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Economics of R.C.C. Water tank Resting over Firm Ground visa-vis Pre-stressed Concrete Water Tank Resting over Firm Ground

Po sted in Co ncrete Engineering, Prestress Engineering, Pro ject Repo rts, Research Papers | Email This Po st |

By MS. SNEHAL R. METKAR (P.G. STUDENT) DEPARTMENT OF CIVIL ENGINEERING (STRUCTURAL ENGINEERING IIND YEAR) P.R.M.T OF TECH. & RESEARCH, BADNERA-AMRAVATI SANT. GADGE BABA (AMARAVATI) UNIVERSITY (MAHARASHTRA) COUNTRY INDIA 444701 GUIDED BY Prof A. R. Mundhada (PROFESSOR) DEPARTMENT OF CIVIL ENGINEERING, P.R M.I.T.R., BADNERA, AMRAVATI. MAHARASHTRA, INDIA-4444701, Abstract Water tanks are used to store water and are designed as crack f ree structures, to eliminate any leakage. In this paper design of two types of circular water tank resting on ground is presented. Both reinf orced concrete (RC) and prestressed concrete (PSC) alternatives are considered in the design and are compared considering the total cost of the tank. T hese water tank are subjected to the same type of capacity and dimensions. As an objective f unction with the properties of tank that are tank capacity, width &length etc. A computer program has been developed f or solving numerical examples using the Indian std. Indian Standard Code 456-2000, IS-3370-I,II,III,IV & IS 1343-1980. T he paper gives idea f or saf e design with minimum cost of the tank and give the designer the relationship curve between design variable thus design of tank can be more economical ,reliable and simple. T he paper helps in understanding the design philosophy f or the saf e and economical design of water tank. Keywords Rigid based water tank, RCC water tank, Prestressed Concrete, design, details, minimum total cost, tank capacity I. INT RODUCT ION Storage reservoirs and over head tanks are used to store water, liquid petroleum, petroleum products and similar liquids. T he f orce analysis of the reservoirs or tanks is about the same irrespective of the chemical nature of the product. In general there are three kinds of water tanks-tanks resting on ground Underground tanks and elevated tanks. Here we are studying only the tanks resting on ground like clear water reservoirs, settling tanks, aeration tanks etc. are supported on ground directly. T he wall of these tanks are subjected to pressure and the base is subjected to weight of Water.

In this paper, both types of reinf orced concrete and prestesses concrete water tanks resting on ground monolithic with the base Are design and their results compared. T hese tanks are subjected to Same capacity and dimensions. Also a computer program has been developed f or solving numerical examples using IS Code 456-200IS-1343-1984,IS 3370-Part I,II,III,IV 1965 & IS Code 1343-1980. From the analysis it is conclude that f or tank having larger capacity (greater than 10 lakh liter) prestesses concrete water tank is economical. Objective To make the study about the analysis and design of water tank. To make the guidelines f or the design of liquid retaining structure According to IS code. To know about design philosophy f or saf e design of water tank. To develop program f or water tank to avoid tedious calculations. To know economical design of water T his report is to provide guidance in the design and construction of circular priestesses concrete using tendons Previous Research From the review of earlier investigations it is f ound that considerable work has been done on the method of analysis and design of water tanks. Tanetal. [1]:- (1993) presented the minimum cost design of reinf orced concrete cylindrical water tanks based on the British Code f or water tanks, using a direct search method and the (SUMT ). T he cost f unction included the material costs of concrete and steel only. T he tank wall thickness was idealized with piecewise linear slopes with the maximum thickness at the base. T hakkar and Sridhar Rao [2] (1974), discussed cost optimization of non cylindrical composite type prestressed concrete pipes based on the Indian code. Al-Badri [3] (2005) presented cost optimization of reinf orced concrete circular grain silo based on the ACI Code (2002). He proved that the minimum cost of the silo increases with increasing of the angle of internal f riction between stored materials, the coef f icient of f riction between stored materials and concrete, and the number of columns supporting hopper . Al-Badri (2006) presented the minimum cost design of reinf orced concrete corbels based on AC I Code (2002). T he cost f unction included the material costs of concrete, f ormwork and steel reinf orcement. He proved that the minimum total cost of the corbel increases with the increase of the shear span, and decreases with the increase of the f riction f actor f or monolithic construction. Hassan Jasim Mohammed [4] studied the economical design of concrete water Tanks by optimization method. He applied the optimization technique to the structural design of concrete rectangular and circular water tank, considering the total cost of the tank as an objective f unction with the properties of the tank viz. tank capacity, width and length of the tank, unit weight of water and tank f loor slab thickness as design variables. From the study he concluded that an increased tank capacity leads to increased minimum total cost of the rectangular tank but decreased minimum total cost f or the circular tank. T he tank f loor slab thickness constitutes the minimum total cost f or two types of tanks. T he minimum cost is more sensitive to changes in tank capacity and f loor slab thickness of rectangular tank but in circular type is more sensitive to change in all variables. Increased tank capacity leads to increase in minimum total cost. Increase in water depth in circular tank leads to increase in minimum total cost.

