3G - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

3G, short for third Generation, is the third generation of mobile telecommunications technology.[1] 3G telecommunication networks support services that provide an information transfer rate of at least 200 kbit/s. However, many services advertised as 3G provide higher speed than the minimum technical requirements for a 3G service. Later 3G releases, often denoted 3.5G and 3.75G, also provide mobile broadband access of several Mbit/s to smartphones and mobile modems in laptop computers. 3G finds application in wireless voice telephony, mobile Internet access, fixed wireless Internet access, video calls and mobile TV.

1 Standardization 2 Overview 2.1 Detailed breakdown of 3G systems 3 History 4 Adoption 5 Patents 6 Features 6.1 Data rates 6.2 Security 6.3 Applications of 3G 7 Evolution 8 See also 9 References

This is a set of standards used for mobile devices and mobile telecommunication use services and networks that comply with the International Mobile Telecommunications-2000 (IMT-2000) specifications by the International Telecommunication Union.[2] 3G finds application in wireless voice telephony, mobile Internet access, fixed wireless Internet access, video calls and mobile TV. Several telecommunications companies market wireless mobile Internet services as 3G, indicating that the advertised service is provided over a 3G wireless network. Services advertised as 3G are required to meet IMT-2000 technical standards, including standards for reliability and speed (data transfer rates). To meet the IMT-2000 standards, a system is required to provide peak data rates of at least 200 kbit/s (about 0.2 Mbit/s). However, many services advertised as 3G provide higher speed than the minimum technical requirements for a 3G service. Recent 3G releases, often denoted 3.5G and 3.75G, also provide mobile broadband access of several Mbit/s to smartphones and mobile modems in laptop computers. The following standards are typically branded 3G: the UMTS system, first offered in 2001, standardized by 3GPP, used primarily in Europe, Japan, China (however with a different radio interface) and other regions predominated by GSM 2G system infrastructure. The cell phones are typically UMTS and GSM hybrids. Several radio interfaces are offered, sharing the same infrastructure: The original and most widespread radio interface is called W-CDMA. The TD-SCDMA radio interface was commercialized in 2009 and is only offered in China. The latest UMTS release, HSPA+, can provide peak data rates up to 56 Mbit/s in the downlink in theory (28 Mbit/s in existing services) and 22 Mbit/s in the uplink. the CDMA2000 system, first offered in 2002, standardized by 3GPP2, used especially in North America and South Korea, sharing infrastructure with the IS-95 2G standard. The cell phones are typically CDMA2000 and IS-95 hybrids. The latest release EVDO Rev B offers peak rates of 14.7 Mbit/s downstream.



China.9/22/13 3G .76 MBit/s up. however sometimes branded 4G by the service providers. base station sites and frequencies as GPRS. B offers downstream peak rates of 14. India.[4] There are evolutionary standards (EDGE and CDMA) that are backwards-compatible extensions to pre-existing 2G networks as well as revolutionary standards that require all-new network hardware and frequency allocations. and are based on completely different technologies.900 MHz bands. WiMAX is another technology verging on or marketed as 4G. standardized by 3GPP2 (differing from the 3GPP). EDGE is still used extensively due to its ease of upgrade from existing 2G GSM infrastructure and cell-phones. but is a pre-4G or 3. created and revised by the 3GPP. although some GSM sites can be retrofitted to broadcast in the UMTS/W-CDMA format. HSPA is an amalgamation of several upgrades to the original W-CDMA standard and offers speeds of 14. While the