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The Latest Issues and Trends in International Development and Humanitarian Assistance


G November 2007
Vol. 25, No. 11

03 In this Issue: An Overview
04 New USAID Partner Vetting System Raises Red
Flags for NGOs
05 NGOs as Partners Not Problems: New U.S. Vetting
Regulation Would Undermine NGO Work
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Visit 06 USAID’s Partner Vetting System: Is it Another
Unnecessary Regulatory Burden on the NGO
Love to read? Want to write a review? Contact Nasserie Carew at 07 A Solution in Search of a Problem
08 NGO Space: Government Vetting – A Deeply
Flawed Initiative Formulated Without Adequate
Public Consultation
MONDAY DEVELOPMENTS 10 U.S. Military in Africa: AFRICOM Update

Managing Editor Monday Developments is published 12
11 The Roles of U.S. Military Forces in the
Julie Montgomery times a year by InterAction, the largest Humanitarian Sector: Beyond Preconceptions to
alliance of U.S.-based international
development and humanitarian
Ground Truth
Kathy Ward
nongovernmental organizations. With
more than 160 members operating in
12 Guidelines for Relations Between U.S. Armed
every developing country, we work Forces and Non-Governmental Humanitarian
Copy Editors to overcome poverty, exclusion and Organizations in Hostile or Potentially Hostile
Nia Davis suffering by advancing social justice and
basic dignity for all. Environments
Josh Kearns
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Developments. We reserve the right to
16 Nonprofits As Contractors for Local
Communications Department Governments: Challenges and Benefits
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Nasserie Carew, Public Relations the discretion of our editorial team as to
Tony Fleming, New Media which articles are published in individual 18 The Associational Counter-Revolution
Josh Kearns, Publications issues.
Julie Montgomery, Publications 20 Federal Funding Accountability and Transparency
All statements in articles are the sole Act of 2006 and InterAction Members
opinion and responsibility of the authors.
Editorial Committee
Jim Bishop Articles may be reprinted with prior
22 Readers Weigh In on Civil-Military Relations
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s nonprofits, we are continually forced to modify the way we work in order
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New USAID Partner
Vetting System Raises
Red Flags for NGOs
By Evan Elliott, Senior Advocacy Associate, InterAction

n July 17, 2007, USAID pub- ist organizations. Moreover, USAID has the PVS is implemented – we will be ced-
lished a notice in the Fed- failed to demonstrate that any USAID ing the streets of the world to the kinds
eral Register describing the funds have reached terrorists through of violent extremists that this policy aims
agency’s intent to create a American NGOs. USAID’s Inspector to target.”
new Partner Vetting System (PVS) to General monitors the agency’s programs
support the vetting of individuals and in West Bank/Gaza, where the threat of Following the July 17 Federal Register
officers from non-governmental organi- diversion is believed to be high. To date, notice, and two other notices on July 20
zations (NGOs) that apply for USAID neither the Inspector General nor any and 23, InterAction members, including
contracts, grants and cooperative agree- other competent authority has reported those that do not receive any USAID
ments to “ensure that neither USAID the diversion of USAID funds in West funding, responded overwhelmingly in
funds nor USAID-funded activities in- Bank/Gaza or anywhere else. Even if at opposition to the proposed vetting sys-
advertently or otherwise provide sup- some future date USAID funds in Gaza tem. Our members recognize the Partner
port to entities or individuals associated are found to have inadvertently provided Vetting System for the encroachment on
with terrorism.” The proposed PVS will humanitarian assistance to individuals as- NGO space that it is, and you can read
affect every nonprofit organization that sociated with Hamas, the circumstances some of their comments in the follow-
applies for USAID funding to implement would not justify a global Partner Vetting ing articles and on our website. For more
life saving humanitarian and develop- System that affects all U.S. NGOs. information on InterAction’s response
ment programs. Thousands of NGO to the PVS, please visit our website at
employees and board members – a list of The proposed system, which was effec-
people that includes religious leaders and tively put forth with no consultation with html.
members of Congress – will be forced to the NGO community dangerously blurs
turn over private personal information the lines between USAID and the vari- The uproar within the implementer com-
because USAID has apparently deemed ous security agencies of the U.S. govern- munity about the PVS was so great that
them to be potential threats to U.S. na- ment. Moreover, USAID has seemingly USAID has slowed down its implemen-
tional security. While sub-recipients are failed to recognize that implementation tation somewhat and announced that the
not specifically mentioned in the Federal of the PVS will jeopardize the safety of policy is “effective, but not operational.”
Register notice, we have every reason to NGO workers around the world. If the The agency intends to roll out the vet-
believe that USAID intends to include employees of American NGOs working ting system as a pilot program in West
them in the future. For example, the abroad are deemed to be working in con- Bank/Gaza and then slowly deploy it
Partner Information Form, which NGOs cert with U.S. intelligence agencies, the to other “hot spots” around the world.
would have to fill out to adhere to the threat of terrorist acts against them can That said, USAID has taken no action
requirements of the PVS, clearly focuses only increase. As InterAction CEO Sam that would indicate that it has altered its
on sub-recipients. Worthington has repeatedly pointed out, plans to roll out the PVS on a global scale
“Nonprofit relief and development orga- in the future.
Furthermore, in proposing the new nizations are often the only non-security
PVS, the agency has ignored the fact face of the American people in some of In addition, USAID has agreed to accept
that American NGOs already have pro- the most dangerous places in the world. additional comments on the PVS. If
cedures in place to certify that funds If NGOs are forced to restrict their oper- you are interested in submitting your
are not diverted to terrorists or terror- ations in these places – which they will if thoughts, please visit the URL listed
above and note that the deadline is
December 3, 2007.

NGOs as Partners Not Problems: New U.S. Vetting
Regulation Would Undermine NGO Work
By Samuel A. Worthington, President & CEO, InterAction

n December 2005, U.S. Secretary millions of displaced persons. Through- doing it well is maintaining the trust of
of State Condoleezza Rice was ap- out the world we work with populations local communities and governments. In
plauded for strongly criticizing a new battling HIV/AIDS, malaria and chronic trying to compel American NGOs to take
Russian law that would restrict the poverty. Millions of Americans give us actions that would be considered viola-
activities of Russian and foreign nongov- financial support to make these positive tions of that trust, the administration is
ernmental organizations (NGOs). changes in the human condition. unraveling decades of goodwill achieved
by NGOs on behalf of the American
“We would certainly hope that the im- No American NGO has been charged people. This is more likely to encourage
portance of nongovernmental organiza- with diverting USAID funds to ter- terrorism than stem it.
tions to a stable, democratic environment rorists. In fact, InterAction requires its
would be understood by the Russian members to obey the laws of jurisdictions America’s image in the world cannot
government,” she said. in which they work, including the United be legislated. The world sees America
States. Members who receive funds from through local lenses. As humanitarian
Secretary Rice was right to uphold the USAID voluntarily certify in writing that and development workers in every devel-
value of civil liberties and oppose a law they will take all reasonable steps, to en- oping country in the world, we encoun-
that gave the Russian government the sure that they do not provide material ter suspicion towards Americans. We also
right to monitor and control the actions support or resources to those who com- know the steps one needs to take to turn
of NGOs. However, this past summer mit, advocate, facilitate or participate in that suspicion into hope, and ultimately
the United States Agency for Interna- terrorist acts. acceptance. In many areas we are the
tional Development (USAID) proposed ONLY face of America that people see
a new regulation that would require U.S. – a real face that defies the stereotypes
NGOs that receive U.S. foreign aid mon- The proposed Partner Vetting used to incite extremism. We are proud
ey to provide detailed personal informa- System creates not only an representatives of a culture that values
tion about their personnel and people the right to basic health care, education
who voluntarily serve on their boards, as
impediment to work with foreign
and adequate living conditions for all.
well as their partners abroad, to USAID partners abroad while putting Thanks to the direct generosity of the
– information which would be shared our lives at additional risk, it American public, our work tackles one of
with federal law enforcement and intel- also raises civil liberty issues the conditions that breed radical thought
ligence agencies. for individuals and agencies around the world – abject poverty.

Requesting local partners to submit per- that could lose jobs based on We need to be a trusted partner with the
sonal details to U.S. authorities would information to which they would U.S. government. Through reasonable,
drastically impact our ability to deliver be denied access. realistic regulations, NGOs can continue
life-saving aid. It would also affect the to work side by side with our govern-
places in which we can work. This regu- ment to help shape the world’s view of
lation plays directly into the hands of We are cooperating with the administra- America. We need to show the world,
authoritarian governments around the tion’s existing, successful efforts to pre- rather than tell the world, the true na-
world that are often looking for a pretext vent U.S. foreign aid from funding ter- ture of democracy, civil liberties and our
to restrict the activities of local NGOs rorist activities. But the proposed Partner compassion for the world’s neediest.
defending human rights and otherwise Vetting System creates not only an im-
fostering the development of democratic pediment to work with foreign partners “The work of democracy is a daily pro-
societies. Men and women in our organi- abroad while putting our lives at addi- cess to build the institutions of democra-
zations, many of whom live and work in tional risk, it also raises civil liberty issues cy,” Secretary Rice stated in a December
Afghanistan, Iraq, Darfur and other crisis for individuals and agencies that could 11, 2005 op-ed in the Washington Post.
zones, are putting their lives on the line lose jobs based on information to which “We can and must create opportunities
daily. If implementing the new rule leads they would be denied access. for individuals to assume ownership of
to their being perceived as extensions of their own lives and nations.” I whole-
the U.S. intelligence community, terror- When we criticize other nations for not heartedly agree.
ist attacks against them will increase. recognizing the critical role of NGOs, we
must be careful that U.S. laws and rules
Our ability to deliver programs is based do not inappropriately hamper the effec-
upon community partnerships, the trust tiveness of American NGOs. The princi-
of the local population and the will of in- pal prerequisite to doing what we do and
dividual citizens. In Darfur we care for

USAID’s Partner Vetting System: Is it Another Unnecessary
Regulatory Burden on the NGO Community?

n July 17, 2007, the U.S. those engaged in or associated with ter- ment-maintained record and the oppor-
Agency for International De- rorism is an obligation USAID and the tunity to correct any inaccurate informa-
velopment (USAID) published NGO community share, USAID does tion in that record. Providing citizens
notice of a proposed system of not provide any basis to suggest that the with the opportunity to correct their in-
records (“Partner Vetting System”) in NGO community is not already meet- formation is one of the critical functions
which it would collect and maintain per- ing this obligation without the PVS and of the Privacy Act. For example, a citizen
sonal information about individuals and the Proposed Rule. Federal tax laws and may obtain a copy of his passport file to
a broad range of “covered” employees of regulations prohibit tax-exempt organi- review and make corrections if needed.
organizations that apply for or register zations from disbursing funds for non- This enhances an individual’s right to
to receive USAID funding. The notice exempt purposes. These laws, regulations ensure that any negative decision may
stated USAID would collect the name, and the supporting Internal Revenue be redressed if based on faulty informa-
mailing address, date and place of birth, Service rulings have been in effect for tion. These protections are exempted for
government ID numbers, email address- decades; and organizations that enjoy the the purpose of criminal investigations by
es, phone and fax numbers, country of privilege of tax-exempt status must have agencies with a principle purpose of law
origin or nationality, citizenship, gender financial controls in place to meet these enforcement (for example the FBI or the
and profession or employment data. On IRS requirements. U.S.-based charitable Attorney General’s Office) and in na-
July 20th, USAID published a proposed organizations will lose their tax-exempt tional defense situations (such guarding
rule to implement the Partner Vetting status if tax-deductible donations and against arms proliferation). USAID can-
System (PVS) by exempting the records funds are diverted to a non-exempt pur- not independently assume the mantle of
of these individuals and employees from pose (including, by definition, supporting law-enforcement when its principal pur-
the protections and system of redress of- terrorism). USAID provided no facts to pose is to implement U.S. government
fered under the Privacy Act of 1974 (5 illustrate that the NGO community is im- foreign assistance.
U.S.C. § 552a, Proposed Rule). plicated in the diversion of funds to those
engaged in or associated with terrorism Given the significance of the Privacy Act
The U.S.-based and internationally-based (or otherwise diverting funds for non-ex- protections and the lack of credible, fac-
NGO community responded with a num- empt purposes). In order to properly as- tual information provided by USAID, it
ber of objections and requests for with- sess USAID’s need for the PVS, it is criti- is unclear how USAID self-selected out
drawal of the PVS and Proposed Rule. cal for the NGO community and the U.S. of OMB and Congressional review. These
The NGO community objected to sup- tax-payers to understand why USAID be- review processes are in place to ensure the
plying personal information for an am- lieves the NGO community is not meet- integrity and legitimacy of U.S. agency
biguously defined category of employees, ing its obligations not to fund terrorists. rule-making and to assure that the rule-
the unwarranted intrusion on their em- Without some credible evidence to the making process is accessible and open to
ployees’ privacy protections, the absence contrary, there is no reason to require the the public.
of facts justifying USAID’s proposal for NGO community to use donor funds (or
implementing the PVS globally and the for the employees to give up privacy pro- No discussion of the PVS is complete
Proposed Rule. (USAID has engaged in a tections) to comply with otherwise dupli- without addressing the most distressing
form of pre-award vetting of select recipi- cative regulatory requirements. possible result of its implementation: mak-
ent and sub-recipient organizations in the ing the beneficiaries and employees of the
West Bank and Gaza region since 2003 Another legal concern is that USAID NGO community targets of local aggres-
when Congress first required a specific self-determined that the Proposed Rule sion around the world. The PVS requires
due diligence standard for the Depart- (claiming exemption from the Privacy the collection of personal information
ment of State.) Act) did not require OMB or Congres- from a broad range of NGO employees
sional review as mandated by USAID’s and the employees of subrecipient/ben-
Two specific legal concerns are that own regulations (see 22 C.F.R. §§ 226, eficiary organizations. USAID stated it
USAID has not provided credible evi- et seq.), administrative directives (see Ex- intends to share these personal records
dence that: (1) the NGO community ecutive Order No. 12,866, as amended with other U.S. governmental agencies,
needs to be subject to additional U.S. by Executive Orders Nos. 13,258 and including law enforcement agencies. If
government regulation on the use of 13,422) and Congressional legislation the PVS is implemented, USAID has es-
funds; and (2) USAID should be granted (see the Congressional Review Act of sentially designated the NGO community
exemption from the Privacy Act without 1996, 5 U.S.C. § 801, et seq.). USAID as an arm of U.S. law enforcement. This
review by the Office of Management and does not have the authority to unilaterally will be poorly received in those commu-
Budget (OMB) or Congress as required determine that the Proposed Rule is not nities where USAID asks NGOs to serve
by law. subject to review. and will subject staff and beneficiaries to
significant personal risk.
USAID stated that it developed the PVS The Privacy Act was enacted to protect
and Proposed Rule in order to prevent individuals from misuse of their personal The absence of factual justification, the
U.S. government funds from purposeful information by U.S. government agen- flawed process and the potentially dire
or inadvertent support of those engaged cies. These protections include the indi- consequences have led the NGO com-
in or associated with terrorism. While vidual’s right to know when other U.S. munity to call for reconsideration of the
preventing the diversion of funds to government agencies access his govern- PVS and withdrawal of the Proposed

A Solution in Search of a Problem
By Alison Smith, Executive Director, Association of PVO Financial Managers

omposition teachers warn government. Yet Congress
against use of clichés, but some- had neither mandated
times a cliché captures the es- those agencies to construct
sence of a situation better than review procedures of this
a newly coined phrase. That is the case type nor had those units
with the proposal of the U.S. Agency for sought to develop them
International Development (USAID) on their own. When
to implement an agency-wide “Part- media attention to the
ner Vetting System” that would require USAID proposal and the
the submission of personal information NGO comments surfaced
about employees of organizations seek- in August, the agency
ing USAID assistance and acquisition backtracked on the timing
awards. The proposal is truly “a solution of implementation but not
in search of a problem.” on the idea itself.

USAID’s decision to pursue the so-called Of greatest concern is the effect of the lections are necessary for performance of
“PVS” would expand an activity that PVS on development assistance itself. agency functions, that duplication of ef-
was mandated by Congress in the gov- The PVS requires a review of sensitive in- fort is avoided, and that burden has been
ernment’s Foreign Operations Appro- formation by intelligence organizations accurately identified and minimized.
priations Act for its 2006 fiscal year for in Washington, DC that breeds suspicion USAID’s failure to properly adhere to
awards in the West Bank and Gaza to all and distrust with our local partners and those requirements with a July 23, 2007
of its activities worldwide. Congress had beneficiaries, and brands NGO staff as Federal Register notice forced it to reis-
been made aware that a small amount of extensions of the U.S. government’s in- sue the notice on October 2, 2007 and
USAID funding was alleged to have made telligence arm. It jeopardizes the accep- seek additional comments from affected
its way to an organization with ties to the tance of NGOs in the communities with organizations, due December 3.
terrorist group Hamas. With a surgical which we work and will prevent many
precision that is not always present in organizations from partnering with us. The initial response of the NGO
the legislative process, Congress required Single-handedly, the PVS could do more community to the USAID proposal
USAID’s West Bank and Gaza Mission to destroy the good will built up by the buttresses the record that active
to pursue anti-terrorism screening pro- U.S. humanitarian and foreign assistance involvement in the policy process
cedures that included identification and community over the many years of its ex- can yield results that are beneficial to
screening of grantee and contractor em- istence than any other initiative of recent their programmatic and administrative
ployees. Despite the fact that USAID’s memory. prerogatives. For example, in 2005, joint
own inspector general concluded early in efforts by InterAction and the Association
2007 that there were no additional iden- NGO comments demonstrated how ill- of Private Voluntary Financial Managers
tified instances of agency funds going conceived the proposal is by pointing out (APVOFM) were instrumental in
to terrorist organizations, USAID now that USAID overlooked key procedural causing OIRA to mandate significant and
seeks to expand such screening activity to steps required to pursue it, woefully realistic changes in USAID’s proposal to
all of its assistance and acquisition awards underestimating the burden estimates require “marking” of USAID assisted
and to sub-awards. of complying with such a system, and commodities and activities overseas.
USAID’s inability to process the informa- Similar efforts by APVOFM caused
Nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) tion that it currently collects. They cited OMB to abandon its proposal to restrict
that do business with USAID have been USAID’s failure to meet the requirement certain types of costs in its Circular A-
rightly outraged by the proposal. In of its own assistance regulation (22 CFR 122, Cost Principles for Non-profit
response to a Federal Register notice 226.4) to obtain Office of Management Organizations, which organizations with
published July 17 announcing the move, and Budget (OMB) approval for imposi- overseas operations deemed critical. And,
many pointed to the clear absence of tion of more stringent requirements on a even earlier, APVOFM and many of its
both programmatic justification and class of recipients. And they pointed out members were successful in convincing
legal authority for USAID to pursue that the extensive information collection OMB that exempting non-U.S.
an activity that would both indict the sought under the PVS requires clearance organizations from the audit requirements
employment practices of USAID’s non- by OMB’s Office of Information and of Circular A-133 was a cost-beneficial
federal “partners” and impose substantial Regulatory Affairs (OIRA) under the move. Those positive results suggest that
burden on them. Members pointed out Paperwork Reduction Act and its regula- when NGOs and the organizations that
that, if there were a significant problem tions (5 CFR 1320). While those poli- represent them choose to do so, they can
with federal funds going to support cies are often the objects of wry humor be a constructive force in assuring the
terrorism, it could just as easily surface in as to whether they actually exist, they are federal policies affecting their operations
grants and contracts awarded by the other important and powerful tools for assur- are warranted and realistic. It is time to
departments and agencies of the U.S. ing that federal agency information col- show that capacity again.