Abdul-Aziz & A. Rashed [5] rationalized the design procedure f or reinf orced and prestressed concrete tanks so that an applicable Canadian design standard could be developed. T he study investigates the concept of partial prestressing in liquid containing structures. T he paper also includes experimental and analytical phases of total of eight f ull scale specimens, representing segments f rom typical tank walls, subjected to load and leakage tests. In analytical study a computer model that can predict the response of tank wall segments is described and calibrated against the test results. T he proposed design procedure addresses the leakage limit state directly. It is applicable f or f ully prestressed, f ully reinf orced and partially prestressed concrete water tanks. T he conclusions that are drawn are as f ollows: A design method based on limiting the steel stress, does not produce consistent crack or compression zone depths under the application of prestressing nor under a combination of axial load and moment. A design method based on providing a residual compressive stress in concrete dose not utilizes nonprestressed reinf orcement ef f ectively. Relaxing the residual compressive stress requirement permits a more ef f icient design. T he stresses in non-prestresssed steel are higher, but remain below yield under service load. T heref ore, less reinf orcement is required. Load eccentricity signif icantly af f ects the behavior of the prestressed concrete sections. T he behavior with a small load eccentricity, less than about half the thickness, the section may be treated as a f lexure member. T he ratio of non prestressed steel to prestressed steel in partially prestressed concrete section has a signif icant ef f ect on the member serviceability and strength. Choosing the ratio such that both nonprestress and prestressed steel reach their strength simultaneously utilizes both types of steel at the ultimate limit state ef f ectively. Increasing the wall thickness is very ef f ective in increasing the capacity of the section and improving its serviceability by increasing the compression zone depth and reducing the def ormations. Chetan Kumar Gautam [6] Highlights the point named Comparison of Circular Reinf orced Concrete and Prestressed Concrete Underground Shelter. In his paper, design of two types of large circular underground shelters is presented. T he shelters are made of precast concrete sections. Both RC and PSC alternatives are considered in the design and compared. T he shelters are subjected to same type of external loadings and support conditions. T he study conclude that the f easibility of using the vertical casting process of making the modules of shelters as it is suitable f or manuf acturing of large diameter pipes. He also suggested that the incorporation of f ibers, specially steel f ibers improves a host of properties of concrete, including its crack resistance, f lexural strength, ductility, etc. T hus, the possibility of incorporating f ibers in concrete shelter may be explored. II DESIGN PHILOSOPHY For R.C.C. water tank For Prestresed Concrete water tank For R.C.C Structure Permissible stresses in concrete For resistance to cracking:Design of liquid retaining structure is dif f erent f rom R.C.C. structures. As it requires that concrete should not crack and hence tensile stresses in concrete should be within permissible limit.(i.e. T YPE-I structure).A reinf orced concrete member of liquid retaining structure is design on the usual principle ignoring tensile resistance of concrete in bending. accordingly it should be ensure that tensile stresses on the liquid retaining f ace of the equivalent concrete section dose not exceed the permissible tensile strength of concrete as given in table1. Grade of concrete Permissible stress Shear=(Q/bjd)(N/mm^2)

Direct Tension(? ct)(N/mm^2) M15 M20 M25 M30 M35 M40 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.5 1.6 1.7

Tension due to Bending(?cbt) (N/mm^2) 1.5 1.7 1.8 2.0 2.2 2.4 1.5 1.7 1.9 2.2 2.5 2.7

