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MONDAY

DEVELOPMENTS
The Latest Issues and Trends in International Development and Humanitarian Assistance

PEPFAR GLOBAL

CLIMATE CHANGE
INITIATIVES

MDGS
PARTNERSHIPS
MCA

NGO PROGRESS
WORKING TOGETHER
ANTI-CORRUPTION
June 2007
Vol. 25, No. 6
InterAction
CLIMATE CHANGE 4 PARTNERSHIP 7 ANTI-CORRUPTION 10 PEPFAR 20
In this issue, we explore the role of NGOs in major development initiatives. From Presidential programs to global efforts, we will look at how NGOs have
helped to achieve results in some areas and how we can be better engaged in others.
Photos: courtesy of Tai Power Seeff, www.taipowerseeff.com;
ALSO READ THE LATEST ON THE G8 SUMMIT, THE MDGS & THE MCA istockphoto.com; istockphoto.com; Karl Grobl, www.karlgrobl.com

FEATURES
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Check out our resource page at www.interaction.org 04 Climate Change and Community Development:
Market-Driven Solutions Toward Climate Change
Renew your subscription today! Adaptation and Mitigation
Visit www.interaction.org/monday
06 Changing the Climate: Why Gender Equality Matters
Up next month
Look for the July issue of Monday Developments 07 Can NGOs and Economists Come Together?
featuring trends in foreign assistance and aid reform. 08 French NGOs and Their National Federation,
Coordination SUD
10 Good Governance and Civil Society

MONDAY DEVELOPMENTS 12 Information Technology Can Foster Good
Governance
Managing Editor Monday Developments is published 12
times a year by InterAction, the largest
14 Civil Society’s Role in Anti-Corruption: An Iraq Case
Julie Montgomery
alliance of U.S.-based international Study
development and humanitarian
Editors nongovernmental organizations. With 16 Confronting Corruption and Creating Integral
Robyn Shepherd more than 160 members operating in
Kathy Ward every developing country, we work
Systems for Society
to overcome poverty, exclusion and
suffering by advancing social justice and
20 Mobilizing Around Global AIDS: The Opportunities
Copy Editors
basic dignity for all. and Challenges
Josh Kearns
Hilary Nalven InterAction welcomes submissions 22 Women and Girls at the Forefront
of news articles, opinions and
Advertising & Sales announcements. Article submission 23 Preventing HIV Infections: Let’s Get Serious
Josh Kearns does not guarantee inclusion in Monday
Developments. We reserve the right to 24 NGOs Press G8 to Keep Promises
reject submission for any reason. It is at
Communications Department the discretion of our editorial team as to 26 Progress Toward the MDGs Is Mixed
Nasserie Carew, Public Relations which articles are published in individual
Josh Kearns, Publications issues. 28 The Millennium Challenge Account and NGO
Julie Montgomery, Publications Priorities
Robyn Shepherd, Media All statements in articles are the sole
opinion and responsibility of the authors.
Editorial Committee
Sylvain Browa
Articles may be reprinted with prior ALSO IN THIS ISSUE
permission and attribution. Letters to
John Ruthrauff the editor are encouraged. 30 Inside Our Community
Robyn Shepherd
A limited number of subscriptions are 32 Position Announcements
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ISSN 1043-8157
CLIMATE CHANGE

Climate Change and Community Development: Market-
Driven Solutions Toward Climate Change Adaptation and
Mitigation
By Jim Jarvie, Mercy Corps Director of Climate Change, Environment and Sustainable Resource Management

T
he Intergovernmental Panel on The Development Community al Labor Organization estimates to be at
Climate Change (IPCC), estab- most 300 million jobs. Youth unemploy-
It is clear that the impacts of environ-
lished by the United Nations ment is not only a waste of productive
mental change will roll back many years
World Meterological Organi- resources; it is a risk factor in radicalism,
of development advances and, unless we
zation and the UN Environment Pro- crime and conflict. The nexus of these
are proactive, underserved communities
gramme to assess scientific, technical and threats compounds issues of inequality
will have no voice at the table on policy
socio-economic information relevant for and stability that further threaten global
issues that will affect them the most. We
the understanding of climate change, re- security.
run the risk that climate change will un-
cently released its fourth Assessment Re-
dermine decades of hard work in poverty
port (http://www.ipcc.ch/). The report
alleviation, leaving developing countries A Vision of Climate Change
describes the impact of global warming
on human populations and the natural
poorer, less healthy and more vulnerable Opportunity
than ever before.
systems that support life. Projecting a While these twin challenges, climate
probable global increase in temperature At the same time, many development change and youth unemployment, are
between 3.2 and 7.2 degrees Fahrenheit agencies face the dilemma of balancing daunting, they also represent an oppor-
this century and a likely sea level rise of these critical environment-related issues tunity: to develop new markets and cre-
11 to 16 inches, the report calls for im- (many of which are anticipated rather ate job opportunities in climate-friendly
mediate action to prevent further dam- than current) against current, everyday activities, including community-level al-
age. The authors emphasize that even if priorities. Differences in climate change ternative energy promotion, carbon cap-
emissions of carbon dioxide and the oth- projection models further complicate the ture in agro-forests, energy and water
er greenhouse gasses that cause global picture and make it difficult to plan for savings.
warming were to be significantly reduced the future. Against such an overwhelm-
The winning strategy will create busi-
immediately, our societies still must pre- ing and depressing picture, what can de-
nesses that help address climate change
pare for major shocks as a shifting climate velopment agencies do to play their part
while reducing unemployment and re-
affects ecosystems, agriculture and sea in helping the communities with which
source-based conflict potential, working
levels. we work adapt to and potentially even
with communities to foster economic
benefit from climate change?
Climate change threatens the world’s opportunity in adapting and mitigating
poor on a massive scale. Billions of the Mercy Corps, a relief and development climate change causes and impacts. This
most vulnerable people will face water agency working in transitional environ- response should result in small and me-
shortages. Changes to agricultural cycles ments, is developing a comprehensive, dium-sized enterprise business models,
will threaten food security across entire practical strategy to ameliorate both the creating profits from sustainable resource
regions. Disease vectors benefiting from direct threat and secondary effects of use while generating youth employment.
global warming will cover wider areas climate change. The strategy involves a
We in the relief and development com-
further impacting the health of humans, two-pronged approach: (1) identifying
munity need to provide a lens for fo-
their crops and livestock. Rising sea lev- program methodologies that will enable
cusing global efforts underway in more
els will displace coastal communities in communities to engage in climate-change
traditional programming in economic
both rural and heavily urbanized envi- mitigation activities in ways that facilitate
development, agribusiness and natural
ronments. Yet these are only the primary their own social and economic develop-
resource management. We need to create
impacts. Massive migrations and water ment; and (2) working with communities
new directions for partnerships between
shortages will lead to social tensions that on adaptation strategies that will enhance
the private sector, communities and de-
will likely erupt into conflict from com- their resiliency and ability to prepare for
velopment agencies. This is a wonder-
munity to national levels as 300 million some of the predicted climate-related
ful opportunity to engage new partners,
people displaced by rising sea levels seek changes.
particularly from the corporate sector.
new land and places to live in an ever As we ramp up our effort to deal with cli- Private and public institutions, for-profits
more crowded world. mate change, another challenge is gath- and non-profits, across the globe are all
ering pace. Over the next ten years, one actively grappling with current and an-
billion young people will reach working ticipated implications of climate change.
age, competing for what the Internation- Forward-thinking businesses including

 MONDAY DEVELOPMENTS
CLIMATE CHANGE
When people do not pay for the consequences of their actions we have market failure.
This is the greatest market failure the world has seen.
Sir Richard Stern, Review of the Economic Consequences of Climate Change submitted to the UK Government, 2006

corporations, banks, venture capital firms facturers and investment institutions tions must reduce greenhouse gas emis-
and alternative energy manufacturers are to increase the scale and establish large sions and tropical deforestation must
looking toward the business opportuni- footprints for technologies that benefit stop. However, for its part, the devel-
ties that climate change presents. From the poor by creating jobs and profits at opment community can take positive
fuel-efficient stoves to solar kits that multiple levels of national and regional steps to help shield the most vulnerable
provide lighting at a cost that is cheaper economies through activities mitigating from the worst shocks of climate change
than kerosene, the poorer sections of and adapting to climate change. through new partnerships that are fully
global society represent a vast market for in line with humanitarian mandates and
We should not be under the illusion that
new technologies. It is clear that there that enable under-developed communi-
these activities will provide the scale to
are huge opportunities for collabora- ties to participate in solutions that satisfy
prevent or fully adapt to global warm-
tion, cooperation and influence, building their own interests.
ing. As the IPCC and many others make
public/private/non-profit relationships clear, industrialized and developing na-
in innovative ways. In parallel with these
efforts, nongovernmental organizations
need to undertake such initiatives with a
variety of government agencies including
those responding to climate change, eco-
nomic development and foreign direct
investment.
The bottleneck for many forward-think-
ing private sector organizations is mar-
ket access. What development agencies
bring to the table is the ability to mo-
bilize communities and provide market
access to consumers for new and useful
products that replace climate-damaging
and ultimately more expensive old tech-
nologies. By joining efforts, the public/
private/non-profit sectors could create
a market mechanism that is sustained by
profit, while mitigating the causes and ef-
fects of climate change.

Implementation
As an agency, Mercy Corps is working
with corporate partners to identify de-
mand-driven business opportunities for
youth in countries of mutual interest.
The identified opportunities respond to
the causes and impact of climate change
in each country, including analyzing job
opportunities in construction, marketing
and sales of fuel efficient wood burning
stoves; tree farming for construction ma-
terials; mini-hydro plants for community
power in rural areas; solar technologies
that switch fuel use from kerosene to
clean energy. Whereas these technologies
are often used in development programs,
their footprint is usually small. The intent
of this strategy is to harness the market-
ing power and profit motive of manu-

JUNE 2007 
CLIMATE CHANGE

Changing the Climate: Why Gender Equality Matters
By Rebecca Pearl, Women’s Environment and Development Organization

C
limate change is one of the Many of the
most urgent issues of our time. world’s conflicts
Extreme weather and natural are spurred by
disasters have become more threats to natural
common and the results are all too real: resources. Climate
devastating drought and floods in Africa change will likely
and Asia, a deadly European heat wave, increase these con-
and the wreckage of hurricanes in the flicts, and thus the
Americas. gender inequalities
that come along
Unquestionably, climate change will af-
with them. In the
fect everyone. However, climate change
magnifies existing inequalities, and gen- Darfur region of
Sudan, where de-
der inequality is among the most perva-
sertification has
sive forms of inequality. Women’s histor-
plagued the land
ic disadvantages – their restricted access
in recent decades,
to resources and information, and their
homes are often
limited power in decision-making – make
destroyed, cam-
them more vulnerable to extreme weath-
paigns of intimi-
er events. At the same time, women are Photo: courtesy of Tai Power Seeff, www.taipowerseeff.com.
dation, rape, or
best positioned to curb the effects of cli-
abduction are waged, and thousands of signed an emission reductions purchase
mate change.
women and children are caught in the agreement to reforest two mountain ar-
Hurricane Katrina demonstrated that crossfire. Conflict increases migration, eas in Kenya. Women’s groups will plant
even in industrialized countries poor and the vast majority of the world’s refu- thousands of indigenous trees, which will
women are disproportionately affected gees are women and children. capture 375,000 tons of carbon dioxide
by swift environmental changes. African- and restore soil lost to erosion and sup-
While women are faced with unique
American women are among the most im- port regular rainfall essential to Kenya’s
vulnerabilities, they are seldom recog-
poverished groups in the United States, farmers and hydro-electric power plants,
nized as agents of change. In a growing
and the hurricane further entrenched this the country’s main source of electricity.
number of studies of natural disasters,
group in deeper levels of poverty. Poor Planting trees also provides poor, rural
putting women at the center of early
women in developing countries face women with a small income and some
warning systems, decision-making, and
even greater obstacles. During the In- economic independence.
post-disaster reconstruction has greatly
dian Ocean tsunami at the end of 2004,
benefited communities and saved lives. In an effort to ensure gender equality
women made up 55 to 70 percent of the
dead in Banda Aceh, and 80 percent of In the midst of a drought in the Feder- and women’s voices are included in the
ated States of Micronesia, it was women climate change discourse, Women’s Envi-
the dead in the worst affected village in
who created a new well with drinkable ronment and Development Organization
Indonesia. Similarly, during the 2003
freshwater. Women’s work on the land (WEDO) is directing its advocacy efforts
European heat wave, 70 percent of the
had given them a considerable under- to what governments can do for further
dead were women.
standing of hydrology, but planners and inclusion. Global negotiations on cli-
Natural disasters often reinforce tradi- decision-makers had not considered the mate change, whether at the United Na-
tional gender roles. Women living in possibility of their contributions. In La tions Framework Convention on Climate
rural areas of developing countries are Masica, Honduras, women took over the Change (UNFCCC) and Kyoto Protocol
still largely responsible for securing food, task of hazard management after moni- or the UN Commission on Sustainable
water and energy for cooking and heat- toring of the early warning system had Development, have not adequately ad-
ing. Drought, desertification and erratic been abandoned. Their work resulted in dressed the social impacts of this issue, if
rainfall cause women to work harder to a swift evacuation and no deaths during at all. Governments must act now to as-
secure these resources. This results in less Hurricane Mitch. sess how national adaptation or other cli-
time to earn income, get an education mate change plans address gender equal-
Women are also involved in mitigation
and provide care to families. Women usu- ity and to ensure that women participate
measures to slow global warming. In No-
ally have fewer assets than men to recover in decision-making. To learn more about
vember 2006, Kenya’s Green Belt Move-
from natural disasters, and they often do gender and climate change, visit www.
ment, founded by Nobel Peace Laureate,
not own land that can be sold to secure wedo.org, which offers a fact sheet, list of
Wangari Maathai, and the World Bank’s
income in an emergency. resources and action recommendations.
Community Development Carbon Fund,

 MONDAY DEVELOPMENTS
PARTNERSHIP

Can NGOs and Economists Come Together?
By Rick Rowden, Senior Policy Analyst, ActionAid International USA