NGO Space: Government Vetting – A Deeply Flawed Initiative
Formulated Without Adequate Public Consultation
By Scott C. Overall, Principal, Sonenthal & Overall, P.C.

he mandatory government vet-
ting of aid implementers such as “The fight against terrorism is a need that nobody can put into
private voluntary organizations question. But we consider it unacceptable to forgo, in the name
(PVOs) and nongovernmental
organizations (NGOs) and their direc- of this fight, the fundamental principles of a democratic society.”
tors, officers, personnel, employees, con- –Attributed to a legal panel of the Council of Europe in connection with the “Provisional Draft Report on UN
tractors, sub-recipients and participants Security Council and European Union Blacklists,” The Washington Post, November 13, 2007.
(PVS) is the most ill-considered and po-
tentially harmful policy initiative since I
began my career in foreign assistance in for screening contains numerous errors. late new policy initiatives is “informal
the late 1970s. No one seriously disputes Some of these errors might be able to rulemaking” under the Administrative
the very real threat posed by terrorism. be corrected, but the secrecy of the list, Procedure Act (“APA”). Under this pro-
However, if implemented as proposed, coupled with the expressed intention to cedure, the first step is to issue a compre-
this intrusive and onerous mechanism supplement it with information from hensive Notice of Proposed Rulemaking,
would violate Constitutional rights, un- questionable sources (such as anony- including all proposed changes to regu-
dermine federal assistance law and set a mous informants and foreign intelligence lations and contractual formats, in the
terrible precedent for future government agencies), is of grave concern. The pro- Federal Register. Public comment is then
micro-management of PVO/NGOs. In cedures described in the original notices invited between 30 and 90 days, longer
my opinion, the entire PVO/NGO com- – decisions taken behind closed doors if merited by the circumstances. Depend-
munity, along with higher education in- and without explanation or a chance to ing on the comments received, either a
stitutions and other USAID implement- appeal – deny basic due process and sub- Revised Notice of Proposed Rulemaking
ers, has reason to be concerned about ject everyone vetted to a high risk of ar- (if fundamental revisions are needed) or
the impact of the initiative and should bitrary sanction and deprivation of rights a Notice of Final Rulemaking (if few revi-
take all reasonable and practicable steps without effective notice or recourse. sions are needed) is published. Yet in this
to oppose or limit it. A few of the many Such procedures trample on the rights case, USAID has not issued any com-
undesirable aspects of the PVS are briefly of all Americans under the Constitution, prehensive rulemaking for the PVS, only
noted below. and, as applied to foreign nationals, fail fragmentary Privacy and Paperwork Re-
to comport with our traditional notions duction Acts notices. These notices leave
Rationale. The PVS seeks to fix some- of fairness. many basic questions unanswered and
thing that does not appear to be broken. do not provide a suitable basis for pub-
Its publicly stated purpose is to prevent Legality. The entire exercise lacks any lic input on the PVS. Such a hasty and
federal funds from being diverted to ter- express legal basis. The only support incomplete process is bad practice. It is
rorists by those suspected of supporting identified by USAID is a statute which, also inconsistent with the promises made
terrorists. However, few significant diver- by its terms, is expressly limited to the by the incoming USAID Administrator
sions have been alleged, and fewer, if any, West Bank and Gaza. The West Bank/ during her confirmation hearings to con-
have been proven. The Justice Depart- Gaza program’s unique challenges with sult fully with the public. While the APA
ment claims on this score have frequently regard to terrorism are obvious and well- excepts “public property, loans, grants,
been based on a stretched definition of known. Such conditions exist in very and contracts,” Congress encouraged
who is a “terrorist,” and such claims have few other USAID-assisted countries. It agencies to use informal rulemaking even
generally been rejected in court. More- is legally indefensible for USAID to at- when an exception applies, and many if
over, in some of the cases cited by USAID tempt to justify global application of the not most agencies do so with respect to
to illustrate the problem, the transactions PVS based on a country-specific restric- basic assistance law policies like the PVS.
were specifically approved by USAID be- tion. Furthermore, the degree of control The NGO community must work either
forehand. Even if diversion is a real prob- sought by the government is not consis- to get the exception for grants repealed
lem, though, the PVS would not solve it. tent with the nature of federal grants and or to secure a formal undertaking from
USAID-funded implementers, including cooperative agreements, and constitutes USAID (as some other agencies have
PVO/NGOs, already review all federal an inappropriate form of substantial in- done) to engage in APA informal rule-
award expenditures. The PVS will actu- volvement (federal agency interference making before implementing new assis-
ally cause far more problems than it will with a fund recipient’s implementation tance initiatives.
solve. of its program) not authorized by cur-
rent Office of Management and Budget Micro-Management. There is no
Procedures. The PVS procedures policy. precedent for the degree of control that
described by USAID to date are unac- USAID now seeks to exert over the em-
ceptable. It is well established that the Public Consultation. The traditional ployment, contracting and other affairs
government-compiled list to be used method for the government to formu- of its “partners.” If the PVS is finalized,
the inevitable result will be disrupted

The PVS seeks to fix
something that does not
appear to be broken. Its
The Top Ten
publicly stated purpose is to
prevent federal funds from Best Corporations in Global Development
being diverted to terrorists by Corporations have become important partners in addressing global
those suspected of supporting poverty – improving the lives of people around the world by creating
terrorists. However, few jobs, livable communities, educational opportunities and access to
significant diversions have medical care.
been alleged, and fewer, if The InterAction Best Corporations listing will recognize companies that
any, have been proven. prioritize investment in people and demonstrate a commitment to the
fight against global poverty.

programs, lawsuits and harm to the ca- Is your corporate partner making a difference in your program or the
reers and reputations of individuals due communities in which you work?
to disputes over vetting status. The in-
dependence of civil society – the fos- Nominate them to InterAction’s Top Ten Corporations in Global
tering of which used to be one of the Development List!
USAID’s fundamental objectives – will
also be sapped. It is also likely that the The application is available online at
government will seek to extend its inter- Nominations will be accepted through December 31, 2007.
ventions, formally or informally, beyond
terrorism to other foreign policy matters
and perhaps ultimately domestic policy
issues as well. The scope of government
regulation of funding recipients’ speech,
expression and behavior, well advanced
in recent years, will continue to widen to
the diminution of the freedoms hereto-
fore enjoyed by the PVO/NGO commu-
nity and the citizenry as a whole.

Major changes to the PVS may be made
by USAID in response to comments on
the recent partial notices. Such changes
should be fully and fairly evaluated. Nev-
ertheless, in my opinion, a revised ver-
sion of the PVS will still probably present
many of the same problems as the current
version. Accordingly, the PVO/NGO
community and other affected USAID
implementers should consider joining
forces to resist this misguided initiative.
At a minimum, the PVS should be lim-
ited to the West Bank and Gaza until a
comprehensive APA “informal rulemak-
ing” process describing all aspects of the
system can be conducted on the public
record. If the resulting version of the
PVS (including the one applied in the
West Bank and Gaza) is not adequately
justified and fully consistent with due
process and fundamental fairness, it
should be withdrawn. The seriousness
InterAction is the largest alliance of U.S.-based international
and fundamental nature of the defects in
development and humanitarian nongovernmental organizations.
this initiative require nothing less.
Our 165 members operate in every developing country, working
with local communities to overcome poverty and suffering by
Principal, Sonenthal & Overall, P.C. is a small, Washing-
ton, D.C.-based law firm that represents PVOs, NGOs
helping to improve their quality of life.
and government contractors in international aid
projects. The views expressed in this article are solely
those of the author.

U.S. Military in Africa
By Linda Poteat, Director of Disaster Response, InterAction

Left to right: Ward, Yates, Moeller

here has been a significant amount of a separate unified command for Africa AFRICOM on September 28, 2007. He
of press coverage recently about to be known as Africa Command, or AF- has two deputies, one military and one
the new regional combatant com- RICOM. This command is currently a civilian. Vice Admiral Robert Moeller is
mand for Africa, or AFRICOM. sub-unified command (subordinate to the Deputy to the Commander for Mili-
The command is still in its infancy and EUCOM) and began initial operations tary Operations and is responsible for
will not become a fully-fledged combat- in October 2007. The expectation is that AFRICOM operational implementation
ant command until October 2008. How- AFRICOM will detach from EUCOM and execution. Vice Admiral Moeller will
ever, the announcement of the intention and be officially stood up as a separate exercise command authority in the AF-
to form AFRICOM was accompanied unified command by October 2008. Ac- RICOM commander’s absence. Ambas-
by problematic language describing the cording to DoD: sador Mary Carlin Yates is the Deputy
Department of Defense’s new approach to the Commander for Civil-Military
to Africa being a two-pronged one fo- “The goal of U.S. Africa Command is Activities and will direct the command’s
cusing on counterterrorism on the one civil-military planning and programs,
to help build the capacity of African
hand and humanitarian assistance on the with emphasis on aligning AFRICOM
nations and African organizations
other. The reaction in many humanitar- activity with that of other U.S. govern-
ian circles was predictably negative, as like the African Standby Force to ment departments and agencies carry-
any perceived links between humanitar- promote peace and security and ing out U.S. foreign policy. Ambassador
ian assistance and counterterrorism activ- respond to crises on the continent. Yates has significant experience in Africa,
ity could put humanitarian field workers At the same time, the command including recent ambassadorships in Bu-
at risk of being targeted. Over the past will coordinate DOD support to rundi and Ghana.
few months, the Department of Defense other U.S. Government programs
(DoD) has refined its mission statement for Africa in the areas of diplomacy Although AFRICOM’s primary mission
and in its messaging now places emphasis is to help build security capacity on the
and development to help make those
on building the security capacity of Af- African continent, the earliest communi-
efforts more effective.”
rican nations and regional organizations. cations from DoD emphasized a humani-
For many, however, there remains the tarian assistance/disaster response com-
question: “Why AFRICOM, and why AFRICOM will be a unified command ponent to AFRICOM’s activities. There
now?” encompassing all countries on the Afri- was strong reaction to this from the hu-
can continent except for Egypt (though manitarian community, which reflected
For the last 24 years, oversight of U.S. the exclusion of Egypt is still under de- recent experiences with the Combined
military activity on the African continent bate). The command will likely organize Joint Task Force-Horn of Africa (CJTF-
has been divided among three different itself along the same regional structure HoA) based in Djibouti. CJTF-HoA is
combatant commands: Central Com- currently used by the African Union (see tasked with counterterrorism activities
mand (CENTCOM) for the Horn of box). Though the original intent was to in the Horn and its personnel have been
Africa, Pacific Command (PACOM) for locate the AFRICOM headquarters on
Madagascar, Mauritius, the Comoros Is- the African continent, this plan seems
lands and the Seychelles, and European to be on hold, and AFRICOM will re-
Command (EUCOM) for the rest of the main based in Stuttgart, Germany for AU regions of Africa:
African continent. There was little coor- the foreseeable future. However, smaller Blue = North
dination among the three commands on sub-offices may be located on the Afri-
activities being carried out in their Af- can continent within the various regional Green = West
rican areas of operation and hence little groupings. Yellow = Central
coherence across programs. In addition,
because each command had a separate AFRICOM will be a unique combat- Red = South
primary focus outside of Africa, none of ant command in that the intent of the
Orange = East
the commands placed much emphasis on U.S. government is to have a significant
its African portfolio. portion of the unified command’s staff For more information, visit United States
provided from U.S. government civilian Africa Command:
In February 2007, President Bush au- agencies. General William “Kip” Ward
thorized and directed the establishment was confirmed as the Commander of

carrying out a significant amount of ac-
tivity that they designate “humanitarian The Roles of U.S. Military Forces in the Humanitarian
assistance.” Many of the CFTF-HoA ac-
tivities would appear to the humanitar-
ian community to fall into the “hearts
Sector: Beyond Preconceptions to Ground Truth
and minds” category, as a significant By Larry Minear
number of these projects are carried out
in areas where the military might be It is a truism these days to observe that American military forces are now more engaged than
able to gain intelligence on movements in the past in the humanitarian sector and that such involvement is likely to continue for the
of groups of concern related to terror- foreseeable future. For many NGOs, particularly those with roots in religious traditions, this is
ism. Also, recent comments to the press an unwelcome development. For others, it presents less of a problem. While some agencies
by CJTF-HoA personnel claiming to be have chosen to keep their distance from the U.S. military, others have taken a more pragmatic
“the Peace Corps with a weapon” have approach and experimented with limited degrees of cooperation. The stance taken, however, is
not helped to improve this image. seldom driven by a rigorous assessment of actual agency experience at the interface between
military and humanitarian interaction.
InterAction has an on-going dialogue
with DoD, and has been formally en- In an effort to identify issues at the interface and lessons to be learned for charting a course for
gaging with the AFRICOM Transition the future, the Feinstein International Center at Tufts has carried out a number of field-based
Team since early June 2007 in order to reviews. The first was an initiative of the Humanitarianism and War Project in 1996, at the time
raise issues of concern for the humani-
located at Brown University. The findings and recommendations are contained in Soldiers to the
tarian and development NGO commu-
Rescue: Humanitarian Lessons from Rwanda, published by the Development Centre of the OECD.
nity. As the AFRICOM Transition Team
Rwanda was selected because of the rich learning potential resulting from the involvement during
has explored possible roles in humani-
and after the genocide of a multiplicity of national military forces, including U.S. troops in Opera-
tarian and development assistance in
Africa, InterAction (as well as USAID) tion Support Hope, as well as UN peacekeeping contingents.
has been encouraging the Team to fo-
The study identified three basic roles played by international military forces in Rwanda and
cus on areas in which the U.S. military
elsewhere: to foster a secure environment that would protect civilians, to support the work of
has a comparative advantage (foremost
humanitarian organizations and to provide direct assistance to people in need. Paradoxically,
in training militaries) and to leave hu-
manitarian and development assistance humanitarian agencies in Rwanda viewed the comparative advantages of the military in the order
to the professionals that specialize in stated, whereas the military themselves reversed the order, giving priority to the hands-on provi-
those activities. For the most part, this sion of assistance to civilians and only belatedly providing protection to vulnerable civilians and to
message has not met with much opposi- assistance agencies. Thus while troops made a significant contribution in the Rwanda crisis, they
tion. were least available when most needed (for example, during the genocide itself) and least willing
to do what only they could do (for example, in the area of protection). As a result, the contribution
General Ward and Ambassador Yates of the military, both multilateral and bilateral, was considerably less than met the eye.
met with InterAction CEOs at the In-
terAction office on September 21 to A second study, published in recent weeks by Tufts, reviews the activities of U.S. military forces
update the CEOs on the evolution of in Afghanistan and Iraq. The U.S. Citizen-Soldier and the Global War on Terror: The National Guard
AFRICOM and to discuss concerns Experience relies largely on interviews with U.S. military personnel themselves describing their
of the NGO community related to its involvement on the frontlines in the Global War on Terror. (The full study is available at fic.tufts.
mission. InterAction also participated edu.) In a section on “hearts and minds” activities, the report notes the great importance attached
in a consultative meeting between by front-line soldiers and their military and political superiors to the “hugs and drugs” programs
DoD and military counterparts from in which many are engaged. At the same time, the report flags a host of negative issues associ-
38 African nations in late September, ated with civic action activities by the military, including “the selection of villages and villagers
where many issues about AFRICOM … according to strategic calculations, the increased vulnerability to which such populations may
were raised from African perspectives. be exposed as a result of accepting assistance from one party in a conflict, the high costs and
In late October, along with colleagues sustainability of such work after the military unit has left or after a conflict has passed, and the
from USAID, InterAction also helped
relationships between such inputs and those of a country’s government agencies and humani-
conduct a training for all 150 AFRI-
tarian organizations.” This latest study and a broader review conducted last year (Humanitarian
COM staff in Stuttgart. The InterAc-
Agenda 2015: Principles, Power, and Perceptions, A Preliminary Report, available at
tion presentation focused on NGOs,
also identified the intrusions, perceived and real, of the Global War on Terror into the work of
how they carry out humanitarian and
development work in Africa and what humanitarian and development organizations and the integrity of the humanitarian enterprise.
the appropriate ways might be for the
Rather than simply accept the apparent inevitability of increased involvement of U.S. military
U.S. military to engage with interna-
forces in the humanitarian sphere, therefore, humanitarian practitioners owe it to their constitu-
tional and local NGOs. InterAction will
ents, their beneficiaries and themselves to examine recent experience as a prelude to charting
continue to actively engage with AFRI-
COM in order to keep communication their future course. While the humanitarian sector is not known for its institutional memory, an
lines open and to educate AFRICOM examination of recent research would provide a fertile starting point for such a reprise.
staff on NGO work in Africa.
Larry Minear co-founded and directed the Humanitarianism and War Project until his retirement last year.