GSM EDGE standard ("2. which were included because they fit the IMT-2000 definition. Evolved EDGE. but new base station and cellphone RF circuits.wikipedia. Europe and Africa. utilizing the same switching nodes. E has an increased voice capacity (in excess of three times) compared to Rev. higher data rates and non-backwards compatible transmission technology. HSPA+. The Universal Mobile Telecommunications System. evolving from the original IS-95 CDMA system. EDGE combined with the GPRS 2. ITU approved five radio interfaces for IMT2000 as a part of the ITU-R M.1457 Recommendation. but do not support EDGE. The first release of the 3GPP Long Term Evolution (LTE) standard does not completely fulfill the ITU 4G requirements called IMT-Advanced. just as the original UMTS WCDMA versions. including CDMA2000 1x and CDMA2000 High Rate Packet Data (or EVDO).Wikipedia. a further revision and upgrade of HSPA. It is based on the three times as efficient 8PSK modulation scheme as supplement to the original GMSK modulation scheme. Japan. or IS-2000. HSPA is backwards compatible with and uses the same frequencies as W-CDMA. Southeast Asia. the latest revision. these are typically not branded 3G. is used especially in North America. The family is a full revision from GSM in terms of encoding methods and hardware. the free encyclopedia The above systems and radio interfaces are based on spread spectrum radio transmission technology. MIMO and DC-HSPA can be used without the "+" enhancements of HSPA+ The CDMA2000 system. While DECT cordless phones and Mobile WiMAX standards formally also fulfill the IMT-2000 requirements. W-CDMA is the most common deployment. which consists of standards developed for IMT-2000. today ceased. Each generation is characterized by new frequency bands. EDGE was also a mode in the IS-135 TDMA system. they are not usually considered due to their rarity and unsuitability for usage with mobile phones. using a combination of air interface improvements as well as multi-carrier HSPA and MIMO.org/wiki/3G Overview of 3G/IMT-2000 standards [6] 2/6 . and it is thus a dead end.7 Mbit/s while Rev.9G"). South Korea. in practice EDGE is seldom marketed as a 3G system. First release LTE is not backwards compatible with 3G. but it is difficult to reach much higher peak data rates due to the limited GSM spectral bandwidth of 200 kHz.100 MHz band.[3] CDMA2000 1x Rev.9G technology[citation needed ]. C enhanced existing and new terminal user experience. DECT cordless phones and Mobile WiMAX standards formally also fulfill the IMT-2000 requirements and are approved as 3G standards by ITU. and allows peak data rates in the order of 200 kbit/s.[5] The latter group is the UMTS family. Detailed breakdown of 3G systems The 3G (UMTS and CDMA2000) research and development projects started in 1992.4 Mbit/s down and 5. A few others use the 850. 0 EVDO Rev.5G technology is called EGPRS. Pakistan.9G system. However. as well as the independently developed standards DECT and WiMAX. a revision by the 3GPP organization to the older 2G GSM based transmission methods. WiMAX was added in 2007. Technically though. can provide theoretical peak data rates up to 168 Mbit/s in the downlink and 22 Mbit/s in the uplink. and thus formally fulfills the IMT2000 requirements on 3G systems. Its evolution LTE Advanced is a 4G technology. The cell phones used utilise UMTS in combination with 2G GSM standards and bandwidths. commonly operated on the 2. In 1999. EDGE shows slightly better system spectral efficiency than the original UMTS and CDMA2000 systems. 900 and 1. but is not commercially used. A new generation of cellular standards has appeared approximately every tenth year since 1G systems were introduced in 1981/1982. has peaks of 1 Mbit/s downstream and 400 kbit/s upstream. Overview The following common standards comply with the IMT2000/3G standard: EDGE. but a 2. en.

