstrated experience overseas
the Council and Web Associate will provide and with CBO’s. Permanent authorization to
administrative and clerical assistance, includ- work fulltime in US required. For complete
ing maintaining the website for the Develop- job description and application procedures go
ment and Outreach department and provid- to
ing administrative support with regard to the
HRW Council. The associate will be based Program Assistant > Washington, DC
in either our New York headquarters or Los Position available with the Riecken Founda-
Angeles office. Please see full description tion in its Washington, DC office. Duties:
and application guidelines on our website at maintain project files and databases; coor- dinate information flow with field offices;
schedule meetings; prepare presentations and
Associate Director, Advocacy Training > project documentation; facilitate financial
Washington, DC transactions; support program directors; co-
Habitat for Humanity, an international non- ordinate logistics; conduct research; coordi-
profit Christian ministry dedicated to elimi- nate communication inside and outside Foun-
nating substandard housing and homelessness dation. Qualifications: Bachelor’s degree and
worldwide, is seeking an Associate Director two years experience in administrative sup-
to be based in the Washington D.C. area. This port; spanish fluency; strong organizational
person will direct advocacy training initia- and administrative skills; attention to detail.
tives for Habitat for Humanity International’s Some travel to Central America. Great first
staff, volunteers, partners and other support- job in international development field! For
ers as needed. The successful candidate will more information visit
possess at least 6 years of training experience. Email cover letter and resume to jobsdc@
Advocacy experience required. A BA/BS is
strongly preferred. For complete details and
to express interest in this position please visit Technical Advisor, Health Communication
our website, HFH is an > New York, NY
equal opportunity employer. The Technical Advisor, Health Communi-
cation at ORBIS develops, articulates, and
Senior Technical Advisor, Health Programs implements the philosophy and methodol-
> East Africa ogy of ORBIS’s strategies for Information,
The Senior Technical Advisor (STA) for Education, and Communication and Behav-
Health Programs provides technical assis- ior Change Communication (IEC/BCC).
tance, technical and strategic oversight and QUALIFICATIONS: MA in public health or
staff development opportunities for IRC’s international development; 3 5 years experi-
health teams. The STA is also responsible ence in health communication design and de-
for promoting the quality, sustainability and velopment in international health programs,
cost-effectiveness of a wide gamut of health including liaising with other NGOs, PVOs,
services. We are looking for a candidate with government health officials, medical estab-
a min. 7 years progressive PH related work lishments, and university officials. Demon-
experience, with min. 5 years mid to senior strated expertise in social marketing, health
level program management and some super- communication, and outcome evaluation. For
visory experience (at least three in an inter- more information about ORBIS and this em-
national development setting). To apply sub- ployment opportunity, please visit our web-
mit resume and salary requirements online at site: To apply, email resume and cover letter to

Program Officer, East and Southeast Asia > Director of Food Security > Washington, DC
Washington, DC Food for the Hungry works in more than 45
The Global Fund for Children (GFC) seeks developing countries. We provide disaster and
Program Officer to manage portfolio of ap- emergency relief, and implement sustainable
proximately $350K and 24 grantee partners, development programs to transform commu-
including tsunami partners, field contacts, nities physically and spiritually. The Direc-
evaluators and other key partner organizations tor of Food Security is located within Food
in East and Southeast Asia. PO will evalu- for the Hungry’s Government Resources and
ate, develop and implement program strat- Programs (GRP) Department in Washington,
egy, operations and budget. Candidates must DC. The person who fills the position will

continued on page 36

JULY 2007 31
Interested in placing a job announcements or advertisement? Email

Public Relations Manager
Washington, DC

InterAction, the largest alliance of U.S. based international relief and humanitarian nongovernmental
organizations (NGOs), is seeking candidates for the position of Public Relations Manager. Reporting to the
Director of Public Relations, this position will help oversee day-to-day media and PR activities, as well as be
instrumental in the creation and execution of all communication initiatives. This person will interact with senior
management to drive awareness of global poverty alleviation, and shape the reputation of InterAction and its
members. Salary commensurate with experience.

Application Deadline: July 18, 2007.