Guidelines for Relations Between U.S. Armed Forces and
Non-Governmental Humanitarian Organizations in Hostile or
Potentially Hostile Environments
1. Recommended Guidelines
The following guidelines should facilitate interaction between 7. U.S. Armed Forces personnel and units should respect the
U.S. Armed Forces and Non-Governmental Organizations (see desire of NGHOs not to serve as implementing partners for
Key Terms) belonging to InterAction that are engaged in hu- the military in conducting relief activities. However, individ-
manitarian relief efforts in hostile or potentially hostile environ- ual Non-Governmental Organizations (NGOs) may seek to
ments (for the purposes of these guidelines, such organizations cooperate with the military, in which case such cooperation
will henceforth be referred to as Non-Governmental Humani- will be carried out with due regard to avoiding compromise
tarian Organizations, or NGHOs). While the guidelines were of the security, safety, and independence of the NGHO com-
developed between the Department of Defense (DOD) and In- munity at large, NGHO representatives, or public percep-
terAction, DOD intends to observe these guidelines in its deal- tions of their independence.
ings with the broader humanitarian assistance community. These
guidelines are not intended to constitute advance endorsement B. For NGHOs, the following guidelines should be observed:
or approval by either party of particular missions of the other,
1. NGHO personnel should not wear military-style clothing.
but are premised on a de facto recognition that U.S. Armed
This is not meant to preclude NGHO personnel from wear-
Forces and NGHOs have often occupied the same operational
ing protective gear, such as helmets and protective vests, pro-
space in the past and will undoubtedly do so in the future. When
vided that such items are distinguishable in color/appearance
this does occur, both sides will make best efforts to observe these
from U.S. Armed Forces issue items.
guidelines, recognizing that operational necessity may require
deviation from them. When breaks with the guidelines occur, 2. NGHO travel in U.S. Armed Forces vehicles should be lim-
every effort should be made to explain what prompted the de- ited to liaison personnel to the extent practical.
viation in order to promote transparency and avoid distraction 3. NGHOs should not have facilities co-located with facilities
from the critical task of providing essential relief to a population inhabited by U.S. Armed Forces personnel.
in need.
4. NGHOs should use their own logos on clothing, vehicles,
A. For the U.S. Armed Forces, the following guidelines should and buildings when security conditions permit.
be observed consistent with military force protection, mission 5. NGHO personnel visits to military facilities/sites should be
accomplishment, and operational requirements: by prior arrangement.
1. When conducting relief activities, military personnel should 6. Except for liaison arrangements detailed in the sections that
wear uniforms or other distinctive clothing to avoid being follow, NGHOs should minimize their activities at military
mistaken for NGHO representatives. U.S. Armed Forces bases and with U.S. Armed Forces personnel of a nature that
personnel and units should not display NGHO logos on might compromise their independence.
any military clothing, vehicles, or equipment. This does not
7. NGHOs may, as a last resort, request military protection for
preclude the appropriate use of symbols recognized under
convoys delivering humanitarian assistance, take advantage
the law of war, such as a red cross, when appropriate. U.S.
of essential logistics support available only from the military,
Armed Forces may use such symbols on military clothing,
or accept evacuation assistance for medical treatment or to
vehicles, and equipment in appropriate situations.
evacuate from a hostile environment. Provision of such mili-
2. U.S. Armed Forces personnel visits to NGHO sites should be tary support to NGHOs rests solely within the discretion of
by prior arrangement. the military forces and will not be undertaken if it interferes
3. U.S. Armed Forces should respect NGHO views on the bear- with higher priority military activities. Support generally will
ing of arms within NGHO sites. be provided on a reimbursable basis in accordance with ap-
plicable U.S. law.
4. U.S. Armed Forces should give NGHOs the option of meet-
ing with U.S. Armed Forces personnel outside military in- C. Recommendations on forms of coordination, to the extent
stallations for information exchanges. feasible, that will minimize the risk of confusion between mili-
5. U.S. Armed Forces should not describe NGHOs as “force tary and NGHO roles in hostile or potentially hostile environ-
multipliers” or “partners” of the military, or in any other ments, subject to military force protection, mission accom-
fashion that could compromise their independence and their plishment, and operational requirements are:
goal to be perceived by the population as independent.
1. NGHO liaison officer participation in unclassified security
6. U.S. Armed Forces personnel and units should avoid inter- briefings conducted by the U.S. Armed Forces.
fering with NGHO relief efforts directed toward segments
of the civilian population that the military may regard as un-

On March 8, 2005, the heads of major U.S. humanitarian organizations and U.S. civilian and military leaders met at the U.S. Insti-
tute of Peace (USIP) to launch a discussion on the challenges posed by operations in combat and other nonpermissive environ-
ments. The working group on Civil-Military Relations in Nonpermissive Environments, facilitated by USIP, was created as a result
of this meeting. InterAction coordinated the non-governmental delegation. Representatives from the Department of Defense, the
Joint Chiefs of Staff, the State Department and the U.S. Agency for International Development have participated on behalf of the
U.S. Government. These guidelines are available at

2. Unclassified information sharing with the NGHO liaison C. Procedures for NGHO liaison relationships with combatant
officer on security conditions, operational sites, location of commands that are engaged in planning for military operations
mines and unexploded ordnance, humanitarian activities, and in hostile or potentially hostile environments. NGHO liaison
population movements, insofar as such unclassified informa- personnel are provided by the NGHO community.
tion sharing is for the purpose of facilitating humanitarian
operations and the security of staff and local personnel en- 1. The NGHO liaison officer should not be physically located
gaged in these operations. within the military headquarters, but if feasible, should be in
close proximity to it in order to allow for daily contact.
3. Liaison arrangements with military commands prior to and
during military operations to deconflict military and relief ac- 2. The NGHO liaison officer should have appropriate access to
tivities, including for the purpose of protection of humanitar- senior-level officers within the combatant commands, and be
ian installations and personnel and to inform military person- permitted to meet with them as necessary and feasible.
nel of humanitarian relief objectives, modalities of operation, 3. There should be a two-way information flow. The NGHO
and the extent of prospective or ongoing civilian humanitar- liaison officer should provide details on NGHO capabilities,
ian relief efforts. infrastructure, if any, plans, concerns, etc. The military should
4. Military provision of assistance to NGHOs for humanitarian provide appropriate details regarding minefields, unexploded
relief activities in extremis when civilian providers are unavail- ordnance, other hazards to NGHOs, access to medical facili-
able or unable to do so. Such assistance generally will be pro- ties, evacuation plans, etc.
vided on a reimbursable basis in accordance with applicable 4. The NGHO liaison officer should have the opportunity to
U.S. law. Such assistance will not be provided if it interferes brief military commanders on NGHO objectives, the Code
with higher priority military activities. of Conduct of the International Federation of Red Cross and
Red Crescent Societies (IFRC) and NGOs Engaged in Disas-
2. Recommended Processes ter Relief, the United Nations Inter-Agency Standing Com-
mittee (IASC) Guidelines, and country-specific guidelines
A. Procedures for NGHO/Military dialogue during contingency based on the IASC Guidelines, and, if desired, The Sphere
planning for DOD relief operations in a hostile or potentially Project Humanitarian Charter and Minimum Standards in
hostile environment. Disaster Response. U.S. Armed Forces personnel should
1. NGHOs engaged in humanitarian relief send a small number have the opportunity to brief NGHOs, to the extent appro-
of liaison officers to the relevant combatant command for priate, on U.S. Government and coalition goals and policies,
discussions with the contingency planners responsible for de- monitoring principles, applicable laws and rules of engage-
signing relief operations. ment, etc.

2. NGHOs engaged in humanitarian relief assign a small num- 5. The NGHO liaison officer could continue as a liaison at high-
ber of liaison officers to the relevant combatant command er headquarters even after a Civil-Military Operations Cen-
(e.g., one liaison was stationed at U.S. CENTCOM for 6 of ter (CMOC) or similar mechanism is established in-country.
the first 12 months of the war in Afghanistan and one was in Once this occurs, liaison officers of individual NGHOs could
Kuwait City before U.S. forces entered Iraq in 2003). begin coordination in country through the CMOC for civil-
military liaison.
3. The relevant military planners, including but not limited to
the Civil Affairs representatives of the relevant commander, D. Possible organizations that could serve as a bridge between
meet with humanitarian relief NGHO liaison officers at a mu- NGHOs and U.S. Armed Forces in the field, e.g., U.S. Agency
tually agreed location.
for International Development’s (USAID’s) Office of Military
B. Procedures for NGHOs and the military to access assess- Affairs, State Department’s Office of the Coordinator for Re-
ments of humanitarian needs. U.S. military and NGHO repre- construction and Stabilization (S/CRS), and the UN’s Humani-
sentatives should explore the following: tarian Coordinator.
1. Access to NGHO and military assessments directly from a 1. If USAID or S/CRS agree to serve a liaison function,
DOD or other U.S. Government web site. they should be prepared to work with the broader NGHO
community in addition to U.S. Government implementing
2. Access to NGHO and military assessments through an NGO partners.
serving in a coordination role and identifying a common web
site. 2. The UN’s Humanitarian Coordinator or his/her representa-
tive could be a strong candidate to serve as liaison because
3. Access to NGHO and military assessments through a U.S. he/she normally would be responsible for working with all
Government or United Nations (UN) web site. NGHOs and maintaining contact with host government or a
successor regime.

Appeals Court Returns Prostitution Pledge Case
to District Court

lawsuit involving a challenge condoning prostitution even if that pro- way, it would definitely eliminate proven
to a U.S. government regula- gramming is highly effective at combat- effective strategies in the fight against
tion requiring NGOs to take ing HIV/AIDS and is funded without HIV/AIDS.
an anti-prostitution pledge has any support from the U.S. government.
been working its way through the federal In their lawsuit against USAID, AOSI
courts. The government lost the case at USAID and HHS initially granted an ex- and Pathfinder International asserted
the trial level in New York when a judge emption to programs conducted directly that requiring the adoption of a policy
from the U.S. District Court for the by U.S.-based NGOs, applying the pledge opposing prostitution is:
Southern District of New York ruled on requirement only to programs conducted
1. Unconstitutionally vague;
May 9, 2006 that the prostitution pledge by their local partners. However, in the
required by the U.S. Agency for Inter- spring of 2005, USAID and HHS also 2. Imposes a specific ideology on non-
national Development (USAID) and began applying the pledge requirement profit organizations; and
the Department of Health and Human to programs conducted directly by U.S.- 3. Improperly imposes a ban on grant-
Services (HHS) is unconstitutional. The based organizations. InterAction mem- ees using funds from sources other
government appealed the trial court’s ber Pathfinder International and the Al- than the U.S. government to engage
decision to the U.S. District Court for liance for Open Society Institute (AOSI) in speech activities protected under
the Second Circuit. While that appeal sued USAID in U.S. District Court for the First Amendment.
was pending, the government also issued the Southern District of New York asking
guidance that changed the way the pledge the court to declare the pledge require- The Initial Ruling
works: permitting their implementing ment unconstitutional.
partners to establish or work with sepa- In District Court, Judge Victor Marrero
rate affiliates that would not be required InterAction submitted an amicus curiae held that enforcing this requirement vio-
to adopt the prostitution pledge. On No- (“friend of the court”) brief emphasizing lates the First Amendment rights of the
vember 8, 2007 the Appeals Court issued the importance of protecting the auton- plaintiffs. Citing the unique role of non-
a summary order sending the case back omy and independence of the nonprofit profits, the judge stated in his decision:
to the District Court for further proceed- sector. The brief stressed that freedom
of association for advocacy purposes is a “The far-reaching role of NGOs in pre-
ings. The Appeals Court noted that the
core principle of the First Amendment. senting ideas of concern to government
new guidelines mean that “the case that
officials, as well as contributing to public
was before the District Court is substan-
What is the Pledge debate on contested social issues, in in-
tially different than the case as it stands
fluencing the course of public policy as
today and that new fact-finding may be Requirement? well as in enhancing core public values
required to re-resolve the dispute.”
USAID and HHS require organizations and safeguarding them from government
receiving HIV/AIDS funding to certify abuse, has always been critical to our de-
Background to the Case that they have an internal policy explicitly mocracy.”
In 2003, Congress enacted the Global opposing prostitution. Organizations are
AIDS Act, which authorizes the appro- also required to refrain from any speech In support of the need to protect the
priation of $15 billion over a five-year or conduct that is “inconsistent” with First Amendment rights in issue in the
period for research, prevention, care and the required pledge (opposition to pros- case, the judge stated that the govern-
treatment of HIV/AIDS worldwide. titution) regardless of the funding source ment “should assume a stance of neutral-
These funds are used by many U.S.-based for that activity. ity as regards what people believe, and
nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) not discriminate among privately held
directly and passed to local partners to fi- Although neither USAID nor HHS has viewpoints, nor compel its own message
nance their programs. The Act prohibits issued guidelines explaining what types in a manner that unduly enhances one
activities that “promote or advocate the of speech and conduct would be “incon- person and burdens another.”
legalization or the practice of prostitu- sistent with opposition to prostitution,”
the Act also bars any activity advocating The ruling held that:
tion and sex trafficking.” In practice, the
U.S. government has interpreted this to for the elimination of criminal penalties 1. The pledge requirement’s blanket
mean that the Act requires that in order against sex workers or legalizing prosti- ban on any speech, including pri-
to receive these funds, recipient organi- tution. vately funded activities by U.S.-based
zations must adopt a policy of opposi- NGOs was not sufficiently “narrowly
tion to prostitution that covers the or- The Court Case tailored” and the government has
ganization’s work with U.S. government If USAID interprets the pledge require- less restrictive ways to meet its goal
funds and funds from all other sources. ment broadly to ban advocating for of conveying its message that eradica-
In other words, in order to be eligible to changes in the legal treatment of sex tion of prostitution is part of its anti-
receive U.S. government funds under the workers, promoting community organiz- AIDS effort.
Act, the organization must forego con- ing among sex workers or communicat-
ducting any activity that could be seen as ing with sex workers in a non-judgmental

2. The pledge requirement violates the community outreach) without being sub- of separation between the implement-
First Amendment, because in order to ject to potential termination of USAID ing partners and their affiliates that the
qualify for government grants, it re- and HHS funds. However, only AOSI plaintiffs have argued in a subsequent
quires U.S.-based NGOs to adopt the and Pathfinder International are given this submission to the Appeals Court that the
government’s viewpoint and restricts relief by Judge Marrero’s ruling. arrangement would be prohibitively ex-
any competing viewpoints. pensive and otherwise impractical in for-
The government appealed Judge Mar- eign countries. The plaintiffs have instead
3. The requirement improperly restricts
rero’s decision to the U.S. Court of Ap- requested that the degree of separation
speech by requiring U.S.-based NGOs peals for the 2nd Circuit. Before the Ap- the government permits between faith-
to convey the U.S. government’s mes- peals Court reached a decision on that based organizations using U.S. govern-
sage and to become de facto mouth- appeal, the government, in an apparent ment funds for assistance programs and
pieces for the government’s position. effort to avoid an adverse decision on ap- their affiliates engaged in religious activi-
4. When the government imposes re- peal, amended the regulations to permit ties (i.e. shared facilities and staff provided
strictions on organizations with which USAID and HHS implementing partners both activities do not take place at the
it enters into partnerships it must leave to maintain an affiliation with separate or- same time) should apply in this situation
the partners “adequate freedom to en- ganizations that do not have such a policy. as well. The government has rejected this
gage in protected expression through The argument by the government is that suggestion.
unregulated means.” the Appeals Court panel no longer needs
to issue a decision on the case because, In light of these developments, the Ap-
The Impact on the International according to the government’s argument, peals Court has sent the case back to the
the amended rule solves the problem and District Court for further consideration.
Humanitarian, Disaster and When the case is again considered by the
therefore there is no longer a dispute for
Relief Community the court to address. District Court, the plaintiffs are expected
This decision allows AOSI and Pathfinder to argue, as they did before the Appeals
International to use their private funds to Under the revised rule, these affiliated Court, that the degree of separation re-
engage sex workers as part of their work in organizations could conduct activities quired by the USAID and HHS guidelines
HIV/AIDS prevention. They will be able prohibited under the USAID/HHS rule, is so onerous that it provides no effective
to use non-U.S. government funds to en- provided they did not use U.S. govern- relief from the prostitution pledge which
gage in numerous HIV/AIDS prevention ment funds. However, the amended regu- the District Court already has found un-
activities (e.g., engaging local activists and lation requires such an extensive degree constitutional.