and the first commercial network (also UMTS based W-CDMA) in Europe was opened for business by Telenor in December 2001 with no commercial handsets and thus no paying customers. Asia. ^ development halted in favour of LTE.[9] The first pre-commercial 3G network was launched by NTT DoCoMo in Japan in 1998. This was a demonstration network for the 2002 IT World Congress. FDMA/TDMA standard for cordless phones OFDMA ^ Can also be used as an upgrade to PDC or D-AMPS.org/wiki/3G 3/6 . the operator then owned by British Telecom. 3. The first commercial 3G network was launched by Hutchison Telecommunications branded as Three or "3" in June 2003. although it was initially somewhat limited in scope. History 3G technology is the result of ground-breaking[citation needed ] research and development work carried out by the International Telecommunication Union (ITU) in the early 1980s.9/22/13 3G .16) TDD LTE CDMA family of revolutionary upgrades to earlier GSM family.100 MHz.[12][13] broader availability of the system was delayed by apparent concerns over its reliability.Net Corporation in February 2002 using UMTS on 2. some others worldwide Europe China Europe. The communication spectrum between 400 MHz to 3 GHz was allocated for 3G. on CDMA2000 1x EV-DO technology. It was first available in May 2001 as a pre-release (test) of W-CDMA technology. US. The first pre-commercial demonstration network in the southern hemisphere was built in Adelaide. Canada worldwide CDMA Multi‑ Carrier CDMA2000 (IMT‑ MC) CDMA Direct Spread (IMT‑ DS) CDMA TDD (IMT‑ TC) FDMA/TDMA (IMT‑ FT) IP‑ OFDMA 1.[16] en.[11] The first commercial launch of 3G was also by NTT DoCoMo in Japan on 1 October 2001. W-CDMA[nb 4] UMTS[nb 3] TD‑CDMA[nb 5] HSPA TD‑SCDMA[nb 6] DECT none WiMAX (IEEE 802.75G") and UMTS ("3G") functionality.[14] The first European pre-commercial network was an UMTS network on the Isle of Man by Manx Telecom. 5. but this network provider later shut down operations. most GSM/UMTS phones report EDGE ("2. ^ also known as UTRA-FDD. The technical specifications were made available to the public under the name IMT-2000.wikipedia. evolutionary except upgrade to Japan and [nb 1] South GSM/GPRS Korea evolutionary upgrade to cdmaOne (IS95) Americas. having completed its upgrade of the 3G network to HSUPA. The second 3G network operator in the USA was Verizon Wireless in July 2002 also on CDMA2000 1x EV-DO.84 Mcps high chip rate (HCR) ^ also known as UTRA-TDD 1.[15] AT&T Mobility is also a true 3G UMTS network. [7] ^ also known as FOMA. 3G specifications and standards were developed in fifteen years. W-CDMA is sometimes used as a synonym for UMTS. ignoring the other air interface options. Both the government and communication companies approved the 3G standard. The first network to go commercially live was by SK Telecom in South Korea on the CDMA-based 1xEV-DO technology in January 2002. 6. 4.Wikipedia. [8] ^ also known as UTRA-TDD 3. short-range.[10] branded as FOMA. By May 2002 the second South Korean 3G network was by KT on EV-DO and thus the South Koreans were the first to see competition among 3G operators.[8] UMTS is the common name for a standard that encompasses multiple air interfaces. the free encyclopedia ITU IMT-2000 compliant standards Overview of 3G/IMT-2000 standards [6] bandwidth pre-4G common name(s) duplex of data upgrade EDGE Evolution likely discontinued FDD EV-DO UMB[nb 2] channel description historical areas TDMA Single ‑ Carrier EDGE (UWC-136) (IMT‑ SC) TDMA worldwide.28 Mcps low chip rate (LCR) While EDGE fulfills the 3G specifications. The first commercial United States 3G network was by Monet Mobile Networks. 2. South Australia by m.

