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Jandric

Peace Support Operations Training Center

Staff Course 6

“Immigration in European Union”
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Captain Dejan Jandric

Major David Napier

PSOTC 6

30 April 2007

IMMIGRATION IN EUROPEAN UNION
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INTRODUCTION

One of the results of the process of globalization is the increase in migration in

the world. According to the United Nations figure there were 191 million migrants

in the world in 20061. Numbers are increasing rapidly, from 82 million

international migrants in 1970 through 175 million in 2000 to nearly 200 million

today. This is equivalent to the population of the fifth largest country-Brasil and 1

in 35 people is an international migrant2.

These facts show us that international migration will be one of the main issues of

21st century. Most developed countries face the problem of international

migration, because the majority of international immigrants live in developed part

of the world.

This paper will emphasise immigration problems in European Union that faces

increasing labour immigration in last decades (nearly 60 million immigrants live in

Europe or 7.7% of Europe's population) and particularly the focus of paper will be

illegal immigration that is one of the main problems in Europe today. According to

some estimates more than 500 000 illegal immigrants enter the Europe each

year.

1
International migration and development. Report of Secretary-General. 18 May 2006. March 2007. p.12,
found at
http://www.un.int/iom/SG%20report%20A%2060%20871%20Migration%20and%20Development%20final%2
0EN.pdf
2
Migration in an interconnected world: New directions for action. Report of the Global Commission on
international migration. October 2005. March 2007. p.83, found at http://www.gcim.org/attachements/gcim-
complete-report-2005.pdf
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The paper is divided into three sections. Part one discusses labour immigration in

Europe. Part two describes illegal immigration in European Union. In part three I

will explain EU illegal immigration policy and how EU Members States are

tackling this problem.

1. LABOUR IMMIGRATION IN EUROPEAN UNION
Today the European Union is comprised of 27 states and is the largest economy

in the world, with 490 million citizens. EU's borders stretch from the Atlantic

Ocean to the Black Sea. With enlargement came new challenges as increasing

immigration from new members and other parts of the world. Nearly 60 million

immigrants live in Europe or 7.7% of Europe's population3. The problem of

immigration is one of the focuses in EU policy and European countries try to find

common immigration policy.

1.1. Positive effects of immigration in EU

Why is problem of immigration so important? As former UN Secretary General

Kofi Annan said: "One of the biggest tests for the enlarged European Union, in

the years and decades to come, will be how it manages the challenge of

immigration. If European societies rise to this challenge, immigration will enrich

3
Migration in an interconnected world: New directions for action. Report of the Global Commission on
international migration. October 2005. March 2007. p.83, found at http://www.gcim.org/attachements/gcim-
complete-report-2005.pdf
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and strengthen them. If they fail to do so, the result may be declining living

standards and social division."4.

Enlarged European Union needs immigrants. Europeans live longer and have

fewer children. According to EUROSTAT between 1995 and 2025 the proportion

of persons in European Union over 60 years old and more will rise from 15.4% to

22.4% and the population old enough to work will decrease from 225 to 223

million5.

Despite European restrictive immigration policies, European Union needs

immigrants in certain sectors and regions in order to deal with its economic and

demographic needs. For example since May 2004, when 8 East European

countries (Latvia, Estonia, Lithuania, Poland, Czech Republic, Slovakia, Hungary,

Slovenia, Malta and Cyprus) joined European Union, over 600 000 immigrants

have registered to work in United Kingdom6 (63% of them are from Poland) after

decision to allow unlimited access to the citizens of these new members. But

despite these numbers the government says it still has “shortages of 600 000

workers in fields like nursing and construction”7.