Nonprofits As Contractors for Local Governments
Challenges and Benefits
By Winnifred Levy, The Aspen Institute

hen nonprofits contract with local governments, the The competition between nonprofit and for-profit or-
nonprofits may experience challenges, but they may ganizations for government-funded work in interna-
also gain prestige and funding for programs. Since
tional relief and development has been a subject of
nonprofits may find that they are distracted from
their mission by management challenges and the demands of significant interest to InterAction members for many
regulation and oversight, they should carefully weigh both the years. In reflecting on the growing amount of work
benefits and the costs of being government contractors. awarded to for-profits, we often look to ideological
and historical reasons to support the position that it
These are the conclusions of researchers Richard C. Feiock and is important to maintain a strong role for NGOs in this
HeeSoun Jang in their recent report, “The Role of Nonprofit area.
Contractors in the Delivery of Local Services,” funded by the
Nonprofit Sector Research Fund. Through a groundbreaking The following article considers a different set of rela-
survey of nonprofits in twelve metropolitan areas, the researchers tionships that may provide additional useful food for
examine the types of nonprofit organizations that engage in con-
thought as we look to strengthen our understanding
tracts and describe the costs and challenges they encounter when
they produce services for governments. They also studied exist- of and ability to articulate why NGOs are important
ing surveys of local governments in order to learn more about players in government-funded work in international
how governments choose the contractors they do business with, relief and development. Looking at when and why
and the challenges they face in terms of the cost of managing nonprofits serve as contractors for U.S. local govern-
these external contracts. ments, the authors offer insights into in what areas
and for what reasons such relations are more likely
Are such relationships worth the work? The researchers believe
to occur and be useful to both sides.
that they are. “Service collaborations have the potential to benefit
communities and improve service delivery. They are worth deal- The Aspen Institute originally published this article
ing with the challenges of collaborating between two sectors,”
in March 2007 edition of Snapshots. The referenced
said Feiock in a recent interview.
report (The Role of Nonprofit Contractors in the De-
Increased Contracting with Nonprofits for Social livery of Local Services) is available from the Aspen
Institute Publications office at (410) 820-5338 or by
Services e-mailing
Local governments partner with for-profit companies, with gov-
ernment agencies and with nonprofits to ensure that their com-
munities get the services they need. Such contracting is often surveys documented the percentages and frequency of govern-
seen as a way to replace a monopoly in service provision with the ment contracts with for-profit companies, other government
competition of the marketplace (and the benefits of that mar- agencies and nonprofits. While governments contracted with all
ket). three sectors for most categories of services, Feiock and Jang did
identify some key trends:
The researchers identified a range of services that local govern-
ments contract with other entities (from any sector) to provide. a Over the ten years covered by the survey, the researchers
Such services include “hard” services such as garbage collection, found striking increases in the contracting done with non-
utility service, road maintenance, street construction, vehicle profits in order to provide services in areas such as daycare,
towing, building repair and ambulance services, as well as “soft” child welfare, homeless shelters, programs for the elderly,
services like mental health services, child care, care for the elderly, public health and mental health.
homeless shelters, libraries, and cultural and art services. Feiock
a Governments also continued to contract with nonprofits to
and Jang point out that there are important distinctions between
provide services in the areas of recreation, parks, libraries,
contracting hard and soft services: hard services can be purchased
and culture and art; the level of contracting in these areas
in a cost-effective way on the basis of per-unit payment contracts.
remained stable over the ten years of the survey. In these
The harder to measure soft services, on the other hand, must be
areas, the most substantial amount of contracting with non-
concerned with clients’ quality of life as well as effective service
profits is for art and culture (41 percent of contracts in this
delivery. area were with nonprofits).
In order to better understand the decisions that local govern- a On the other hand, for-profit companies maintained or in-
ments make about contracting with nonprofits, Feiock and Jang creased their lead as contractors of choice with local govern-
compared surveys conducted by the International City/County ment in the areas of residential solid waste collection, street
Management Association (ICMA) in 1992, 1997 and 2002. The repair, vehicle towing and storage, and legal services.

a Local government tends to contract with government agen- Advantages on Both Sides
cies to provide public health programs and mental health
programs. While contracting with local government does bring nonprofits
some challenges, it also offers nonprofits resources and access to
Why Local Governments Choose Nonprofit clients.
Contractors And on the other side of the relationship, while contracting with
The researchers argue that local governments are likelier to con- nonprofits forces government to give up some control, local gov-
tract with nonprofits to provide soft services and with private ernment does gain the ability to offer specialized services rather
companies to provide hard services. There are several key factors than generic ones. Government can tap the wealth of specialized
at work here: skills and knowledge that nonprofits have for the specific services
that are needed.
Nonprofits offer less risk of opportunism. Because for-profit
firms have incentives to place profits over service quality, moni- Feiock and Jang argue that the costs of contracting are often
toring contracts and ensuring quality can be costly. When local worthwhile for local government, their nonprofit contractors,
governments contract with nonprofits, these costs are lower be- and communities.
cause the nonprofit contractors are less likely to be opportunistic.
Given the structure of nonprofits’ funding and governance, and
the character of volunteerism that shapes the nonprofit sector, Characteristics and Challenges of Nonprofits
nonprofits are less risky than private companies when services are that Contract with Local Government
hard to measure.
Little has been known about the nonprofits that contract with
Nonprofits can provide flexibility and cost efficiency. Con- government, including their major fields of activity, funding structures
and financial characteristics. Feiock and Jang addressed this gap
tracting with nonprofits can allow local government to offer
in the research by surveying more than 1,500 urban nonprofits. The
more specialized services to more diverse populations.
researchers found that 53 percent had fulfilled local government
contracts within the past five years. Here are a few more details
Nonprofits can provide services that do not attract private
about those nonprofits that have contracted with government:
providers. Because they are mission driven, nonprofits respond
to service needs and populations regardless of whether there is a About the Nonprofits
profit in doing so. They are also willing to provide soft services,
a 34 percent have revenues of $1 million or more, while 2.7
which have a narrower profit margin.
percent have total revenue of less than $25,000 per year.
(Health and human service nonprofits have high revenues
Characteristics of Nonprofit Contractors compared to art and education nonprofits.)

Until this study, no one had ever surveyed nonprofits to find a The median total revenue of nonprofits that contract with local
out about the relationships between nonprofits and local govern- governments is higher than the revenue of nonprofits that do
not contract with local government. This may suggest that
ments and their contractors. For this part of the study, Feiock
the financial condition of a nonprofit is crucial in attracting
and Jang surveyed 1,512 nonprofit organizations in 12 large,
government contracts.
metropolitan areas in the United States. The researchers specifi-
cally wanted to find out how the characteristics of nonprofit or- a More than half of those nonprofits surveyed report that they
ganizations and community factors contribute to the decision of primarily serve low socioeconomic status target groups (70
the nonprofit to engage in contractual relations with local gov- percent of health organizations and 63 percent of human
service organizations, but only 19 percent of art and culture
The researchers found that 53 percent of the surveyed respon- Challenges of Contracting with Local Government
dents had contracted with local government in the past five years.
Echoing the ICMA survey, Feiock and Jang found that nonprof- a 66 percent have seen an increase in demands on their primary
its specializing in some kinds of activities were much likelier than services.
others to fulfill contracts with local government: a Nearly half make significant efforts to change their
management style to outcome-oriented management.
a 70 percent of reporting human services nonprofits had
a Nearly one-third have experienced problems that were the
fulfilled contracts
result of poor coordination by local government.
a 57 percent of health-related nonprofits a 25 percent report that the turnover of elected officials
a 30 percent of education and environmental nonprofits heightens nonprofits’ uncertainty about future expectations and
a 22 percent of arts and cultural nonprofits.
a 21 percent report that the turnover of administrative officials
The researchers found that nonprofits that contract with local causes hardships related to local government’s supervision.
governments may experience some challenges, particularly with a 24 percent say that government regulations and monitoring
management difficulties, uncertainty and regulations. These is- make it hard to provide specialized service to clients.
sues may also make it hard for nonprofits to provide specialized
Adapted from “The Role of Nonprofit Contractors in the Delivery of Local Services.”
services. (See box for more details.) For more information, contact Richard Feiock,

The Associational Counter-Revolution
By Douglas Rutzen and Catherine Shea, International Center for Not-for-Profit Law

number of countries have enacted or proposed laws that
significantly restrict the activities of civil society organi-
zations (CSOs). Such countries tend to exhibit one or In the early 1990s, an “associational revolution” (to
more of the following characteristics: quote Lester Salamon’s phrase) swept through Cen-
tral Europe and the former Soviet Union. Recently,
a They have a “closed” or command economy (China, Cuba)
or are governed by leaders with autocratic tendencies (Libya, however, there are signs that a counter-revolution
Zimbabwe). is under way and spreading globally. A recent study
by the International Center for Not-for-Profit Law
a There is political dissension in the country or a neighboring
country that is perceived as threatening the current regime (ICNL) found that countries in all regions have used
or incumbent party (Sudan, Ethiopia). the law to constrain civil society. In this article, we
summarize ICNL’s survey of challenges; a forthcom-
a There are concerns about religious fundamentalism
ing ICNL study will examine possible responses.
a Similar legislation or practices have been introduced else-
where in the region (various countries in the former Sovi-
et Union and the Middle East). In some cases this almost
amounts to an “exchange of worst practices.” a In Azerbaijan, Ethiopia and Algeria, regulations governing
the registration process are vague and leave great discretion
a They have a history of human rights abuses (North Korea).
to registration officials. As a result, CSOs are sometimes de-
a They are concerned about “foreign influence” (Venezuela). nied registration or experience long delays.

In many countries, this trend almost certainly springs from the a In Belarus, the government has in recent years adopted a
perception that CSOs played a fundamental role in the recent series of laws restricting both public gatherings and CSO ac-
tivity. As a result, the government has significant discretion
“color” revolutions in Georgia and Ukraine. Indeed, ICNL’s re-
over the opaque registration process. Applicants can wait
search has shown that governments often enact restrictive CSO
more than a year, only to be denied registration without ex-
legislation before elections. In addition, the Bush administration’s
focus on “democracy promotion” has created concern about for-
eign funding of civil society. As Thomas Carothers states, “Some
autocratic governments have won substantial public sympathy Inability to obtain foreign funding
by arguing that opposition to Western democracy promotion is For some years, ICNL has warned of an increasingly concerning
resistance not to democracy itself, but to American intervention- trend, namely the use of foreign funding restrictions to restrain
ism.” As such, it seems that autocratic leaders have sensed a po- civil society. In Eritrea, for example, legislation introduced in
litical window of opportunity to crack down on civil society. 2005 restricts the ability of international agencies to directly fund
local CSOs under most circumstances. In Uzbekistan in 2004,
We must also recall that governmental restrictions on private ini- the government required CSOs to deposit foreign grants in one
tiative are nothing new. Authoritarian governments throughout of two government-controlled banks. This effectively obstructed
history have sought to limit the space for civil society. Combined the transfer of the vast majority of foreign grants to CSOs.
with preexisting constraints, the current backlash threatens the
growth and vibrancy of civil society. Also in 2004, Zimbabwe proposed a bill to prohibit local CSOs
engaged in “issues of governance” from accessing foreign funds
and foreign CSOs involved in these activities from registering.
Common legal barriers to civil society In the event, Mugabe declined to sign the bill, but there is con-
Increasing government restrictions have posed obstacles to the cern that it will be revived. Zimbabwe recently suggested a similar
ability of both foreign and domestic CSOs to form, operate and proposal at the inaugural session of the new UN Human Rights
sustain themselves. Council.

Limited rights to associate and form CSOs Arbitrary or discretionary termination and
In the most restrictive environments, governments effectively dissolution
deny the right to associate by granting it on extremely limited Some countries retain substantial discretion to shut down CSOs
terms. Saudi Arabia, Libya, Cuba, China and Vietnam fall into and use this to quash opposition groups. In 2003 and 2004, Be-
this category. In other countries, governments often closely con- larus government officials dissolved a significant number of lead-
trol the registration process. Governments may insist that all ing CSOs. Similarly, Egypt’s Law 84/2002 permits the supervis-
groups, however small or informal, must register, or they may ing ministry to shut down an organization at any time on the
make registration difficult. grounds that it is “threatening national unity” or “violating pub-
lic order or morals” – both broad and ambiguous criteria which
Tactics include: excessive government discretion over the regis- give the government substantial discretion to terminate CSOs.
tration process, making registration expensive, inconvenient or
burdensome; excessive delays in making decisions; and requiring
re-registration every few years.

Arbitrary and stringent oversight and control
Once a CSO has been registered, governments may restrict their
activities through unchecked oversight. Failure to comply with
Reversing the Counter-revolution
government demands may lead to daunting sanctions and penal- Having taken part in Turkish CSO law reform efforts, the
ties. In Turkey, until recently, the authorities had the right to send “counter-revolution” is an issue of particular concern and
representatives to the meetings of associations, thus chilling any relevance for me, especially with regard to if and how
sort of advocacy activity. With the assistance of TUSEV (a Turkish civil society can counter this trend. Reading this article,
CSO), Turkish officials, ICNL, the EU and other partners, this I had flashbacks from a workshop Douglas Rutzen and
law was recently amended. Again in Belarus, in 2003, a number I organized at the recent CIVICUS World Assembly in
of CSOs ceased operations due to harassment from government Glasgow, which discussed this specific challenge.
officials. In 2004, the government reportedly inspected and is-
sued warnings to 800 others, and in some instances papers were A proposed slate of restrictive legal provisions (including
confiscated. most issues mentioned in this article) were presented to
two groups. One group took on the role of government
Criminal penalties against individuals officials and was tasked with defending the restrictions.
In some countries, individuals who are found responsible for They prepared a convincing list of justifications, including
certain CSO activities can be held criminally liable. In Egypt, national security and public order concerns. A CSO group
Law 84/2002 imposes severe individual penalties, including up (among them CSO law reform experts), tasked with
to three months in prison and a fine of up to 1,000 Egyptian opposing the reforms, made a poignant case for civil
pounds, for conducting CSO activity, affiliating with a foreign society’s significance but was unable to demonstrate how
CSO network or association, or merging with another association these provisions would negatively affect civil society. Nor
without approval from the Ministry of Social Affairs. were they able to propose alternative solutions to address
the concerns that had led to the provisions in the first
Conclusion place.

The news is not all bad, however. Turkey and Mexico, for ex- We were all struck by the stark reality that without unity,
ample, have recently enacted more positive reforms, while CSOs clarity of message and an astute strategy, civil society will
throughout the world have at times been able to successfully be unable to reverse the counter-revolution. CSOs must be
counter these repressive government tactics. ICNL is catalogu- able to obtain a better understanding of the government
ing these strategies and plans to disseminate them to a wider perspective in order to develop alternative solutions and
audience. While not every strategy is effective in every country avert proposals that will be more damaging to civil society.
or circumstance, together they constitute a useful array of tools This presents an urgent call to arms, not only to CSOs to
to protect basic rights against government incursion. Moreover, consider new tactics and strategies, but also to groups
there is some solace in the words of C. Wright Mills, who once such as CIVICUS to rally support, and to organizations
said, “Every revolution has its counter-revolution – that is a sign such as the UN and the EU to facilitate inter-governmental
the revolution is for real.” dialogue and discourage regressive legislation.

With apprehensive yet hopeful sentiment, I wish us the
This article is reprinted with permission from the September 3, 2006 issue of Alliance best of luck in this journey.
magazine. The “forthcoming study” referenced below was published in August
2007 as Recent Laws and Legislative Proposals to Restrict Civil Society and Civil Society – Filiz Bikmen

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Federal Funding Accountability and Transparency Act of 2006
and InterAction Members
By Ken Flemmer, Bureau Chief, Evaluation and Program Quality, Adventist Development & Relief Agency International (ADRA)

n late September of 2006 President Apparently some U.S. government agen- Who must report? It is clear that the
Bush’s signature of the Federal Fund- cies were hoping to comply by hav- most unsettled FFATA compliance issues
ing Accountability and Transparency ing standalone websites with the data concern the world of sub-awards, sub-
Act of 2006 (FFATA) required the required by the FFATA, but OMB has grantees and sub-contracts. Does the
U.S. government’s Office of Manage- directed that U.S. government agencies FFATA mean that even though the Paper
ment and Budget (OMB) to establish a will be required to feed the required data Reduction Act requires less paperwork,
public, online database containing “full into the OMB portal. OMB is further InterAction members will be badgered to
disclosure of entities receiving federal considering “several important addition- assist in providing data at that level?
funding.” As OMB states, “citizens have al data elements such as award number
a right and need to understand where tax and data” not specified by the Act.
dollars are spent and disclosure is a key
How might InterAction
ingredient to building public trust.” The Potential Concerns & Issues members prepare?
FFATA requires OMB to provide a single
“searchable” web database that is down- Who must report. In the next few a Monitor the OMB website, FAADS,
loadable and permits users to determine days OMB plans to publish for comment FPDS and
the total amount of federal funding an in the Federal Register new definitions for
InterAction member organization re- a Ensure all information reported on
“sub-award” and “contract,” as well as
ceives beginning with 2007 data. those sources is accurate and report
further clarification of which sub-recipi-
inaccuracies to OMB and the U.S.
ents must report and exactly what they
OMB has stated that “to the extent pos- government agency that made the
must do to comply with the FFATA. This
sible” data will come from three exist- award.
seems to be partly driven by the need to
ing databases: the Federal Procurement clarify which tiers of participants in an
Data System (FPDS), the Federal Assis- a Be prepared for increased public
award or contract must report data. scrutiny of your dealings with the
tance Award Data System (FAADS), and
U.S. government. USAID has initiated ePICS, Data reliability. With OMB rely-
a web-based data reporting tool to re- ing on existing databases as the prime a Be prepared – more information
place ProDocs as an interim tool to help sources for the FFATA web interface, it about your organization to be read-
USAID fulfill reporting requirements is highly likely the persistent question- ily available to parties with good and
pending the full implementation of the able reliability of the data will continue less than desirable intentions.
Global Acquisition System (GLAS) and but that questionable data will simply
Joint Assistance Management System be available on a more timely basis (up-
(JAMS). OMB plans to “make use of dated every 30 days instead of every six Conclusion
tools we already own” to comply with months). An illustration is a 2005 report
the Act. The FFATA makes provision for Transparency and accountability are es-
by the Government Accountability Of-
excluding data on awards of a nature that sential principles and must always be a
fice which concluded that users lacked
could be reasonably expected to have a core goal. However, where is the inde-
confidence in Federal Procurement Data
“national security consideration.” pendent, apolitical humanitarian space
System (FPDS) data “as a mechanism to
for InterAction members that is vital
routinely verify data accuracy is absent.”
The OMB database site is to be operation- to successfully implement programs in
Human error and weak internal controls
al by January 1, 2008 for prime awards sensitive situations? A number of new
can contribute to erroneous entries.
and contracts and by January 1, 2009 for requirements such as the FFATA online
information on sub-grantees and sub- Use of the information. Not only database, USAID branding rules and the
contractors. The law requires data to be will anyone with a web connection have proposed USAID Partner Vetting pro-
updated within 30 days of an award. The access to data about awards and contracts cess seriously erode the important space
database will require details such as the made, they will also be able to submit for independent NGO humanitarian
name of the awardee, the award amount “feedback” on the OMB website. There operations that existed just a few years
and type, the name of the U.S. govern- is always the possibility that interest ago. The FFATA poses a number of chal-
ment agency making the award, program groups that are unfriendly or even hos- lenges and InterAction members would
source, and the award title and purpose, tile to one or more InterAction member be well advised to carefully monitor its
among other items. Awards to multiple organizations or to certain types of pro- implementation.
recipients will contain data on the por- grams implemented by InterAction mem-
tion awarded to each recipient. bers may take advantage of this option.