Austria.com the USA has 321m mobile subscriptions.7% of the 3 billion mobile phone subscriptions worldwide. leading to widespread demand for mobile internet connectivity. Mitsubishi. NTT DoCoMo. (See Telecoms crash.com/mobile-marketing-tools/latest-mobile-stats/a) Adoption See also: 3G adoption 3G was relatively slow to be adopted globally. some patents essential to 3G might have not been declared by their patent holders.) The license fees in some European countries were particularly high. Ericsson.[4] (http://mobithinking.[18][19] Twelve companies accounted in 2004 for 90% of the patents (Qualcomm. and USB Modems connecting to 3G networks are becoming increasingly common. Europe. An especially notable development during this time is the smartphone (for example. the 200 millionth 3G subscriber had been connected. including 256m that are 3g-or-4g.[17] In Europe the leading country for 3G penetration is Italy with a third of its subscribers migrated to 3G.org/wiki/3G 4/6 . the iPhone. Due to these issues and difficulties with deployment. In Japan.although according[2] (http://mobithinking. but smart phone ownership was lower at about 17%. 3G penetration was similar at about 81%. according[3] (http://mobithinking. Philips. 934m out of 1600m total. Siemens.max bitrate 72% of the 200kbps which defines 3G -. which was 15. Roll-out of 3G networks was delayed in some countries by the enormous costs of additional spectrum licensing fees. the existing 3G Patent Platform Partnership pool has little impact on FRAND protection. This is only 6. Note however that there is a distinction between a phone with mobile-broadband connectivity and a smart phone with a large display and so on -.8% of all subscribers worldwide.[20][21] Features Data rates en. as of 2012q4 there were 2096m active mobile-broadband subscribers worldwide out of a total of 6835m subscribers -. according to the Global Mobile Suppliers Association (GSA). the free encyclopedia Emtel Launched the first 3G network in Africa. Nokia.com/mobile-marketing-tools/latest-mobile-stats/a#subscribers). InterDigital. According to ITU estimates[1] (http://mobithinking. 190 3G networks were operating in 40 countries and 154 HSDPA networks were operating in 71 countries. Canada and the USA. telecommunication companies use W-CDMA technology with the support of around 100 terminal designs to operate 3G mobile networks.this is just over 30%. and the Android family). In December 2007.000 patents declared essential (FRAND) related to the 483 technical specifications which form the 3GPP and 3GPP2 standards.Wikipedia. In Asia. Even then. Hitachi. In some instances. and initial excitement over 3G's potential.wikipedia. Fujitsu. About half the mobilebroadband subscriptions are for subscribers in developed nations. 3G networks do not use the same radio frequencies as 2G so mobile operators must build entirely new networks and license entirely new frequencies. The 3G standard is perhaps well known because of a massive expansion of the mobile communications market post-2G and advances of the consumer mophone. Patents It has been estimated that there are almost 8.com/blog/100-million-club) to the ITU and informatandm.com/mobilemarketing-tools/latest-mobile-stats/a#phone-shipments) to ComScore just a year earlier in 2011q4 only about 42% of people surveyed in the USA reported they owned a smart phone. well over 50%. By June 2007. because it excludes the four largest patents owners for 3G. Motorola. especially for UMTS.9/22/13 3G . Market penetration. (When counting CDMA2000 1x RTT customers -. It is believed that Nortel and Lucent have undisclosed patents essential to these standards. combining the abilities of a PDA with a mobile phone. bolstered by government auctions of a limited number of licenses and sealed bid auctions.[19] Furthermore. many carriers were not able to or delayed acquisition of these updated capabilities.) In the countries where 3G was launched first – Japan and South Korea – 3G penetration is over 70%. and Matsushita). Other delays were due to the expenses of upgrading transmission hardware. Australia and Singapore at the 20% migration level.the total size of the nearly-3G subscriber base was 475 million as of June 2007. Other leading countries for 3G use include UK. which is both 80% of the subscriber base and 80% of the USA population. whose deployment required the replacement of most broadcast towers. especially so to achieve high data transmission rates. 3G has also introduced the term "mobile broadband" because its speed and capability make it a viable alternative for internet browsing.