O
ver much of the last 15 years, civil society organiza-
tions and NGOs have focused increasingly on mat-
ters of “poverty reduction” to the neglect of more
traditional issues related to development economics.
A side-effect of this trend has been a narrowing emphasis by
NGOs on getting more healthcare, education or microcredit to
the rural poor in many developing countries, as if these alone
could substitute for effective macroeconomic and industrial poli-
cies of the kinds used successfully by all of the rich countries over
the last 200 years in the course of their industrialization and
development. Have NGOs given up on economics?
There are growing indications that some civil society groups
are rediscovering the importance of economics and economic
policies. Advocacy groups such as U.S.-based Public Citizen and
UK-based Oxfam International have in recent years weighed in
on the often controversial debates about trade policies and their
impacts on economic development. Others, such as Medicines
Sans Frontiers (MSF), have recently studied the efficacy of caps
on public sector wages and other policies of the Internation-
al Monetary Fund (IMF) as they impact the levels of available
health personnel in poor countries.
Although the Millennium Development Goals may represent
more of a list of needs to be met than a strategy or roadmap for
the precise economic policies needed to achieve them, efforts to
reach the MDGs have begun to raise interesting questions for
some NGOs. As many countries have been unable to hire the
numbers of doctors, nurses and teachers that are projected to be
needed to achieve the MDGs, NGOs are increasingly looking to
economic policies, and the efficacy of different approaches, for
increasing public spending and public investment.
Frustration with chronic, insufficient public spending has led
many health, education and HIV/AIDS advocacy organizations sity, the Center for Economic and Policy Research, the Center
to take a second look at issues of macroeconomic policies. Action- for Global Development, the IMF, the UN Development Pro-
Aid International is one example of the organizations bringing gramme, and the University of Denver to make presentations to
together economists and NGOs to deepen “economic literacy” the participating NGOs. “We think it is important to reach out
in civil society and enable NGOs to better engage with finance and engage with the NGOs where there is interest about mac-
ministries and the IMF on macroeconomic policies as they relate roeconomic policies as they impact the achievement of the Mil-
to allowing countries to scale-up investment in more doctors, lennium Development Goals,” said Andy Berg, Division Chief of
nurses and teachers. Many NGO advocates think they need a the Policy Development and Review Department at the IMF.
Ph.D. in economics in order to engage on these issues, but that
The training was part of a two-year multi-country economic
is not true. With some fundamental literacy training, anyone can
literacy and advocacy project that is bringing economists and
learn the basics and what kinds of questions to ask. For example,
NGOs together in Kenya, Malawi, Sierra Leone and the U.S. to
HIV/AIDS activists are learning that it is not enough to call
learn about macroeconomic policies.
for more donor aid or to engage with health ministries. They
must also engage with their finance ministries about why public Other NGOs are also stepping-up their involvement with econo-
spending is so constrained and possible alternative policies. mists. Two examples are budget-analysis and budget tracking
groups such as the International Budget Project, a project of the
In March, ActionAid hosted an economic literacy training in
Center for Budget and Policy Priorities in Washington, DC, and
Washington, DC for health, education and HIV/AIDS advo-
the Institute for Democracy in South Africa (IDASA), both of
cacy organizations titled “Getting More Doctors, Nurses and
which have developed projects to train NGO advocacy organiza-
Teachers Hired in Developing Countries.” The training brought
tions in the basics of economics.
together economists from places as diverse as Brown Univer-

JUNE 2007 
PARTNERSHIP

French NGOs and Their National Federation, Coordination SUD
By Henri Rouillé d’Orfeuil, President of the Board, Coordination SUD

F
rench non-governmental organi- The Four Major Roles of
zations (NGOs) are the expres- Coordination SUD
sion of the citizens’ commitment
to international solidarity. Their Coordination SUD has four major roles:
origins can be traced back to the right of 1) To help French NGOs strengthen their
association, a right recognized in France institutional and organizational capacity.
in 1901 that is the basis for what we call Coordination SUD must above all be
participatory democracy. This commit- at the service of its members, promote
ment by the French citizens and associa- their professionalization and improve
tions that form these NGOs takes various the quality of their actions. To this end,
shapes that are grouped in different cat- we have created a resource center that
egories: humanitarian aid relief in situa- matches NGO requests for assistance
tions of conflict or disaster, development and services with offers of information,
assistance provided to partners faced training, expertise and research services
with situations of under-development, that exist already or that need to be de-
defending human rights and the fight for veloped. This year we also established the
environmental preservation, including Institutional and Organizational Capac-
the global environment. ity Building Fund, funded by the minis-
French NGOs, like their counterparts all try in charge of cooperation. The Fund
over the world, intervene in local emer- allows us to finance 75 percent of the
gency or development initiatives and, in cost of the services – leaving the NGOs Photo: courtesy of Coordination SUD.

so doing, contribute to the institution to have to cover only the remaining 25
building of their partners. However, they percent. The resource center is also help- a mandate to negotiate. We therefore
also participate (and even more so as glo- ing to facilitate the access of the NGOs formulate positions and proposals and
balization increases) in the international to French, European and international champion them in the dialogue with the
public debate and diplomatic processes private and public funding. government. This is the task of ad hoc
where the rules of international inter- 2) To optimize the collective organization groups and, more globally, of a commis-
actions are negotiated and are also the of NGOs. Our country has inherited nu- sion that follows up on all topics relevant
source of most of the problems that affect merous associations and networks of all to the NGO-government relationship.
the communities we target and the coun- kinds. These collective organizations were We also sit on various committees and
tries where we operate. Finally, NGOs try sometimes created for a specific purpose. maintain dialogues with public authori-
to inform French citizens of situations of Moreover, French NGOs are diverse and ties in which we often share differing
crisis or under-development, raise their numerous, which is sometimes an advan- views. Our country is lagging significant-
awareness as citizens and members of the tage, but which can also prevent them ly behind in terms of government fund-
planet and mobilize fellow citizens into from benefiting from economies of scale ing for non-governmental cooperation
taking international solidarity actions. and hinders efficient international action. and is facing an on-going reform of its
Coordination SUD is at the center of this development aid apparatus.
To work more effectively, the NGOs co-
operate, share information and services, collective organization or “in-organiza- 4) To promote the presence of French
and work in networks, platforms or col- tion.” It must promote a development NGOs in the public debate and negotiations
lectives. These groupings are particularly and optimization process to strengthen in the European and broader international
necessary when defending a cause or the collective efficiency of the French arenas. The NGOs, which intervene in
developing joint proposals or analyses. NGO movement. We therefore launched extremely diverse local realities and which
These groupings are specialized and op- a prospective study that will first review maintain a permanent dialogue with
erational. the broad evolution of the local, regional their local partners, are aware that most
or global contexts in which we intervene. of the problems they deal with locally
Coordination SUD – SUD meaning Sol- This study is currently underway. We have international origins. They seek to
idarity, Urgency and Development – is, will draw from it organizational lessons share not only these realities, the nature
therefore, the coordinating organization learned, and, as early as 2008, we hope of these problems and the international
of French NGOs and their operational to be able to promote the development responsibilities, but also solutions that
collectives at the national level. It is com- of our organizations. can solve the negative impact of some
prised of some 130 national NGOs and
3) To organize an interaction with govern- negotiations. They seek to intervene to
supports regional collectives composed
ment and public authorities. Member or- denounce the causes of the conflicts, the
of associations active in each of the re-
ganizations have given Coordination SUD failure of universal rights, the degrada-
gions of France.

 MONDAY DEVELOPMENTS
PARTNERSHIP
tion of natural resources and to defend ignating spokespersons to the different action between national platforms, the
the democratization processes (particu- geographic levels. We believe that na- development of partnerships, and debate
larly the right of association), and to say tional platforms and leadership can play a on positions before any event on the dip-
that there is no alternative to a world of major role in this capacity-building effort lomatic agenda.
international solidarity. Coordination and that they are the foundation of this Even if the map of national platforms still
SUD is making an effort to contribute endeavor. has large gaps, as the network is still only
to these different European and interna- In Europe, we have developed the first composed of 50 platforms, we have al-
tional fights taking place in Brussels, in two levels: the national level (since NGOs ready begun to work together in several
various bodies of the United Nations, the of 25 of the 27 countries in the Euro- areas and act as a liaison in some negotia-
World Trade Organization (WTO), in- pean Union have created national plat- tions. This was the case during the prep-
ternational financial institutions or even forms); and the regional level, in this case aration of the WTO ministerial meeting
within the G8. To this end, we must de- the European level (as these 25 national in Hong Kong and during meetings of
termine our analyses, positions and prop- platforms and some European networks the intra-governmental pilot group for
ositions through commissions composed have established a European confedera- innovative funding, and also during the
of NGOs involved in each of the major is- tion, CONCORD). Other areas of the High Level Meeting II on ODA (official
sues subject to international negotiation. world have also established regional co- development assistance). The core group
The board of directors will validate the operation and have adopted regional co- of the five platforms (Brazilian, Chilean,
positions – in essence representing the alitions. This is the case of some 15 Latin French, Indian and Senegalese) now
entire French NGO movement. We will American platforms that formed “Mesa provides a framework for discussions on
then enter into discussions and coopera- de Articulaçao,” a dozen West African international issues and for the organiza-
tion with our natural partners in all other
platforms that created REPAOC, and tions of international conferences.
national NGO platforms to determine to
also a half dozen South Asian national
what extent we can work together in an We were able to contribute to the de-
federations that are in the process of es-
international context. This cooperation velopment of the network of the G7
tablishing a regional coalition.
at the international level between nation- platforms, which enabled us to jointly
al platforms also involves major players of Coordination SUD supports these initia- prepare for the G8 meetings and draft a
what we call “non-governmental diplo- tives. We are participating in strong bilat- letter addressed to the heads of state of
macy,” namely large international NGOs eral cooperation efforts, including ones our respective countries. This framework
and specialized federations that are com- with ABONG (the Brazilian platform) has helped us get closer to InterAction
posed of national specific associations. and with platforms from West African and to debate our respective positions.
countries. With respect to West Africa, InterAction and Coordination SUD con-
we are taking part in institutional build-
Cooperation Between ing programs developed by our partners.
tinue to have regular contacts. We plan
National NGO Platforms to develop and strengthen them not only
We are also supporting regional initia- at the bilateral level, which will help fa-
and the Foundation of Non- tives – mostly in the form of financial cilitate interactions between our NGO
Governmental Diplomacy support – mobilized collectively from members and discuss our respective strat-
public cooperation, foundations or agen-
To address global issues and intervene ef- egies on a number of priority issues, but
cies. However, we are also developing ex-
ficiently on the world stage, NGOs must also at the multilateral level and through
change activities and we are endeavoring
have an international presence. This is not an exchange program between platforms
to promote cooperation between CON-
always easy with hundreds of thousands in different regions of the world.
CORD (our European coalition) and
of NGOs whose actions, although rich in other regional alliances. We are also ac-
lessons learned, remain local. There are a tive at the international level, not for the
number of international NGOs and large purpose of creating an international fed-
federations of associations comprised of
specific groups, but they represent only
eration – a step that would be premature Coordination SUD is the
and might not ever be desirable – but to
a minority in the local and national as- develop a tool to support national plat-
coordinating organization
sociation movement and are, for the forms and regional coalitions. To achieve of French NGOs and their
most part, international NGOs from
the Northern hemisphere. However, if
this goal, we have established a core operational collectives
group composed of ACCION/Chile,
we recognize that a global issue is an is- ABONG/Brazil, CONGAD/Senegal, at the national level. It is
sue that concerns all the citizens of the Coordination Sud/France and VANI/ comprised of some 130
world and not solely international play-
ers (multinationals, global cities, interna-
India. Before the summer of 2007, we national NGOs and supports
plan to have a four language website that
tional NGOs, etc.) we find ourselves in will serve as an information tool pre- regional collectives
a difficult situation because we are 6.5
billion citizens! This has led us to reflect
senting the national platforms and their composed of associations
regional coalitions, their backgrounds
on ways to strengthen collective players and their positions. It will also serve as
active in each of the regions
capable of developing positions and des- a communication tool to facilitate inter- of France.

JUNE 2007 
ANTI-CORRUPTION

F
or the past decade or longer, the issue
of corruption has preoccupied interna-
tional financial institutions (IFIs). In
the past few years, two distinct areas
have become priorities: (1) the lack of effec-
tive internal justice systems at the IFIs; and (2)
IFI-sponsored ‘good governance’ programs di-
rected at borrowing countries that privilege in-
vestors over citizens. Because they are primarily
financial institutions, the IFIs have struggled to
contend with both concerns. In contrast, civil
society organizations, many of which were es-
tablished to fill governance lapses of formal
government structures, are often best-posi-
tioned to address questions of accountability.

Internal Justice and the IFIs
The recent revolt at the World Bank highlight-
ed a disturbing fact about corruption: inter-
nal governance processes at the Bank are not
strong enough to withstand the manipulation
of a senior manager determined to abuse the
resources and personnel of the institution. Two
significant facts are most relevant: (1) the com-
plaint about the president’s violations of staff
and salary regulations was initially filed in Janu-
ary 2006 with the Department of Institutional
Integrity (INT) and then with the Ethics Com-
mittee of the Board, neither of which took any
action; and (2) to secure the resignation of the
Bank president after the board of directors had
determined that he violated both the terms of
his contract and the Bank’s code of ethics, the
board was obliged to issue a statement of no-
fault finding and to tolerate his continued pres-
ence for an additional six weeks.
These half-measures, which stood in for formal
judicial proceedings at the World Bank, are not
confined to that institution. All of the IFIs suf-
fer from the same weakness. Because the orga-
Good Governance and Civil Society nizations enjoy sovereign immunity, the IFIs’
management operates beyond the reach of na-
By Beatrice Edwards, International Program Director, Government tional courts. As a consequence, a staff member
Accountability Project and Amy Gray, IFI Liaison Manager, ActionAid USA who reports misconduct – even conduct that
would be deemed illegal in a national setting,
such as misappropriation of public funds for
personal benefit – has little or no protection
Whistleblowers at international financial institutions can from retaliation. Disclosures of misconduct,
be subjected to harassment, demotion, isolation and especially when they involve large amounts
dismissal. of funding or senior managers, must often be
made anonymously and are therefore difficult
to authenticate or investigate.
Whistleblowers at the IFIs can be subjected to
harassment, demotion, isolation and dismissal.
If they dispute this treatment, they enter an ap-
peals process that is, in its most basic features,