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Readers Weigh In on Civil-Military Relations
neither government nor NGOs operat-
ed effectively in an area due to on-go-
ing conflict. Where the military provid-
ed “development” aid, this was carried
Monday Developments asked readers to weigh in on civil-military relations out more for its immediate political and
in humanitarian relief and international development. We asked the security benefit than because it would
following questions: have a long-term economic impact on
the population. Nobody, least of all the
When (if ever) would it be appropriate for the U.S. military to engage military, considered this type of work as
in humanitarian and/or development work? serious development. Now, under De-
partment of Defense Directive 3000.05,
If there are circumstances under which you think this would be this is supposed to change. Somehow, I
appropriate, should the NGO community participate in training the military have my doubts.
on how best to carry out these interventions?
In years past, during major interna-
tional disasters, (e.g., Hurricane Mitch,
The opinions below are those of individuals (unless noted) and do not
the Asian Tsunami), the ability of the
reflect the opinion of InterAction or its members. military to mobilize manpower and
logistical capacity for delivering life
saving assistance (food, water, shelter
and medical aid) has frequently been

deally, it would never be appropriate for the U.S. military critical in the first days of a crisis. Often, the host government
to engage in humanitarian and/or development work], and military has had the major task of search and rescue as well as
not for just the U.S. military, but for other countries’ military delivering immediate assistance to locations isolated by weath-
forces as well. Their focus, goals, training, ideals, ways of doing er and damaged infrastructure. If the crisis was large enough,
things, raisons d’etre and politics are just too different from the as was the case during the Asian Tsunami, support from the
humanitarian community’s. Thus, I do not see humanitarian/ military services of many countries might be offered. Military
development work as we see it in the humanitarian community; services from different countries have often prepared to work
that is, international NGOs, local NGOs, the UN, the Red Cross with one another through alliance mechanisms such as NATO
movement, etc. as being compatible or consistent with military or ASEAN (Association of Southeast Asian Nations).
bodies/activities and vice versa.
The delivery of assistance to large numbers of disaster-affected
A rare exception, which is why I used the word ‘ideal’ above, is communities by the military in the first days after a disaster has
maybe in a huge catastrophe, like a mega earthquake, volca- helped many who otherwise could be without critical aid for a
nic eruption or tsunami, with much damage to and loss of hu- considerable period of time. But most military groups, particu-
man lives and infrastructure, where local structures, including larly those from outside the region where a disaster has struck,
humanitarian ones, are initially overwhelmed by the magni- are usually hampered by a lack of local knowledge and by a
tude of the disaster, and in which quick responses are needed lack of experience in distributing humanitarian aid. The ability
by entities with the necessary equipment and technical know- to deliver relief supplies is not the same as the ability to mount
how in logistics and rescue operations. But this should be as an effective relief assistance operation. For this reason, link-
short-term as possible. ing military logistical strength to NGO knowledge of the envi-
I experienced this in the Mozambique floods in 2000, and saw ronment and ties to community leadership is often one of the
that the military forces that assisted (U.S., Britain, Malawi, best ways to ensure that available assistance is used effectively
South Africa, Germany), did it for a relatively short time, and in the immediate aftermath of a major disaster. The fact that
did not clash with the regular humanitarian efforts. They as- there is growing agreement among NGOs on how humanitar-
sisted mostly via logistics, (helicopters) and establishing emer- ian assistance needs to be provided is the result of many years
gency water purifying systems for victims. of learning lessons from past mistakes. These same mistakes,
however, will be repeated by military units delivering relief aid
If the humanitarian community had these types of resources, unless they have guidance from experienced NGOs.
with the appropriate staff and training, then would we need
the military at all, even in these rare circumstances? On the question of whether NGOS should help train military
forces to carry out relief or development assistance, in the past,
In these very rare circumstances, both sides can teach each the issue was one of developing a dialogue with the military
other and learn from each other. so that we would be able to understand how NGOs and the
military each operated. Periodic meetings and exercises were

hat follows are my personal comments based on over 25 planned so that we would be able to communicate effectively
years of working in this field. There are times when I have and develop appropriate coordination during times of disaster.
welcomed a military presence as something that enabled While the goal was laudable, the meetings I participated in
NGOs to deliver humanitarian assistance. mostly showed the gulf between us: military forces are from
I don’t know of anyone, for example, who is not hoping that a Mars, NGOs are from Venus. Having a meaningful dialogue on
robust UN-African Union force can soon be deployed in Darfur how to coordinate was difficult but something we could agree
to create the necessary stability for NGOs to operate there in on as important; changing the perspective of command staff
safety. from military strategy to a humanitarian aid orientation was
not an objective either side contemplated.
But the roles of NGOs and military forces have usually been
distinct and accepted by both sides. NGOs carried out relief A Department of Defense program to provide relief or develop-
and development while military forces provided security and, ment assistance will always be guided by a military or security
in some cases, offered essential logistical support and commu- strategy. The risk for NGOs in now offering training to the mili-
nication facilities that were beyond NGO capabilities. Where tary in humanitarian aid is that the military will learn the meth-
the military provided relief aid it was done primarily because ods but ignore the guiding principles. The more closely NGOs

above are very different, and my response would be “it de-
In situations where there are roving militias and bandits that
make it very insecure for international NGOs, and if the mili-
tary forces were truly peacekeeping, neutral and had a broad
international mandate, then it might be acceptable for some
sort of collaboration.
But I would say “no” if the international NGOs were work-
ing hand-in-glove with an illegitimate army of occupation and
were perceived to be a tool of a wider process of military op-

he U.S. military should not be involved in distributing
humanitarian aid under any circumstances. The distribution
of humanitarian aid by the military blurs the lines between
us and them, making the real humanitarians “fair game” for
terrorists and other militants. We’ve fought long and hard
to maintain our fair, neutral and unarmed status in order to
provide aid to all in need. Once an aid giver steps out of the
vehicle with an M-16 and starts handing out aid, it becomes
a specific, politically motivated, agenda that erases the lines
between neutral and non-neutral.

t would be appropriate for the U.S. military to engage
in humanitarian work during a natural disaster of large
proportions where national response capacities are
overwhelmed. Civil conflict/war should not be occurring in
the country. We see no huge problem in [NGOs participating
in training the military in how best to carry out humanitarian
interventions in such situations], but would suggest that the
reason you would desire military operations in humanitarian
situations is because of the strengths they already possess:
transport capacity, strong engineering capacities and logistical
are associated with what may come to be viewed by local com-

munities and national governments as a fig leaf for a larger he military has a tradition going way, way back of
U.S. military presence around the world, the more difficult it development projects, such as rebuilding orphanages, like
will be for humanitarian agencies to be viewed as operating I did in Ethiopia 35 years ago. It is impossible to answer
transparently and without a political agenda. If we come to be this question in the abstract. It depends on the context. There
viewed as agents of the military, the credibility we have with should not be any confusion between who is in the military
our partners as independent organizations will be lost. versus the NGO community, and in many instances, the NGO
I remain in favor of coordination between NGOs and the mili- community can be very helpful in educating the military. A
tary during major disasters, but I also feel that the roles of each good source for education for the military is COE, the Center
should be well delimited. Where NGOs and the military are for Excellence in Honolulu.
addressing the same disaster, each should work to its strength:

NGOs focusing on community level assistance and civil society think that there are appropriate situations for the U.S. military
capacity building; the military focusing on logistical support to engage in humanitarian efforts during times of crisis and/
and maintaining security. or under security threats: e.g., the need to evacuate civilians
in a hostile environment, assisting in the aftermath of an

ur organization does not have sufficient experience in earthquake or flood, etc.
working in high conflict areas to have informed positions I do not ever think there are circumstances when it is appropri-
or recommendations about the appropriate role for the ate for the military to participate in development work. This is
military in emergency relief and international NGO and not the mandate or mission of the military. Even for programs
military collaboration. designed to train military personnel, these should be carried
These days, it is becoming very difficult for international NGOs out by professionals trained to do this, which includes military,
to play a “neutral” role, especially in countries where the U.S. but is not limited to them.
army is a de facto army of occupation and active combatant,

rather than a UN-mandated peacekeeping force for providing ruly empowering development work is long-term and
security. requires seasoned professional staffing. The military is not
Aside from the obvious countries like Iraq and Afghanistan, trained to do this. The military can, on the occasion of crisis,
where the situation is even more terribly confused with civil- provide logistical support or security cover. They may even
ian contractors that are actually working as privatized soldiers, have a role in training national militaries in peacetime roles,
there are other conflict areas like Darfur, or the Democratic Re- but having them do any functions related to development
public of Congo, or Somalia, or a great natural disaster, like sends confusing messages to communities and undermines
the Asian Tsunami, where there is terrible need. The situations development.
continued on page 30

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CCF Introduces Revolutionary Universal Child “Securing peace is a process, not an event,” added Fitzcharles.
Development Scale “But the U.S. could speed up and solidify that process by using
the full force of its diplomatic and foreign assistance resources.”
Christian Children’s Fund (CCF) has produced a child devel-
opment scale to evaluate children’s development using familiar CARE encourages the U.S. to support the extension of MO-
materials from the environment in which a child lives. The tool, NUC (the UN peacekeeping force in the DRC) and to provide it
designed for children who live in poverty in developing coun- with adequate resources, capacities and accountabilities to imple-
tries, is the first such universal tool created by an international ment its mandate to protect civilians. CARE also recommends
non-governmental organization. that the U.S. scale up its work in security sector reform of the
DRC military – ensuring that they are adequately trained and
“The scale is an important tool which takes into consideration paid.
the environment that influences the child’s development,” CCF
President and CEO Anne Lynam Goddard said. “Parents can CARE is focusing on sexual and gender-based violence in the
help their children develop properly when they understand their region. According to CARE surveys, rape is a growing epidem-
child’s strengths as well as areas of need. This scale helps them ic perpetrated by both military combatants and civilians. “The
do that.” idea that ‘being raped is normal’ has taken hold, and it will take
much more than security to end this practice,” said Fitzcharles.
The scale works in partnership with parents or primary caregivers “It’s critical for the U.S. to increase resources for dialogue on
and is administered by trained volunteers. It screens child devel- the social norms that contribute to sexual and gender-based vio-
opment in order to evaluate strengths and identify those who lence.”
need further evaluation.
CARE is also calling for the U.S. to support the capacity and ac-
The scale covers five areas of child development from birth to countability of national governments in implementing national,
age five. A database system tracks each child’s results. It contains regional and international resolutions to address women’s rights.
165 indicators grouped into five developmental areas within 11 Women have traditionally been overlooked in peace negotia-
age ranges. Each age range contains three indicators per develop- tions. It is vital to provide resources for peace and reconciliation
ment area. initiatives in which women and other marginalized groups are
“The scale helps identify children’s strengths in cognitive, so- adequately represented.
cial/emotional and communication and motor skills – both the However, ending the instability, meeting immediate humanitar-
use of large and small muscles,” said Dr. Mary Moran, CCF’s Se- ian needs and ensuring equitable participation is not enough to
nior Early Childhood Development Specialist. “It also identifies bring durable peace to the region. “Sustainable peace and stabil-
children whose development is at risk in a specific area or overall. ity in the Great Lakes region calls for equitable development,”
This allows programs to be designed that address children’s in- said Fitzcharles. “The U.S. must provide comprehensive, well-
dividual needs as well as helping the parents better understand phased assistance for humanitarian and development needs in
their children.” both countries … It must also urge both national governments
The scale is divided into three different guides for examiners, to devote resources to long neglected areas in their countries
trainers and database users, and is translated into local languages – northern Uganda and eastern DRC.”
and comes with a modest price tag making it more practical in
the developing world. Chief Operating Officer Joins ICRW Executive Team
The CCF Child Development Scale was introduced in Guate- The International Center for Research on Women (ICRW) re-
mala, India and Zambia following formal staff training. It is also cently welcomed Roberta Geidner-Antoniotti as its newly ap-
used in Bolivia, Ecuador, Honduras and Mexico. pointed chief operating officer (COO).
Geidner-Antoniotti, who joined ICRW last summer, brings a
CARE Calls on U.S. to Step Up Peace Efforts in strong background in nonprofit management and strategic plan-
Africa’s Great Lakes Region ning and implementation. As COO – a new position at ICRW,
created to enhance leadership capacity – Geidner-Antoniotti
CARE called for a dramatically stepped-up U.S. role in ending
oversees daily operations of the organization’s finance and ad-
longstanding conflicts in the Great Lakes region of Africa, par-
ministration, business development and human resources divi-
ticularly the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) and Ugan-
sions, in addition to managing the Asia Regional Office in New
da, during a recent Congressional hearing. The agency urged
Delhi, India.
policymakers to change their foreign policy agenda to address
growing concerns of regional instability and sexual violence and “I’m thrilled to have Roberta on board as we begin a new chap-
to change the perception of U.S. apathy by embarking on a sus- ter for ICRW,” said ICRW President Geeta Rao Gupta. “She is
tained course of action. an extremely capable manager, and her experience and expertise
will strengthen ICRW as we continue to grow.”
“Peace agreements and national elections are important signs of
progress, but not at all the end of the road,” Kevin Fitzcharles, Before joining ICRW, Geidner-Antoniotti served as managing
CARE’s country director in Uganda, said in testimony to the director of operations at the Whitman-Walker Clinic and acted
Senate Committee on Foreign Relations Subcommittee on Afri- as its interim executive director from 2004 to 2006. At Whit-
can Affairs. “Security, protection and long-term, equitable devel- man-Walker, a health clinic that provides services to individuals
opment must be addressed if we are to see a lasting peace.” at risk of or living with AIDS, Geidner-Antoniotti managed four

regional operations around the District of Columbia
and oversaw all support operations for the clinic, which
included contracts and grants management, human re- InterAction Welcomes New Members
sources, and information and property management.
Geidner-Antoniotti graduated magna cum laude from DATA (Debt, AIDS, Trade, Africa) is an advocacy organization dedi-
Defiance College with bachelor’s degrees in psychology cated to eradicating extreme poverty and AIDS in Africa. Founded by
and social work. She received her master’s degree in ap- U2 singer Bono, Bobby Shriver and activists from the Jubilee “Drop the
plied sociology from Kent State University with an em-
Debt” campaign in 2002, DATA calls on the governments of the world’s
phasis on organization development.
wealthiest nations to keep their existing commitments to Africa and
CRWRC Receives $1.5 Million and $1.1 adopt new trade and aid policies that will help Africans put themselves
Million Grants from USAID on the path to long-term prosperity and stability. It calls on Africa’s lead-
The Christian Reformed World Relief Committee was ers to strengthen democracy, accountability and transparency in govern-
among the first five relief and development agencies to ment so that Africa’s citizens can monitor how effectively these funds are
receive a $1.5 million Malaria Communities Program being deployed. DATA argues that helping Africans help themselves is
(MCP) grant through the U.S. Agency for International essential to our economic and national security interests. At the core of
Development (USAID). CRWRC will focus this grant
work in Central Malawi over a five-year period. DATA’s beliefs is a view that these issues are not about charity, but about
equality and justice. For the first time in human history, the science, the
CRWRC, in partnership with the Nkhoma Relief and
Development organization (NRD), will reach more technology and the money to end extreme poverty exists. With this un-
than 50,400 households to promote healthy behaviors precedented historic opportunity comes the responsibility to act.
such as insecticide-treated bed nets, pre-natal clinic visits
for pregnant women to receive preventive treatment for
malaria, and immediate treatment for suspected malaria
in children under age five. Hands On Worldwide is dedicated to timely disaster response and
relief, with a mission to apply volunteer resources to aid victims of natu-
In its October 3rd announcement of the awards, USAID
quoted Rear Admiral R. Tim Ziemer, U.S. Malaria Co- ral disasters. It was founded by a group of people who came together in
ordinator, saying, “We want to strengthen the ability of Thailand to help the victims of the December 26, 2004 tsunami. Hands
faith-based and community organizations to fight ma- on USA, a project of Hands On Worldwide, was launched after Hurricane
laria while also building local ownership. Groups with Katrina struck the Gulf Coast on August 29, 2005. The organization’s pre-
local connections that have worked to build trust and
provide hope are key partners in the effort to combat vious disaster response projects include responses to the Greensburg
malaria at the local level.” tornado (USA), typhoon relief (Philippines), earthquake relief (Indonesia),
CRWRC has worked alongside national partners such as Hurricane (USA), and Hands on Thailand, a relief project related to the
the NRD in Malawi for nearly 20 years, building strong, 2004 tsunami.
healthy relationships with local organizations doing sec-
toral development, emergency relief and organizational
capacity building.
VAB (Volunteers Association of Bangladesh) was established to
In a separate award focusing on child and maternal
mobilize funds and other resources in support of the following activities
health, USAID announced on October 1, a $1.1 mil-
lion, five-year grant to CRWRC in India, working with in Bangladesh: secondary education for needy children, improving edu-
its long-time partner, Evangelical Fellowship of India cational facilities in poor areas, providing skills training for unemployed
Commission on Relief (EFICOR). The agencies will youths and rehabilitating destitute women and children. Every dollar
target the Sahibganj District in Jharkhand State, reach-
goes to support cognitive learning, school improvement and computer
ing nearly 162,000 children under age five and 188,500
women of reproductive age. The grant will expand ma- literacy, providing an investment in Bangladesh’s future, in the stability
ternal and newborn care, nutrition, childhood immuni- of this South Asian democracy and in a better world. VAB seeks to ad-
zation, and malaria treatment. dress these problems by providing scholarship for poor students so that
Will Story, CRWRC Technical Advisor for Child Sur- they can continue their education, and by providing vocational training to
vival and Health says, “Nearly 27,000 children die youth who have dropped out of school so that they can gain employment.
each day from preventable and treatable causes such as
VAB started operation in early 1999. Its ultimate aim is to improve the
neonatal complications, diarrhea, pneumonia, and ma-
laria. CRWRC and its partners have the tools and the quality of life in rural Bangladesh through the promotion of education and
knowledge to prevent many of these deaths in some of vocational training.
the poorest regions of the world. With the support of
USAID, we now have the proper funding to scale-up
these life-saving interventions.”

InterAction Hosts Press Event to Announce New Progress Report on U.S.
Contributions to U.N. Millennium Goals
By Nia Davis, Communications Consultant, InterAction

When it comes to foreign aid, the United
States is falling way short of its role in
combating global poverty.
This finding was announced during a press conference
October 18 on Capitol Hill where InterAction President
and CEO Samuel A. Worthington, joined with U.S.
Representative Adam Smith (D-WA), author of the
2007 Global Poverty Act, to announce the release of a
new InterAction report documenting U.S. government
performance when it comes to international aid,
especially in light of the eight U.N. Millennium
Development Goals (MDGs). The MDGs represent a
global commitment towards make significant progress
towards eliminating poverty, hunger and gender
inequalities, preventing and treating HIV/AIDS and
other deadly diseases, protecting the environment, and
providing education, health care, and clean water for
all. They represent the first global framework to fighting
global poverty and have the goal of cutting in half the
number of people in extreme poverty by 2015.