Table 1(Permissible Compressive Stresses In Calculations Relating To Resistance To Cracking) For strength calculation In strength calculations the permissible Concrete stresses shall be in accordance with Table1. Where the calculated shear stress in concrete a lone exceeds the permissible value, reinf orcement acting in conjunction with diagonal compression in the concrete shall be provided to take the whole of the shear. Permissible Stresses In Steel For resistance to cracking. When steel and concrete are assumed to act together f or checking the tensile stress in concrete f or avoidance of crack, the tensile stress in steel as in table 2will be limited by the requirement that the permissible tensile stress in the concrete is not exceeded so the tensile stress in steel shall be equal to the product of modular ratio of steel and concrete, and the corresponding allowable tensile stress in concrete. For strength calculations In strength calculations the permissible stress shall be as given in table 2. T YPE OF ST RESS IN ST EEL REINFORCE MENT PERMISSIBLE ST RESSES IN N/mm2 Plain round mild steel bars 1)Tensile stresses in the members under direct tension(?s) 2) Tensile stress in members in bending(?st) On liquid retaining f ace of members On f ace of away f rom liquid f or members less than 225mm On f ace away f rom liquid f or members 225mm or more in thickness 3) Tensile stresses in shear reinf orcement(?sv) For members less than225mm in thickness For members 225mm or more in thickness 115 115 125 150 150 190 115 High yield strength def ormed bars(HYSD) 150

115 125

150 175

Design Requirement Generally M30 grade of concrete should be used Design Mix (1:1*1/2:3)Steel reinf orcement should not less than0.3% of the gross section shall be provided in each direction Floors:-f loor may be constructed of concrete with nominal % of reinf orcement smaller than provided in table 1.they are cast in panels with sides not more than 45m and with contraction or expansion joints in between..In such cases a screed or concrete layer(M10) not less than 75mm thick shall placed f irst on the ground and covered with a sliding layer of bitumen paper to destroy the bond between the screed and the f loor. Minimum Cover:- 35mm(both the f aces). Minimum Reinf orcement:-Overall .24% of total cross section should be provided. Walls:-1) provision of joints ( a ) Where it is desired to allow the walls to expand or contract separately f rom the f loor , or to prevent moments at the base of the wall owing to f ixity to the f loor sliding joints may be employed. ( b) T he spacing of vertical movement joints should be as discussed. while the majority of these joints may be of the partial or complete contraction type , suf f icient joints of the expansion type should be provided to satisf y the requirements given in article. 2)Pressure on wall (a) In liquid retaining structures with f ixed or f loating covers the gas pressure developed above liquid surf ace shall be added to the liquid pressure . (b)When the wall of liquid retaining structure is built in ground, or has earth embanked against it ,the ef f ect of earth pressure shall be taken in to account . III Design stepes: Calculate diameter and height of water tank Assumed suitable thickness Calculate designed constants Calculate hoop tension, maximum bending moment by using IS 1370 part IV. Calculate hoop steel(provide in the f orm of rings per meter height) Check the assume thickness with given permissible values of tensile stresses of concrete in direct tension f or the given grade of concrete. Check of thickness f or bending Provide vertical steel Design base slab Draw details

detail

IV PREST RESSING DEFINIT ION Introduction of compressive stresses to a structural member with high-strength steel that counteract the tensile stresses resulting f rom applied loads Prestressed Concrete Pre-Tensioned (cast of f -site in beds- precast members) Post-Tensioned (cast on-site in place) All types of structure can be built with reinf orced and pre-stressed concrete: columns, piers, walls, slabs, beams, arches, f rames, even suspended structures and of course shells and f olded plates. Tanks Foundation panels Poles Modular block retaining wall system Wall panels Concrete units Slabs Roof ing and f looring Lintel and sunshade Beams Columns girders Tanks:In the construction of concrete structures f or the storage of liquids, the imperviousness of concrete is an important basic requirement. Hence, the design of such construction is based on avoidance of cracking in the concrete. T he structures are prestressed to avoid tension in the concrete. In addition, prestressed concrete tanks require low maintenance. T he resistance to seismic f orces is also satisf actory. Prestressed concrete tanks are used in water treatment and distribution systems, waste water collection and treatment system and storm water management. Other applications are liquef ied natural gas (LNG) containment structures, large industrial process tanks and bulk storage tanks. Strand Wrapped circular pre-stressed concrete tanks are long lif e liquid storage structure with virtually no maintenance. Concrete construction makes f or a substantial, sturdy tank structure that easily contain the internal liquid pressure while comf ortably resisting external f orces such as earthquake, wind.