10 MONDAY DEVELOPMENTS
ANTI-CORRUPTION
deficient according to standards of inter- External Good Governance investments and political support for the
national law. Complainants have no ready and Anti-Corruption Programs kind of accountability that matters most
access to trained legal counsel because to citizens. More programs should be
the general counsel of the institution While much of the corruption that re- funded that help citizens organize and
represents management. Members of sults in the loss of IFI resources can be demand accountability from their elected
appeals committees are not professional addressed through the establishment of (and appointed) officials. An anti-cor-
judges. On the contrary, they too are em- strong whistleblower protections, there ruption program must encourage ac-
ployees and are often subject to pressure are other significant problems that can countability in support of democratically
from above. Moreover, appeals commit- only be resolved by an anti-corruption determined national development pri-
tee decisions are only advisory: they are program focused on operations. How- orities as a fundamental component of
recommendations to the president of the ever, critics claim that in recent years, good governance. The IFIs cannot and
institution, who may or may not respect the IFIs and the foreign aid and policy should not stand in for national leaders
them. Appeals go to an administrative communities have used the anti-corrup- and certify in their stead that governance
tribunal whose judges depend, to varying tion “stick” as a club of moral authority practices are transparent. Nor should
degrees, on the institution’s president to punish governments in the developing they ever “cover” for a corrupt national
for their selection. Tribunal decisions world. The IFIs have not, critics justly ar- leader because his (or her) continued
are binding and cannot be appealed. If gue, adequately addressed the culpability tenure is deemed expedient for a donor
the tribunal decides for the complain- of private contractors who divert funds, country. Doing so delivers a devastating
ant, there is no effective mechanism to deliver substandard goods and services blow to national democratic forces and
enforce its decision. and bill for unnecessary cost and calen- deactivates citizen organizations as they
dar overruns. attempt to involve themselves in the gov-
With such a justice system, staff members
By focusing solely on borrowing govern- erning process.
at the IFIs risk their careers when they re-
port misconduct, fraud or corruption in ments and linking anti-corruption with Civil society organizations (CSOs)
projects or operations. Although civil so- blueprints for good governance, the IFIs around the world now possess extensive
ciety organizations have obliged the IFIs have imposed financial reform, policy re- experience in promoting transparency,
to adopt many transparency initiatives in form, trade liberalization, and privatiza- accountability and representation for
the past decade, in most questionable sit- tion by writing these into the “good gov- borrowing countries in multilateral orga-
uations, the documentation necessary to ernance” clauses of loan agreements. In a nizations. They have acquired coalition-
establish wrongdoing must be supplied sleight of hand, the underlying principles building and skill-sharing experience that
by staff or consultants at great profes- of anti-corruption work – transparency, links them to peer CSOs and nongov-
sional risk. accountability and responsibility for the ernmental organizations (NGOs) work-
long-term benefit of stakeholders – that ing on domestic reform agendas in both
The IFIs require internal justice systems have typically been associated with dem- developing and developed countries. Just
that provide staff with protections that ocratic and representative government as anti-democratic culture and corrupt
match those specified in international law have become “good governance” pack- practices are equal opportunity problems
sources such as the Universal Declara- ages originating from a foreign financial affecting the global community, skills
tion of Human Rights: the right to legal institution rather than domestic political that expose, curb and eliminate corrup-
counsel, to a fair hearing in an impartial structures. As a result, these packages are tion are transferable. NGOs and CSOs
forum, to an appeal and to meaningful more tailored to the concerns of inves-
relief. At the very least, the employees that see a role for themselves in strength-
tors than to those of citizens. ening the capacity of citizens to hold
and consultants of IFIs should have the
For many years, civil society has issued their own governments accountable and
same legal rights and protections that
calls for information disclosure, transpar- guarantee the effective delivery of human
these institutions recommend their bor-
ency and accountability in efforts to re- services must take strategic and decisive
rowing countries adopt through judicial
form the IFIs. Access to information on a action to support democratic culture and
modernization projects.
timely basis, transparency in agreements practice.
Civil society organizations have two roles forged with government officials and As the recently deposed president of
to play in securing civil rights and em- clear lines of responsibility for funds and the World Bank demonstrated, terms
ployment protections for IFI employees. operations are all essential if citizens are such as “anti-corruption” and “good
First, they can educate national legisla- to do the ground-up work of monitoring governance” can be easily co-opted and
tures, executive directors and the media government activities. Civil society orga- used to justify an anti-democratic and
about the dimensions and the implica- nizations are critical actors in the process self-serving agenda. It is time for citizens
tions of this problem. Second, because of promoting the full expression of true and citizen organizations to reclaim not
the staff at the IFIs tend to be econo- good governance principles, primarily only the terms “good governance” and
mists or finance experts, these institu- because citizens have so much at stake in “anti-corruption” but also the content:
tions require technical cooperation in the ensuring their fulfillment. natural leadership and authority over
process of developing impartial, internal
To truly promote anti-corruption mea- these matters.
justice systems.
sures, the IFIs need to increase direct

JUNE 2007 11
ANTI-CORRUPTION

Information Technology Can Foster Good Governance
By Marjorie Rouse, Vice-President for Europe, Eurasia and ICT Policy, Internews Network

I
n a side room of Armenia’s Ministry opportunities and thwarted by the lack of opportunities for reducing corruption
of Trade and Economic Develop- commitment to support implementation and increasing transparency drain away
ment, David Sandukhchyan, head of across the government bureaucracy. He taxpayer money, development opportu-
the Internews Center for Informa- is making progress, but it is slow going. nities, and public support for technol-
tion Law and Policy in Yerevan, confers One of the main achievements was di- ogy-based projects.
with government officials as part of his recting donors’ and government’s efforts
ongoing efforts to turn high-level verbal towards the development of an e-govern-
Bridging the Gap
commitments to develop an information ment strategy, but for the past year this
society and reduce corruption into reality strategy has been on hold awaiting offi- “Think of the applications as the middle
for Armenia’s people. Bribes, nepotism cial adoption by the government. of a sandwich with [the slices of bread
and favors for friends are a fact of life, being] national policy that creates an
In a big tent on the main square of Sko-
but putting government services online – enabling environment for progress in
pje, capital of the former Yugoslav re-
and encouraging citizens to access them effective ICT [Information and Com-
public of Macedonia, Jovce Plastinovski
electronically – reduces the opportunities munications Technology] applications
shows “Dedo” (Grandfather) Stavre how
for corruption by making government deployment on one side, and users that
to use a computer for the first time and
operations more transparent. are empowered to interact with those
Stavre speaks with his daughter in Aus-
applications on the other side,” says
Constantly convening meetings of key tralia using Skype Voice over IP (VoIP)
George Sadowsky, Executive Director
players in government and industry is a network. “This takes me back to the time
for the Global Internet Policy Initiative.
major part of David’s work to develop when I went to first grade, learning how
Much of the problem is due to the gap
a policy environment that supports this to write and read,” he says. “I just applied
between the design of information sys-
process. While there is potential to re- for e-banking service which will help me
tems and the real-life needs and capabili-
duce corruption through much-needed not to stand in long lines to collect my
ties of the end-user. The ongoing work
e-applications, he is frustrated by missed retirement check every month.”
of Jovce Plastinovski and the e-govern-
A few days later, the same computer-filled ment project in Macedonia focuses on
and Internet-connected tent is in the filling that gap.
Macedonian town of Bitola. This time,
Over the past two and a half years, Mace-
several Roma children use a computer
donia has seen a number of successful
for the first time, opening email accounts
e-government applications launched and
and sending greetings to the president of
adopted by the business community as
Macedonia. In a country with an Inter-
well as the general public. One example
net penetration rate of 19 percent, this
is the Apply Online application process
type of road show, which toured around
for government jobs. This process has
the country, introduces Macedonians to
made the hiring system for government
information and communications tech-
jobs transparent, reduced the cost to
nology and gets them online.
applicants from $100 to zero, and de-
The “Surfing Macedonia” road show, creased the potential for ethnic or gender
is improving the transparency and effi- discrimination in hiring practices. Re-
ciency of Macedonia’s public sector. Yet ducing barriers to applying has increased
a recent report from the United Nations the average number of applicants for
shows that as many as 60 to 80 percent each position from 7 to 42. Soon an e-
of e-government programs in develop- application will transform the system for
ing countries have partially or completely awarding student housing, traditionally a
failed. Africa has suffered the highest very corrupt process.
rates of failure, but even in the developed
“To change the atmosphere in society you
world, the record for these applications
need to change the attitude of citizens so
is not stellar.
people don’t expect to pay a bribe, so
These applications fail in one or more that you can stop taking paying bribes for
At a road show intended to spread of three key categories: providing the granted,” says Jerker Torngren, Chief of
Internet usage in Macedonia, Dedo functionality originally promised, meet- Party for Internews’ Macedonia e-gov-
Stavre, left, touched a computer mouse
for the first time, and talked to his ing their budgets, or delivering the ap- ernment project. To do this, the project
daughter in Australia via Skype. Photo: plications on schedule. These missed focuses on applications that makes a dif-
courtesy of Internews Macedonia.

12 MONDAY DEVELOPMENTS
ANTI-CORRUPTION

Internews: Promoting Transparency Through E-Government
Over the past five years, with the rise of information technologies,
there has been increasing focus on e-government – putting
government services and information online – for both developed
and developing countries. Facing pressure from outside donors
to reduce corruption, and motivated to cut costs while promoting
citizen participation, even some of the least developed nations of
the world are beginning to explore e-government.
Internews Network, a non-profit organization that has worked in 70
countries to improve people’s access to information, is developing
and implementing e-government solutions, including the “Surfing
Macedonia” project, for Macedonia’s public sector under a grant
from the U.S. Agency for International Development.
Internews has also developed a comprehensive knowledge map
and “toolkit” with global best practices and case studies on e-
government. Available online at http://egov.sonasi.com, the
information includes training materials on e-government and even
software code for particular e-government applications. The project
Ivona, Anja and Sasha explored
the world of Barbie on line during
was funded under a grant to Internews from infoDev, a global
“Surfing Macedonia,” an Internet partnership housed at the World Bank.
connectivity event which is part
of Internews’ project to foster e- Together with the Center for Democracy and Technology, Internews
government in Macedonia. While
learning how to make the on-line
operates the Global Internet Policy Initiative, which has worked
Barbie change her dress and put to promote an open, democratic, user-controlled Internet in 17
on make-up, the three girls learned
how to use a computer and at
countries.
same time were introduced to the
English language. Photo: courtesy of For more information on Internews’ projects in Information and
Internews Macedonia. Communication Technology, see www.internews.org/global/ict

ference to the end users, and couples this well as the support and understanding This is the focus of David Sandukhchy-
with well-trained civil servants who buy of key government, business, and civil an’s work in Armenia – developing the
into the process. stakeholders that are the implement- broad-based buy-in from stakeholders
ers and the end-users. An example both that is essential to building an e-gov-
Building e-applications is not a stand-
Dempsey and Sadowsky often cite is the ernment strategy and then a supportive
alone solution to reducing corruption
relationship between competition in the environment for implementation. How
and reforming administrative processes.
telecom industry and the growth of In- does he know his efforts are making a
The most successful e-government appli-
ternet penetration. Many countries have difference? “Our work not only involves
cations have proven to be those that are
restrictive ISP (Internet Service Pro- promoting policies, but also educating
developed through a holistic approach
vider) regulations or unfair competition people about effective policies,” he says.
that fosters linkages among key stake-
due to a monopoly telecom operator. “When I see at the end of the day that
holders. E-applications need to be part
These environments stifle people’s access a particular regulation was changed, I
of an overall strategy for reforming and
to the Internet, limiting the impact of understand that we did good work. But
re-engineering government processes.
even the most well-conceived e-applica- that does not happen very often. If I see
According to James Dempsey, Policy tions. As Dempsey states, “The Internet that more people are thinking the way we
Director for the Center for Democracy is uniquely democratizing but it is not a do, it means that we have made some real
and Technology, to ensure the success silver bullet. It takes a regulatory frame- changes.”
of these applications, the proper regu- work to support it.”
latory framework must be in place, as

JUNE 2007 13
ANTI-CORRUPTION

Civil Society’s Role in Anti-Corruption: An Iraq Case Study
By Craig Davis, Director, Civil Society Division, International Research & Exchanges Board (IREX)

O
rganized civil society has in-
creasingly gained recognition
as a vital force in fighting cor-
ruption across the globe. Be-
sides the traditional advocacy, awareness-
raising and monitoring roles, civil society
can hold governments accountable for
their commitments while providing the
technical support, training, and capacity
building to public agencies to reduce cor-
ruption. Civil society can also influence
public policy, press for legislative reform,
and buttress rule of law. The case of Iraq
serves as a notable example.
For 10 months in 2003 and 2004, as La-
bor Advisor to the Iraqi Ministry of La-
bor and Social Affairs, I witnessed daring
corruption, waste and nepotism deeply
entrenched in ministerial culture. Despite
our anti-corruption measures, ghost em-
ployees collected salaries, and engineers
received “gifts” for diverting contracts to
grateful contractors. The minister hired
ICSP anti-corruption specialist facilitates a break-out session at the national conference in Erbil, Iraq, in
countless unqualified employees (some July 2005. Photo: courtesy of Craig Davis/IREX.
with fifth-grade educations) as favors to
friends and family, including the Governing Council. A deputy duced simple survey techniques to measure corruption in gov-
minister furnished his house with imported furniture as a “gift” ernment agencies followed by advocacy campaigns to produce
from his son-in-law contractor grateful for a large contract. Doc- reform. Below are just four examples of NGO successes during
uments that verified significant social security real estate holdings the 14 months I was with ICSP.
– reaching hundreds of millions of dollars – were conveniently
a The Organization for the Defense of Children’s Rights in
burned. The inspector general (a close friend of the minister) in-
the South conducted surveys that reduced corruption in two
vestigated honest, low-ranking employees while turning a blind
Basrah hospitals.
eye to the shenanigans at the highest levels.
a A national advocacy campaign led to the adoption of 13 anti-
In April 2005, with no illusions, I joined the USAID-funded
corruption articles in the Iraqi Constitution.
Iraq Civil Society Program (ICSP) as Anti-Corruption Director.
With the reluctant support of Transparency International (TI) in a The Iraqi Journalists’ Union investigated complaints of local
Berlin, which was initially suspicious of Americans operating in corruption and aired their findings on the Al-Malath TV
Iraq, I mapped out a strategy designed to reduce corruption, not program in Wasit, resulting in improved delivery of public
just advocate for a reduction. I am indebted to Arwa Hassan of services.
TI who selflessly supported anti-corruption initiatives in Iraq.
a NGOs trained 8,000 ministry officials in transparency and
My first obstacle involved convincing the Iraqi staff. They ar- accountability across the country.
gued that Iraqis were resigned to pervasive corruption in the
The successes came with their own sets of obstacles. Security
government. I asked how the Iraqi people feel about corruption?
always posed problems. Our partner, the Commission for Public
“They are sick of it,” my staff responded.
Integrity, lost a number of staff to assassinations. The governor
“Do you believe that every government official is corrupt?” “No, of Erbil closed down a national anti-corruption conference in
of course not,” they answered. July 2005 (only to re-open it a few hours later), and the Sa-
Good. Now we had partners: the Iraqi population and honest drist-led Ministry of State for Civil Society’s political mischief
government officials. attempted to undermine all NGO activity.

The team conducted results-driven training for NGOs to raise Notwithstanding these setbacks, Iraqi NGOs demonstrated that
expectations, build partnerships and reduce corruption. The with the proper technical support and encouragement, civil soci-
Anti-Corruption Diagnostic Tools course, for example, intro- ety can play a central role in reducing corruption.