“If the U.S. wants to continue to be a good neighbor in
the global community, it is imperative that our foreign assistance The report comes on the heels of the recent passage of the first-
prioritize the goal of cutting extreme poverty in half by 2015,” ever global poverty bill in the U.S. House of Representatives.
said Worthington at the press conference. “The U.S. has a vested If passed by the Senate, the law would require the U.S. gov-
interest in establishing strong states and eliminating problems ernment to implement a comprehensive strategy for eliminating
that can breed insecurity and terrorism and prevent livable com- extreme poverty and achieving the MDGs.
The purpose of the Act is “to make the U.S. state as its official
Representative Smith agreed. He told the audience that fighting policy to meet the Millennium Development Goals and to have a
global poverty was also in the best security interest of the United coordinated effort at combating global poverty,” said Smith.
States. “Global poverty leads to instability.” He added, “When
you have a large amount of hopelessness, you have willing fol- “This is the first time that all of the countries of the world – do-
lowers of potentially dangerous ideologies.” nors and recipients – have agreed on the goals, and they have
agreed on some of the methods to reach those goals,” said Ritu
The report, U.S. Contributions to Reducing Global Poverty: An Sharma Fox, Co-Founder and President of the Women’s Edge
Assessment of the U.S. and the Millennium Development Goals, Coalition who also spoke at the event. “For the U.S. to stand
examines U.S. contributions to the MDGs from a U.S. NGO outside that global consensus is just not very smart.”
perspective. The report includes an overview of U.S. develop-
ment assistance in relation to the MDGs and includes critiques InterAction intends to issue follow-up reports on U.S. progress
performance related to the goals. It additionally highlights U.S. towards meeting the MDGs through 2015. The information in
contributions to the first six MDGs, which include targets for this first report was compiled by examining data from sources in-
progress within developing countries. It also addresses MDG 7 cluding the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Devel-
(environment) and MDG 8 (aid, trade and debt), which specify opment/Development Assistance Committee, the World Bank,
actions to be taken by donor countries. and various United Nations agencies.

“Our report is a constructive assessment of how the United InterAction has also called for the creation of a Cabinet-level
States is contributing to the Millennium Development Goals,” foreign assistance department that operates alongside the De-
said Worthington. “Our hope is that the analysis and recommen- partments of Defense and State.
dations presented will expand our community’s dialogue with
the U.S. government and lead to even greater opportunities for Want a copy of the full report? Email
partnership.” or download from

French and U.S. NGOs Meet to Deepen
Partnerships to Combat AIDS InterAction Accepting
By Andrea Barron, Adjunct Professor of History, George Mason University
Nominations for
Security Distinguished
On October 19, five French and 13 U.S. non-governmental organizations
(NGOs) met at InterAction to explore ways to work more closely together to
Achievement Award
fight HIV/AIDS, especially in Africa. The meeting was chaired by Sylvain Browa,
Senior Manager for Partnership & Development Impact at InterAction, and Smi- The InterAction Security Advisory Group
ta Baruah, Senior Policy Associate at the Global Health Council. Browa said he has created a distinguished service
wanted the meeting to improve understanding between American and French
NGOs, deepen partnerships between them and create opportunities for French
award to recognize those who have con-
and U.S. NGOs to leverage each other’s organizational strengths in the global tributed to enhancing the overall safety
movement to combat HIV/AIDS. The meeting also gave the U.S. participants of humanitarians throughout the world.
an opportunity to communicate directly with members of Coordination SUD, Each year, beginning in 2008, the award
a federation of over 100 French development and humanitarian organizations.
will be presented to one security profes-
(Last summer InterAction and Coordination SUD signed a memorandum of
understanding to, among other things, increase opportunities for cooperation sional during the awards banquet at the
between their members.) annual InterAction Forum.
Baruah started the meeting by explaining that even though the U.S. has made The InterAction Security Advisory Group
a $15 billion, five-year commitment to the fight against HIV/AIDS through Distinguished Service Award is an NGO
PEPFAR (the President’s Emergency Plan for Aid Relief), “focusing on AIDS initiative to recognize exceptional perfor-
alone is not enough.” She called for a more comprehensive approach that would
mance by NGO security professionals
strengthen health systems, including increasing the number of health workers,
improving transportation networks for drug distribution and paying more atten- who make a significant contribution that
tion to how gender inequality drives the epidemic in many countries. helps NGOs enhance their ability to bet-
ter protect their personnel, assets, infor-
Emmanuel Trenado, Director of International Programs for AIDES, which
serves HIV infected and affected people in France and trains local groups in mation or operations overseas.
francophone Africa, appreciated learning more about PEPFAR from Baruah and Nominations should contain specific il-
other participants. France does not have a PEPFAR counterpart, but in 2007
lustrations of how the actions, analysis
it did pledge $1.3 billion to the multilateral Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tu-
berculosis and Malaria – more than any other European country. Trenado said, or other support provided by the nominee
“Working with U.S. NGOs will help keep HIV/AIDS on the global radar screen directly enhanced the ability of a specific
at a time when there are so many other worthy issues like climate change also on NGO, group of NGOs or a community to
the agenda.”
better protect their personnel, assets, in-
Dr. Claude Moncorgé, Secretary General of OPALS (Pan-African Organization formation, intellectual property or opera-
in the Struggle Against AIDS), was pleasantly surprised when he found himself tions overseas. Specific actions that led
sitting next to Dr. Clarence Hall, Director of Africare’s HIV/AIDS program. directly to saving lives or removal of an
When he was with Médecins du Monde (Doctors of the World), Moncorgé part-
nered with Africare on an HIV program in Benin and another one for street
immediate threat or timely threat report-
children in the Democratic Republic of the Congo. He was pleased to hear that ing and/or analysis may be considered
Africare was about to open a Paris office and before the morning meeting was as well as more general activities over a
over, Moncorgé had agreed to join Paris Africare’s board of directors. sustained period of time such as the cre-
Dr. Moncorgé knows exactly the kind of collaboration he would like to see with ation and leadership by a field security
an organization like Africare. He recently carried out an assessment of pregnant officer of a highly effective coordination
women in Swaziland, where the general HIV prevalence rate is 38 percent (the network in a high-risk location.
highest in the world) and the rate is over 40 percent for pregnant women. He
wants to launch a new program that would care for HIV-positive pregnant wom- Contact John Schafer, Security Coordi-
en and prevent mother-to-child transmission. But he does not have funding for nator, InterAction at 202.552.6527 or
a program in Swaziland, which is not part of francophone Africa. “It costs $600 email for more
a year to treat one HIV-positive pregnant woman in Swaziland,” he says. “With
a population of only one million people, we could care for every one of these
women for less than 30 million dollars. A partnership with Africare or another Deadline: December 1, 2007
U.S. group with access to funding channels could help make it happen.”

continued from page 23

he U.S. military has a clear responsibility to ensure that
their training and mentoring of militaries in other countries
highlight the importance of protecting civilians, especially
children. By incorporating childrens’ rights and child protection
into their training programs, the military will underscore that
the protection of a child is a value essential to proper military
action. A “good soldier” will be one who keeps the child away
from the battlefield, is against child recruitment, and will desist
from using military hardware in places where children may
be endangered before, during and after conflict. As the U.S.
military engages with national militaries globally, especially
through the new Africa Command, we would expect the U.S.
to ensure that education on the protection and respect for
civilians, especially women and children, would be front and
center of any activities.
The NGO community is correct to have strong reservations
about the role of the U.S. military in the provision of humani-
tarian and development assistance. NGOs must engage with
the U.S. military at the highest levels to let them know who
we are as humanitarian and development workers and our
standards for operation. We have made some strides in jointly
agreeing on the parameters of that engagement through the
InterAction-Department of Defense-USIP “Guidelines on En-
gagement between the US Military and the NGOs.” Howev-
er, more must be done to ensure that the U.S. military has no
direct role in a humanitarian and development response and
ensuring that the U.S. military recognizes and understands
their limits and hands over responsibility for U.S. government
humanitarian and development activities to U.S. civilian agen-
cies, like USAID.

The Only Way is (Not) Up!

Career Development
By Charlotte Imbert, Learning and Training Manager, BOND

When it comes to career development, some NGO staff cussions to take place at the highest levels in a framework of
are asking themselves whether the only way up is by mutual respect. This often led to creative solutions and incisive
moving into management or to one of the larger NGOs. effective work rooted in the needs of the beneficiaries.
Charlotte Imbert looks at the lack of opportunity to prog- We need to consider how, as international NGOs, we might learn
ress up the career ladder, while also advancing our spe- from other professions about how they strengthen their work
cialized skills as development professionals. through developing people in a learning and training framework.
The UK voluntary sector has its own “Workforce HUB” dedicated
Across other sectors, employers have worked together to de- to the professional development of the broader voluntary sector.
velop structured, professional frameworks to enable professional So far, its focus has been on generic, voluntary sector skills such
development of their staff. However, in the international NGO as working with volunteers, skills for trustees and fundraising.
sector, there is no shared approach to supporting professional BOND is seeking to work more closely with the Workforce HUB
development of staff. in understanding and supporting workforce development needs in
the international development sector.
Although many staff hold master’s degrees in development, there
is little post-graduate accreditation or opportunity for continu- If we want our organizations to nurture development amongst
ous professional development. Due to this lack of a professional staff, as well as in their work in the global South, we need to
“climbing frame,” staff with specialist skills and knowledge often take a radical look at the way we think of development work.
leave to become consultants. Others stay put, but are frustrated The benefits to the sector of taking a more proactive approach to
about the lack of opportunity to develop in their area of interest workforce development include:
within a management role.
a Career opportunities, leading to better staff retention.
The UK government has invested heavily in workforce develop-
ment in recent years in order to strengthen the UK economy. It is With senior practitioners and senior managers interacting as
unsurprising that international development work has been over- peers, the needs of beneficiaries may be brought into sharp
looked in this context. Traditional professions such as health and focus.
law historically have had clearly defined career paths. Emerging
professions such as family educators and professionals working Increased trust between managers and practitioners.
with the homeless have recently developed their own profes- If we do not nurture senior practitioners we may find that we can
sional frameworks. In doing so they hope to extend the profes- only access their expertise through outsourced consultancies.
sional skills of professionals working with vulnerable people, and Alternatively, rather than developing experience in their chosen
seek to escape the notion that social development can be done area, staff may jump from one role to another becoming the pro-
by anyone. verbial “Jack of all trades but master of none.” The need to im-
In my previous role at Relate, I worked in a context where the ca- prove salaries may force professionals to zigzag between NGOs in
reer structure for counselors was highly developed. Both generic search of a higher pay in another, perhaps larger NGO.
managers and senior counseling practitioners were represented These are challenges best addressed by the whole sector in a
at all levels of the organization, including on the senior manage- process of collective inquiry, and may, in part, be studied through
ment team. At times this presented an organizational challenge BOND’s current research and consultation into NGO quality stan-
as the needs of managers for outcomes, accountability and mea- dards. Although some NGOs have successfully developed their
surement often conflicted with the needs of senior practitioners own approaches to career development, without a sector wide
for reflective practice, emergent solutions and practice-based ac- approach these initiatives are limited. Only within a shared frame-
countability systems in very sensitive work. However, a clearly work is there real value for individuals, who rarely want to stay in
defined professional framework allowed these conflicts and dis- one organization until they retire.

We would like to hear from you
Want us to focus on a specific career development topic? Let us know. Email Josh at

Interested in placing a job announcements or advertisement? Email

Reproductive Health Manager > North North & East Sudan and ensuring systems and

Kivu-DRC policies are harmonized with IRC’s southern
The International Rescue Committee, a Sudan office. The DO will be responsible for
world leader in relief, rehabilitation, protec- the overall field office management, particu-
tion, post-conflict development seeks a Re- larly in the West Sudan program, and also the

ANNOUNCEMENTS productive Health Manager responsible for
the implementation and management of the
Khartoum office operations functions of IRC
Sudan. Apply at:
Reproductive Health Program in North Kivu Director of Programs > Sudan
Health Coordinator > Thailand working in collaboration with and reporting The International Rescue Committee, a world
The International Rescue Committee, a to the Health Coordinator and Field Coor- leader in relief, rehabilitation, protection,
world leader in relief, rehabilitation, protec- dinator. The Reproductive Health Manager post-conflict development, seeks a Director
tion, post-conflict development, is seeking a will be based in Rutshuru, with limited travel of Programs responsible for ensuring IRC
Health Coordinator to manage and coordinate to Goma for coordination purposes. English programs across Sudan are the highest stan-
the implementation of the comprehensive pri- and Swahili preferred. This is a long term (12 dard in design quality, implementation and
mary health care program in the Mae Hong months), unaccompanied position. To learn monitoring. S/he will work with the Deputy
Son Province (MHS) refugee camps and fa- more about responsibilities and requirements Directors of Programs in all geographical
cilitates the organizational development of (and to apply), please visit areas as well as ensure a functioning quality
the Karenni Department of Health (KnHD) Water and Sanitation/EH Coordinator > Khartoum based grants unit. S/he will also
and the capacity building of KnHD human North Kivu-DRC work with the Country Representative and
resources. Requirements include, MD or The International Rescue Committee, a world Policy Advisor on advocacy issues and to en-
RN, University degree in Public Health and 5 leader in relief, rehabilitation, protection, sure that IRC’s programs reflect the changing
years experience in managing complex health post-conflict development seeks an Envi- situation throughout the country. Apply at:
programs in the humanitarian setting with an ronmental Health Coordinator responsible
excellent understanding of refugee or devel- for the design, implementation and manage- Policy Advisor > Sudan
opment issues. Apply at: ment of the Environmental Health Program, The International Rescue Committee, a world
Deputy Director of Operations & Finance > working in close collaboration with the Field leader in relief, rehabilitation, protection,
Liberia Coordinator, Operations Coordinator, and Fi- post-conflict development, seeks an Advisor
The International Rescue Committee, a world nance Controller. The Environmental Health who will directly support the Country Repre-
leader in relief, rehabilitation, protection, Coordinator is based in Rutshuru, with semi sentative & Program Director, and the Deputy
post-conflict development seeks a Deputy Di- frequent travel to Goma for coordination pur- Country Representative in Southern Sudan,
rector to work as a key leader responsible for poses. Strong French and English required. by providing direction, guidance and facilita-
the overall operation of the organization. S/he This is a long term (12 months), unaccom- tion to the strategic planning process, policy,
will manage the finance, operations, procure- panied position To learn more about respon- advocacy and knowledge management. The
ment, administration, human resources and sibilities and requirements (and to apply), focus of his/her work will be to support IRC
information technology teams. S/he will work please visit Sudan so that is becomes a learning organi-
closely with the Deputy Director of Programs Finance Director > Sudan zation- improving quality and impact. They
and Field Coordinators in resolving and pre- The International Rescue Committee, a will support development of centers of excel-
venting issues, and ensuring that IRC Liberia world leader in relief, rehabilitation, pro- lence in selected core competencies and in
operates without the limitations set out by the tection, post-conflict development, seeks a moving towards post conflict programming
context. Requirements: Masters in Business Finance Director responsible for the overall in Sudan. Apply at:
Management, Operations; 6-8 years of man- fiscal management responsibility of the IRC Coordinator, Career Services Office, Heller
agement and leadership experience. Apply at: Sudan Country Offices. As a member of School for Social Policy and Management, IRC Sudan Senior Management Team, the Brandeis University > Waltham, MA
Finance Manager > North Kivu-DRC Finance Director will guide and oversee the The Heller School Career Services Office
The International Rescue Committee, a world finance unit, and will liaise with the Senior seeks a creative, energetic, empathetic, detail
leader in relief, rehabilitation, protection, Management team on financial and budget- oriented career counselor to work with inter-
post-conflict development seeks a Finance ary matters. Based at IRC Khartoum main of- national and domestic students and alumni to
Manager to assist the Provincial Financial fice, the Finance Director will report directly help them attain and manage their careers in
Controller (PFC) in managing day-to-day op- to the Country Representative and will work the global marketplace. Primary responsibili-
erations of IRC’s accounting unit. As needed closely with the Area Finance Controllers, ties of the position will be to work with in-
the Finance Manager will assume some or all the Program & Operations Directors. Apply ternational and domestic students and alumni
of the provincial controllership’s responsibili- at: who want to work in the field of international
ties. The incumbent is responsible for ensur- Director of Operations > Sudan development. This will include resume and
ing that the day-to-day accounting operations The International Rescue Committee, a world cover letter preparation, networking skills,
and financial management functions are per- leader in relief, rehabilitation, protection, and interviewing skills in one-on-one ses-
formed in accordance with IRC and country post-conflict development, seeks a Director sions, workshops, small group trainings,
office policy and procedures. English re- of Operations who will be a central contribu- and career panels. The incumbent will also
quired-French or Swahili preferred. To learn tor to the work of IRC Sudan. Based in Khar- develop external relationships with potential
more about responsibilities and requirements toum s/he will be responsible for supporting employers and internship providers in the in-
(and to apply), please visit IRC Sudan’s complex programs in Darfur, ternational and domestic development field.