Assist in implementing strategic plans and programs for InterAction communication initiatives to support
organization’s vision, strategy and goals
Contribute to an integrated communication function that successfully positions InterAction with internal and
external stakeholders
Partner with InterAction’s leadership team and members to manage strategic communications, public policy
outreach, media relations and crisis/issues management
Support the Director of Public Relations in the coordination of functions within our Public Policy and Outreach
team to enhance the reputation of InterAction
Provide rapid response media support to InterAction member organizations
Field media requests-sometimes on very tight deadlines-maintaining contact databases, organizing resources
and assisting reporters
Plan, write, edit and proof written materials including releases, alerts, e-mails and letters to media
Provide content and copy editing for InterAction’s flagship publication, Monday Developments
Supervise Communication interns to monitor assigned media outlets on a daily basis and track news on
international relief and development issues

Required: Strong verbal and written communication skills required, including copy editing
Required: Demonstrated success in public relations, the media or communications
Required: Minimum of 5-8 years experience in a similar media/public relations capacity
Required: Bachelor’s degree or higher
Demonstrated project management skills and ability to work under pressure
Excellent relationship-building skills required
Must demonstrate strong organizational skills and the ability to manage multiple tasks to meet deadlines
Demonstrated commitment to team work
Knowledge of international relief and development issues preferred
Excellent knowledge of word processing, database and spreadsheet programs
Knowledge of media research vehicles (e.g. Lexis Nexis and Bacons)

Physical Requirements:
There are no extraordinary physical requirements for the performance of the essential functions of this position.
Reasonable accommodations may be made to enable individuals with disabilities to perform essential functions.

Please e-mail your resume and interest letter, including salary expectations to:
Nasserie Carew at

Interested in placing a job announcements or advertisement? Email

New Media Manager
Washington, DC

InterAction, the largest alliance of U.S. based international relief and humanitarian nongovernmental organizations (NGOs), is seeking
candidates for the position of New Media Manager. This position is responsible for all aspects of InterAction’s website, intranet and
all online activities. This position will report to the Director of Public Relations and supports a number of critical organizational
functions such communications, media, marketing, member relations, community outreach and advocacy. Salary commensurate with

Application Deadline: July 18, 2007.

Website Development and Management
Work with staff to populate website with new content
Manage InterAction website and Intranet
Identify new web technologies, features and functionalities to increase its appeal and ability to impact target audiences
Work with various InterAction teams to create new program pages
Provide analysis of website traffic and use this information to suggest modifications to site structure and/or content
Create e-newsletter templates for teams
Manage web contractors e.g. hosting company
Work with staff on online strategies, including website design, brand and publication marketing
Broadly promote IA website and update search engines
Member Relations
Regularly upload member press releases to InterAction’s website
Promote member activities and highlight key international events
Collaborate with member web managers
Monday Developments
Create online marketing and promotional strategy for InterAction’s flagship publication Monday Developments
Prepare resource page and teaser for latest Monday Developments issue, and update as necessary
Create and design Monday Developments homepage and job marketplace
Planning and Strategy
Work with Director of Public Relations to develop and implement online outreach strategies
Stay current with emerging communication technologies while developing and implementing techniques that enhance
InterAction’s public relations strategies
Write web content independently and with input from other staff
Promote the site using online advertising and viral marketing
Position InterAction website as a critical tool to enhance the InterAction brand and achieve InterAction’s goals
Develop and implement online outreach strategy to achieve InterAction goals and objectives

The qualified candidate will have a Bachelors degree; minimum of 5–7 years work experience in website design, implementation, and
project and database management. Knowledge of web technologies including portals, web development, collaboration tools and
knowledge of web design standards and principles, including HTML, RSS, PHP and ASP. Experience with web design tools such as
Macromedia Dreamweaver, Photoshop, Illustrator and Flash. Familiarity with emerging technologies and the ability to integrate these
new technologies to benefit InterAction’s web outreach efforts. Experience in providing user support, and comfortable working with
users with a wide range of technology sophistication. Experience in online organizing and implementing online campaigns is strongly
desired. This position requires the ability to interact and perform in a fast-paced team based environment and may occasionally
require after hours and weekend activities. The person selected will need to possess excellent written and oral communication skills;
a demonstrated ability to multi-task and work with internal teams, vendors and budgets; be well organized and detail oriented; be
able to work well both individually and as a team; and be able to prioritize job duties. This person should also be open to exploring
innovative and creative strategies, as well as willing to take a lead role in developing InterAction’s online presence.