14 MONDAY DEVELOPMENTS
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ANTI-CORRUPTION
Confronting Corruption and Creating Integral Systems for
Society
Interview by Gaston Wright, Ashoka
Originally printed at www.changemakers.net as a part of the contest, “Ending Corruption: Honesty Instituted”

Carlos Bareiro, an Ashoka Fellow in Here I am talking about the “friend” who ally the citizens are not aware of the fact
Paraguay, has created community is not a friend but someone who joins a that their money is being misused so that
groups called Citizens Watchdogs. crook in swindling the public resources. someone can attain power to continue
These small but powerful organiza- Therefore, honest social entrepreneurs squandering their resources.
tions are being replicated through- can and must collaborate so that we can Q: How does your innovative work
out Paraguay and this model has get back to a culture of “principles of hon- address the supply side of this prob-
the potential to spread to other esty” rather than this kind of “friendship.” lem?
parts of Latin America. Q: What do you think are the biggest Bareiro: My job is to create responsibility
Ashoka’s Gaston Wright interviewed obstacles to improving the manage- among citizens so that they exercise their
about his work: ment of government? duties and rights, and at the same time
Q: How do you define corruption? Bareiro: The biggest obstacles are ambi- demand that the authorities fulfill their du-
tion for power, lack of ethical principles, ties and exercise their rights. This gener-
Bareiro: My definition of corruption is a ates mutual control so that each fulfills
the way that culture distorts morals
behavior, be it open or hidden, that dam- their responsibilities. This mutual control
through corruption, the lack of engage-
ages the common interest of society. reduces corruption (it doesn’t disappear)
ment by those who consider themselves
Transparency and responsibility gener- in favor of the common interest.
honest, and the failure to promote a con-
ate a mutual trust among citizens where
science of honesty by organizations and Q: What are your innovative solu-
mistrust disappears. This causes anyone
institutions such as churches, schools, tions, new ideas and key strategies
who leads an organization or institution to
colleges, etc. We must make transpar- for fighting corruption and increasing
direct relations and management toward
ency and honesty mandatory ethical prin- transparency and responsibility?
the common interest.
ciples for all citizens and leaders.
Q: Is corruption a cultural phenom- Bareiro: The Citizens Watchdog is a stra-
Q: How does this play out in society? tegic solution that is necessary to create
enon?
Do you see corruption as a problem a citizen consciousness about how the
Bareiro: Yes. The culture of principles of of supply and demand? common interest belongs to all, and that
our parents and grandparents has been all of us should control it–both the citizens
Bareiro: Society sees corruption as both
distorted by a culture that seeks “power” and authorities. The day that all citizens
supply and demand. On the demand side,
and “to have.” To have “power,” one needs exercise this right, there will be no need
the poor need money to survive. When
“to have,” and “to have” may cause one to for a Citizens Watchdog because the com-
politicians give them money to vote for
break principles and the values of honesty mon interest will be in control.
them, they consider them “gods,” so poli-
and the common interest.
tics does not move without money regard- Q: What is your methodology?
Q: Where are the most promising op- less of where it comes from.
portunities for social entrepreneurs Bareiro: In Latin America, education, the
On the supply side, politicians with no family and government have neglected
to get involved?
scruples plan their entire campaign with the creation of citizens: people who are
Bareiro: The majority of social entrepre- a supply of money to get votes, espe- responsible for controlling and managing
neurs work in organizations where the cul- cially from the poor. This money comes the common interest. This is why corrup-
ture of solidarity cannot be avoided. Why? from contributions by citizens, but gener- tion has increased throughout all Latin
Because the poor are the ones who suf- America. Paraguay is among the worst
fer from corruption the most: when public not because it is the most corrupt but
resources are misused, the poor have no Society sees corruption as both because corruption cases are acknowl-
access to education, health, employment, edged in Paraguay whereas in other coun-
supply and demand. On the
etc. tries citizens coexist with corruption as a
demand side, the poor need
But sometimes the leaders of the poor money to survive. On the supply part of the cultural context.
are bribed. They are provided with funds, side, politicians with no scruples That’s how we saw the need to create Citi-
for example, for housing. They are not plan their entire campaign with zens Watchdogs in each municipality with
accountable and they keep more than 50 the goal of creating a conscience that
a supply of money to get votes,
percent. These leaders then must bribe says, “If we take care of what it is ours,
others who are more poor so they do not
especially from the poor.
we will all benefit,” and an awareness that
speak and they become accomplices. corruption only benefits those who control

16 MONDAY DEVELOPMENTS
ANTI-CORRUPTION
it and who give crumbs from their “public
thefts” to supporters so that they will not
report them. With Citizens Watchdogs we Collaboration to Build Integrity Systems in
want to get the attention of everyone who Latin America
is governed and all those who govern so
that they all fulfill their roles: as adminis- Carlos Bareiro will participated in the first roundtable meeting of a Latin American
trators on the one hand, and as the own- Collaboration on Building Integrity Systems in the city of Lima, Peru on May 24th-
ers of the common interest on the other. 25th along with eight other leading social entrepreneurs. This collaboration was
organized by Ashoka Global Fellowship in collaboration with Changemakers.net.
Q: How has your work impacted cor-
ruption? These social entrepreneurs – all of them are Ashoka Fellows – focused on
providing strategies and policy recommendations for how the citizen sector can
Bareiro: During the past five years five mitigate – and eliminate – government and corporate corruption. The principal
governors were removed from office, areas identified by the Ashoka Fellows and staff that require focused attention
20 mayors were dismissed, four national include:
members of parliament were punished,
more than 100 government employees 1) The impact of corruption on the poor.
were dismissed, and we got the President 2) Building alliances between Ashoka Fellows and other citizen sector
of the Republic, ministers, governors, and organizations to end corruption and create integrity systems.
mayors to sign agreements providing ac-
3) Leveraging international media pressure and public opinion.
cess to information and support for the
fight against corruption. 4) Developing productive relationships with authorities (police, politicians,
judges).
We also have several cases that serve as
exemplars for the entire country that we 5) Improving the quality of institutions as a means of preventing corruption.
pursued in coordination with other orga- 6) Crisis of attitude: transforming consciousness raising into action and
nizations. For example, for the first time changed behavior.
we blocked a pro-government member of
parliament from committing criminal acts. 7) Innovations at work: strategies for solving “grand corruption” and “everyday
The authorities had never been punished. corruption.”
In addition, we have supported honest The work being done on this subject is of paramount importance at this historic
judges and financial officers who do not moment. Given the dire nature of our current reality, innovative ideas around
have the support of corrupt authorities. combating corruption must be showcased, tested, and brought to global scale
The impact: fear of committing acts of within a short timeframe. Social, political and economic factors must be clearly
corruption. When there is citizen control, understood, and barriers and opportunities recognized and addressed.
corruption decreases. It doesn’t disap-
pear, one must be aware of that. But citi-
zen control changes the culture, which is
important. Bareiro: I have already been in Bolivia, Carlos Bareiro
Argentina, Brazil, and Costa Rica. In all recruits and
Q: What challenges and obstacles do
these countries, I have been told that it is trains people’s
you experience daily at work?
applicable and necessary. It can be done groups in
Bareiro: The challenge is to prevent Citi- throughout Latin America since the situa-
zens Watchdogs from fading so that it Paraguay
tion is quite similar.
fulfills its objectives, because it is a daily to monitor
Q: How do you see your model grow- and root out
struggle and each case must be followed
ing, expanding or being replicated? corruption in
up until we reach our objectives. We have
to encourage the media to report cases Bareiro: The model is not dogmatic; it government.
of corruption since the worst punishment must be adapted to each country accord- With his support, citizens found
for corruption is to be exposed in the ing to its laws and cultures. It is perfectly Contralorías Ciudadanas (Citizens
press. replicable for all Latin America, other Watchdogs) groups and join a
countries or interested organizations. The network that connects their local
Another challenge is to establish a Citizens
idea is to share it with a group and later efforts to a national movement for
Watchdogs in each municipality. For now,
to carry out a follow up at the international accountable public institutions.
we are already present in all departments
level. Network members share tactics,
or provinces of the country. We have a
network of 70 Citizens Watchdogs. That gather and present proof of
means our challenges are many. corrupt dealings, and initiate legal
Learn more about the anti-corruption
efforts throughout the world at action against corrupt officials.
Q: Does your model apply to other re-
http://www.changemakers.net/en-us/
gions, places, and countries?
competition/endcorruption

JUNE 2007 17
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By Smita Baruah, Senior Policy Associate, Government Relations, Global Health Council

Eleven-year-old Sreypeuv sits clutching a photo of her mother who recently died from HIV/AIDS. She lost her father to the same disease five
years ago. Sreypeuv now lives with her grandmother in Phnom Pehn. Photo: courtesy of Karl Grobl.

20 MONDAY DEVELOPMENTS
T
he President’s Emergency Plan fight against the global spread of HIV/
for HIV/AIDS (PEPFAR) is set to AIDS.
expire on September 30, 2008
and Congress will soon begin
work on legislation that reau- What is PEPFAR?
thorizes or renews the global
PEPFAR is the single largest U.S. gov-
aids program. On May 30, President
ernment investment in global health
Bush kicked off the reauthorization or
history. Established in 2003 through
renewal process by announcing the
legislation passed by the Congress,
United States’ commitment to double
this five-year, $15 billion program aims
PEPFAR from $15 billion to $30 billion
to treat two million people living with
and called on Congress to complete the
AIDS, prevent seven million new in-
process by World AIDS Day (December
fections and provide care and support
1, 2007). For the last 20 years, the glob-
for 10 million persons affected by HIV/
al AIDS movement has been the most
AIDS. In the President’s May 30 speech,
unified campaign despite the diverse
he called for expanding the preven-
group of people that are drawn to the
tion goal from 7 million to 12 million;
movement. The reauthorization process
expanding the number under treat-
presents both opportunities and chal-
ment by an additional 500,000 (from
lenges for the global AIDS community
2 million) and expanding the number
and for its ability to move forward with
of people under care by an additional
recommendations in a unified process.
2 million, including 5 million orphans
The global AIDS movement today is and vulnerable children
perhaps the most well-known and well-
PEPFAR represents all of U.S. govern-
organized movement to date. Millions
ment’s investment in global HIV/AIDS,
of people around the world have com-
including the 15 focus countries. Cur-
mitted themselves to the fight against
rently in its fourth year, PEPFAR pro-
HIV/AIDS, from activists to govern-
grams have treated 822,000 people liv-
ments to community-based organiza-
ing with HIV/AIDS, cared for 5 million
tions to faith-based organizations and
people and reached thousands through
corporations. Last year’s International
its prevention programs.
AIDS Conference drew 30,000 partici-
pants from all over the world. The 2007 This year, if Congress approves, annual
International AIDS Candlelight Me- funding for this program is set to ex-
morial (a project of the Global Health ceed $5 billion – higher than any other
Council), just observed in May, was health or development program.
hosted in a record number of 115 coun-
tries.
Opportunities and Challenges
In the United States, until six or seven
years ago, global HIV/AIDS discus- of Reauthorization
The global AIDS movement sions were often an add-on to a very
large domestic agenda in the Washing-
Currently, PEPFAR enjoys tremendous
political support in Congress and in the
today is perhaps the most ton, DC HIV/AIDS coalition meetings.
At that time, funding for HIV/AIDS
Bush Administration. This support has
well-known and well-organized through U.S. foreign assistance pro-
led to robust funding and attention to
this critical program. This level of sup-
grams was flat at nearly $100 million
movement to date. Millions of per year. A United States emergency
port has helped the global AIDS com-
munity in their efforts to increase U.S.
people around the world have plan on HIV/AIDS was non-existent.
Today, the global AIDS community con-
funding for global AIDS programs.

committed themselves to the venes monthly to talk about a nearly $5 The PEPFAR renewal process provides
billion budget thanks to the President’s
fight against HIV/AIDS, from Emergency Plan for HIV/AIDS Relief
the global AIDS community with an op-
portunity to expand its advocacy efforts
(PEPFAR).
activists to governments to beyond funding. The months leading
up to the September 30, 2008 deadline
community-based organizations Even though the global AIDS com-
munity is a diverse group of individu-
presents an opportunity for all commit-
ted to global AIDS (policy-makers and
to faith-based organizations als, PEPFAR has been able to unite
this eclectic group of advocates. Since
advocates) to examine and evaluate the
and corporations. 2003, the U.S. global AIDS advocacy
program and provide recommendations
to strengthen PEPFAR and its impact
community has even come closer to-
on the world.
gether to bolster U.S. leadership in the

JUNE 2007 21
Women and Girls at the Forefront
By Kathy Selvaggio, Senior Policy Advocate, International
Center for Research on Women

Increasingly, the face of the HIV/AIDS global epidemic is female.
To be effective, AIDS responses must focus on the growing
number of infected women and girls, and the underlying factors
that put them at risk of HIV. While the development community
recognizes the need to address gender inequalities, not nearly
enough is done. As the single largest source of donor funding
for HIV and AIDS, the President’s Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief
(PEPFAR) can lead the world in truly making gender a priority in
global AIDS programs.

PEPFAR has recently demonstrated greater commitment to the
needs of women and girls. PEPFAR was one of the first programs
to require the collection of sex-disaggregated data. More re-
15-year-old Faustina Amogbeng from the Ashanti region of Ghana cently, it established an interagency technical working group
who read a poem to actress, Siobhan Redmond, about the dangers on gender that reviews country operational plans and provides
technical assistance. Based on recommendations from gender
of HIV/AIDS. Photo: courtesy of Nicky Lewin. experts, it has also launched three new gender-specific initia-
tives accompanied by modest new funding.
The U.S. global AIDS community in Washington largely meets
through The Global AIDS Roundtable (GAR), convened by the Nevertheless, PEPFAR’s approach to gender is fragmented and
Global Health Council. The GAR is an informal, loosely based does not systematically integrate gender across policies and
coalition that works together to ensure that the United States programs. Funding for gender-specific activities remains rela-
keeps up its leadership on HIV/AIDS through robust funding tively scant at $442 million in the U.S. government’s 2006 fiscal
and effective and sound policies, including the United States’ year budget, which constitutes 13 percent of overall PEPFAR
commitment to the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis spending. And the lack of gender guidance, indicators or targets
and Malaria. indicates to country programs that gender is not a high priority.

The U.S. global AIDS community has already taken advan- PEPFAR has also resisted addressing the larger issues at the
tage of this opportunity. For the last six months, the GAR has root of women’s vulnerability (i.e., lack of education, economic
opportunities and legal protection) even as U.S. development
organized itself into four working groups (prevention, treat-
assistance programs in these areas are dwindling. In its enthu-
ment, gender and architecture) and is in the final stages of
siasm to scale up service delivery, it has missed some obvious
preparing recommendations for change on key provisions linkages with reproductive health services and programs serv-
likely to be addressed during reauthorization. The final result ing victims of violence that could reach many more women with
will be a sound set of recommendations for policy-makers to prevention, testing and treatment services.
consider. Through this process, the community has collective-
ly influenced questions raised at committee hearings and at Furthermore, PEPFAR imposes some restrictions that hinder
NGO meetings with the administration or on Capitol Hill. efforts to protect women and girls. It requires abstinence-un-
til-marriage programs, but does not address the fundamental
The pending HIV/AIDS legislation has also brought together inequalities that make it difficult for women and girls to comply.
PEPFAR implementing agencies. For the first time in years, Many women and girls are economically dependent on men
Global Health Council and InterAction members that imple- and many face violence if they refuse sex or insist on safer sexual
ment HIV/AIDS programs are meeting with each other to dis- practices. Thus, for women and girls abstinence is unrealistic,
cuss specific technical issue areas that may need to be ad- being faithful is insufficient and the use of condoms is not un-
der their control. PEPFAR also requires recipients of its funds to
dressed in the next iteration of PEPFAR.
declare their opposition to prostitution, which places a chilling
effect on programs that reach out to sex workers, women who
Broadly, the community is addressing the earmarks issue un-
are at great risk of HIV infection.
der prevention, drug procurement and supply management
issues under treatment including a focus on pediatric treat- The PEPFAR is an unprecedented response to an unprecedented
ment, the vulnerabilities of girls and women, the need to build crisis. Success in achieving its ambitious goals will require in-
greater country ownership into the PEPFAR Country Opera- creased priority and resources dedicated to women and girls.
tional Planning process and a call to include civil society or-
ganizations and people living with HIV/AIDS in this process,
and a call to select countries based more on epidemiology and The biggest challenge will be the earmarks provision. Current
the issue of health care workforce shortage. legislation requires that 55 percent of the funds for HIV/AIDS
go to treatment, 20 percent should be used towards preven-
The real test will come over the next several months when tion, and 15 percent for care. As is widely known, within the
Congress begins writing the reauthorization legislation. How prevention target, the legislation also includes an earmark
much will the community be united while faced with the chal- that requires 33 percent of the 20 percent to be used for absti-
lenge of supporting diverse needs and issues? nence only programs.