In spite of UK decision, other EU countries threw up barriers for immigrants from

new members fearing a massive immigration from East Europe. For example,

4
Annan, Kofi. Speech made to the European Parliament. 29 January 2004. March 2007, found at
http://www.un.org/News/ossg/sg/stories/sg-29jan2004.htm
5
Delgrado Godoy, Leticia. Immigration in Europe: realities and policies. University Rey Juan Carlos, 2002,
p.3,
http://www.kent.ac.uk/wramsoc/workingpapers/firstyearreports/backgroundreports/immigrationbackgroundre
port.pdf
6
Migration News. UK: Migrants, Integration. 1 January 2007. 31 March 2007,
http://migration.ucdavis.edu/mn/more.php?id=3252_0_4_0
7
Fuller, Thomas. EU's great migration yields few ill effects. International Herald Tribune, 21 Oct 2006, 17 Oct
2007, http://www.iht.com/bin/print_ipub.php?file=/articles/2005/10/21/news/poles.php
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France issued "only 737 work permits to Poles in the 10 months after

enlargement; that is number of Poles who arrive in Britain every two days"8.

Immigration in European Union affects economy in positive way both host

country and country of origin. For example, some economists estimate "that

immigration raised Britain's growth rate for 2006 from 2.2 to 2.8 percent" 9. On the

other side, the financial inflows in Poland (from remittances from abroad) have

grown to 6.4 billion euros per year10.

Also, immigration have positive impact in countries which want to join European

Union as Serbia, Montenegro and Bosnia and Herzegovina. According to World

Bank in 2004, Serbia and Montenegro received 4.1 billion dollars from

remittances while remittances constituted 22.5 percent of gross domestic product

in Bosnia and Herzegovina11.

The remittances that migrant send home can support the development process in

countries of origin and provide conditions for increase of employment in these

countries and decrease emigration. Remittances are second-largest source of

external financing for developing countries after foreign direct investment and

play essential role in economies of developing countries.

8
Ibid
9
Migration News. UK: Migrants, Integration. 1 January 2007, 31 March 2007,
http://migration.ucdavis.edu/mn/more.php?id=3252_0_4_0
10
Remittances sent home by migrants workers boosts Poland’s economy. 02 March 2007, 31 March 2007,
http://www.workpermit.com/news/2007_03_02/poland/remittances_migrant_worker_money.htm
11
International migration and development. Report of Secretary-General. 18 May 2006. p.54, found at
http://www.un.int/iom/SG%20report%20A%2060%20871%20Migration%20and%20Development%20final%2
0EN.pdf
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One of the most important benefits from immigration in European Union is brain

drain from developing countries, but in the other hand brain drain is loss for those

countries.

1.2. Negative effects of immigration in EU

After problem of illegal immigration (it is described in second part of paper), the

biggest negative effects of immigration in European Union are problem of

integration of immigrants in host societies and increased xenophobia and racism

in these countries.

What are the reasons for xenophobia? Tolerance with minorities is lower in

countries with a greater proportion of immigrants than in those states with less

immigrants presence12. According to the European Monitoring Centre on Racism

and Xenophobia,13 an increase in xenophobia has been detected in the last

decade attributed to a rise in immigration and especially after 11 September 2001

in New York and terrorist attacks in Madrid and London in the form of

Islamophobia.

One of the main problems is integration of Muslims in European societies. Of 60

million immigrants in Europe, 25 million are Muslims. In England, Spain, France

and Germany, a lot of immigrants come from Muslim countries. "Each year over 1

million immigrants mostly from the Muslim countries are coming into Europe.

Birth rates of European Muslims are more than three times of those of non-
12
Delgrado Godoy, Leticia. Immigration in Europe: realities and policies. University Rey Juan Carlos.2002.
p.4
http://www.kent.ac.uk/wramsoc/workingpapers/firstyearreports/backgroundreports/immigrationbackgroundre
port.pdf
13
Ibid
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Muslim Europeans. It is estimated that Muslims will comprise at least 20 percent

of Europe’s population in 2050”14. The differences between civilisations and

terrorism (and the war against terrorism) are cause for believe that Muslims are

enemies. Both Muslim immigrants and host societies have responsibilities for

integration.

In my opinion, Muslims have to adapt their way of life according to European

societies, but Europeans have to learn about other religions and accept their new

neighbours.