Physical Requirements:
There are no extraordinary physical requirements for the performance of the essential functions of this position. Reasonable
accommodations may be made to enable individuals with disabilities to perform essential functions.

Please e-mail your resume and interest letter, including salary expectations to Nasserie Carew at

JULY 2007 33
Interested in placing a job announcements or advertisement? Email

Finance and Grant Operations Manager
Administrator The Asia Foundation seeks an Op-
erations Manager for its Books for
The Asia Foundation seeks a
Asia (BFA) warehouse located in San
Finance and Grant Administrator
Leandro, California. The Operations
in its Washington, D.C. office. The
Finance and Grant Administrator
Manager is accountable for supporting VP of International
management and administration of all
is accountable for managing and facets of Books for Asia; contributing to Programs -
maintaining budgets; monitoring
and processing accounting
the strategic planning of the program; Washington, DC
participating in the development of in-
documents; providing staff with kind and cash funding; and preparation Plan USA, an international child-
training and guidance in area of and monitoring of the BFA program and centered development organization
grant administration and financial operating budgets. working in 49 countries in Africa,
management; and serving as a primary Asia and Latin America, seeks a VP
liaison between San Francisco and Requirements: of International Programs to lead the
Washington office on financial related Master’s Degree in relevant field, such organization’s activities to raise and
issues. as International Development or Public utilize revenues from multiple sources,
Administration desired. Bachelor’s de- including institutional and foundation
Requirements: gree and relevant experience accepted. giving sources to fund Plan programs
College degree or equivalent work and assist with improvements to program
experience. At least three years Minimum Four years work experi- quality.
accounting or financial experience, ence in program management and
preferably with a non-profit or grant- administration. Experience in budget Key Job Objectives include providing
making organization. Grant-reporting preparation, analysis, and monitoring. strategic direction to the organization,
experience preferred. Previous Knowledge of office procedures and taking a leadership role in networking
equipment. Experience in shipping, with the relief and development
management of budgets and financial
receiving, or logistics preferable. Ex- community in the US, the US
records helpful. Experience should
perience in donor research, cultivation, government, US corporations, and all
include USAID, OMB circular and levels of Plan management worldwide,
sub-grant account maintenance along proposal and report writing desired.
leading the Program Team members in
with knowledge of GAAP. Ability to Ability to make daily operational deci-
the achievement of established goals and
take initiative and work independently sions independent of supervision, as the
is essential. Strong written, oral primary internal and external point of
and interpersonal skills. Excellent contact during Director’s absence. Ex-
Minimum Requirements include a
organizational skills. Strong analytical cellent written and verbal skills. Strong
Master’s degree in a relevant field,
and problem solving skills. Proficiency analytical, organizational development minimum of 10 years of relevant
in Word, Excel and Quick Books and problem-solving skills. Good program experience at a leadership
interpersonal and communication skills. level – in the field, regions, and/or
preferred. Experience with Cost Point
Competence in office procedures and headquarters; ability to lead by example
software and interest in international
personal computer applications (i.e., and be a strong team player in an
Asian affairs helpful.
word processing, spreadsheets, email, aggressive but collaborative growth
search engines, and databases). environment; outstanding strategic
We offer excellent benefits and salary
commensurate with experience. planning, problem solving, project
We offer excellent benefits and salary management skills, interpersonal,
Please submit your application commensurate with experience. Please networking and diplomacy skills. Must
directly by visiting our website: www. submit your application directly by be able to travel internationally for 25% and selecting visiting our website: www.asiafounda- of time.
“Employment Opportunities”. and selecting “Employment
Application deadline is Friday, July Opportunities”. Application deadline is Cover letter and resume to: hr@planusa.
20, 2007. The Asia Foundation is an Friday, July 20, 2007. The Asia Founda- org FAX 401-738-5608; mail: HR, Plan
equal opportunity employer. EOE/M/ tion is an equal opportunity employer. USA, 155 Plan Way, Warwick, RI 02886.
F/D/V. No phone calls please. EOE/M/F/D/V. No phone calls please. Visit our website:

Interested in placing a job announcements or advertisement? Email

“The mission of Medical Teams International Peace Corps
is to demonstrate the love of Christ to people affected by
disaster, conflict and poverty.” Country Directors
French and Portuguese Speakers
US-based Positions:
Community Health/Behavior Change Specialist Recruiting Country Directors. Require senior
Senior Advisor Health/Child Survival level exec. experience with extensive mgt.
Church Relations Director
Senior Development Officer skills, int’l exp, admin. expertise, cross-cul-
tural facility. Demonstrated experience men-
International Position: toring staff or volunteers. Int’l dev. experience
Community Health Program Manager - Indonesia desirable. Non French and Portuguese speak-
ers may apply. US citizens only.
Visit our website at for further EOE.
Medical Teams International, 14150 S.W. Milton Ct. Questions: 800-424-
Portland, OR 97224 8580 x2114. Please apply by: 8/15/07.