Interested in placing a job announcements or advertisement? Email

Requirements: Bachelor’s degree. Experi- DC. Periodic travel may be required. Com- tention. Ideal candidate will have knowledge
ence in and familiarity with the field of inter- modities Procurement and Logistics Systems of local, state & federal policies/procedures
national development is required. Prior career Management: Procure, ship and manage the rel to admin aspects of volunteer & internship
counseling experience is a strong preference importation and delivery of compression programs; knowledge of online volunteer &
but alternative forms of employment leading sprayers, insecticides, equipment, etc. in intern application systems. BA/BS + 7 yrs
to a similar skill set may be acceptable. The compliance with national policies, WHO and exp in community or social services, HR,
position also requires excellent verbal and USAID guidelines, etc. Guide the Nairobi- public information or rel field req’d. Sal-
written English communication skills (addi- based procurement/logistics managers/spe- ary $48,560-54,630 + benefits. Closing date
tional language skills are a big plus); ability cialists to ensure delivery dates and service 11/26 or upon receipt of 200 applications,
to plan, organize and lead workshops and ca- levels are met. Please visit our website at which ever comes first. For more info about
reer related programming; ability to engage for a complete job our org, detailed job desc, & online applica-
with students from diverse cultures; and abil- description. Crown Agents USA is an Equal tion visit heifer int’l
ity to prioritize and work independently in a Opportunity Employer. is an eoe/aa employer by choice.
fast-paced, multicultural environment. To ap-
Health Senior Technical Advisor > Director of Disaster Response > Seattle,
ply please email cover letter and resume to Portland, OR WA Medical Teams International (MTI), a Chris- World Concern, an international Christian di-
Deputy Director of Programs > South tian health relief and development NGO, saster response and development organization,
Sudan seeks a Health Senior Advisor to oversee is seeking a Director of Disaster Response
The International Rescue Committee, a world quality development, effective implementa- to direct disaster response projects external
leader in relief, rehabilitation, protection, tion, and representation of our health program to World Concern’s current implementation
post-conflict development, seeks a Deputy portfolio. Position supervises 3-4 health spe- areas. World Concern has been assisting
Director Programs to focus on overall pro- cialists, provides vision and technical guid- drought-stricken communities in Somalia
gram quality and to drive forward the South- ance to program expansion, represents MTI and Kenya, displaced in war-torn Darfur and
ern Sudan Area Plan in harmonization with in professional networks and to donors, over- Goz Beida, flood victims in Bangladesh, and
the Sudan Strategic Plan protecting its integ- sees grant management, and trains staff to ap- tsunami survivors in Thailand, Sri Lanka and
rity. S/he reports to the Deputy Country Rep- ply state-of-the-art practices in child survival/ Somalia. The Director will also provide tech-
resentative and is responsible for assisting in community health. MTI has health projects nical consultation to Regional Directors and
the planning and implementation of activities in four regions; 15-20 percent of travel is ex- develop partnerships with agencies and do-
crucial to the success of all field programs, pected. MPH, 5 years experience required. nors. Requires 10 years international disaster
including government and donor relations, To apply online and for more information response and large scale funding experience.
program design and evaluation, management about the mission of MTI, please visit www. Seattle-based, travel 30 percent in unstable
of grants and budgets and supervision of pro- conditions. Apply at
gram staff. Apply at: Africa Programs Chief Operations Officer > International Operations Director > Se-
Program Officer, Latin America and Malawi attle, WA
Caribbean > Washington, DC CNFA, Inc. seeks an Africa Programs Chief World Concern, an international Christian
The Global Fund for Children (GFC) seeks Operations Officer (COO) to be based in Ma- disaster response and development organiza-
a Program Officer to build, strengthen and lawi. The COO reports directly to the CNFA tion, is seeking an International Operations
manage its grantmaking program in Latin Vice President of Africa Programs and is re- Director to provide leadership and direction
America and the Caribbean. Primary respon- sponsible for the successful implementation, to the Area Directors so that World Concern’s
sibilities are to identify and manage grantee ongoing operations, monitoring and report- purpose and mission are acted out in all
partners, field contacts, consulting collabo- ing of CNFA’s agribusiness development countries where we are or will become op-
rators, evaluators and other key partners in activities. This position will manage daily erational. This position reports directly to the
that region. Qualified candidates must have oversight of all project activities and maintain Executive Vice President of World Concern.
college degree(s) (MBA, MPP or MA pre- direct supervisory role for all African Coun- Facilitate the Field Operations through bud-
ferred); 4-6 years’ professional experience; try Directors. An ideal candidate will have an geting, written and oral communication and
excellent writing, communication, presenta- MBA and a minimum of 8 years experience education. Direct the World Concern Field
tion and interpersonal skills; English fluency managing USAID and/or other donor funded personnel in concert with the World Concern
and professional fluency in Spanish; demon- projects. To apply and to see a full description Mission Statement and organizational goals,
strated experience in Latin America and with of responsibilities please visit our website, through project priorities, strategic partner-
community-based organizations required. ships, participation of World Concern leader-
Must have permanent authorization to work Project Manager, Human Resources > Little ship and related activities. Requires: 7 years
full-time in U.S. For detailed job description, Rock, AR of successful experience in international hu-
please see manitarian management. Regular domestic
Cover letter and resume requested by Decem- Heifer Int’l, a global, dynamic, non-profit org
and international travel in unstable condi-
ber 15, 2007 to with a compelling mission to alleviate world
tions. Apply at
hunger & poverty on a community level is
Procurement Specialist > Washington, DC seeking an individual to plan, develop/imple- Advocate > Washington, DC
Crown Agents USA is seeking a dynamic Pro- ment processes, systems & policies to support Refugees International is currently expanding
curement Specialist for our USAID-funded Heifer’s volunteer & intern programs. Posi- its advocacy activity and seeks an additional
Malaria program, Indoor Residual Spraying
tion also responsible for managing other HR
(IRS). The position is located in Washington, continued on next page
projects rel to diversity, capacity bldg & re-

Interested in placing a job announcements or advertisement? Email

continued from previous page production areas to increase farmer access to More information visit: or re-
advocate for early 2008. Please submit a financing, micro-lending, agricultural inputs quest by e-mail. World Neighbors is an equal
cover letter, CV, 3 references by November and other services; and provides strategic and opportunity employer. Women and people of
19, 2007 to Please place technical leadership, focusing on the comple- all ethnic backgrounds are encouraged to ap-
“advocate 11.07” in subject line. Finalists tion of activities already underway and chart- ply. Send CV, references and cover letter to:
will be contacted for first round interviews. ing new activities in the microfinance and or World Neighbors, 4127
Please see RI website for full description of enterprise development field that can advance NW 122nd St., Oklahoma City, OK 73120,
position. and enhance goals of the project. Qualifica- USA, attn: HR.
tions include Masters degree and ten years Director, Corporate Business Development
Chief of Party > West Bank/Gaza
managing economic development projects > Baltimore, MD
preferably rural finance, proven leadership in The International Youth Foundation (IYF) is
The Academy for Educational Development
building high performing teams, senior level a nonprofit organization that prepares young
seeks a Chief of Party (COP) for its Small and
USAID project management experience, ex- people to be healthy, productive and engaged
Microfinance Assistance for Recovery and
cellent writing and communication skills and citizens. IYF seeks a Director for Corpo-
Transition (SMART) Project. Post is based
willingness to live in Afghanistan under dif- rate Business Development for the Business
in West Bank/Gaza. The USAID funded
ficult circumstances. Please send cover letter Development Department in Baltimore,
SMART project is designed to preserve the
and resume to, referring to MD. The Director of Corporate Business
microfinance institutional infrastructures and
position number DB7326IA. For more infor- Development will lead the development of
assist microfinance intermediaries to develop
mation visit: www. AA/ new corporate programs and expand exist-
and adopt effective strategies and management
EOE/M/F/D/V. ing corporate initiatives. Responsibilities
practices. The COP will provide strategic and
technical leadership to the project focusing Executive Director, Diamond Development include management and development of
on the completion of underway activities and Initiative > Location Negotiable corporate sector revenue development goals,
chartering new activities in microfinance and DDI International is a new non-profit orga- strategies and plans. Lead and prepare brief-
enterprise development; s/he will act as a li- nization bringing governments, civil society ing papers, concept papers, proposals and
aison and coordinator with USAID and other and companies together to improve the lives budgets for funding and implementing new
partners; s/he will also provide mentoring of Africa’s one million artisanal diamond corporate programs. Lead and manage the
and technical assistance to microfinance in- diggers. DDI International is looking for its conceptualization and development of new
stitutions. Qualifications: Master’s degree in first Executive Director. Good knowledge innovative programs, and enhancement and
relevant field required; 12 years relevant ex- and experience of Africa is required, as well expansion of existing programs. Work with
perience required; strong background in mi- as outstanding organizational development IYF’s large public sector funded programs
crofinance and enterprise finance; familiarity skills, financial and project planning and to support private sector leverage. Require-
with USAID regulations and policies; experi- management, communications skills and a ments: Advanced degree in a field relevant to
ence managing multi-million dollar projects background in fundraising. Knowledge of the IYF’s mission and programs (e.g., business,
with local and international partners. For a diamond industry or extractive industries an marketing, social science, international rela-
complete job description please visit: http:// asset. Two-year contract with possibility of tions or public policy). 7-8 years of experi- Interested candidate should renewal. Applications in English to apply@ ence in fundraising or working with private
send their resume and cover letter referenc- by Friday, November 30, 2007. sector CSR programs. Demonstrated strong
ing DB7302IA to fax: 202-884-8229; email: Details at: project management, planning and budgeting AA/EOE/M/F/D/V. skills. Strong proposal development, writing
Area Representative, South Asia > Okla-
and editing experience, targeting resource de-
Chief of Party > Afghanistan homa City, OK
velopment with corporate donors. Analytical
The Academy for Educational Development World Neighbors, an international develop- ability to identify and establish priorities and
(AED) is seeking a Chief of Party for a con- ment organization, seeks an Area Representa- attend to all details in a professional manner.
tinuing rural finance project in Afghanistan. tive for South Asia. Responsibilities include See complete job description for more details
The project implements innovative, compre- program development, strategic planning, at Submit resume and cover
hensive, and integrated approaches to sustain- budgeting, evaluation, reporting, administra- letter to
able economic growth with a focus on poverty tion and fund-raising. Travel 30-40% of time.
reduction. The project provides expanded ac- Director, Public Sector Business
Requires 5-10 years experience direct field
cess to financial services in rural Afghanistan Development > Baltimore, MD
level program development within South Asia
for a range of enterprises from micro (house- The International Youth Foundation (IYF) is
and at least Master’s level education. Experi-
holds and smallholder farmers) to primarily a nonprofit organization that prepares young
ence with integrated programs in 2 or more
agro-based small, medium and even larger people to be healthy, productive and engaged
of the following areas essential: Sustainable
businesses with a capacity to create signifi- citizens. IYF seeks a Director for Public Sec-
Agriculture and Rural Livelihoods, Natural
cant number of jobs. The Chief of Party will tor Business Development for the Business
Resource Management, Reproductive and
provide leadership and direction for the final Development Department in Baltimore, MD.
Community-based Health; Savings and
two years of activity and partner manage- Responsibilities include leadership role in
Credit, Community/Group capacity building.
ment. Specifically, the Chief of Party: serves securing resources from a variety of public
Solid analytical, documentation, communi-
as the overall field-based manager for the pro- sector sources, both bilateral and multilat-
cation skills needed. Excellent English and
gram and will be the day-to-day point of con- eral, for the development of new programs
fluency in a suitable local language (Nepali
tact with USAID/Afghanistan; coordinates and partnerships that support IYF’s strategic
or Hindi) required. Competitive salary com-
activities with rural credit unions in selected priorities. Identifying potential new funding
mensurate with experience, plus benefits.

Interested in placing a job announcements or advertisement? Email

opportunities both in the United States and abroad, by responding to
solicitations as well as identifying unique IYF development opportu-
nities. Lead and manage the conceptualization and development of
new innovative programs, as well as the enhancement and expansion
of ongoing programs. Requirements: Advanced degree in a field rel-
evant to IYF’s mission and programs (e.g., business, marketing, social
science, international relations or public policy). 7-8 years of experi-
ence in fundraising, program development and/or program manage-
ment in the international development sector, with a proven track re-
cord in business development. Strong proposal development, writing
and editing experience, targeting resource development with USAID
and other government overseas development agencies and multilateral
institutions. See complete job description for more details at www. Submit resume and cover letter to

French Bridges—On-site French Instruction/Training Services
International development work relies on good communication. En-
sure that your staff is building the best bridges of communication they
can when working in francophone countries. French Bridges offers
on-site French instruction at your organization, tailored to your needs.
Classes are taught by a native speaker who has worked for Interaction
member organizations as Program Officer and Director. Trainings in
French are available as well. See for more in-
formation. Please call Corinne Borel at (410) 235-3606 to find out the
non-profit rates for your city (East Coast, Washington DC to Boston).

Your online source for The International Rescue Committee

responds to the world’s worst crises,
information on Oxfam’s policy, helping refugees running from the horrors
practice, and research of war and persecution. We rescue their
lives with immediate relief. We rescue their
SEARCH futures by supporting them through
recovery toward renewal. We rescue their
� Fully searchable database of books, reports, videos, DVDs,
freedom, enabling those given a new
CD-ROMs, training packs, and teaching resources
home in the U.S. to become settled and
� Over 1,500 free downloadable pdfs including policy briefs,
programme research, and published articles self-reliant. For 75 years, the IRC has been
raising alarms with a global call to action
BROWSE and restoring hope, dignity and opportu-
nity for vulnerable people worldwide.
� Many book texts and sample chapters available as
free pdfs
� Information on all new and forthcoming materials Add your skill and passion to our
� Humanitarian guidelines and manuals for emergency worldwide team of professionals in:
situations developed by Oxfam field staff
� Further research including additional support material Health • Finance • Program Management •
and links to Oxfam’s and other organisations’ work Community Development • Protection •
Gender Based Violence • Operations •
BUY Post Conflict Development • Education

� Secure online ordering
� Details of local distributors worldwide
Apply now at:

Cash-for-Work scheme in Lamno, Indonesia: Concrete
rings made by local people and sold to Oxfam for the
construction of wells and drainage.
Photo: Pariphan Uawithya/Oxfam 2005 From Harm to Home

OF HOUSING Of Volunteer
AND HUMAN Mobilization
SETTLEMENTS Post-conflict specialists
Position based in Atlanta, Worldwide
Position based in Atlanta, Georgia, USA
Georgia, USA Chemonics International, an international
Habitat for Humanity International development consulting company that
(HFHI) which ranks among the helps governments, businesses, civil
Habitat for Humanity International society groups, and communities promote
(HFHI) which ranks among the largest largest U.S. house builders and
meaningful change so people can live
U.S. house builders and charities, and charities, and is also a Christian
healthier, more productive, and more
is also a Christian ministry dedicated ministry dedicated to eliminating independent lives, seeks specialists
to eliminating substandard housing substandard housing in the U.S. and with significant experience in post-
in the U.S. and throughout the world, throughout the world, is seeking a conflict environments for anticipated
is seeking a Sr. Director of Housing talented professional to serve as its short- and long-term crisis prevention
and Human Settlements to work in its Sr. Director, Volunteer Mobilization and recovery assignments worldwide.
Global Programs Division. in its Global Programs Division. Ideal candidates will be comfortable with
rapid deployment, living and working
Reporting to the vice president of Reporting to the vice president of in insecure environments, high-paced
Global Development and Support, implementation in politically charged
Global Development and Support,
this position is responsible for the contexts, and adapting program activities
this position oversees the design,
development, measurement, and in response to fluid conditions. Technical
evaluation, and implementation of expertise needed in the following areas:
programs and strategies which will refinement of all international and
democracy and governance, humanitarian
better enable the organization to domestic volunteer programs for relief, media strengthening, conflict
achieve its goals related to global HFHI. mitigation, community reconciliation,
Housing and Human Settlements. infrastructure and engineering, training,
The ideal candidate will possess 6 to grants management, logistics and
The ideal candidate will possess 6 to 10 years of progressively responsible procurement. Qualifications: minimum
10 years of progressively responsible experience in volunteer program five years of experience implementing
experience in management, development, measurement and field-based, post-conflict, and transition
development, and evaluation of implementation in sophisticated programming; substantial experience
multi-national organizations. working with donor organizations
new and innovative construction
Extensive working knowledge of preferred, including the USAID Office of
techniques, methodologies and
logistics-based programs, working Transition Initiatives, USAID Office of
products. An extensive working Foreign Disaster Assistance, UN Office for
knowledge of construction methods with multiple internal functions,
the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs,
in areas of the world outside the vendors and strategic partners is
UN World Food Programme, and Office of
US is a must. A Bachelor’s degree required. A Bachelor’s degree, the UN High Commissioner for Refugees;
in architecture, urban planning, ideally in Business, logistics, project proven capability managing multicultural
or a similar technical discipline management or associated discipline teams and local staff including building the
is required. Certification in the is required. capacity of both local staff members and
construction is preferred. local organizations; advanced degree in
If you would like to fill a key role relevant field preferred; experience working
If you would like to fill a key role with a dynamic organization making with multiple stakeholders including
a difference in the U.S. and around government officials, donor organizations,
with a dynamic organization making
the world, you can express interest and civil society; willing to live overseas
a difference in the U.S. and around
by going to our website, www. in unstable environments; English fluency
the world, you can express interest by and proficiency in least one other language.
going to our website, www.habitat. and applying on-line.
Application Instructions: send electronic
org and applying on-line. HFHI is an HFHI is an equal opportunity
submissions to postconflictspecialist@
equal opportunity employer. employer. by November 30, 2007. No
telephone inquiries, please. Finalists will
be contacted.

Interested in placing a job announcements or advertisement? Email

The International Rescue Committee responds to the world’s worst crises, helping refugees
running from the horrors of war and persecution. We rescue their lives with immediate
relief. We rescue their futures by supporting them through recovery toward renewal. We
rescue their freedom, enabling those given a new home in the U.S. to become settled and
self-reliant. For 75 years, the IRC has been raising alarms with a global call to action and
restoring hope, dignity and opportunity for vulnerable people worldwide.

Expanding IRC Team in Democratic Republic of Congo
The IRC is one of the largest aid agencies in Congo and growing. We are responding to
an escalating emergency in North Kivu–providing critical medical, water and sanitation
services as well as programs for survivors of sexual violence. We are also expanding
programs in other regions.


s Chief of Party—Community s Field Coordinator s Operations Manager
Driven Reconstruction s Finance Controller s Health Coordinator
s Director, Health Programs s Human Resources Coordinator s Logistics Coordinator
s Director, Operations s Water and Sanitation/
s Director, Programs Environmental Health Coordinator

apply now at: From Harm to Home

Business Development

The International Youth Foundation (IYF), a leader in the filed of global youth development, is seeking an entrepreneurial senior executive to
lead the organization’s international program development activities.

Key Responsibilities:
q Leadership: Lead the effort to create meaningful new business development strategies and programs that are based on a solid link to
organizational strategies and values.
q Business Integration: Develop organizational capacity to design programs that are based on the organization’s collective experience, as well
as drawing from knowledge in the field of international youth development.
q Internal Collaboration: Work closely with the CEO and senior management to meet the revenue development targets established by Board of
q Cultivation and Stewardship: Identify and cultivate potential funding partners to ensure appropriate nurturing of ongoing donor relationships.
Lead the development of proposals and budgets, negotiation of agreements.
q Management: Facilitate and develop a team and learning environment with a collaborative approach to managing performance expectations,
developing staff, coaching/counseling and hiring as needed.
q Fiscal Management: Develop and oversee department annual operating budget.
q Stakeholder Engagement: Build relationships with key internal and external stakeholders and educate audiences about IYF’s global youth
development efforts.
q Communications: Work to protect and maintain the highest possible degree of IYF brand visibility in all new programming and other
business development activities.