Another negative effect of immigration is fear of so called “Polish plumber", a

symbol of cheap labour. People in European countries worry about influence of

low-paid workers on their wages and jobs. The immigration can stop increase the

level of the minimum wage in the future. Fears that so-called "Polish plumbers"

and other low-cost workers can steal jobs of European citizens were a main

reason for rejection of the EU constitution in France.

In addition, according some estimates increasing of criminal activities and acts of

terrorism is linked to immigration and it makes atmosphere of fear among

European citizens who see immigration as new security threat.

2. ILLEGAL IMMIGRATION IN EUROPEAN UNION
The terms "illegal immigration" or "irregular immigration" are used to describe

immigrants:

• who enter or remain in a country without authorisation
14
The future of Europe: Islamophobia? EurActiv. 11 October 2005. April 2007.
http://www.euractiv.com/en/enlargement/future-europe-islamophobia/article-145688
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• who are smuggled or trafficked across international borders

• unsuccessful asylum seekers who fail to observe a deportation orders

• people who circumvent immigration controls through the arrangement of

bogus marriages15

Some authors use the term "irregular immigration" to avoid connection between

immigrants and crime, but the term "illegal immigration” is more common and

accept in European institutions.

According to EUROPOL, illegal immigration is “activity intended deliberately to

facilitate, for financial gain, the entry into, residence or employment in the territory

of the Member States of the European Union, contrary to the rules and conditions

applicable in the Member States.”16

It is estimated by the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development

(OECD) that between 10 and 15 percent of immigrants in Europe are illegal

immigrants and more than 500 000 illegal immigrants enter the Europe each

year17. The number of illegal immigrants is estimated on the number of refused

entries, border arrests, and rejected applications for asylum.18

15
Migration in an interconnected world: New directions for action. Report of the Global Commission on
international migration. October 2005. March 2007. p.32
http://www.gcim.org/attachements/gcim-complete-report-2005.pdf
16
Organised illegal immigration into the European Union. Europol. 2005. 23 April 2007. found at
http://www.europol.eu.int/publications/SeriousCrimeOverviews/2005/organised%20illegal%20immigration20
05.pdf,
17
Migration in an interconnected world: New directions for action. Report of the Global Commission on
international migration. October 2005. March 2007. p.32
http://www.un.int/iom/SG%20report%20A%2060%20871%20Migration%20and%20Development%20final%2
0EN.pdf
18
Links between legal and illegal immigration. EU. 4 June 2004. April 2007.
http://europa.eu/scadplus/leg/en/lvb/l33191c.htm
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According to these estimates the European Commission "consider that illegal

migration is significant and that the reduction of illegal migration flows is a

political priority at both national and EU level"19

What are the reasons for illegal immigration in Europe? The reasons for

Illegal immigration are same as reasons for legal immigration.

Some of so-called „push factors“ are lack of jobs and life opportunities in

countries of origin and lack of legal immigration opportunities. In addition, many

illegal immigrants migrate because of armed conflict in their countries, political

instability and negative economic situation.

Some of “pull factors” for immigration in EU are needs for cheaper labor in host

countries, shortage of work force, positive economic situation and democratic

system in European Union.

In addition, the cause of illegal immigration is lack of capacity of EU Member

States to control the movement of people across the borders and lack of actions

against people in European countries who employ illegal immigrants and who

use their illegal status for own profit.

Why is illegal immigration problem for European Union? Illegal immigration

has a lot of negative consequences. Illegal immigration often provokes great

media attention and can decrease public confidence in state government and

endanger state sovereignty. In addition, some employers in EU often employ

illegal immigrants who are paid less than the legal minimum wage (some people

believe that they steal jobs from Europeans) and it can increase xenophobic

sentiments by European citizens that “are directed not only at illegal immigrants,
19
Ibid
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but also at immigrants with legal status, refugees and ethnic minorities”20. These

immigrants can also be at risk of exploitation by employers. They do not use

public services, for example health care. Many illegal immigrants are trafficked

and they can be the victims of sex slavery and forced labour.

In addition, illegal immigration can provide opportunities for organized crime

involved in the smuggling of people. Illegal immigration can also be pull factor for

further illegal immigration21. One of the most dangerous consequences is that a

large number of illegal immigrants die trying to cross border, especially on the

sea.