Pre-stressed concrete is the most ef f icient material f or water tanks and coupled with the circular shape, eliminates all stress conditions. By placing the steel of the pre-stressed strands in tension and the concrete in compression, both materials are in an ideal states and the loads are unif ormly distributed around the tank circumf erence. Properties 1) Low maintenance can be enjoyed throughout the lif e as these are built with concrete, durable material that never corrodes and does not require coatings when in contact with water or the environment. 2) Pre-stressing counteracts the dif f erential temperature and dryness loads that a tank core wall experience. T he tank walls are wet on the inside and dry on outside and the temperature varies between the two sides. If not properly accounted f or, these moisture and temperature dif f erential will cause a tank wall to bend and crack. Counteract these f orce in both the vertical and horizontal direction and diminish subsequently the cracking and leaking 3) Tanks are very ductile, enabling to withstand seismic f orces and varying water backf ill. 4) Tanks utilize material ef f iciently steel in tension, concrete in compression 5) Pre-cast tanks can store or treat anything f rom potable water to hazardous waste to solid storage bins. 6)Storage capacities can range f rom 0.4 to 120 mega liters 7) Diameters of the tank can vary up to 90 m V Design philosophy A. Loads: Circumf erential prestressing also typically causes vertical bending moment f rom other loading condition. B. Freeboard: f reeboard should be provided in the tank wals to minimize earthquake- induced hydrodynamic ef f ects on a f lat roof . C. Wall: T he design of the wall should be based on elastic cylindrical shell analysis, considering the ef f ects of prestressing, internal loads and other external loads.cast in place concrete walls is usually priestesses circumf erentially with high-strength strand tendons placed in ducts in the wall .the wall may be priestesses with bonded and unbounded tendons. Vertical prestessed reinf orcement near the center of the wall thickness, or vertical non prestessed reinf orcement near each f ace, may be used. Non priestesses reinf orcement may be provided vertically in conjunction with vertical prestressing. Precast concrete walls usually consist of precast panels curved to the tank radius with joints between panels f illed with high-strength concrete. the panels are post-tensioned circumf erentially by high strength strand tendons. the tendons maybe embedded within the precast panels or placed on the external surf ace of the wall and protected by shortcreat .the wall panels may be prestessesd vertically with pretensioned strands or post-tensioned tendons.non prestesses reinf orcement may be provided vertically with or without vertical prestressing.

Construction Methodology T he construction of the tanks is in the f ollowing sequence. First, the concrete core is cast and cured. T he surf ace is prepared by sand or hydro blasting. Next, the circumf erential prestressing is applied by strand wrapping machine. Shotcrete is applied to provide a coat of concrete over the prestressing strands. A f ew photographs are provided f or illustration. IS: 3370 (Code of Practice f or Concrete Structures f or the Storage of Liquids) provides guidelines f or the analysis and design of liquid storage tanks. T he f our sections of the code are titled as f ollows. Part 1: General Requirement Part 2: Reinf orced Concrete Structures Part 3: Prestressed Concrete Structures Part 4: Design Tables T he f ollowing types of boundary conditions are considered in the analysis of the cylindrical wall. a) For base: f ixed or hinged b) For top: f ree or hinged or f ramed. 1)For base Fixed: When the wall is built continuous with its f ooting, then the base can be considered to be f ixed as the f irst approximation.

Hinged: If the sub grade is susceptible to settlement, then a hinged base is a conservative assumption. Since the actual rotational restraint f rom the f ooting is somewhere in between f ixed and hinged, a hinged base can be assumed. T he base can be made sliding with appropriate polyvinyl chloride (PVC) water-stops f or liquid tightness.

2) For top Free: T he top of the wall is considered f ree when there is no restraint in expansion. Hinged: When the top is connected to the roof slab by dowels f or shear transf er, the boundary condition is considered to be hinged. T he hydrostatic pressure on the wall increases linearly f rom the top to the bottom of the liquid of maximum possible depth. If the vapour pressure in the f ree board is negligible, then the pressure at the top is zero. Else, it is added to the pressure of the liquid throughout the depth. T he f orces generated in the tank due to circumf erential prestress are opposite in nature to that due to hydrostatic pressure. If the tank is built underground, then the earth pressure needs to be considered. T he hoop tension in the wall, generated due to a triangular hydrostatic pressure is given as T = CTw H Ri T he bending moment in the vertical direction is given as M = CMwH3 T he shear at the base is given by the expression V = CVw H Where, CT = coef f icient f or hoop tension CM = coef f icient f or bending moment CV = coef f icient f or shear w = unit weight of liquid H = height of the liquid Ri = inner radius of the wall. T he values of the coef f icients are tabulated in IS:3370 1967, Part 4, f or various values of H2/Dt, at dif f erent depths of the liquid. D and t represent the inner diameter and the thickness of the wall, respectively. T he typical variations of CT and CM with depth, f or two sets of boundary conditions are illustrated. T he roof can be made of a dome supported at the edges on the cylindrical wall. Else, the roof can be a f lat slab supported on columns along with the edges. IS:3370 1967, Part 4, provides coef f icients f or the analysis of the f loor and roof slabs.