For more information on preferred qualifications, please go to:
To Apply: Please e-mail cover letter and résumé to International Youth Foundation at You will receive an acknowledgment
upon receipt of your resume and application materials. Unfortunately, we are only able to respond further to candidates chosen for interviews or
additional follow up.

Interested in placing a job announcements or advertisement? Email

Manager, Africa Programs

Ipas, a global non-profit leader in reproductive health, seeks a Manager for Africa programs, based in North
Carolina. Ipas’s mission is to improve women’s sexual and reproductive health, and promote women’s
reproductive rights. Reporting to the Regional Director, the Manager is responsible for the semi-annual
planning and budgeting cycle and will work closely with Country teams and the NC Africa team in planning,
developing proposals/budgets and reports. The Manager supervises the Africa program team in North
Carolina and works closely with the Regional Director to support program offices in Ethiopia, Ghana, Kenya,
Nigeria and South Africa. An estimated 35% travel required. Requirements include: minimum Bachelor’s
degree in relevant field (health, women’s development); at least 6 years relevant experience in sexual
reproductive health and rights or other relevant areas; proven management, budgeting, analytic, problem-
solving skills; demonstrated ability in proposal, report writing and budgeting; experience living in an African
country and French/other African language preferred; excellent cross cultural and sensitivity skills; strong
interpersonal, communications and supervision skills and strong computer skills, including in Microsoft
Office. We offer a competitive salary and generous benefit package. Interested parties should submit cover
letter and resume to No phone calls please. Please visit our website at for more information. EOE

Regional Director for Africa

Ipas, a global non-profit leader in reproductive health, seeks to hire a Regional Director for Africa based in
North Carolina. Ipas’s mission is to improve women’s sexual and reproductive health, and promote women’s
reproductive rights. The Regional Director is responsible for strategic planning, program development, and
supervision of program offices in Ethiopia, Ghana, Kenya, Nigeria and South Africa. An estimated 40% travel
required. Specific responsibilities include: providing leadership in strategic planning of regional and country
programs with country teams; ensuring appropriate human resources to meet regional and country objectives.
Supervises directors in five countries providing leadership in proposal development, collaborating with
country and technical teams, and responsible for reporting to donors; representing Ipas with government, NGO
partners and donors and advocates for Ipas mission at national, regional and international fora. Requirements
include: Master’s degree in relevant field; at least 10 years progressively responsible experience in sexual
reproductive health and rights; demonstrated ability in program design and proposal writing; excellent oral
and written communication skills; proven management, budgeting and supervisory skills; minimum 3 years
overseas experience in Africa with French or an African language desired; strong interpersonal, team building,
representational and diplomacy skills; excellent fundraising ability and experience with multi-lateral, bi-lateral
and private donors and strong computer skills, including power point presentations. We offer a competitive salary
and a generous benefits package. Interested candidates should submit cover letter and resume to Jill Solomon at Please visit our website at for more information. EOE

Interested in placing a job announcements or advertisement? Email

Senior Program Officer, Maternal Health
The Global Health Program works to reduce global health inequities by accelerating the development, deployment, and sustainability of health
interventions that will save lives and dramatically reduce the disease burden in developing countries. The Global Health Strategies (GHS) team
is seeking a Senior Program Officer who will bring high level expertise in the field of maternal health and be responsible for the development
and implementation of a portfolio of grants to support international/national/local efforts to improve maternal health and decrease maternal
mortality. The person in this position will take lead responsibility for implementing the maternal health component of GHS’s maternal, child and
reproductive health strategy, currently under development. Depending on date of hire, a requirement of this position will be preparing internal
documents and/or presentations to achieve approval of the strategy.

We are looking for an individual with strong research, data analysis, and report writing skills. The ideal candidate will have lived and worked
in multiple regions of the world for a period of time and possess the ability to translate field based research and findings into effective programs.
Experience working with the private-for-profit and private-not-for-profit sectors and strong understanding of the linkages between maternal health
and reproductive, newborn, and child health would be ideal. The candidate should have:

q An MD or PhD in related field
q A minimum of 10 years experience in the conception, design and development of global health strategies and programs that improve
maternal health and survival in developing countries. CNM is a plus. This would include (among others): evaluation of field projects,
operations research, data analysis, management of research and implementation programs focused on improving interventions,
strategies and programs that reduce maternal-related morbidity and mortality.
q A strategic approach for prioritizing maternal health and survival approaches. Experience with and interest in a broad range of global
health issues and their intersections with reproductive health, such as maternal, newborn, child and HIV/AIDS.

If you are interested in applying for this position, please visit and
submit your resume online. Due to the volume of inquiries and applications we receive on a regular basis, the online application is the best and
only way to ensure that your submissions are reviewed in a timely manner.

Program Director-International Programs
The McKnight Foundation is a private family foundation established in 1953 by William and Maude McKnight. The mission of the Foundation is
to improve the quality of life for present and future generations through grantmaking, coalition-building, and encouragement of strategic policy
reform. The Foundation granted about $93 million in 2006.

Summary of Responsibilities: The Program Director for International Programs reports directly to the Vice President of Programs and works with
the VP of Programs and the other Program Directors to allocate and manage program related resources to work toward the Foundation mission in
a manner consistent with the values and operating principles. Specifically, this position is responsible for managing the work of the Collaborative
Crop Research Program (CCRP) and country-level programs in Tanzania, Uganda, Cambodia, Laos and Vietnam; designing and managing
program evaluation and supervision of program staff.

Requirements Include: Master’s degree in international development, international agriculture or a related field and a minimum of 12 years related
full time professional work experience in a foundation, nonprofit or government field with eight or more years of managerial level experience, or a
combination of equivalent experience and training. Experience working with a board of directors, preferably a family board, is strongly desired.

Experience working in Africa, Latin America or Asia is required.

Salary in the low $100,000s with excellent benefits.

Please visit The McKnight Foundation website at
for a complete job posting.

Submit cover letter and resume to: Bernadette Christiansen, VP of HR and Administration, The McKnight Foundation, 710 Second Street South,
Suite 400, Minneapolis, MN 55401. Or email application to

Applications accepted through January 4, 2008

Interested in placing a job announcements or advertisement? Email

International Medical Corps is a global non-profit health care
organization dedicated to saving lives and relieving suffering through International Relief Development (IRD) Inc., a non-profit organization
health care training and relief and development programs. By offering specializing in international development and humanitarian assistance,
training and health care to local populations and medical assistance seeks a Director of Civil Society for its Arlington, Virginia Office. Ideal
to people at highest risk, and with the flexibility to respond rapidly to candidates will be able to successfully manage program operations,
emergency situations, IMC rehabilitates devastated health care systems policies and program development as it pertains to the Civil Society
and helps bring them back to self-reliance. sector.

Director, Communications (Santa Monica, CA) Duties: Direct headquarters and the field staff in the development and
implementation of Civil Society programs; Develop short and long term
The Director of Communications will manage all of IMC’s strategy and plans for new Civil Society program development activities
communications activities, including press, online strategies and worldwide; Identify appropriate Civil Society bidding opportunities;
publications. The director will serve as part of a team that helps develop Provide necessary implementation support / back-stopping to assure
strategic direction and marketing for IMC. Develop responsive and grant/CA/contract terms are met; Develop appropriate monitoring
versatile communications, marketing and representation materials, and evaluation plans as well as other necessary procedural tools;
services including website, online marketing tools, brochures, and the Responsible for managing evaluation trips for new opportunities and
annual report; Oversee all media strategies and contacts, including existing programs
preparation of talking points for interviews, identifying key target
audiences, and all aspects of the website. Develop and manage brand
Qualifications: Bachelor’s degree in relevant field required; Minimum
identity; oversee the production of all video, audio and multimedia efforts
of 5 years relevant overseas work experience; Five plus years working
EDUCATION and/or EXPERIENCE: Bachelor’s degree 5-7 years of
a Senior Manager/Director level position; Proven ability to manage
public relations or media experience. Experience in writing speeches, business development and program implementation team; Successful
statements and talking points under tight deadlines. Knowledge of new track record in securing funding, especially from USG sources;
media, including familiarity with online strategies, website design, Knowledge of USG regulations and other donor, grant regulations
software development and video/audio production. strongly preferred; International travel required.
Please apply online at under careers, reference:
*Apply online at Director, Civil Society. IRD is an equal opportunity employer.

International Medical Corps is a global non-profit health care organization dedicated to saving lives and relieving suffering through health care
training and relief and development programs. By offering training and health care to local populations and medical assistance to people at highest
risk, and with the flexibility to respond rapidly to emergency situations, IMC rehabilitates devastated health care systems and helps bring them
back to self-reliance.

Director, Health Technical Unit (Washington DC)
The primary responsibility of the Director, Health Technical Unit is to provide oversight and guidance for IMC’s health programs.
Support the development of global, regional and country strategies for comprehensive health-related interventions, including Primary Health
Care, HIV/AIDS, Nutrition, Water and Sanitation, Gender Based Violence, Reproductive Health, etc. Provide technical and management support
to offsite/regional and country projects and personnel. Conduct monitoring and evaluation trips to the country programs - 30% travel. Assist in
developing training curriculums for medical and Country Directors related to technical health matters as needed. Assist/Lead emergency response
teams when necessary. Qualifications: Applicant should have an advanced degree in relevant health field (MPH, Dr. PH). Minimum of 5 years
experience covering international health programs. Demonstrated program, personnel management, and proposal development skills.

Director of International Operations (Washington DC)
Plan, design, develop IMC’s humanitarian response activities & international programs. Analyze project activities, costs, operations, and
forecast data. Conduct and supervise needs assessments and feasibility studies. Supervise development of concept papers, project proposals and
responses to RFPs. Liaise with donor agencies, UN agencies, int’l organizations, institutions & other NGOs. With President & CEO, formulate
and administer IMC’s strategies and policies. Supervise and manage team of desk officers and senior desk officers. 25% travel required to Santa
Monica, CA headquarters and field offices. Qualifications: Bachelors Degree in International Relations or related field. 5-10 years of experience,
3 years in a resource deprived area. Program design and management experience required.

Please apply online at

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Senior Director – Saving Newborn Lives Initiative
(Washington D.C)
Save The Children, a leading relief and development organization, creating lasting change for children in need in the United States and
around the world, has an exciting opportunity for an MD with neonatal training/experience to impact the survival rates of newborns.

The Senior Director is responsible for the overall strategic development, implementation, monitoring, and accountability of the Saving
Newborn Lives (SNL) Program. He/she, in collaboration with members of the SNL Senior Management Team, is responsible for ensuring
Program targets and benchmarks are set, resources allocated, and results achieved in order to reach impact at scale. The Senior Director is
a key member of the Office of Health senior management team and plays a leadership role in advancing newborn health in support of the
Agency’s strategic plans. At the global level, the Senior Director will also serve as a key advocate and spokesperson for newborn health on
behalf of SNL and Save the Children.

Requirements: MD with pediatric and neonatal health training or equivalent experience and graduate level training in public health. 15
years experience in international development in designing, implementing and evaluating programs to improve maternal, newborn, and
child health and survival. Experience in leading and managing a major health program that addresses the development of state of the art
practices. Ability to develop and apply monitoring and evaluation plans to determine program results and monitor impact. Experience
leading the development of effective and responsive project proposals, implementation plans and monitoring frameworks. Strong
interpersonal and management skills, and ability to work effectively in a team situation, and in cross-cultural settings. Strong English
verbal and writing skills and ability to give effective and engaging presentations. Willingness to travel, as much as 30-40 percent time.

Interested candidates please follow the link and apply on line at: Jobs: Save the Children
Click on current career vacancies and then on Development Programs for Children.

The George Bush School of Government & Public Service invites
Location - Kumo, Sudan applications and nominations for a tenure-track assistant professor with
expertise in international institutions/organizations. Of particular interest
Save the Children, the leading independent organization creating real
are scholars with expertise on institutions – both global and regional
and lasting change for children in need in the U.S. and around the world,
– involved in issues of development (e.g., country economic and social
seeks a strong Coordinator who will be responsible for the overall
development, health, poverty reduction, etc.). Successful candidates must
management of the Save the Children activities in the Kumo region. This
have a doctorate in a relevant field and a demonstrated commitment to
includes working in close coordination with staff, local authorities and
high quality research. Practical field experience in working with one or
other partners to ensure proper and effective program implementation,
more institutions will be treated as a valued asset.
and representation of the agency in the local community and partners.
The Sub-office is responsible for timely and accurate financial and
Established in 1997, the Bush School is a non-partisan, graduate school
program reporting as well as monitoring budgets, procurement and
of public and international affairs that offers professional degrees with a
ensuring adherence to the detailed implementation plans. This position
multidisciplinary faculty at Texas A&M University, an equal-opportunity
will be based in Kumo, but will require frequent travel throughout the
employer. For further information see
area as well as to Khartoum.
Review of applications will begin in November and will continue until
Additional Qualifications: Masters degree in social science field or
the position is filled. Send a formal letter of application, curriculum vitae
Bachelors degree plus 5 yrs experience is required. Relevant field
and three letters of recommendation to:
experience in the region or Sudan is required, preferably in East Africa.
The ability to speak and write in English essential; knowledge of Arabic
MPIA Search Committee
language is ideal; and knowledge of health programming would be
George Bush School of Government
desirable. Strong program management, capacity building skills and
and Public Service
solid representational skills are all critical for success.
Texas A&M University
4220 TAMU
How to Apply: Please apply for the position directly at : www.
College Station, TX 77843-4220 and specify position #3493. EOE

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Senior Specialist, Sub Grants, Associate Direct Management Advisor, Psychosocial
Washington, DC Support, HIV/AIDS Washington, DC
Washington, DC
The primary point person to give
financial, contractual and compliance Heads the HIV/AIDS Office’s management The Psychosocial Advisor will provide
support on Agency sub-grants and and administration team and is responsible technical backstop to ongoing field
subcontracts. This includes development for the office’s budgeting, program based programs, design and evaluate
and enhancement of country office development support, and financial and field projects, lead in developing and
based systems, and training field staff systems planning. S/he also oversees rolling out psychosocial tools and
on latest grant compliance techniques program/project support as it relates to models. The Advisor will focus on
including sub-grants management and grant/sub-grant and sub-contracts and
requirements for managing contracts/ sub-
strengthening the quality of program
human resources management, proposal
contracts. Update the sub-grant manual; development, and dissemination of
design, training initiatives and
set sub-grant review guidelines for area pertinent information to the field. S/he monitoring, and project evaluation;
grant staff to ensure meeting program supports the field with advice and direction provide technical assistance to country
goals and donor requirements; provide for project and grant compliance and offices and emergency response teams
technical advice on sub-grantee review project implementation regarding rules on program design, development and
and selection, pre-award assessment, and regulations relative to cooperative implementation; support assessment,
monitoring, closeout, termination and agreements and sub-contracts; and design, baseline development,
audits. Develop, design and deliver coordinates with Country Offices and implementation, monitoring,
innovative and interactive training sessions Leadership Giving to facilitate program
evaluation, and documentation; write
that encourage sharing of best practices funding for HIV/AIDS programs. This
person plays the role of team manager stand-alone proposals on psychosocial
and knowledge of donor regulations.
where applicable by managing team programming and contribute technical
Negotiate boilerplate agreements with
donors at the headquarters level for policy communications and information sharing, expertise to the writing of multi-
level decisions. facilitating team decision-making, drafting sectoral proposals; and support
key sections of proposals, and ensuring the integration of psychosocial
Requires a minimum of five years prior the production of a quality proposal, in programming within other programs
experience in NGO or PVO grant/sub- coordination with HO technical staff and sectors.
and field staff. Requires 5 - 8 years
grant management in a matrix relationship
experience in program/operations and
in a geographically dispersed organization; This position requires a minimum
development with overseas experience
knowledge of grant documents and of 7 - 9 years field-based technical
in the field of international health (HIV)
compliance issues; ability to support vision experience in working on psychosocial
with non-profit, or development relief
of Policy Management, contribute to and or related programs. Experience
organization; knowledgeable of finance
participate in operational planning process, and budget, specifically the development designing and evaluating psychosocial
perform analysis and routine technical and management of large complex budgets
aspects of grant management processes. programs with children, youth, and
with multiple funding streams; experience families in difficult circumstances;
Competency in the development of in budget development and program
management systems with automated tools and proposal development for bilateral
management and coordination, including
such as spreadsheets and databases with USAID grant/sub-contract proposal
donors and private foundations;
thorough knowledge of OMB Circulars development and project management; understanding of-cultural training and
A110, A122, and A133 required. liaising with international bodies, developing programming guidelines
Strong written and verbal communication governments, funding and technical agencies required; excellent writing and
skills including that include negotiation, on issues of policy and education program communication skills in English
mediation, and sensitivity to differing planning; strong interpersonal, oral, and essential; demonstrated ability to work
opinions; the ability to prioritize workload written communication skills, including effectively in insecure environments
and multi-task in a fast-paced environment public speaking skills and experience;
as well as the capacity to be extremely
and remain detail oriented and organized. ability to problem-solve, handle many tasks
Knowledge of European donors at once, and determine priorities; high
flexible and accommodating in difficult
and experience with auditors a plus. level organization and coordination skills working circumstances. Masters degree
Computer fluency in Word, Excel, Access, with experience working in fast-paced required in relevant field. Travel up to
PowerPoint, Lotus Notes, and Acrobat environment; team player and experience 40% of time. Language skills strongly
Writer essential; must have a Bachelor’s working with multi-cultural partners and desired.
Degree or equivalent relevant experience. team members; computer proficiency,
particularly in Excel; ability to travel up to Please visit our Career Website at
Please visit our Career Website at http:// 10% of the time in/outside the USA; MBA, MPH, MA in Public Health-related field.
careers/index.asp and apply online to
asp and apply online to position # 3510 Language proficiency in Spanish or French
preferred. Please visit our Career Website position # 3490.
index.asp and apply online to position #3511.

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InterAction is the largest alliance of U.S.-based
international development and humanitarian
nongovernmental organizations. With more than 160
members operating in every developing country, we
work to overcome poverty, exclusion and suffering by
advancing social justice and basic dignity for all.

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Serving the Washington nonprofit community for more than 25 years.
Auditing, A-133 compliance • Worldwide on-site field office audits • Internal control review • Grant proposal assistance
Subrecipient activity review • Expat and inpat tax preparation • Outsourced accounting
Contact our PVO Specialists:
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