2.1. How illegal immigrants enter in European Union

Illegal immigrants enter in EU by land, air or sea. Some immigrants use falsified

documents or organized criminal networks. Some enter legally and then

overstay22.

According to EUROPOL23, illegal immigrants use routes to enter in European

Union as follow:

• The Eastern Mediterranean Route

• The North African Route

20
Migration in an interconnected world: New directions for action. Report of the Global Commission on
international migration. October 2005. March 2007. p.34
http://www.gcim.org/attachements/gcim-complete-report-2005.pdf

21
A Common Policy on Illegal Immigration. House of Lords. 2002. April 2007, found at
http://www.jcwi.org.uk/archives/ukpollcy/lords_illegalimm.pdf, 23 April 2007
22
Links between legal and illegal immigration. EU. 4 June 2004. April 2007.
http://europa.eu/scadplus/leg/en/lvb/l33191c.htm
23
Organised illegal immigration into the European Union. Europol. 2005. 23 April 2007. found at
http://www.europol.eu.int/publications/SeriousCrimeOverviews/2005/organised%20illegal%20immigration20
05.pdf
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• The Balkan Route

• The West African Atlantic Coast Route (two sub-routes)

• The Central and Eastern European Route

• The Baltic Route.

The Eastern Mediterranean route and the North African route are the main routes

for illegal entrance into European Union.

The most used transit countries before enter in European Union are Russia,

Ukraine, Turkey, Morocco and Libya24. In addition, as transit countries are also

identified Bosnia and Herzegovina, which is transit country for illegal immigrants

from Iran and Turkey, and Serbia as transit country for Chinese immigrants 25.

Also, “the lack of a visa policy in the UN-administered Kosovo region is cause of

significant number of illegal immigrants to enter Europe”26.

2.2. Link between illegal immigration and organized crime

Nevertheless, the most dangerous form is the between illegal immigration and

organized crime that is main immigration problem in last decade.

Involvement of organized crime in illegal immigration is increasing into the

European Union27. Human smuggling and human trafficking have become very

profitable business. Illegal immigrants pay large sums to the smugglers. For
24
Ibid
25
Bruggeman, W., Deputy Director EUROPOL,19 September 2002. April 2007, found at
http://www.belgium.iom.int/STOPConference/Conference%20Papers/20%20Bruggeman%20Brussels%20IO
M.19.09.02.pdf
26
Futo, Jandl and Karsakova. A Survey of Illegal Migration and Human Smuggling in Central and Eastern
Europe. Migracijske I Etnicke Teme/Migration and Ethnic Studies, 2005, March 2007. p.40, found at
http://hrcak.srce.hr/index.php?show=clanak&id_clanak_jezik=8793
27
W. Bruggeman, Deputy Director EUROPOL,19 September 2002. April 2007, found at
http://www.belgium.iom.int/STOPConference/Conference%20Papers/20%20Bruggeman%20Brussels%20IO
M.19.09.02.pdf
Jandric 13

example, according to some estimates typical smuggling fees from the country of

origin to a Schengen countries are from China to Europe between 10,000 and

15,000 USD, from Iran between 3,000 and 5,000 USD, from Serbia and

Montenegro through Slovenia up to 3,000 Euro28 and organized smuggling of

illegal immigrants reach profit of many billion dollars a year.

Many organized criminal groups are involved in human smuggling and trafficking,

from EU Member States as well as from Afghanistan, Albania, Moldavia, Iraq,

African countries, Russia, Turkey and from the former Yugoslavia 29. Many of

these groups are often involved in other criminal activities as drug trafficking and

they have become well organized and equipped groups, very powerful and

capable to avoid security measures that European Union tries to establish in

order to decrease illegal immigration and human smuggling and trafficking.

3. HOW EUROPEAN COUNTRIES ARE TACKLING
ILLEGAL IMMIGRATION
The fight against illegal immigration is one of the priorities in EU’s policy in last

decade because all EU countries are affected by this problem and they try to find

common answer on it.