Design steps Calculate diameter and height of water tank Assumed suitable thickness Calculate designed constants Calculate hoop tension, maximum bending moment by using IS 1370 part IV. Check the assume thickness with given permissible values of tensile stresses of concrete in direct tension f or the given grade of concrete. Actual circumf erential prestress i.e. actual direct compressive stress (f c) Provide circumf erential steel , Provide vertical steel Check f or ultimate collapse and cracking Non prestressing steel /untensioned steel Design base slab Draw detail

Comparison of R.C.C. water tank and Prestrssed water tank T he tanks to be consider having some common data such as the tanks are having same capacity, same diameter, same height, same grade of concrete i. e. (M40) & (M50), the thickness of tank f loor should be taken either 150mm or equal to the wall thickness(if greater than 150mm) f or RCC water tank and minimum thickness f or priestesses concrete water tank is 120mm.We consider tank capacity f or both the cases (i.e. RCC & Priestesses) reimaging f rom 1000 m3 to 9000 m3. f or both the grade of concrete i.e. (M40 & M50). T he result so obtained as given in f ollowing table3 Schedule For RCC Water Tanks & Prestressed Concrete Water Tanks Estimate Details

CAPACIT Y m3 1000

GRADE OF CONCRET E

% OF COST

M40 M50

2056116 2101677 2777828 2845004 3811166 3897242 5268049 5404513 6696401 6852226 7901981 8143194 8988532 9255833 1169380 1199296 1277439 1309013

11.47 9.43 -20.33 -21.69 -24.87 -26.22 -21.06 -22.50 -18.14 -20.01 -22.35 -23.45 -19.34 -21.42 -15.02 -16.63 -16.45 -18.05

1844521 1920546 3486806 3633328 5072773 5282492 6673611 6973950 8180441 8567341 10177486 10637885 11144740 11778868 13761735 14385223 15290975 15975177

2000

M40 M50

3000

M40 M50

4000

M40 M50

5000

M40 M50

6000

M40 M50

7000

M40 M50

8000

M40 M50

9000

M40 M50

NOT E: (Negative value of % saving indicates that prestressed concrete tank is economical than RCC water tank and vice--versa)

Figure 1: Variation Of Cost With Capacity Of Water Tank & Grade Of Concrete

Figure 2 Variation Of Cost For Both Type Of Water Tank With Same Grade Of Concrete(M40)

Figure 3 Variation Of Cost For Both Type Of Water Tank With Same Grade Of Concrete(M50)

Figure 5 Variation of % of saving f or given capacity with given grade of concrete(M50) T he aim of this paper is to compare the cost of R.C.C. water tanks resting over f irm ground with the cost of Prestressed concrete water tanks. In India at least, most of the small & medium sized water tanks are constructed in RCC. Senior engineers and those in the know maintain that prestressed concrete water tanks are not worth trying f or smaller capacities. Besides cost, other reason may be that prestressed concrete construction involves skilled labor & supervision. Furthermore, prestressing is a closely guarded technology in this country & inf ormation is not available that easily. T here is no clear-cut def inition of Medium Size. T he thumb rule passed on in the f ield f rom one generation of engineers to the next, f ixes a value around 10 lac liters. T heref ore, this study encompasses tanks f rom 10 lac liter capacity to 90 lac liter capacity. A couple of cases of both varieties were designed manually. Design & Estimation programs were developed in MS EXCEL f or both RCC & Prestressed concrete. T he programs were f inalized af ter a number of trial runs & corrections.