Technical Director – Malaria

The Technical Director for the Malaria Task Order under the USAID | DELIVER IQC will provide the technical leadership required to improve
access to high quality, effective malaria prevention and treatment commodities, including overseeing the field programs funded under this Task

q Provide thought leadership on key commodity and supply chain issues
q Provide assistance in the development and application of strategies and tools for periodic evaluation of the impact of project
q Determine strategies and priorities for the project’s field programs
q Ensure that technical expertise is appropriately utilized in specific country situations, and state of the art malaria knowledge is
reflected in our work
q Liaise with PMI and USAID and other organizations working in malaria

q Master’s degree in public health or related field or equivalent experience;
q Minimum of 10 years of experience, including management experience in large complex international development projects with
extensive field operations;
q Minimum of 5 years of experience in malaria programming and/or malaria commodities, preferably in Africa; previous experience
working in partnership on malaria with international organizations such as the GFATM, WHO, UNICEF, World Bank, Bill and
Melinda Gates Foundation a definite plus
q Demonstrated program management and communication skills in working with clients, partners, and other public health
q Excellent verbal communication and presentation skills in English; proficiency in French or Portuguese a plus.

Apply via email, post or fax to: Recruiter, John Snow, Inc, 1616 N Fort Myer Drive, 11th Fl, Arlington, VA 22209;; fax 703-
528-7474. EOE