22 MONDAY DEVELOPMENTS
The community’s views are mixed and diverse when it
comes to the discussion of targets and earmarks. Do we call
more for prevention? What about treatment? How do we Preventing HIV Infections: Let’s Get
sustain treatment for the 822,000 already reached?
Serious
The views are equally diverse when it comes to the ab- By Jodi L. Jacobson, Director of Advocacy, American Jewish
stinence-only earmark. The views range from wanting to World Service
entirely strike the abstinence only earmark to maintaining
There were over four million new HIV infections worldwide in 2005
some level of guidance and flexibility. Some groups are also
alone. The two most important means of HIV transmission are unpro-
calling for removal of the needle exchange ban in the reau-
tected sex and injecting drug use, interventions for which have been
thorization legislation. Not all groups are willing to or can highly politicized under U.S. global AIDS policy. For example, under
support this recommendation. the President’s Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR), 11 million
people at high risk of HIV infection were subjected to abstinence-
Another challenge is discussions concerning the structure of only programs in 2006 with no access to information and training on
PEPFAR. Does the community support a Millennium Chal- safer sex, and another 28 million received only “abstain and be faith-
lenge Corporation type model? Or does it support the cur- ful messages.” The fundamental role played in the spread of HIV by
rent structure? The community is calling for more attention gender disparities remains neglected and, when addressed at all is
to non-focus countries, particularly those facing concen- treated as an “add-on” rather than as integral to all policies and pro-
trated epidemics. Some in the community want increased grams. Under PEPFAR, already-marginalized, high-risk groups such
resources for the “second wave” countries. Does this mean as sex workers and intravenous drug users face further discrimination
that the community is willing to take a position on focus making it more difficult for them to protect themselves and access
versus non-focus countries? Are we willing to consider an critical services.
exit strategy for focus countries? To end the AIDS epidemic, we must get serious about prevention.
To that end, many civil society groups believe that the following rec-
Most likely the biggest challenge of all is linking the HIV/ ommendations should be incorporated into the new version of the
AIDS community with the broader health and development President’s Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR) scheduled for de-
community. A decade ago, funding for global HIV/AIDS bate in Congress later this year. These proposed recommendations, if
programs was stagnant at $110 million per year. A decade adopted, would support programming best able to prevent the maxi-
later, the U.S. global AIDS budget grew to over $5 billion. mum number of new infections possible. Key measures include:
However, U.S. funding for other global health and develop- 1) Striking the abstinence-until-marriage earmark and the prostitu-
ment accounts have remained flat over the same decade. tion pledge.
For example, funding maternal and child health programs
2) Revising the operational and program guidance for implementing
has remained at around $350 million annually for over a programs aimed at reduction of sexual transmission.
decade, despite a continued rise in child mortality rates in
many poor countries. 3) Removing other impediments to integrated programming and
fully informed choices; ensure active integration of programs.
Some members of the non-AIDS community are concerned 4) Increasing funding for condom procurement and programs to en-
about the high visibility of HIV/AIDS, which they believe sure effective use.
siphons attention and resources away from ongoing U.S.
5) Strengthening coordination between HIV/AIDS programming and
funded development and health programs. With a tight broader sexual and reproductive health services.
budgetary environment, the challenge to balance funding
between PEPFAR and other international programs will re- 6) Increasing resources for “second wave” countries, where emerging
epidemics are still concentrated among vulnerable populations.
main.
7) Embracing the three key strategies: treat drug dependence, pro-
As PEPFAR reauthorization discussions begin, it will be vide clean needles and increase outreach.
important for both communities (HIV/AIDS and non-AIDS) 8) Promoting and supporting anti-retroviral drug therapy and other
to work together to demonstrate the linkage between HIV/ medical treatment for injection drug users.
AIDS and non-AIDS programs. It will be important to show
that all programs need to be adequately funded in order for 9) Mandating that the U.S. government provide accurate information
about the efficacy of HIV-prevention methods for intravenous drug
any one of them to be successful.
users.
These discussions also provide an opportunity to examine 10) Dramatically increasing access to services that prevent mother to
ways to better link HIV/AIDS programs with education, nu- child transmission (PMTCT), expanding them to include HIV counsel-
trition, clean water and child survival programs. HIV/AIDS ing for all women who test HIV-negative, and creating stronger link-
needs to and can be a part of a broader health and develop- ages with other programs.
ment strategy. 11) Ensuring that all prevention programs use integrated approaches
to addressing factors that underlie risks.
The next several months leading to PEPFAR reauthorization
12) Increasing support for research and development of new preven-
will be critical. These months present a tremendous opportu-
tion technologies.
nity for the community to collectively provide important feed-
back on PEPFAR. At the same time, the community will have 13) Providing PEPFAR-funded prevention and treatment services in
to evaluate the many recommendations coming out of this pro- communities participating in HIV prevention clinical trials and related
cess and determine a way to move forward collectively. research.

JUNE 2007 23
G8 SUMMIT

NGOs Press G8 to Keep Promises
By Robyn Shepherd, Media Specialist, InterAction

$30 billion over another five years. NGOs WHO estimates that countries face a
have applauded his commitment, though critical shortage of 4.25 million health
some argue that the $30 billion exten- workers.
sion will merely keep funding consistent InterAction has urged the G8 to estab-
with current levels, rather than increase lish a global initiative on strengthening
annual funds to reach more people. health systems that will assist countries
InterAction and its members have been in developing and implementing clear,
actively involved in representing the in- long-term and costed plans for expand-
terests of U.S. NGOs at this year’s G8 ing and strengthening their public health
Summit. Staff members have worked systems. This includes ensuring that fis-
with similar coalitions in counterpart cal policies are in place to enable coun-

A
G7 countries (Russia has no such coali- tries to implement health sector plans,
t press time, the leaders of the tion) to craft a group statement which including immediate revision to policies
eight wealthiest nations in the can be found on the InterAction web- that have led to hiring freezes on health
world are gathering in Heili- site. InterAction staff have also traveled workers and teachers. The plans should
gendamm, Germany for the an- to Germany to attend meetings in con- incorporate comprehensive health work-
nual G8 Summit. But they’re not alone. junction with the finance and develop- force strategies, provide for necessary
Thousands of activists, nongovernmental ment ministers’ meetings earlier in the equipment, supplies and maintenance,
organizations (NGOs), and other mem- year. InterAction’s G8 Working Group promote education necessary to change
bers of civil society are gathering to en- has crafted a statement urging the G8 to household behaviors to enhance disease
sure that the G8 upholds its responsibil- hold to their 2005 promises, and calling prevention, and address other barriers to
ity to the world’s poor. attention to four specific areas where the increasing health care coverage. The G8
Poverty eradication has emerged as a United States can once again play a lead- should work to develop bold and achiev-
main issue for G8 leaders in recent years. ership role: health systems in relation to able timelines and benchmarks towards
At the 2005 G8 Summit in Gleneagles, HIV/AIDS prevention and treatment, achieving this goal.
Scotland, G8 countries made a set of ensuring affordable medicines, peace and
historic commitments to help end ex- security, and education in Africa.
Affordable Medicines
treme poverty, especially in Africa. The
promises include: increasing develop- Drastic reductions in the price of key
Health Systems medicines are needed to maximize and
ment assistance; fighting HIV/AIDS
and malaria while strengthening health Last year in St. Petersburg, the G8 ac- sustain the impact of funding for HIV/
systems; canceling unsustainable debt of knowledged that inadequate health care AIDS, tuberculosis, malaria, and other
the poorest countries; expanding access systems and the severe shortage of health treatable diseases that are ravaging the
to education, clean water and sanitation; care workers in sub-Saharan Africa and developing world. Market competition,
and additional support for humanitarian elsewhere are compromising countries’ through the production and distribution
responses and peacekeeping work, infra- abilities to fight HIV/AIDS and meet of generic medicines, is the most effec-
structure and agricultural development. other health goals. In its 2006 commu- tive way to achieve these reductions.
Progress has been made on these com- niqué, the G8 committed to improving NGOs and public health advocates have
mitments, however much still needs to access to prevention and treatment of been working to ensure flexibilities in
be accomplished. diseases for those in need. This includes internationally-agreed upon trade regu-
assistance programs focused on strength-
The United States has taken these com- lations on intellectual property rights
ening the capacity of health systems and
mitments to heart. Major new initiatives (TRIPS) that will allow generic drugs
the training, deployment, and retention
of the Bush administration – PEPFAR to reach the poor people who need
of qualified health workers.
(the President’s Emergency Plan for them most. The G8 should provide all
AIDS Relief) and the MCA (Millennium $2 billion is needed from all sources in necessary financial, political and techni-
Challenge Account) – have resulted in a the first year of an effort to double Af- cal assistance to ensure that the TRIPS
more than doubling of aid to Africa, pro- rica’s health workforce. The U.S. share flexibilities can be used. In particular,
viding twice as much bilateral aid than of this is $650 million. According to the the G8 should review the effectiveness
any previous administration. Recently, World Health Organization (WHO), by of the TRIPS flexibilities, including the
President Bush announced that he will 2015 the annual need will reach $7 bil- WTO “Paragraph 6 Amendment” to
work with Congress to extend PEPFAR, lion simply to train and employ the ad- the TRIPS agreement. The “Paragraph
originally conceived in 2003 as a five- ditional 800,000 doctors, nurses, and 6 Amendment” is intended to facilitate
year, $15 billion initiative, to another midwives that Africa requires. Overall, the delivery of affordable medicines to

24 MONDAY DEVELOPMENTS
G8 SUMMIT
developing countries with insufficient likely to attend and succeed in school. For All and would help to ensure that all
or no domestic manufacturing capacity Providing education for girls boosts eco- children have hope and opportunity.
and to identify and resolve all obstacles nomic productivity and reduces poverty,
to their use. increases life expectancy, promotes better
Looking Ahead
management of environmental resources,
and improves the health, well-being and By publication time for this issue of
Peace and Security Monday Developments, we will know
education prospects of the next genera-
The intention of the G8 to review the tion. how much the G8 has committed to do-
progress towards meeting a 2002 com- ing its part to help those in poverty im-
We have advocated for the U.S. to com-
mitment to support the creation of an prove their lives. But the fight does not
mit to increasing basic education funding
independent African security architec- end there. NGOs and activists are already
at the G8 beyond the President’s pro-
ture is welcome. We especially support looking ahead to the 2008 Summit in
posed level through both the Fast Track
the long-term goal of strengthening the Japan. Watch InterAction’s website for
Initiative and through bilateral funding
African Union and African regional in- coverage of both this year’s Summit, and
of innovative programs. $1 billion in
stitutions in peace-building and conflict preparations for 2008 and beyond.
funding would enable significant prog-
prevention and the critical role therein of
ress to be made in achieving Education
civil society. Given the continued insecu-
rity and violence in Darfur, we appreciate
the present and planned U.S. support for
the AU, and call on the U.S. Govern-
ment to urge its G8 counterparts to pro-
vide similar financial, logistic and other
types of support.
The U.S. has taken a bolder stance on
confronting the worsening situation in
Darfur than most other nations. In light
of the President’s recent call for sanctions
on Sudanese-owned businesses, we ask
that he will use his influence on the other
G8 nations to convince them to respond
in a similar fashion.

Education
While great gains have been made in en-
suring that children worldwide have ac-
cess to an education, much more remains
to be done. 77 million children today
have no access to school. 13 percent of
the developing world’s children are not
in school. In sub-Saharan Africa that
number soars to over 34 percent. Tens
of millions drop out and hundreds of
millions are in schools where the qual-
ity is woefully inadequate. Almost half of
the children not in school are living in
countries in conflict or recovering from
conflict.
The consequences are more far-reach-
ing than just the lack of an education.
700,000 HIV infections could be pre-
vented each year by getting children in
school, providing young people with the
basic knowledge to prevent infections.
Educating girls is one of the most effec-
tive development investments. The chil-
dren of educated women have higher sur- Opposite page: Rally in London, England. Photo: courtesy of World Can’t Wait; Above: Rally in St.
vival rates, better nutrition and are more Petersburg, Russia. Photo: courtesy of Nochlezhka.

JUNE 2007 25
MDGS
Progress Toward the MDGs Is Mixed
By Hilary French, Senior Advisor for Programs, Worldwatch Institute

A
s the mid-point approaches in veloping world’s population living in 2004 than in 1990. Still, the UN De-
efforts to meet the UN Mil- extreme poverty declined from 27.9 velopment Programme estimates that at
lennium Development Goals percent in 1990 to 19.4 percent in 2002 current rates of progress the target of
(MDGs) by 2015, progress to- (the most recent year for which data are reducing the child mortality rate by two-
ward achieving them is uneven. Although available). This drop, however, was driv- thirds by 2015 will be missed by some
many countries have made important en in no small measure by particularly 4.4 million deaths that year.
strides, greater efforts by both industrial rapid progress in poverty reduction in Major challenges also remain in efforts
and developing nations are needed to ac- much of Asia. Trends have unfortunately to meet other human development goals,
celerate action. been less encouraging in other regions, such as those related to gender equity,
particularly sub-Saharan Africa, where maternal health, and deadly diseases such
World leaders first adopted the MDGs
the absolute number of people living in as HIV/AIDS, malaria and tuberculosis.
in preliminary form at the UN Millen-
extreme poverty increased by 140 mil- The World Bank reports that all regions
nium Assembly in September 2000. In
lion between 1990 and 2002 due to pop- are off track on at least some of these
addition to eight overarching goals, the
ulation growth despite a modest decline goals and that South Asia and sub-Saha-
MDGs have 18 specific targets, most of
in the overall poverty rate. If present ran Africa are off target on all of them.
which are to be achieved by 2015. These
trends continue, few African countries
include cutting poverty and hunger rates Nonetheless, there are also some encour-
are expected to meet the 2015 target for
in half from their 1990 levels, reducing aging signs. For example, the number of
income poverty.
child mortality by two-thirds, and halv- countries set to meet the goal of provid-
ing the proportion of people lacking ac- The situation is even bleaker when it ing universal primary education by 2015
cess to clean drinking water and adequate comes to hunger. Although the propor- has increased significantly since 2000,
sanitation. (See box on opposite page.) tion of people suffering from hunger and gender gaps in access to primary and
The United Nations also developed a set worldwide declined modestly over the secondary education are narrowing. The
of 48 indicators to monitor progress to- last decade, the absolute numbers are number of AIDS patients in developing
ward the MDGs. rising, with an estimated 834 million countries with access to treatment has
chronically undernourished people in increased rapidly, rising from less than
Current estimates suggest that the world
developing countries at last count. 100,000 in 2000 to nearly one million
is on track to meet the overarching in-
come poverty target: to halve by 2015 Child mortality trends are somewhat in 2005. Efforts to combat malaria by
the proportion of people living on less more positive, with 2.1 million fewer providing bednets and better treatment
than $1 per day. The share of the de- deaths among children under five in options are also expanding quickly: the

A mobile team of
volunteers makes
the round in Cubal,
Angola, to vaccinate
children under
against polio. A
devastating civil war
kept such teams from
reaching much of
rural Angola for more
than 30 years. Photo:
courtesy of David
Synder.