Results obtained are compiled in f igures numbered 1 to 5 & Table numbered 3. D/H ratio f or all the tanks is maintained at 4 based on the recommendations of the Preload Engineering Company of the US, a world leader in the f ield of prestressed concrete water tanks. It should be noted that an increase in tank wall thickness results in decreased f lexural steel in case of RCC. However, in case of prestressed concrete, an increased thickness leads to a greater prestressing f orce & consequently more prestressing steel. T hus, increased thickness leads to increased cost in case of prestressed concrete. Table3 presents the total cost of each tank along with the % dif f erence. + means costlier prestressing & - means cheaper prestressing. As the tank capacity increases, the cost of tank increases. But the concept of economics of scale holds good i.e. the cost of a tank of 20 lac liter capacity is less than double the cost of a tank of 10 lac liter capacity. Similarly, the cost of a tank of 90 lac liter capacity is less than 9 times the cost of a tank of 10 lac liter capacity. It can be clearly established that the grade of concrete hardly makes any dif f erence in the costing. Because of its nature, the water tank design is never an impending or boundary line design. T he f actor of saf ety is high & the actual stresses are much lower than the permissible ones. An increased permissible stress f or a higher grade of concrete hardly makes any dif f erence to the f inal outcome. Finally, a study of the same Table3 conf irms that the RCC tank is cheaper only f or 10 lac liter capacity. For higher capacities, prestress concrete tank is always cheaper by @ (20 +/- 5) %. T his is because the thickness of an RCC tank increases many-f olds f or higher capacities. T hickness in f act seems to be an important criterion even f or prestressed tanks. An increased thickness leads to an increased prestressing f orce. More steel is required to generate this higher prestressing f orce resulting in higher cost. CONCLUSION RCC tanks are cheaper only f or smaller capacities up to 10-12 lac liters. For bigger tanks, Prestressing is the superior choice resulting in a saving of @ 20%.

REFERENCES: 1 Tanetal (1966) Minimum Cost Design Of Reinf orced Concrete Cylindrical Water Tanks Based On T he British Code For Water Tanks, Using A Direct Search Method And T he (SUMT ). European Journal Of Scientif ic Research ISSN 1450 -216XVol.49No.4(2011),pp.510-520. 2 T hakkar and Sridhar Rao (1974)Cost Optimization Of Cylindrical Composite Type Prestesses Concrete Pipes Based On T he Indian Code Journal of Structural Engineering 131: 6. 3 Al-Badri (2005) Cost Optimization Of Reinf orced Concrete Circular Grain Silo Based On ACI Code (2002)American Concrete Institute Structural Journal, May- June 2006. 4 Hassan Jasim Mohammed Economical Design Of Water Tanks European Journal Of Scientif ic Research ISSN 1450 -216XVol.49No.4(2011),pp.510-520. 5 Abdul-Aziz & A. Rashed Rational Design Of Priestesses And Reinf orced Concrete Tanks Dept Of Civil & Environmental Engineering. University Of Alberta, Edmontan, Alberta Canada T 6g-267.Eurojournals Publishing. Inc.2011 6 Chetan Kumar Gautam Comparison Of Circular RC And PSC Underground Shelters T he Indian Concrete Journal April 2006. 7 Precon Designing Of Circular Prestressed Concrete Tanks To T he Industry Standards Of T he AWWA And ACI journal of priestesses concrete institute vol.12,apr. 1967 8 IS: 456-2000. Indian Standard Code of Practice For Reinf orced Concrete. 9 IS 3370-Part I,II,III,IV 1965 & IS Code 1343-1980 Indian Standard Code of Practice For Liquid Retaining Structures. 10 IS: 1343- 1980. Indian Standard Code of Practice For Prestressed Concrete (First Revision). 11 Lin, T.Y, and NED H BURNS Prestressed Concrete, T hird Edition , John Wiley & Sons[ ASIA] Pt e Ltd. , Singapore 129809. 12 N. Krishna Raju, 2007. Prestressed Concrete, Fourth Edition, Tata McGraw- Hill Company Ltd., New Delhi. 13 A.K Jain Reinf orced concrete (vol-1,vol-2) 14 B.N Dutta, 2009 Estimating and Costing In Civil Engineering, Twenty- Sixth Revised Edition UBS Publishers Distributors Pvt. Ltd. New Delhi. 15 Current Schedule of Rates (CSR), 2010-2011, f or Public Works Region, Amravati. 16 Schedule Of Rates Year 2010-2011, For Maharashtra Jeevan Pradhikaran, Nagpur Region 17 Bundy , B. D. , 1984. Basic Optimization Methods , Edward Arnold Publishers. 18 Fintel, M., ,1974. Handbook of Concrete Engineering, USA. 19 Gray ,W.S. and Manning ,G.P., 1960. Concrete Water Tower, Bunkers, Silos and Other Elevated Structures , 3rd ed. , London. 20 Manning, G.P., 1973. Reinf orced Concrete Reservoirs and Tanks,1st ed. London. We at engineeringcivil.com are thankful to MS. SNEHAL R. METKAR for submitting this useful information to us. We hope this will be of great help to all those who are looking forward for Economics of R.C.C. Water tank Resting over Firm Ground vis-a-vis Pre-stressed Concrete Water Tank Resting over Firm Ground.

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