28
2003 Year Book on Illegal Migration. Human Smuggling and Trafficking in Central and Eastern Europe.
International Centre for Migration Policy Development, Vienna, 2004, April 2007. p.18, found at
http://www.icmpd.org/fileadmin/ICMPD-
Website/Asylum_and_Protection/_124__2003__Yearbook_Illegal_Migration_CEE.pdf
29
W. Bruggeman, Deputy Director EUROPOL,19 September 2002, April 2007, found at
http://www.belgium.iom.int/STOPConference/Conference%20Papers/20%20Bruggeman%20Brussels%20IO
M.19.09.02.pdf
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European Commission, in its Communication on policy priorities in the fight

against illegal immigration30, has defined priority areas for the fight against illegal

immigration:

- Cooperation with third countries

- Border security

- Fight against human trafficking

- Combating illegal employment

- Return policy

- Improved information exchange

It is recognized that dialogue and cooperation between European Union and

countries of origin and transit have positive effects as for example joint patrols

and surveillance in Mediterranean region. In addition, cooperation with these

countries is important for fight against human trafficking31.

To provide secure border (6000 km of external land borders and 85 000 km of

coastline) EU, in 2005, established European Agency for the Management of

Operational Cooperation at the External Borders (FRONTEX). The task of

FRONTEX is to “coordinate the operational cooperation between Member States

in the field of border security”32. In 2006, FRONTEX had certain successes in

operations in Mediterranean Sea.

In addition, last year, UK Home Office in its Borders Immigration and Identity

Action Plan announced that the UK will stronger capacity for border security and

fight against illegal immigration and human trafficking including some measures
30
Policy priorities in the fight against illegal immigration. EU. 19 July 2006. April 2007. found at
http://europa.eu/scadplus/leg/en/lvb/l14525.htm
31
Ibid
32
FRONTEX- origin and tasks. April 2007. FRONTEX. http://www.frontex.europa.eu/origin_and_tasks/tasks/
Jandric 15

as the increase in number of immigration officers, biometric documents and

border control technology33. Also, these measures include new empowerments

for Immigration Officers34. UK officials believe that these measures will decrease

level of illegal immigration in the United Kingdom.

Fight against human trafficking is problem that depends on border security and

police cooperation not only between EU Member States, but also with other

countries especially transit countries. Positive example is cooperation with

Bosnia and Herzegovina where was, with assistance EU, established State

Border Service that have decreased number of illegal immigrants across Bosnia

and Herzegovina35.

Most EU countries have developed “a legal framework for combating illegal

employment”36. For example, Germany established special task forces to survey

critical profession for illegal employment, while United Kingdom has programmes

to encourage employers to avoid employing illegal immigrants37.

When it comes to return policy, voluntary and forced return are some of the key

points in policy against illegal immigration. Some of EU members have

developed programmes in order to encourage illegal immigrants to return in their

countries38. But although EU members want to be more active in this area, there

are several problems. The one of the problems is to “identify the real country of

33
Illegal immigration “crackdown”. BBC. http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/uk_politics/6163610.stm
34
http://www.workpermit.com/news/2007_01_29/uk/biometric_immigration_id_data-sharing.htm
35
2003 Year Book on Illegal Migration. Human Smuggling and Trafficking in Central and Eastern Europe
International Centre for Migration Policy Development, Vienna, 2004, April 2007. p.34, found at
http://www.icmpd.org/fileadmin/ICMPD-
Website/Asylum_and_Protection/_124__2003__Yearbook_Illegal_Migration_CEE.pdf
36
Illegally Resident Third Country Nationals in EU Member States. European Migration Network, Jan 2007,
April 2007. p.18, http://www.ocma.gov.lv/images/documents/EMT_syntesys.pdf
37
Ibid, p.17,18
38
Ibid, p.18
Jandric 16

origin…in terms of establishing bilateral agreements”39. The next problem is

make documentation for return illegal immigrants. The third problem is

cooperation between EU members in order to organize charter flights for return in

countries of origin. The last one is lack of detention capacities in some EU

members that reduces apprehensions of illegal immigrants40. However, EU

members are trying to develop repatriation centres to solve this problem.