26 MONDAY DEVELOPMENTS
MDGS
distribution of insecticide-treated bed-
nets increased ten-fold in sub-Saharan
Africa between 1999 and 2003. Millennium Development Goals and Targets
Progress toward ensuring environmen-
1. Eradicate extreme poverty and hunger.
tal sustainability is mixed at best. The
By 2015, reduce by half both the proportion of people living on less than $1 a day
MDGs call on countries to cut in half the
and the share suffering from hunger.
proportion of people without access to
safe drinking water and adequate sanita-
2. Achieve universal primary education.
tion by 2015. Recent analyses suggest
Ensure that by 2015 all boys and girls complete a full course of primary schooling.
that the world is on track to meet the
drinking water target: the share of peo-
3. Promote gender equality and empower women.
ple using drinking water from improved
Eliminate gender disparity in primary and secondary education, preferably by 2005,
sources rose from 78 percent in 1990
and at all levels by 2015.
to 83 percent in 2004. But more than
one billion people worldwide still lack
4. Reduce child mortality.
access to an improved water supply, in-
By 2015, reduce by two thirds the mortality rate among children under five.
cluding two out of every five individuals
in sub-Saharan Africa. And as for sani-
5. Improve maternal health.
tation, the picture is substantially worse.
By 2015, reduce by three-quarters the maternal mortality rate.
Although the share of people in the de-
veloping world with access to improved
6. Combat HIV/AIDS, malaria and other diseases.
sanitation facilities increased from 49
Halt and begin to reverse the spread of HIV/AIDS, malaria, and other major diseases
percent in 1990 to 59 percent in 2004,
by 2015.
2.6 billion people still lack connections
to public sewers or even access to simple
7. Ensure environmental sustainability.
pit latrines or other improved sanitation
Integrate the principles of sustainable development into country policies and
facilities. Current estimates suggest that
programs, and reverse the loss of environmental resources. By 2015, cut in half the
the overall 2015 target for sanitation is
proportion of people without access to safe drinking water and sanitation. By 2020,
unlikely to be met.
improve significantly the lives of 100 million slum dwellers.
The MDGs also call on countries to
integrate the principles of sustainable 8. Develop a global partnership for development.
development into country policies and Develop an open trading and financial system that is rule-based, nondiscriminatory,
programs and to reverse the loss of envi- and includes a commitment to good governance, development and poverty reduction.
ronmental resources. At the 2002 World Address the special needs of least developed countries, including through tariff and
Summit on Sustainable Development quota free market access, enhanced debt relief, and more generous development
in Johannesburg, governments adopted assistance for countries committed to poverty reduction. Address the special needs
a number of related additional targets, of small island developing states and landlocked countries. Make debt sustainable,
including restoring fisheries to their increase youth employment, and provide access to essential drugs and new
maximum sustainable yields by 2015 and technologies.
significantly reducing the rate of biologi-
cal diversity loss by 2010. But progress SOURCE: United Nations
toward these goals has been inadequate.
Jeffrey Sachs, who for several years was
Special Advisor for the MDGs to UN developing countries has risen steadily increase in ODA since 1997 and three
Secretary-General Kofi Annan, recently since 1997, reaching $106 billion in quarters of it in 2005. Although this has
noted that there was little awareness of 2005. But aid expenditures continue to contributed to a steady reduction in debt
the 2010 biological diversity target and be unequally distributed, in part due to service payments for 29 heavily indebted
that the goal was not being achieved. He political calculations. More than 60 per- poor countries since 1998, there is no
called the environment the biggest chal- cent of the increase in official develop- guarantee that it will continue or that
lenge facing humanity and noted that ment assistance (ODA) between 2001 governments will channel the savings
gains against poverty could be “washed and 2004 went to just three countries: into efforts to meet the MDGs.
away” by forces such as tropical storms, Afghanistan, the Democratic Republic of
massive flooding, droughts, loss of snow Congo and Iraq, which between them
melt and desertification. are home to fewer than three percent
Efforts to develop a global partnership of the developing world’s impoverished
for development have also been uneven. people. Furthermore, stepped-up debt
On the encouraging side, donor aid to relief has accounted for over half of the

JUNE 2007 27
MCA
The Millennium Challenge Account and NGO Priorities
By Christopher Vincent, Director, Congressional Relations/International Affairs, Habitat for Humanity

F
or the past five years, over 40 successful in improving the MCA’s effec- the tools they need to climb out of pov-
nongovernmental organizations tiveness, sharpening its focus on poverty erty. In the same way, development pro-
(NGOs) have participated in reduction, and building support for the grams should empower countries with
InterAction’s Working Group on program both within the NGO commu- the tools that will allow them to become
the Millennium Challenge Account and nity and in Congress. HFH also contin- economically self-sufficient. The MCA’s
have been helping shape, impact and ues to encourage its national offices and unique approach to economic growth
advocate around what some have called other local NGOs to engage locally as and poverty reduction seeks to do just
one of the most significant develop- the MCA works with countries to devel- that.
ment programs since the Marshall Plan. op and implement agreements. This is not to say that self-sufficiency will
Habitat for Humanity, while best known be either simple or quick through the
for building affordable housing in the Ownership as an Empowering MCA. Nor is this to say that the MCA
United States, has a significant interna- Principle replaces other important development
tional presence with programs in over 90
HFH has supported the MCA since its in- programs. It has, however, demonstrated
countries and participates in the working
ception because of two of the program’s great potential as an additional, innova-
group because of its broader interests in
guiding principles: country ownership tive and highly effective tool of U.S. for-
reducing poverty through long-term de-
and a longer-term commitment to de- eign assistance.
velopment strategies.
veloping national self-sufficiency. These
are two key principles that most develop- Impacting the Development of
Background ment organizations believe are a pre-req- the MCA
In January 2004, President Bush signed uisite for sustainable development.
When the MCA was created, a board of
into law bipartisan legislation creating the HFH believes strongly in the country- directors and the implementing agency,
Millennium Challenge Account (MCA). driven compact development process. the Millennium Challenge Corporation
The MCA was developed, as stated in the Just as HFH believes that homeowner- (MCC), immediately put the legislation
legislation, to provide assistance “in a man- ship – or at least security of tenure – gives into practice. Getting an organization
ner that promotes economic growth and people a stake in their own communities, off the ground is never easy, and, as ex-
the elimination of extreme poverty and country ownership of development assis- pected, in the first few years a great deal
strengthens good governance, economic tance ensures citizens a stake in the future of time was spent on the MCC building
freedom and investments in people.” of their own countries. The MCA takes its own institutional capacity. HFH has
Over the past three years, the MCA has the country
awarded over $3 billion in grants to 11 driven process
countries in Africa, Central America, very seriously; How is it making a difference?
Eurasia and the Pacific – all to countries and while there
that passed the MCA’s unique selec- is always room In Madagascar, almost 2,000 local farmers and enterprises
tion process that uses third party indica- for improve- have received technical assistance from six new agricultural
tors focused on key issues to determine ment, the prin- business centers. Another 225 farmers have been trained to tap
eligibility. The MCA has also signed ciple of having into microfinance credit. The first MCC-funded “guichet foncier”
threshold agreements with 13 countries these countries (local land office) was officially inaugurated on May 20, 2006; and
for over $310 million. Through these develop, im- 353 land certificates have been issued to date (30 percent to
agreements, countries commit to make plement and be women).
the reforms necessary to qualify to en- held account- In Georgia, projects have begun to rehabilitate municipal water
ter into MCA compacts. Thus far, both able for their supplies in two cities that serve 230,000 people.
types of MCA agreements have improved own develop-
people’s lives through anti-corruption, ment priorities In Nicaragua, the first 26 “clean” land titles have been awarded
health care, infrastructure development, is one that the to beneficiaries, many of which went to female landowners
press freedom, education, land reform, NGO commu- When El Salvador reduced the number of days needed to
agriculture development, and financial nity has long complete the approval process to start a business from 115
sector reform initiatives. supported. to 26 in order to improve their eligibility for the MCA, business
Habitat for Humanity (HFH) has tracked Secondly, HFH registrations jumped by 500 percent.
the MCA since prior to the passage of appreciates the MCC is working with the government of Lesotho to ensure
the legislation in 2003, and has been a importance of that gender equality in the area of economic rights is legally
member of InterAction’s MCA Working a longer-term guaranteed before signing a MCA compact. In Lesotho, married
Group since early 2004. The working approach to women traditionally have been considered legal minors. However,
group gives participating organizations a development the Lesotho parliament recently enacted a law ending the minority
channel through which to provide feed- with the goal
status of married women, a key milestone in Lesotho’s MCA
back to and to participate in dialogue of empowering
compact development process.
with the MCC. These efforts have been families with

28 MONDAY DEVELOPMENTS
MCA
focused on ensuring that as the MCA
Which countries, how much, and for what?
matures organizationally, it develops in a The MCA provides grants to countries through either a compact agreement or a
fashion that best serves the needs of the threshold agreement.
world’s poor.
To be eligible to sign a compact agreement, a country must demonstrate
One specific change to the MCA of inter- commitment to policies that promote political and economic freedom,
est to NGOs was a 2006 change to the investments in people, control of corruption, and respect for civil liberties
MCA selection criteria to include a natu- and the rule of law. This is done using 16 third-party global policy indicators.
ral resource management index – feature Countries must pass a majority of the 16 indicators to be considered for MCC
sought by NGOs since the MCA’s incep- eligibility.
tion. The Natural Resource Management
(NRM) Index measures a government’s Countries with Signed Compacts (most are 5 year agreements): Armenia ($235
commitment to water resources, sewage million), Benin ($307 million), Cape Verde ($110 million), El Salvador ($460
disposal, air quality, habitat preservation million), Georgia ($295 million), Ghana ($547 million), Honduras ($215 million),
and biodiversity protection. The poor Madagascar ($110 million), Mali ($460 million), Nicaragua ($175 million), and
are often both dependent on natural Vanuatu ($65 million).
resources for their livelihoods and also The Threshold Program assists countries that are close to qualifying for full MCA
most effected by environmental degra- compact funding and demonstrate a significant commitment to improving their
dation. Thus, sound natural resource performance on the eligibility criteria. Threshold agreements often focus on
management is essential to helping the specific policy reforms that will help countries meet the threshold and become
world’s poor. eligible for more significant compact funding.
The MCA also introduced a land rights Threshold Program Countries with Signed Agreements: Albania ($13 million),
and access index. Simply put, it mea- Burkina Faso ($13 million), Indonesia ($55 million), Jordan ($25 million), Kenya
sures to what extent governments are ($12.7 million), Malawi ($21 million), Moldova ($24.7 million), Paraguay ($34
investing in secure tenure. HFH has wel- million), Philippines ($21 million), Tanzania ($11 million), Uganda ($10 million),
comed this inclusion. Access to land by
Ukraine ($44 million), and Zambia ($22 million)
the world’s poor is an important step in
helping them invest in their own lives. It
also creates incentives that not only help
improve shelter conditions, but also im- other.” The working group continues to the past two years. Unfortunately, indi-
prove living conditions for the broader push the MCA to strengthen its focus on cations suggest Congress will approve a
community. poverty reduction, primarily by giving its similar funding level for 2008. The im-
poverty reduction analysis equal weight pact of a flat budget will be felt most by
The NGO community’s biggest MCA as its analysis of the economic rate of re- the countries that have worked hardest
success this past year is the new gender turn. to become MCA eligible with the ex-
policy adopted in January 2007. The pectation of being rewarded with a sig-
concept was promoted by InterAction nificant MCA grant. A flat budget would
member Women’s Edge and supported MCA and Legislative Issues
also impair the “MCC effect”: that is, the
by the working group. Under the new HFH and the InterAction working group incentive the MCA selection process cre-
policy, all compacts must go through a are closely tracking the MCA reauthori- ates for countries to make serious policy
gender analysis of the social roles and zation process. While the MCA does reforms in order to gain MCA eligibil-
responsibilities assigned to women and not technically need to be reauthorized ity and funding. If MCA funding does
men and their ability to access and con- (re-approved) by Congress to continue not materialize for eligible countries, the
trol resources – a step that has been receiving funding, some interest does incentive to make those policy reforms
shown to help international development appear to exist in Congress to reautho- evaporates.
efforts meet their objectives by produc- rize the program. Last fall, the MCA was
ing better-designed projects, and better nearly reauthorized with a few signifi-
potential outcomes for both sexes. cant changes that had the support of the Future of the MCA
Another primary goal for HFH and the working group, including language that What does the future hold for the MCA?
InterAction working group is strength- would have changed the MCA’s purpose There is no doubt that the MCA has
ening the focus on poverty reduction. from promoting “economic growth and been a successful international develop-
In the early days, the MCA focused pri- the elimination of extreme poverty” to ment experiment. It has also innovatively
marily on economic growth. However, reducing “poverty through sustainable, created an incentive for non-participat-
in the past year or more, under the new broad-based economic growth.” Wheth- ing countries to make significant reforms
leadership of MCC CEO Ambassador er reauthorization will be on the con- in hopes of qualifying for future MCA
John Danilovich, and with a constant in- gressional agenda this year remains to be compacts. If the MCA is to survive and
put from the InterAction working group seen. If it does, strengthening the MCA’s grow, however, these successes must be
and others in the development commu- focus on poverty reduction will again be bolstered by demonstrable progress in
nity, the focus on poverty reduction has a top priority for the working group. poverty reduction in countries now im-
clearly strengthened. The MCA’s own plementing MCA programs. HFH and
The original MCA funding plan fore-
guidance now states that the MCC seeks the InterAction working group will con-
saw rapidly increasing investments to
“programs with both high poverty reduc- tinue to monitor and work to improve
$5 billion annually. In reality, the MCA
tion impact and high economic return at the MCA in order to improve the lives of
has been under-funded each year, with a
the same time, rather than one or the as many of the world’s poor as possible.
budget of close to $1.7 billion each of

JUNE 2007 29
INSIDE OUR
COMMUNITY “It has truly been a great honor to have led IFES for nearly two
decades and a real pleasure to have worked with the wonderful
IFES staff and all of our partners around the globe,” said outgoing
Peace Corps Volunteers Turned Entrepreneurs Give president Soudriette. “I wish to express my appreciation to the
Profiles in Audio Interviews IFES founder and first chairman, the late F. Clifton White, for
Social Edge and the National Peace Corps Association (NPCA) his confidence in giving me the opportunity to play a role in the
have collaborated to produce a weekly series of downloadable spread of democracy.”
audio interviews in which former Peace Corps volunteers tell Kingsley and Soudriette will be honored for their contributions
about their lives as social entrepreneurs. to democracy at a private reception at the Argentine Embassy
The downloadable audio profiles, along with background June 4.
information on each entrepreneur, are available at http://www.
socialedge.org/features/peace-corps-entrepreneurs. The free
podcasts are also available on iTunes. The audio interviews
PCI Changes Name to PCI-Media Impact
average around ten minutes running time. Population Communications International (PCI), a global not-
for-profit producer of TV and radio shows in over 25 countries,
“These are amazing and inspirational stories of how individuals
announced today that it has changed its name to PCI-Media
use the Peace Corps experience to develop the skills, habits
Impact. PCI-Media Impact will continue to use the power
and aptitude to be effective agents for positive social change,”
of storytelling and the reach of broadcast media to improve
says NPCA President Kevin Quigley. “These Peace Corps
people’s health, promote human rights, and foster social change
entrepreneurs exemplify what our community is fundamentally
worldwide.
about – innovation leading to change that makes a difference.”
“I am delighted we are now making the name change official,”
Social Edge, a program of the Skoll Foundation, is a global online
said Mike Castlen, PCI-Media Impact’s Executive Director.
community where tens of thousands of social entrepreneurs and
“While PCI maintained a well-recognized brand for over twenty
other practitioners in the social benefit sector connect to network,
years, our new name truly reflects our belief that creative media
learn, inspire and share best practices. The program targets social
can address the concerns of people living in the world’s neediest
entrepreneurs with limited access to other local resources due to
places.”
the nature of their work or their location (developing countries
or rural areas). Social Edge was intrigued to explore the thread In the past year, 31 PCI-Media Impact shows have been
of social entrepreneurship that is woven through generations of on the air in nine Latin American countries. The successful
former Peace Corps volunteers. My Community media platform has rapidly expanded the
organization’s programming network. PCI-Media Impact has
“They’re not well known, but they are having a huge impact,”
also broadened its regional initiatives with Peru-based partner,
says Victor d’Allant, Executive Director of Social Edge. “Those
Calandria, by jointly developing new entertainment-education
stories need to be told, and they are being told on Social Edge
programs and formats through TV, radio and the Internet.
right now. These returned Peace Corps volunteers can be models
Finally, its partnership with the Red + Hot Organization – which
for how one individual can make a significant contribution to
agreed to lend a portion of its impressive archive of popular hit
society. They are true heroes.”
songs to PCI-Media Impact’s radio and TV shows – has enriched
and reinforced the storytelling experience.
IFES Names Kingsley New President Since its founding, PCI-Media Impact has co-produced more
Jean-Pierre Kingsley, the former Chief Electoral Officer of than 75 radio and TV programs in 27 countries, reaching an
Canada, will become the new president of IFES on June 5. estimated audience of 153 million people worldwide in the last
He replaces Richard Soudriette, who led the international three years alone. New programs and partnerships in Africa,
democracy-building organization for 19 of its 20 years. Central Asia and Eastern Europe are being planned.