Sweden and Oslo. although this is not strictly a 3G property. Compare with 3. page 136.archive.ITU" (http://www. While stating in commentary that "it is expected that IMT-2000 will provide higher transmission rates: a minimum data rate of 2 Mbit/s for stationary or walking users. end-to-end security is offered when application frameworks such as IMS are accessed. a number of serious weaknesses in the KASUMI cipher have been identified. nor what modes of the interfaces qualify as 3G. and 384 kbit/s in a moving vehicle. Archived from the en. the free encyclopedia ITU has not provided a clear[citation needed ] definition of the data rate users can expect from 3G equipment or providers. nor required average rates. "3G Wireless Networks". Applications of 3G The bandwidth and location information available to 3G devices gives rise to applications not previously available to mobile phone users. whereas Qualcomm has halted development of UMB in favour of the LTE family.int/newsroom/press_releases/2007/30. 3. these standards are classified as 3.[23] In addition to the 3G network infrastructure security. "IMT-2000 Project .itu.pdf). Thus users sold 3G service may not be able to point to a standard and say that the rates it specifies are not being met.9G or Pre-4G. However."[24] With the launch of their LTE network. See also Mobile radio telephone (also known as "0G") 1G 2G 4G 5G References 1.itu. Retrieved 8 April 2013. 3G networks use the KASUMI block cipher instead of the older A5/1 stream cipher. These specifications already display features characteristic for IMT-Advanced (4G). press release.[7] On 14 December 2009. "CDG Market Trends and Facts" (http://www. 2. Daniel Collins. Security See also: Mobile_security#Attacks_based_on_the_GSM_networks 3G networks offer greater security than their 2G predecessors. Some of the applications are: Mobile TV Video on demand Video Conferencing Telemedicine Location-based services Global Positioning System (GPS) Evolution Both 3GPP and 3GPP2 are working on extensions to 3G standard that are based on an all-IP network infrastructure and using advanced wireless technologies such as MIMO.org/wiki/3G 5/6 . falling short of the bandwidth requirements for 4G (which is 1 Gbit/s for stationary and 100 Mbit/s for mobile operation). Norway.ppt). the user can be sure the network is the intended one and not an impersonator. 4.9/22/13 3G . the successor of 3G. "ITU Radiocommunication Assembly approves new developments for its 3G standards" (http://web. Retrieved 13 September 2011. ^ ITU. ^ ITU (4 July 2002).html).int/osg/imt-project/docs/What_is_IMT2000. ^ CDG.org/resources/files/fact_sheets/CDG_MarketTrendsFacts_English.5G and 4G.cdg. By allowing the UE (User Equipment) to authenticate the network it is attaching to.Wikipedia. 2000. initially they are offering pre-4G (or beyond 3G) services in Stockholm. 3GPP plans to meet the 4G goals with LTE Advanced. so various data rates are sold as '3G' in the market. However.org/web/20090519050045/http://www.wikipedia. ^ Clint Smith. Telia Sonera announced in an official press release that "We are very proud to be the first operator in the world to offer our customers 4G services."[22] the ITU does not actually clearly specify minimum required rates.

com/techbiz/media/news/2001/04/43253).pdf).html). ^ "World's first 3G launch on 1 October severely restricted (hktdc.org/web/20090612113242/http://www.18-1-2006-PDF-E.11 pool by ViaLicensing. "What really is a Third Generation (3G)(3G) Mobile Technology" (http://www. a non-profit organization.html). en. 6.archive.eetimes.itu.int/dms_pub/itu-d/opb/stg/D-STG-SG02.org/w/index.pdf).com.vzw.org/web/20090519050045/http://www.umtsworld. 9. 7.int/osg/spu/imt-2000/technology. "Even so. IEEE Wireless com.rhul.hutchison. 9 November 1999. ^ "Security for the Third Generation (3G) Mobile System" (http://www.com.eu/enterprise/policies/europeanstandards/files/standards_policy/ipr-workshop/ipr_study_final_report_en. 15. " ^ "Cellular Standards for the Third Generation" (http://web. Hutchison Telecommunications (Australia) Limited. Archived from the original (http://www. 18. Retrieved 30 October 2012. 11. "3G CELLULAR STANDARDS AND PATENTS" (http://nds3.18-1-2006-PDF-E. " ^ "Possible 'showstoppers' shadow 3G patent pool" (http://www.com/News-and-Archive/Press-releases/2009/TeliaSonera-first-in-the-world-with4G-services/). ^ "Study on the Interplay between Standards and Intellectual Property Rights (IPRs)" (http://ec.pdf) from the original on 12 June 2009.org/web/20080524050117/http://www. "Guidelines on the smooth transition of existing mobile networks to IMT-2000 for developing countries (GST). additional terms may apply.isrc. ^ a b David J. but deactivated its membership last September. (http://web. Archived from the original (http://www. Preceded by 2nd Generation (2G) Mobile Telephony Generations Succeeded by 4th Generation (4G) Retrieved from "http://en. 24.blogspot. 