In addition, when it comes to information exchange, EU members established

Information and Coordination Network for Members States Migration

Management Services (ICONet) in order to improve exchange of information

about illegal migration41. Also, EU has established network of immigration liaison

officers (ILOs) who are posted abroad, in third countries, dealing with illegal

immigration issues42 especially in Africa and Western Balkans43.

CONCLUSION
As we can see, immigration, particularly illegal immigration, is one of the main

challenges in European Union today and will be in the future as well as in the

world. Number of immigrants is increasing rapidly. All European countries face

this problem, both legal and illegal immigration.

39
Ibid, p.19
40
Ibid
41
COMMISSION OF THE EUROPEAN COMMUNITIES. COMMUNICATION FROM THE COMMISSION
on Policy priorities in the fight against illegal immigration of third-country nationals. Brussels, 19.7.2006
http://ec.europa.eu/justice_home/doc_centre/immigration/illegal/doc/sec_2006_1010_en.pdf
42
Common Manual For Immigration Liaison Officers. COUNCIL OF THE EUROPEAN UNION. Brussels
2006, April 2007, http://www.statewatch.org/news/2006/apr/eu-draft-ILO-manual-8418-06.pdf
43
Policy priorities in the fight against illegal immigration. EU. 19 July 2006. April 2007. found at
http://europa.eu/scadplus/leg/en/lvb/l14525.htm
Jandric 17

European countries, both on EU and national level, must choose appropriate

approach in solving immigration problem. Illegal immigration should be priority in

immigration policy. Some measures, mentioned above, that EU try to improve in

order to fight against illegal immigration can give certain results, but enlarged

European Union have to think about basic causes for illegal immigration and try

to fight against them. These causes are both in countries of origin as well as in

European Union itself. The lack of basic life opportunities in the developing

countries and the lack of legal immigration opportunities in EU force people to

break law.

I believe that European Union, beside short-term measures, must choose long-

term approach to solve immigration problem. Europe must decrease push factors

in countries and regions that are the source of immigrants. It means that Europe

must have stronger influence on these countries and try to support development

and economic improvement. EU can do that through assistance in building a

stable social and political structure as well as functioning economy in order to

provide conditions for foreign investments. In such circumstances, international

companies would move jobs to poor countries with cheaper labor and people

would not migrate to find a job.

In addition, European Union as well as United Nation must reinforce their

peacekeeping and peace building capacities in order to stop wars and violence

that are also causes for migration. Europe also has to provide more legal jobs,

according to needs. With right integration policy, keeping real European

democracy and trying to decrease xenophobia, immigration will not be problem.
Jandric 18

People want to live with dignity and they try to escape from poverty and wars in

the “promise land”, in European Union. There are not borders that can stop

people who want freedom. Anyway, Europe needs “fresh blood”. Europe in 21st

century must accept role that United States of America had in 19th and in the

beginning of 20th century and accept immigrants who want to live and work and

together with them build European future.
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CONTENT LIST

I N T R O D U C T I O N.....................................................................................................3
1. LABOUR IMMIGRATION IN EUROPEAN UNION...................................................4
1.1. Positive effects of immigration in EU.......................................................................4
1.2. Negative effects of immigration in EU.....................................................................7
2. ILLEGAL IMMIGRATION IN EUROPEAN UNION...................................................8
2.1. How illegal immigrants enter in European Union .................................................11
2.2. Link between illegal immigration and organized crime.........................................12
3. HOW EUROPEAN COUNTRIES ARE TACKLING ILLEGAL IMMIGRATION....13
CONCLUSION..................................................................................................................16
RESOURCES....................................................................................................................20
Jandric 20

RESOURCES

BOOKS

International migration and development. Report of Secretary-General. 18 May
2006. March 2007, found at
http://www.un.int/iom/SG%20report%20A%2060%20871%20Migration%20and%
20Development%20final%20EN.pdf

