In Latin, all verbs belong to one of four families called conjugations.

Each conjugation’s endings are slightly di erent from the others’. It is necessary to know a verb’s conjugation when you are writing Latin. There are simple ways to identify which conjugation a verb is from This handout will help you with the basics of identifying the conjugation of a verb.

VERBS&CONJUGATIONS

PORTO, HABEO, DICO, AUDIO, PORTARE HABERE DICERE AUDIRE to carry to have to speak to hear

HOW TO FIND IT:
1st PRINCIPAL PART

1st

2nd

Finding out which conjugation a verb is from is a simple matter of looking at the verbs de nition in the dictionary. Use the chart below to nd out how.

3rd

4th

2nd PRINCIPAL PART

3rd PRINCIPAL PART

4th PRINCIPAL PART

FIRST PRINCIPLE PART: This part is the rst person singular of the verb in the present tense “I love”. When looking up an unknown word you should always be looking for this rst part. Notice that often the rst part alone can show you the conjugation as with habeo and audio. However for porto and dico you must look further into the de nition. SECOND PRINCIPLE PART: This part is the in nitive “to love”. This part is useful because it will also help you idenify which conjugation the verb is from when you look at the vowel before the -re. THIRD PRINCIPLE PART: This part is the rst person singular perfect “I have loved”. This part is useful because you use it to make verbs in the perfect, future perfect, or pluperfect. FOURTH PRINCIPAL PART: This part is a verbal adjective. It is called the Perfect Passive Participle. It ends in 'us' and is translated as 'having been...ed'. e.g. amatus having been loved.

NOTA BENE
PETO, ERE TO SEEK SINGULAR 1st PETO 2nd PETIS 3rd PETIT PLURAL 1st PETIMUS 2nd PETITIS 3rd PETUNT

Some verbs in the third conjugation have an -io in their rst principal part instead of just an o. They also still have -ere in their in nitive form instead of -ire. For now the only real di erences you will need to know is the 3rd plural ends in -iunt and the imperfect has an -i as well faciebam.

ENGLISH I SEEK YOU SEEK HE/SHE/IT SEEKS ENGLISH WE SEEK Y’ALL SEEK THEY SEEK

FACIO, ERE TO MAKE SINGULAR 1st FACIO 2nd FACIS 3rd FACIT PLURAL 1st FACIMUS 2nd FACITIS 3rd FACIUNT

THEMATIC VOWELS ENGLISH I MAKE YOU MAKE HE/SHE/IT MAKES ENGLISH WE MAKE Y’ALL MAKE THEY MAKE

1st 2nd 3rd 4TH

A E E I

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