10.html).com.uk/analysis/3G/3G.archive.co.itu.com/pr/1999/001070.pdf). 12. Network Systems & Security Technologies. FOMA. 1 December 2005. 13 November 2008 ^ a b 3GPP notes that “there currently existed many different names for the same system (e.com/umts/history.pdf) (PDF). Archived (http://web. Retrieved 2010-09-06. 22. Goodman (13 June 2005). Retrieved 1 June 2009. Qualcomm (San Diego) is still a wild card in the patent-pooling effort. decisions and actions from 3GPP Organizational Partners Meeting#6. W-CDMA.com/NOKIA_COM_1/Press/sidebars_new_concept/Other_materials/wirelesscom2005. ITU. 9 October 2001" (http://www.co. Retrieved 1 June 2009.html#Cellular%20Standards%20for%20the%20Third%20Generation). ^ "broadbandmag. Reuters.Wikipedia. Plus8star. ^ a b Qualcomm halts UMB project (http://www. ^ ITU-D Study Group 2. Retrieved 2012-04-07.itu. TeliaSonera.com/electronics-news/4037906/Possible-showstoppers-shadow-3Gpatent-pool). ^ "3G CELLULAR STANDARDS AND PATENTS" (http://www.plus8star. ^ ITU.wikipedia. press release.int/newsroom/press_releases/2007/30. 11 June 2008.int/osg/spu/imt2000/technology. Nttdocomo. Archived (http://web.itu. Examples of pools that have little impact are the 3G Licensing pool (which excludes the four largest IPR owners for 3G) and the 802.com/imn/01100401/info14.int/newsroom/press_releases/2007/30. 13 June 2005. Retrieved 2010-09-06.pdf) from the original on 12 June 2009.in/2012/07/3g-cellular-standards-and. Qualcomm was a member of the UMTS group when it was formed in February 1998.int/dms_pub/itu-d/opb/stg/D-STG-SG02.archive.ac. "Draft summary minutes. Text is available under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License.pdf) (PDF). 7.org/wiki/3G 6/6 . you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. Wikipedia® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation. 21. "Is 3G a Dog or a Demon – Hints from 7 years of 3G Hype in Asia"" (http://www.org/web/20090612050908/http://www. etc)”.html#Cellular%20Standards%20for%20the%20Third%20Generation) on 24 May 2008.itu. Retrieved 2012-06-24. 21 May 1999. ^ "The history of UMTS and 3G development" (http://www. Report on Question 18/2" (http://www. Wired.9/22/13 3G . the free encyclopedia 5. It is essential that the large licensees sign up.com/3g-cellular-standards-and-patents.int/ITU-D/imt2000/DocumentsIMT2000/What_really_3G.itu.html). 16.europa. Retrieved 2012-06-24. 18 July 2009.int/ITU-D/imt2000/DocumentsIMT2000/What_really_3G. UMTS.org/ftp/op/OP_07/DOCS/pdf/OP6_13r1. ^ "Verizon Wireless Launching New High-Speed 3G Wireless Network" (http://news..g. Tokyo. 14 December 2009.com/article/marketsNews/idUSN1335969420081113?rpc=401&).html). 11 June 2008. ^ "About Hutchison" (http://www.3gpp.nokia. Inc. 19. 20.php?title=3G&oldid=573987622" Categories: Software-defined radio Mobile telecommunications Videotelephony This page was last modified on 22 September 2013 at 01:36.uk/3G grinds to a start" (http://www.itu.au/About/AboutHutchison. eetimes.pdf).wired. Retrieved 1 June 2009. ^ "A Brand New Mobile Millennium Ericsson/CATT/DoCoMo jointly demonstrate pioneering W-CDMA technology at PT/Wireless | Press Center | NTT DOCOMO Global" (http://www. ^ "DoCoMo Delays 3G Launch" (http://www.uk/useca/OtherPublications/3G_UMTS%20Security. ^ "first in the world with 4G services" (http://www.com/?p=123). "Pools that cover only a fraction of the actual IPR for a standard are not very useful. Retrieved 2012-06-24. Retrieved 2012-06-24.broadbandmag.nttdocomo. By using this site. p. ^ "3G cellular standards and characteristics" (http://tikonaplans.engpaper.aspx).htm). 23. 13.com. 17.com. 24 April 2001.hktdc. Polytechnic Institute of New York University. ^ "Plus 8 Star presentation.wikipedia. 8. European Commission.com)" (http://info.archive.itu.htm).reuters.com/news/2002/06/pr2002-06-28.html) on 19 May 2009.html). 14.teliasonera. engpaper.

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