JULY 2007 35
Interested in placing a job announcements or advertisement? Email

continued from page 31 preferably in international relief and devel- working experience; a demonstrated ability
be expected to provide leadership to a food opment. Strong knowledge of, and relation- to work in teams and to establish/maintain ef-
security team consisting of three or four staff ships with, key networks in the Washington, fective partnerships; and excellent verbal and
and several consultants in achieving the ob- DC area on issues related to international written communication skills in English are
jectives and activities related to the areas of relief and development. Team management required. Apply online at
food security technical backstopping, new and development experience. This position
program development and support. Addi- is based in our Washington, DC office and Internship, Executive Office > Washington,
tional support will be provided in the area of may require regular travel to capital cities DC
strategic planning and budgeting and US gov- and Mercy Corps program sites globally. InterAction’s Executive Office has an intern-
ernment advocacy. Travel may occasionally be on short notice ship available for the Summer and possibly
and require visits to unstable or difficult ar- the Fall of 2007. The intern will assist the
Senior Director > Lookout Mountain, GA eas. To read a full position description and Executive Assistant with a variety of admin-
The Chalmers Center for Economic Develop- apply go to: istrative projects related to the administra-
ment ( equips churches jobs. Mercy Corps is an Equal Opportunity tion of the Executive Office and other duties
and missionaries to bring economic develop- Employer. Qualified women, minorities, as necessary. This position would afford the
ment and spiritual transformation in the con- veterans and individuals with disabilities are candidate direct contact with the CEO, a birds
text of poor communities around the globe. encouraged to apply. eye view of the entire landscape of activity
Responsibilities: The Senior Director reports taking place throughout the organization and
to the Executive Director and is the primary
Senior Advisor Sexual and Reproductive an inside view of the Executive administra-
person responsible for managing the Chalm-
Health > Atlanta, GA tion of our organization. The ideal candidate
The Senior Advisor for Sexual and Repro-
ers Center’s human and financial resources. has a strong attention to detail and highly or-
ductive Health (SRH) is a member of the
Requirements: Master’s degree in manage- ganized, has an interest in international relief
SRH team and serves as the technical leader
ment, international development, or related and development and nonprofit management.
for family planning approaches and meth-
field; minimum five years experience in man- Strong MS Office and writing skills required.
odologies as well as the point person on the
agement in international relief and develop- To Apply: Send a cover letter and resume to
Reproductive Health Access, Information and
ment work. Application deadline is August All appli-
Services in Emergencies Initiative (RAISE).
15, 2007. Complete job description and ap- cants must be able to provide documentation
S/he sets the SRH Team’s agenda in family
plication details available at: http://scots.cov- that they are legally eligible to work in the
planning; identifies CARE’s best practices United States for an extended period of time.
in family planning and selects the best meth-
asp?ID=215. The positions will remain open until filled.
ods to document these best practices. Also,
No phone calls please.
Director of Public Affairs > Washington, DC s/he documents and disseminates CARE’s
Mercy Corps is actively recruiting for a family planning experiences to the global Internship, Office of Membership and
Director of Public Affairs to lead the devel- health community. Another key function of Standards > Washington, DC
opment and implementation of policy, ad- the Senior Advisor is to develop proposals InterAction’s Office of Membership and
vocacy and government relations strategies and donor relationships that bring additional Standards has an internship available for
to advance the mission and programmatic funding for new SRH initiatives and further Summer 2007. The intern will assist the staff
objectives of Mercy Corps. The Director the SRH Team’s technical global leadership with research on a variety of issues related
will manage the efforts of the Public Af- priorities. The Senior Advisor has RAISE Ini- to nonprofit governance, accountability and
fairs team to track and analyze key policy tiative and staff management responsibility as program effectiveness, as well as assist with
initiatives, coordinate advocacy strategies, well. These include: designing and imple- membership recruitment and retention ef-
and work with partner agencies in joint ad- menting CARE’s activities under RAISE; en- forts. Some administrative tasks as well as
vocacy and campaign initiatives. The Direc- gaging with CARE emergency department to assistance with conference planning may also
tor will coordinate with all parts of Mercy incorporate family planning and comprehen- be required, and other duties as necessary.
Corps to ensure positions are well grounded sive SRH into CARE’s emergency response; The ideal candidate has an interest in inter-
in the priorities of the communities where and liaising with Colombia Mailman School national relief and development, nonprofit
we work, with the objective of increasing our of Health. S/he supports and strengthens management, and NGO accountability and
ability to influence key audiences, including Country Offices capacity in family planning. effectiveness. Strong MS Office and writing
governments, peer groups, and the general The Senior Advisor is committed to foster- skills preferred. To Apply: Send a cover let-
public. Knowledge and Experience: Master’s ing organizational learning and uses creative ter and resume to
degree in International Relations, Public Pol- approaches to facilitate learning in his/her If local the internship can extend into Fall. All
icy, or Public or Business Administration or technical area at all levels of the organiza- applicants must be able to provide documen-
equivalent preferred. Substantial experience tion. Requirements: Masters Degree in Public tation that they are legally eligible to work
in legislative advocacy, governmental affairs, Health or other relevant health specializat. in the United States for an extended period
policy analysis, communications or public Minimum 10 years experience in reproduc- of time. The positions will remain open until
relations, preferably in an international relief tive health programming. Solid knowledge filled. No phone calls please.
and development context required. Demon- of family planning programs and methods
strated success in managing relationships in and strong experience in program design,
a complex inter-agency context. Excellent implementation and evaluation. Knowledge LOOKING FOR A JOB?
verbal and written communication skills. A of USAID SRH programs, including good
track record of accomplishment in policy, understanding of USAID’s regulations and Subscribe to our weekly job
advocacy and/or political communications, budgeting processes. In addition, overseas listing at

Interested in placing a job announcements or advertisement? Email

Consultant Opportunities

The International Rescue Committee (IRC) provides support to conflict-
affected communities in over 25 countries. The IRC is experiencing
tremendous growth in its large scale, post-conflict programming and
seeks qualified professionals for long and short- term consultancies in
the following sectors: education, health, economic development and
governance (community-based governance, civil society development, and
access to justice). The IRC is committed to a culture of bold leadership,
innovation, creative partnerships and results-based management.

Skill sets needed:
q Experience with USAID, DOL, World Bank, DFID, and EU projects
of scale.

q Experience with strengthening institutions (civil society and

q Experience with performance-based management systems.

q Experience with designing and managing policy change and social
sector reform.

q Experience designing/implementing programs to address financial
barriers to the provision of social services.

Please go to for further
details and application instructions.