Kingsley joined the IFES board of directors in 1992 and has PCI-Media Impact’s redesigned website will launch this summer
participated in numerous IFES missions and conferences. at www.pci-mediaimpact.org.
During his tenure at Elections Canada, Kingsley established
the country’s first computerized National Register of Electors,
recommended and oversaw sweeping changes to the Canadian International Budget Project Newsletter
Elections Act, and led high-profile international missions, most
recently election observation and monitoring missions in Haiti The International Budget Project Newsletter keeps subscribers up
and Iraq. to date on current trends in civil society budget work, innovative
research, and public finance literature from around the world.
Prior to becoming Canada’s elections chief, Kingsley had a This electronic newsletter publishes six issues per year in English,
distinguished career in the government and health care sectors, French, Russian, and Spanish and is distributed in 150 countries.
notably as Executive Director of Edmonton’s Charles Camsell The newsletter builds its content from news, interviews, case
Hospital, President and Chief Executive Officer of the Ottawa studies, and updates from organizations in Latin America and the
General Hospital and Chairman of the Board of the Montfort Caribbean, North America and the Pacific, East and South Asia,
Hospital in Ottawa. Kingsley earned a bachelor’s degree in Central Asia and the Middle East, Africa, and Europe. To read the
commerce and a master’s degree in hospital administration from latest issue go to: http://www.internationalbudget.org/resources/
the University of Ottawa. Before his graduate studies, Kingsley newsletter37.htm. To subscribe to the newsletter, send an email to
worked for a year with IBM and more than a year with Travelers info@internationalbudget.org.
Insurance.

30 MONDAY DEVELOPMENTS
InterAction Issues Statement on
President’s Renewed AIDS Plan
As the largest coalition of U.S.-based non- Women Deliver Conference Set for
governmental organizations engaged in re- October 18-20 in London
lief and development overseas, InterAction
A strong call will go out this October from London’s Excel Conference
applauds President Bush for demonstrating
his renewed commitment to HIV/AIDS Center to heads of state, finance and health ministers, UN agencies, NGOs
funding in developing countries by an- and governments: Invest in women – it pays! This theme captures a simple
nouncing his five-year, $30 billion AIDS fact: women’s health and rights are critical to the well-being of families,
plan. InterAction also appreciates his asser- communities and nations – economically, politically, and socially – and are
tion that HIV/AIDS prevention goes hand-
essential for reducing maternal and newborn deaths.
in-hand with other development initiatives,
such as providing an education to boys and Women Deliver will showcase ways the international community can deliver
girls around the world. on the promises of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs), as well as
While InterAction is pleased that President those of the International Conference on Population and Development.
Bush has renewed his commitment to the These include mobilizing political will, financial resources and partnerships,
global fight against HIV/AIDS, we recog- especially those involving business, health care professionals, policy-makers
nize that $30 billion over five years implies
and young people.
that annual funding would plateau only
slightly above the fiscal year 2008 level. Women Deliver will advance a common goal of promoting cooperation,
InterAction urges the President to use his collaboration and participation across and between sectors (including health,
leadership to achieve a more comprehen-
education, human rights, and poverty reduction) in ensuring the survival and
sive approach to HIV/AIDS, other global
health issues and poverty alleviation. As well-being of women, especially mothers.
development and humanitarian workers, our Why Now? Economies need healthy women and families. Women Deliver
members have extensive experience work-
marks the 20th anniversary of the Safe Motherhood Initiative. Participants
ing with local communities on HIV/AIDS
and other development and humanitarian will be asked to imagine a world where women can choose motherhood
issues. Based on that experience, InterAc- without risking their lives or well-being. Discussions will focus the ways in
tion believes that for the President’s Plan for which investments in safe motherhood not only improve a woman’s health
AIDS Relief (PEPFAR) to truly achieve its and the health of her family but also increase labor supply, productive
goal, the HIV/AIDS pandemic must be ad- capacity, and the economic well being of the country.
dressed within a comprehensive approach to
improving people’s lives. This includes ac- The fifth MDG (cutting maternal mortality ratios by 75 percent by 2015) is
cess to child and maternal healthcare, food, often called the heart of the MDGs, because maternal health underpins all
potable water, disaster assistance and em- the other MDGs. When a woman dies during pregnancy or in childbirth, the
ployment.
consequences for her family, her community and her country are dire and
InterAction calls on the Bush Administra- far-reaching, especially for younger children – and most especially for girls,
tion to also show leadership on strengthen-
who are often pulled out of school and required to fill their mothers’ shoes in
ing our government’s commitment to im-
proving health systems and helping people the household.
improve the quality and safety of their lives. About 10 million women and girls in each generation die during pregnancy or
The President is right to emphasize the role delivery. Nearly all these deaths are preventable. While one in seven women
of the U.S. as a leader in HIV/AIDS fund-
is at risk of dying from those factors in Afghanistan, only one in 30,000 is at
ing, economic development, and the devel-
opment of alternative energy sources. While risk in Sweden. This is the largest rich-poor disparity in all of public health.
slightly increasing and extending current The conference planning committee includes the Dutch Ministry of Foreign
PEPFAR funding levels is laudable, more
Affairs, International Planned Parenthood Federation, Norwegian Agency
resources must also be made available to
achieve a truly comprehensive approach to for Development Cooperation, Partnership for Maternal, Newborn & Child
fighting HIV/AIDS, as well as achieving ef- Health, Save the Children, Swedish International Development Cooperation
fective poverty-focused development. Agency, UK Department for International Development, UNICEF, UNFPA,
U.S. Agency for International Development, World Bank, and World Health
Organization; Family Care International serves as the organizing partner. The
For more information on a development
approach to HIV/AIDS, please read advisory committee includes more than 40 NGOs.
InterAction’s report at http://www. To register and for more on the conference, visit www.womendeliver.org.
interaction.org/development/HIV_AIDS_
paper.html

JUNE 2007 31
Interested in placing a job announcements or advertisement? Email publications@interaction.org

three years experience related to health pro- strong organizational skills, the successful

POSITION
grams preferred; Spanish language skills a candidate will ensure that documents are in
plus. Compensation: Salary commensurate compliance with EGPAF and sponsor regula-
with experience. Excellent employee ben- tions and complete and accurate for obliga-
efits. For prompt consideration, please email tion; maintain filing system for documents

ANNOUNCEMENTS cover letter, resume and salary requirement
to hrresumes@cmmb.org or fax to 212-645-
1485, attention Human Resources.
and ensure that files are complete and in or-
der as well as maintain/update systems for
tracking C&G department tasks/documents.
Bachelor’s degree required, with a minimum
Director, New Business Development >
Director of Global Outreach > Washington, Millwood, VA of 3 years experience in administration of
DC Project HOPE, an international, non-profit federally-funded international cooperative
The Women’s Edge Coalition is a cutting- agreement(s). Knowledge of federal regula-
health education organization seeks results-
edge, results-oriented organization working tions and policies associated with federal.
oriented professional for the position of Di-
to make U.S. foreign assistance and trade Proficient computer/software skills required,
rector, New Business Development. This high
policy improve the lives of women in pov- including a command of word processing and
profile position interacts with CEO, COO and
erty around the world. Edge is searching for spreadsheet programs. Prior experience in an
senior management of the foundation. Suc-
a Director of Global Outreach who will de- international non- profit strongly preferred. If
cessful candidate will have the demonstrated
velop of a global research survey and work you are interested in applying for this posi-
ability to lead business intelligence efforts;
with international partner organizations on tion, please visit http://www.pedaids.org to
facilitate proposal development; establish
advocacy and capacity building. Must have submit your application. EOE.
USAID linkages, and increase teaming op-
10 years experience working in the field of portunities with other non federal agencies. Director, Major Gifts and Gift Planning >
gender and/or development; minimum Bach- Proven ability to identify and acquire new Yarmouth Port, MA
elor’s degree and be fluent in English, as well business is essential. The successful candi- The International Fund for Animal Welfare
as French and/or Spanish. Extensive travel date will have: Demonstrated success in pro- works to improve the welfare of wild and do-
required for this position (30% time). To ap- posal development and acquisition of govern- mestic animals throughout the world. Head-
ply please email cover letter and resume to ment and bi-multi-lateral awards. Ability to quartered in Yarmouth Port, MA, IFAW has
Ritu Sharma Fox at rsharma@womensedge. quickly analyze business opportunities and offices in 16 countries worldwide. Reporting
org. For a full job description go to: www. determine most effective/efficient solution to the Director of Resource Development,
womensedge.org. to follow through. Experience with and thor- the Director of Major Gifts and Gift Plan-
Program Coordinator > Washington, DC ough knowledge of the Government Procure- ning oversees the U.S. major giving pro-
The Riecken Foundation is a non-profit inter- ment Process. Minimum 10 years progressive gram, supervises a staff of five (including 1
national foundation dedicated to promoting experience in international health including in Washington, DC and 1 in Los Angeles) and
prosperity and democracy in Central America specific experience in working in an NGO, manages a portfolio of major gifts prospects.
by building and supporting rural community including field experience, project manage- Approximately 25% of the time involves trav-
libraries. The foundation is seeking an ener- ment and leadership skills, problem solving el within New England and to California des-
getic and creative Program Coordinator to de- and analytical skills. Bachelor’s degree; a tinations. Successful candidates will possess
sign curricula, facilitate trainings, and develop Master’s or Ph.D. preferred. Candidate must 10 years increasingly responsible fundraising
manuals and publications. Qualifications in- have extraordinary communication and rela- experience, a successful record raising six-
clude training and program development and tionship skills, with track record of successful figure gifts, superior staff management skills,
Spanish and English fluency. The position is relationships with stakeholders, teambuilding and a deep appreciate for the mission. For
based in Washington, DC, with frequent trav- and report writing skills. Some international more information: www.ifaw.org and www.
el to Central America. Master’s degree in rel- travel required. English fluency required; oth- developmentguild.com. Send confidential re-
evant field preferred. For more information, er language(s) preferred. This position will be sumes to: ifaw@developmentguild.com.
visit www.riecken.org. Email cover letter and located at our headquarters in Millwood, Vir- Director and Chief of Party, Education
resume to jobsdc@riecken.org. ginia. To be considered for this position you Project > Pakistan
must be eligible to work and live in the US.
Program Manager, Latin America and Asia To apply: Complete an online application at
Save the Children, a leading U.S. and interna-
> New York, NY www.projecthope.org. We value diversity and
tional child-focused relief and development
Responsibilities: This professional will pro- agency seeks a Director to be responsible
encourage all qualified individuals to apply.
vide support for CMMB’s child survival, for the overall management of a USAID-
EOE/M/F/D/V.
HIV treatment and public health programs funded Cooperative Agreement. S/he will
in five Latin American countries and two Grants Administrator > Washington, DC provide strategic and operational leadership
countries in Asia by: providing day-to-day Elizabeth Glaser Pediatric AIDS Founda- to develop and implement the project and
follow-up with country programs, working tion. The Grants Administrator will work will work in Sindh and Balochistan as well
with in-country and headquarters leadership with Contracts and Grants (C&G) staff in as the Federally Administered Tribal Areas
to advocate for program needs, processing Washington and Africa administering all as- (FATA) to strengthen community participa-
financial information, assuring timely report- pects of grants and cooperative agreements, tion, develop capacities of School Manage-
ing and adherence to requirements for grants, from pre-award through close-out. Respon- ment Committees and build partnerships for
liaison with donors, and promote adherence sibilities include: guide and assist in the de- school improvement between communities,
to the organization’s strategic plan. This po- velopment and preparation of cooperative government and other organizations work-
sition reports to the Director of Program Op- agreements/grants, budgets, amendments, ing to improve education in Pakistan. The
erations. Requirements: Overseas experience and donor approvals; analyze and evaluate project will emphasize measurable improve-
in humanitarian aid; Experience with U.S. budget submissions for correct calculation of ments in access and quality and is expected
government and foundation grants; Knowl- expenditure categories and ensure that EG- to have national and international partners.
edge of basic financial processes; Bachelors PAF-funded budgets contain only allowable, Responsibilities include leading the project’s
Degree, RN or MPH preferred and at least allocable, and reasonable line items. Using strategic, financial, and operational planning;