Migration in an interconnected world: New directions for action. Report of the
Global Commission on international migration. October 2005. March 2007, found
at http://www.gcim.org/attachements/gcim-complete-report-2005.pdf

Delgrado Godoy, Leticia. Immigration in Europe: realities and policies. University
Rey Juan Carlos, 2002. March 2007, found at
http://www.kent.ac.uk/wramsoc/workingpapers/firstyearreports/backgroundreport
s/immigrationbackgroundreport.pdf

A Common Policy on Illegal Immigration. House of Lords. 2002. 23 April 2007,
found at http://www.jcwi.org.uk/archives/ukpollcy/lords_illegalimm.pdf,

Futo, Jandl and Karsakova. A Survey of Illegal Migration and Human Smuggling
in Central and Eastern Europe. Migracijske I Etnicke Teme/Migration and Ethnic
Studies, 2005, March 2007, found at
http://hrcak.srce.hr/index.php?show=clanak&id_clanak_jezik=8793

2003 Year Book on Illegal Migration. Human Smuggling and Trafficking in Central
and Eastern Europe. International Centre for Migration Policy Development.
Vienna. 2004. April 2007, found at
http://www.icmpd.org/fileadmin/ICMPD-
Website/Asylum_and_Protection/_124__2003__Yearbook_Illegal_Migration_CE
E.pdf
Jandric 21

WEB RESOURCES

Annan, Kofi. Speech made to the European Parliament. 29 January 2004. March
2007, found at http://www.un.org/News/ossg/sg/stories/sg-29jan2004.htm

Migration News. UK: Migrants, Integration. 1 January 2007. 31 March 2007,
http://migration.ucdavis.edu/mn/more.php?id=3252_0_4_0

Fuller, Thomas. EU's great migration yields few ill effects. International Herald
Tribune, 21 Oct 2006, 17 Oct 2007,
http://www.iht.com/bin/print_ipub.php?file=/articles/2005/10/21/news/poles.php

Remittances sent home by migrants workers boosts Poland’s economy. 02
March 2007, 31 March 2007,
http://www.workpermit.com/news/2007_03_02/poland/remittances_migrant_work
er_money.htm

The future of Europe: Islamophobia? EurActiv. 11 October 2005. April 2007.
http://www.euractiv.com/en/enlargement/future-europe-islamophobia/article-
145688

Links between legal and illegal immigration. EU. 4 June 2004. April 2007.
http://europa.eu/scadplus/leg/en/lvb/l33191c.htm

Organised illegal immigration into the European Union. Europol. 2005. 23 April
2007. found at
http://www.europol.eu.int/publications/SeriousCrimeOverviews/2005/organised%
20illegal%20immigration2005.pdf

Bruggeman, W., Deputy Director EUROPOL, 19 September 2002. April 2007,
found at
http://www.belgium.iom.int/STOPConference/Conference%20Papers/20%20Brug
geman%20Brussels%20IOM.19.09.02.pdf

FRONTEX- origin and tasks. April 2007. FRONTEX.
http://www.frontex.europa.eu/origin_and_tasks/tasks/

Illegal immigration “crackdown”. BBC.
http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/uk_politics/6163610.stm
Jandric 22

UK Home Office plans biometric immigration document to control borders
http://www.workpermit.com/news/2007_01_29/uk/biometric_immigration_id_data-
sharing.htm

Illegally Resident Third Country Nationals in EU Member States. European
Migration Network, Jan 2007, April 2007. p.18,
http://www.ocma.gov.lv/images/documents/EMT_syntesys.pdf

COMMISSION OF THE EUROPEAN COMMUNITIES. COMMUNICATION
FROM THE COMMISSION on Policy priorities in the fight against illegal
immigration of third-country nationals. Brussels, 19.7.2006
http://ec.europa.eu/justice_home/doc_centre/immigration/illegal/doc/sec_2006_1
010_en.pdf

Common Manual For Immigration Liaison Officers. COUNCIL OF THE
EUROPEAN UNION. Brussels 2006, April 2007,
http://www.statewatch.org/news/2006/apr/eu-draft-ILO-manual-8418-06.pdf

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