JULY 2007 37
Interested in placing a job announcements or advertisement? Email

Senior Development Officer, Development Division
Washington, DC

IREX is an international nonprofit organization providing leadership and innovative programs to improve the quality of education,
strengthen independent media, and foster pluralistic civil society development. Founded in 1968, IREX has an annual portfolio of $50
million and a staff of over 400 professionals worldwide. IREX and its partner IREX Europe deliver cross-cutting programs and consult-
ing expertise in more than 50 countries.

The Senior Development Officer works with the Civil Society Division Director to set and achieve funding goals and implements the
organization’s development strategies. Reports To: Director of Development and Strategic Planning.

Principle responsibilities include: Analysis of potential funding opportunities and trends in order to assist senior staff to set and achieve
overall funding goals; Identification and development of new program ideas; Fundraising and partnering efforts and projects; Creation
and coordination of proposal teams’ activity; Coordination of proposal development and preparation, with program staff and partners;
Supervision of a development officers. Key activities include: Researches and analyzes grant and emerging business opportunities;
Writes proposals and concept papers; Prepares proposal budgets; Maintains grant cycles.

Qualifications: Bachelor’s degree; Management experience; Demonstrated organizational and budgeting skills; Excellent writing and
editing skills; contract and grant proposal writing experience for USG solicitations (specifically USAID); Experience living/working
overseas; Demonstrated experience/familiarity with Europe, Eurasia, Middle East, Asia, Africa; Ability to work and lead in a team

IREX offers a competitive salary and benefits package.
APPLY TO: Send cover letter and resume to IREX/DEV/DC/PA via fax at (202) 628-8189 or send an e-mail message with the subject

Program Officer – Africa, Sustainable Livelihoods

The Program Officer works with the Program Department of Episcopal Relief and Development (ERD) to implement the programming
objectives for food security in Africa, as set by the Board of Directors, and ERD Administration. At present ERD’s Africa program is
predominantly serving rural populations. Although all contexts differ in terms of opportunities and constraints offered by the land and
access to markets, the overall strategies ensure that additional income streams are identified and exploited. This can involve, among other
things, adopting improved agricultural techniques, crop processing, new or improved livestock management, employing micro credit to
develop off farm income. ERD supports strengthening the role of women to improve their economic and social situation. The program
officer will offer partners technical support in these areas. The program officer will work with partners to develop a rational and participa-
tory monitoring and evaluation framework to ensure that programs are effective. The program officer will work with ERD’s Research and
Evaluations Officer to ensure that such field data can be incorporated in ERD’s global monitoring and evaluation framework.

Requirements include but are not limited to; Masters degree in international development, rural development or agronomy and/or equiva-
lent experience, Minimum 5 years experience working on sustainable livelihood programs in developing countries (Africa experience
highly preferred). Must have a proven success in conducting and coordinating asset-based participatory capacity building trainings for
grassroots partners. Ability and willingness to travel internationally up to 40% of the time. Strong writing skills and organizational skills
and attention to detail a must. Other languages (French, Swahili, Portuguese) a plus experience working with a wide diversity of people
with different work styles. Must demonstrate flexibility to adapt to changing requirements.

Please fax your resume and a cover letter which must contain salary requirements to SR HR Generalist at 212-716-6037 or e-mail to Also please see our website for additional information about both this position and our work at

Interested in placing a job announcements or advertisement? Email

JULY 2007 39
1400 16th Street, NW, Suite 210
Washington, DC 20036
Phone: (202) 667-8227
Fax: (202) 667-8236

InterAction is the largest alliance of U.S.-based
international development and humanitarian
nongovernmental organizations. With more than 160
members operating in every developing country, we
work to overcome poverty, exclusion and suffering by
advancing social justice and basic dignity for all.

Today and always . . . As the world faces uncertainties, our
firm stands as a beacon of integrity in
look to your CPA for guidance the business community. Independence
and ethical accounting practices are
important to us.
Our firm is built
on lasting values . . .
Serving the Washington nonprofit community for more than 25 years.
Auditing, A-133 compliance • Worldwide on-site field office audits • Internal control review • Grant proposal assistance
Subrecipient activity review • Expat and inpat tax preparation • Outsourced accounting
Contact our PVO Specialists:
Robert W. Albrecht, CPA Andreas Alexandrou, CPA

4550 Montgomery Avenue, Suite 650N
Bethesda, Maryland 20814

Member of CPAmerica International – a worldwide network of independent CPA firms dedicated to the integrity of the profession.