32 MONDAY DEVELOPMENTS
Interested in placing a job announcements or advertisement? Email publications@interaction.org

supervision; and representing the project with as team leader and counsel to guide and co-
USAID, Government of Pakistan, donors, and ordinate the policy and communications
partners. Requires Advanced degree in educa- programs of Oxfam America. Requirements:
tion, development, or related field; minimum Master’s degree in a development-related
8-10 years’ experience managing overseas, discipline, business administration, or policy.
multi-partner development programs; expe- Minimum fifteen (15) years experience in in-
rience managing large field programs with ternational development, designing and man-
multiple local and international partners, with aging development programs at not-for-profit
expertise in scaling up programs in complex organizations, preferably with some experi-
environments; demonstrated skills in strategic ence in distance management. For a complete
planning, management, and budgeting; expe- job description, please view our website at
rience implementing school improvement http://www.oxfamamerica.org/whoweare/
programs in partnership with government, jobs/positions. Please send cover letter and
communities, and NGOs; familiarity with resume to: jobs@oxfamamerica.org. Subject
USAID regulations and policies; extensive line: Please state SC-VP.
experience in South Asia, with experience in Consultant > Cambridge, MA
Pakistan preferred; and fluency in English; UUSC seeks short-term, external consulting
with proficiency in Urdu desirable. Excel- support to carry out the mid-term assessment
lent oral and written communication skills. of its organizational strategic plan. The con-
Please visit our Career Website at http:// sultant should have extensive grounding in
www.savethechildren.org/careers/index.asp strategic planning, particularly in the non-
and apply online to position #3347. Save the profit setting. Significant operational and
Children offers comprehensive benefits and policy-related experience with human-rights,
competitive salaries. EOE M/F/D/V/. advocacy, or campaigning organizations is
Director of Development & required. Expertise in carrying out collab-
Communications > New York, NY orative, utilization-focused assessments and
Action Against Hunger- (ACF-USA) seeks an evaluations is preferred. Details of this excit-
experienced and dynamic fund development ing assignment can be found at http://www.
professional to join its senior management uusc.org/info/consultant.html. Expressions
team in NYC. ACF-USA provides humanitar- of interest should be sent to spassessment@
ian relief in nutrition, health, water/sanitation, uusc.org, before 30 June 2007. Supporting
and food security worldwide. Working with documentation should include the consul-
the ED and the board of directors, the suc- tant’s CV, and a cover letter summarizing a
cessful candidate will oversee external com- proposed approach, relevant experience, and
munications and all aspects of fund develop- estimated fees.
ment to expand ACF-USA’s growing support Executive Director > Washington, DC
among individuals, foundations, corporations Voices on the Border, a small, progressive
and institutional donors. To apply, send a cov- nonprofit working in El Salvador, seeks an
er letter, resume and salary expectations to Executive Director, responsible for the over-
Action Against Hunger, Attn: Director of Hu- all management and development of the or-
man Resources, reference: DevComDir2007 ganization. Must have 2+ years progressive
to jobs@actionagainsthunger.org. Please vis- nonprofit experience, familiarity with Central
it http://www.actionagainsthunger.org/jobs/ America, Spanish proficiency, fundraising ex-
positions.html for more information. perience, ability to be a self-starter and main-
Senior Counsel to the Vice President > Bos- tain office systems and website, willingness
ton, MA to travel. Pays $30,000 plus health benefits.
Email cover letter (including a personal state-
Background: Oxfam America is an interna-
ment on why you want to work in solidarity
tional relief and development organization
with the rural poor of El Salvador), résumé,
that seeks long-term solutions to global pov-
three references, and a 2-page writing sample
erty and injustice. Its annual budget is $40
(on a relevant theme) to votbdirector@yahoo.
million; it has 200 employees located in Bos-
com. Position open until filled.
ton, Washington DC, and seven regional field
offices. Oxfam America is part of a confed- Senior Proposal Manager > Baltimore, MD
eration of 13 Oxfam affiliates with combined JHPIEGO, an affiliate of Johns Hopkins Uni-
revenues of $500 million. Responsibilities: versity, seeks a Senior Proposal Manager to
The Senior Counsel to the Vice President focus on complex procurements and proposal
for Policy and Communications will provide development processes. The position requires
strategic and conceptual leadership for the a Masters degree or related work equivalence,
organization’s policy, advocacy, campaign- and demonstrated success winning competi-
ing, communications, and private sector en- tive procurements from the USG and other
gagement activities. S/he will maximize the agencies. See www.jhpiego.org for details and
positioning, content, quality and impact of apply at hr@jhpiego.net. Johns Hopkins Uni-
Oxfam’s policy, advocacy, campaigns, com- versity is an Equal Opportunity Employer.
munications, and private sector work. S/he
will also acts as a coach and mentor as well

JUNE 2007 33
Interested in placing a job announcements or advertisement? Email publications@interaction.org

“The mission of Medical Teams International
is to demonstrate the love of Christ to people
affected by
disaster, conflict and poverty.”

- Distribution Coordinator
- Community Health/Behavior Change
Specialist
- Senior Advisor Health/Child Survival

Visit our website at www.medicalteams.org for
further information.
Medical Teams International, 14150 S.W.
Milton Ct. Portland, OR 97224

34 MONDAY DEVELOPMENTS
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Vice President - International Programs
ARC International Headquarters
Minneapolis, Minnesota

The American Refugee Committee (ARC) is seeking a dynamic leader to execute its new multi-year program plan, build programming excellence,
and deliver managed growth. ARC is an international nonprofit, nonsectarian organization that has provided humanitarian assistance and training
to millions of beneficiaries over the last 27 years.

The Vice President for International Operations will provide executive leadership to the organization’s program functions through results based
management and stewardship practices. Key responsibilities include developing strategies for obtaining new programming opportunities; acquiring
resources from public and private donors; ensuring program quality and effectiveness; developing ARC capacity in early warning preparedness and
situational analysis concerning global humanitarian assistance; representing ARC to domestic and international communities relevant to refugee,
IDP, and vulnerable populations; building a functional ARC rapid response capacity; overseeing program finances, and supervising and developing
senior program staff.

The successful candidate will have: A minimum of 10 years work experience in the humanitarian and international development field including
5 to 10 years of senior program management experience with an international NGO, demonstrating a collaborative and empowering management
style. Extensive experience with the Office of Foreign Disaster Assistance and the Bureau of Population, Refugees and Migration and with major
donors such as USAID, DFID, UNHCR, or as a USAID employee, and a demonstrated capacity to secure program funding from private and public
sources. Expert knowledge of the principal players, issues, policies and trends in the international humanitarian arena. A broad working under-
standing of global relief, transitional, and development programming, participatory methods, strategic and operational planning, monitoring and
evaluation, proposal writing, budgeting, and fundraising. Experience managing/working in emergency humanitarian operations and skills in capac-
ity building and partnership development. Proven experience managing a large staff and providing leadership and guidance to subordinates. Ability
to work as a team player. Proven strategic thinking, problem solving and conflict management skills; strong organizational, and communication
skills and aptitude for self-initiative, resourcefulness and innovation. Availability for frequent travel, sometimes at short notice.

To apply for this position please send your CV and cover letter to: vpinternationalprograms@archq.org
To see a complete job description please visit our website at www.arcrelief.org and click on “employment”.
ARC is an Equal Opportunity Employer

Deputy Director, Bolivia
Location: La Paz, Bolivia
Save the Children, a leading international relief and development agency striving to improve the lives of women and children
in need around the world, seeks a strong Deputy Country Director (DCD) for its Bolivia Country Office who will also
manage food security programs in Bolivia. The DCD will be responsible for managing and maintaining official contacts for
the FY2002-2008 USAID Development Activity Program (DAP), and leading the effort to obtain new sources of support for
food security-related activities. The DCD will also assist with other Country Office management tasks such as implementing
program strategies, managing staff, donor communications, and overseeing financial and administrative aspects of the
program.

Qualified candidates must possess a Master’s degree in a related field, and food security program management experience
is required. A minimum of five years of international development experience, three years of experience working in a
developing country, and experience managing USAID funded programs and specifically Food for Peace funded programs is
important. Experience overseeing or managing financial, administrative, and logistical systems, and experience managing
teams is also required. Solid written and verbal communication skills, and Spanish language proficiency is critical for
success. 30% of his/her time will be spent traveling in rural impact areas.

Please visit our Career Website at http://www.savethechildren.org/careers/index.asp and apply online for position #3335.
EOE

JUNE 2007 35
Interested in placing a job announcements or advertisement? Email publications@interaction.org

Country Representative, Afghanistan

The Asia Foundation is seeking a Country Representative for its office in Afghanistan. The Country Representative is the senior most Foundation
employee in country, and accountable for all Foundation programs, operations and external relations in accordance with Foundation strategies
and policy guidelines; ensuring that the Afghanistan office’s financial and administrative operations are effectively managed; developing and
implementing effective fundraising strategies; maintaining appropriate professional relations with the Afghanistan government, diplomatic
missions, donors, national and international organizations, partner organizations and the media; evaluating and reporting on the results of the
Foundation’s programs in Afghanistan to headquarters and relevant donors; and conducting sensitive and appropriate public relations activities in
support of the Afghanistan program. The Country Representative reports to the Vice President of Field Operations and will supervise expatriate and
local staff and consultants.

Currently, the Foundation’s program in Afghanistan has an annual budget of approximately $11 million and a staffing complement of 100 national
and international employees and consultants. Program goals are focused on strengthening institutions of government, broadening and deepening
political participation, advancement of Afghan women, and improving the quality of and access to higher education.

Requirements: Minimum ten years of progressively responsible professional experience in international development or foreign affairs in Asia
with private, public, bi-lateral or multi-lateral development institutions and non-profit organizations. Proven track record in program development
and broad-based fundraising. Strong team-building, representational and diplomacy skills required. Demonstrated management skills and
experience supervising multi-disciplinary and multi-cultural teams; strong analytical and problem-solving skills; excellent verbal and written
communication skills, including public speaking experience; proven interpersonal and intercultural skills, including flexibility and sensitivity.
Living and working experience in Asia highly preferred. Knowledge of Pashto and/or Dari language skills desirable. Master’s degree, or earned
doctorate in a field related to Foundation interests.

We offer excellent benefits and salary commensurate with experience. Please submit your application directly by visiting our website: www.
asiafoundation.org and selecting “Employment Opportunities”. The application deadline is June 15, 2007.

The Asia Foundation is an equal opportunity employer. Women and people of color are encouraged to apply. For information on The Asia
Foundation, please visit our website: www.asiafoundation.org. No phone calls please.

36 MONDAY DEVELOPMENTS
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Consultant Opportunities

The International Rescue Committee (IRC) provides support to conflict- The International Rescue Committee responds to the world’s
affected communities in over 25 countries. The IRC is experiencing worst crises, helping refugees running from the horrors of war
tremendous growth in its large scale, post-conflict programming and and persecution. We rescue their lives with immediate relief.
seeks qualified professionals for long and short- term consultancies in
the following sectors: education, health, economic development and We rescue their futures by supporting them through recovery
governance (community-based governance, civil society development, and toward renewal. We rescue their freedom, enabling those given
access to justice). The IRC is committed to a culture of bold leadership, a new home in the U.S. to become settled and self-reliant.
innovation, creative partnerships and results-based management. For 75 years, the IRC has been raising alarms with a global
call to action and restoring hope, dignity and opportunity for
Skill sets needed: vulnerable people worldwide.
q Experience with USAID, DOL, World Bank, DFID, and EU projects
of scale. Add your skill and passion to our worldwide team of
q Experience with strengthening institutions (civil society and professionals in:
governmental).
Health - Finance - Gender Based Violence - Community
q Experience with performance-based management systems. Development
q Experience with designing and managing policy change and social Post Conflict Development - Program Management –
sector reform. Operations
Education – Protection
q Experience designing/implementing programs to address financial
barriers to the provision of social services.
www.IRCjobs.org
Please go to http://www.theirc.org/jobs/how_to_apply.html for further
details and application instructions. Make a World of Difference, Work for the IRC

Planning, Monitoring & Evaluation Research &
Analytics Manager The African Wildlife Foundation (AWF), is an international
conservation organization headquartered in Nairobi, Kenya. The
Program Design Department is currently seeking applicants to
Heifer Int’l, a progressive, world hunger, non-profit org seeks an in-
fill the following positions:
dividual to manage all aspects of the Planning Monitoring & Evalu-
ation processes which directly relate to statistical analysis & report-
ing, data integrity & data access for Heifer. Duties: ensure that info Senior Program Design Officer - based in Nairobi
from the prog info system/database is accessible at multiple levels; Program Design Officer - based in Kinshasa, DRC
define, manage, & produce custom reports from the system/data-
base for use in prog’s & the prog info team; & work w/ Information Candidates must demonstrate commitment to conservation and
Technology Dept, as well as other dept’s, to ensure coordination & development in Africa, fundraising, and stakeholder engage-
integration of the prog info system/database w/ other dept’s. The ment. They will be responsible for raising funds from govern-
ideal cand will have strong knowledge of planning, monitoring, ment and professional foundation donors, and for all aspects
& evaluation techniques using complex database. Knowledge of of donor relationship management, for all AWF’s work in the
Spanish highly desired. Bachelor’s degree + 7 yrs exp in monitor- respective countries.
ing & evaluation. Master’s degree in the social sciences w/course
work in monitoring & evaluation/statistics pref’d. Ideal candidate Salary commensurate with education and experience.
will demonstrate a good understanding of databases & electronic
systems for monitoring & evaluation. Competence w/SPSS & other For job description and further details, see www.awf.org. EOE.
statistical packages necessary. Work in an int’l org & exp in the
use of computers for monitoring & evaluation are req’d. Salary
Send cover letter and resume by June 30, 2007 to:
$48,160 + benefits. For more info about our org, detailed job desc
Carleena Graham , Director of HR and Administration
& app please visit www.heifer.org Interested candidates must send
African Wildlife Foundation
cover letter, resume & app by 6/29 to HR: fax 501-907-2820, email
jobs@heifer.org HEIFER INT’L IS AN EOE/AA EMPLOYER BY 1400 16th Street NW, Suite 120Washington DC, 20036.
CHOICE. Email: cgraham@awf.org.

JUNE 2007 37
Interested in placing a job announcements or advertisement? Email publications@interaction.org

Representative – CWS OPE/JVA
Nairobi Kenya
The Overseas Processing Entity Representative is responsible for the administration and oversight of the OPE Headquarters in
Nairobi, Kenya. OPE Nairobi processes eligible refugees from East and Southern Africa for the U.S. Resettlement Program. The
OPE operates under the terms of a cooperative agreement between the U.S. Government and Church World Service (CWS). The
Representative is directly accountable to the Associate Director of the Immigration and Refugee Program of CWS. OPE cur-
rently processes approximately 20,000 African refugee applicants from 27 countries, with a staff of over 145. It does so by de-
ploying teams of caseworkers to refugee camps throughout East and Southern Africa. The Representative works closely with the
UNHCR, IOM and U.S. Government officials to coordinate all aspects of African refugee admissions to the US. The Represen-
tative is further responsible for the documentation submitted to the Refugee Processing Center in Virginia for sponsorship place-
ment through the U.S. Voluntary Agencies. Qualified candidates will have a minimum of a College degree, a Masters Degree or
equivalent in international relations, business or public administration is preferred. Preference will be given to candidates who
are U.S. citizens and are familiar with U.S. Resettlement Program and U.S. resettlement policy, have previous work experience
in domestic refugee resettlement preferred, have a minimum of three years work experience overseas, preferably in Africa, have
a minimum of five years experience managing staff, operations and budgeting for a complex non-profit organization and possess
a basic knowledge of U.S. Immigration Law. Send resume and cover letter to cwshr@churchworldservice.org, fax to 574-266-
0087, mail to: Human Resources Manager for International Staff, Church World Service, PO Box 968, 28606 Phillips Street,
Elkhart, IN 46515. On the web at www.churchworldservice.org.

Association of PVO Financial
Managers

Director of Training and Member
Services
Vice President for Research Washington, DC
(Washington, DC)
Want to join an exciting organization that is
Policy advocacy org. whose mission is to strengthen building the financial and management capacity
of international development nonprofits through
political and financial support worldwide for issues
professional development, knowledge sharing, and
related to population, and reproductive health
advocacy? This director will open our new office in
programs and policies in developing countries. Washington, DC, and grow our training program,
organize annual meeting, and identify new services
VP will design PAI’s research agenda, lead and for our 185 members (CARE, Catholic Relief,
manage research dept. (staff of 8), and carry out International HIV/AIDS Alliance, PATH, Oxfam
own research. Should be experienced researcher America, etc.)
whose work has been published, knowledgeable
about PAI’s issues, an effective manager of a Requires experience with financial and grants
research dept., and experienced using research to management issues relevant to NGOs, ability to
conduct some training programs, and customer-
influence public policy in the USA and Europe.
service approach. Occasional overseas travel.
See full job announcement at: See full job announcement at:
www.SlesingerManagement.com www.SlesingerManagement.com.

38 MONDAY DEVELOPMENTS
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JUNE 2007 39
1400 16th Street, NW, Suite 210
Washington, DC 20036
Phone: (202) 667-8227
Fax: (202) 667-8236
publications@interaction.org
www.interaction.org

FIRST CLASS MAIL
InterAction is the largest alliance of U.S.-based
international development and humanitarian
nongovernmental organizations. With more than 160
members operating in every developing country, we
work to overcome poverty, exclusion and suffering by
advancing social justice and basic dignity for all.

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977491 Bukke Monday_skale.indd 1 3/2/07 12:24:58