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[Text version of database, created 14/10/2011]. Annotated Swadesh wordlists for the Hittite (Old Hittite) language (Anatolian group, Indo-European family). Languages included: Hittite (Old) [ana-oht]. Data sources. General: CHD = The Hittite Dictionary of the Oriental Institute of the University of Chicago. Chicago, 1980-. // Extensive synchronic dictionary of the Hittite language. Ongoing edition. HED = J. Puhvel. Hittite Etymological Dictionary. Vol. 1-. Berlin - NY - Amsterdam, 1984-. // Etymological dictionary of the Hittite language with extensive treatment of synchronic textual data. Ongoing edition. HEG = J. Tischler. Hethitisches etymologisches Glossar. Innsbruck, 1977-. // Etymological dictionary of the Hittite language with analysis of synchronic textual data. Ongoing edition. Hoffner & Melchert 2008 = H. A. Hoffner, Jr., H. C. Melchert. A grammar of the Hittite language. Part 1: Reference grammar. Eisenbrauns, 2008. // Up-to-date descriptive grammar of the Hittite language. HW2 = J. Friedrich & A. Kammenhuber. Hethitisches Wörterbuch. 2nd ed. Heidelberg, 1975-. // Extensive synchronic dictionary of the Hittite language. Ongoing edition. Kloekhorst 2008 = A. Kloekhorst. Etymological Dictionary of the Hittite Inherited Lexicon. Brill, 2008. // Etymological dictionary of the Hittite inherited vocabulary with analysis of synchronic textological data. Melchert 1993 = H. C. Melchert. Cuneiform Luvian lexicon. Chapel Hill, N.C., 1993. // Dictionary of the Cuneiform Luwian corpus. Weeks 1985 = D. M. Weeks. Hittite Vocabulary: An Anatolian Appendix to Buck's Dictionary of Selected Synonyms in the Principal Indo-European Languages. PhD dissertation, University of California, 1985. // A thematic glossary of the basic terms of the Hittite language. Additional:

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Catsanicos 1996 = Catsanicos, J., 1996: L'apport de la bilingue de Hattusa à la lexicologie hourrite. In: Amurru 1: Mari, Ébla et les hourrites. Paris. P. 197-296. // Lexicographic treatment of the data from the Hurrian-Hittite bilingua. Cohen 2010 = Cohen, Y. Rara avis: A study of the HU section of the Sa vocabulary. In: H. D. Baker et al. (eds). Your praise is sweet. A memorial volume for Jeremy Black from students, colleagues and friends. London, 2010. P. 29-40. Eichner 2010 = H. Eichner. Laudatio hostiae und laudatio victimae im Palaischen. In: Hethitica 16. Peeters, 2010. P. 39-58. Melchert 2009 = H. C. Melchert. Deictic pronouns in Anatolian. In: K. Yoshida & B. Vine (ed.). East and West. Papers in Indo-European Studies. Bremen, 2009. P. 151-161. Pecchioli Daddi 2010 = F. Pecchioli Daddi. The Hittite word talla-. In: J. Klinger et al. (eds). Investigationes Anatolicae. Gedenkschrift für Erich Neu (StBoT 52). Wiesbaden, 2010. Ünal, A. Zum Status der "Augures" bei den Hethitern. In: Revue hittite et asiatique, tome 31, 1973. P. 27-56. Van den Hout 2010 = Th. van den Hout. The Hieroglyphic Luwian signs L. 255 and 256 and once again Karatepe XI. In: I. Singer (ed.). Luwian and Hittite Studies Presented to J. David Hawkins on the Occasion of his 70th Birthday. Tel Aviv, 2010. P. 234-243. Николаев 1985 = С. Л. Николаев. Северокавказские заимствования в хеттском и древнегреческом [North Caucasian loanwords in Hittite and Ancient Greek]. In: Древняя Анатолия. Москва, 1985. С. 60-73. Notes. The present 110-item wordlist is generally based on Old Hittite data, although it also includes a very small number of terms that are exclusively attested in Middle or New Hittite sources. The list is provisionally dated to 1500 BC. It does not seem reasonable to attempt to convert traditional cuneiform transliteration into IPA notation. In the present work we transliterate the standard Hittitological alphabet as follows: Non-intervocalic stops are given as p, t, k In the intervocalic position two series are opposed: geminated and non-geminated, which we transliterate as follows:

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pp, bb p, b tt, dd t, d kk, gg k, g

pp b tt d kk g

Fricatives and sonorants in the intervocalic position are opposed in a similar way: mm m nn n ll l rr r šš š zz z ḫḫ ḫ mm m nn n ll l rr r ss s zz [note that Hitt. transliterational z and zz are dorsal affricates] z hh [note that Hitt. transliterational h and hh are velar fricatives] h w y We proceed from the four vowel system: a e i a e i

u, ú u

May 2011 (with the participation of I. Yakubovich. ALL Hittite (Old) xumant.New Hittite.is apparently more archaic. BARK References and notes: Hittite (Old): Unattested.~ xassa. 1.is also possible.{humant-} (1).{sarhuwant-} (1). The most probable morphological analysis is hum-ant-.with the adjectival suffix -want-/-mant. 2.~ hassa-} (1).{hass. The plus sign "+" means that the form is attested from the mentioned period and onwards. References and notes: Hittite (Old): HED H: 373. BELLY Hittite (Old) sarxuwant. Database compiled and annotated by: A. NH . Kloekhorst 2008: 318. but hu-mant. Note on datings: OH means Old Hittite sources. ASHES Hittite (Old) xass. every' (C&H) [Melchert 1993: 205]. Polysemy: 'omnis / totus'. HED H: 210.Middle Hittite. OH+. Weeks 1985: 169-170. 4.or hum-) seems isolated within Anatolian and IE. The consonantal stem hass. Common gender. 3. A second Luwian candidate is an etymologically unclear tanim(m)a/i. Represents the basic Indo-Hittite term for 'ashes'. Polysemy: 'ashes / dust / soda ash / soap'. Kloekhorst 2008: 361. . References and notes: Hittite (Old): HW2 H: 388. OH+.4 Vowel length (plene writing) is not generally noted. The root (hu.'all. MH . No cognates within Anatolian. Kassian.(C) [Melchert 1993: 178] (polysemy: 'omnis / totus'). who has contributed a number of valuable remarks on Luwian data). The Luwian term for 'all' is an etymologically unclear punada/i.

7. A hi-conjugation verb. although in [Cohen 2010] it is demonstrated that the translation 'rejection (vel sim. The second possible candidate is Hitt. see [CHD P: 312] and cf.[Melchert 1993: 243]. Kloekhorst 2008: 939. The Hittite word pantuha. but with some weak IE comparanda (Lat. Kloekhorst 2008: 709. see [Kloekhorst 2008: 987] for detail. HEG S: 893.) is not entirely clear. intact'. suwai. Kloekhorst 2008: 733. but hardly *lH. The traditional Hittite reading of MUŠEN is a hapax: suwai-. BITE Hittite (Old) wag. split'. salvus 'complete. Weeks 1985: 164.seems to lack any etymological cognates.) ~ kk (pl.'to bite (?)'. but secure correspondence Hitt..~ wakk. peri-. The root sarh(u) seems isolated within Anatolian and IE (connection with Armenian argand 'womb' is phonetically problematic. The most probable morphological analysis is sarhu-ant-. 6.is also possible. according to Martirosyan. . lit. The Luwian (C&H) term for 'big' could be an etymologically unclear word ura/i.~ IE 0-).(NH) probably does not mean 'belly'. References and notes: Hittite (Old): CHD S: 92. References and notes: Hittite (Old): Weeks 1985: 61.~ Luw. is less probable. A possible Anatolian cognate is Palaic wakk. OH+. [HEG P: 575]. HEG S: 767. BIRD References and notes: Hittite (Old): The exact Hittite reading of the well-attested ideogram MUŠEN 'bird' is still unclear. whereas Ancient Greek ὀρύα [name of a play of Epicharmus].(1). wattai. The third candidate for 'bird (in general)'. Without Anatolian cognates.is a very nice match for the basic IE term for 'bird' (with the rare. although discussion of speculative laryngealistic theories is irrelevant in this context).). but theoretically sarh-want. Double ll points to an old cluster (*ln vel sim. wattai-./ -mant. the translation 'bladder (?)' in [CHD P: 95] with discussion ('belly (?)' or 'bladder (?)' in [HEG P: 418]).5 References and notes: Hittite (Old): CHD S: 253.(1).). Ancient Greek ὅλος 'whole. OH+. complete'. Widely applicable. etc. which is also a hapax.denotes the generic term 'big' or only a more specific 'great'. Hitt.)' for suwais fits the known context equally well (cf. t. The nature of the consonantal alternation g (sg. cf. ὀρoύα [Hsch. s. Further to Tocharian and Ancient Greek roots meaning 'to break. common gender (see [HEG S: 1215] w. Polysemy: 'belly / innards / foetus' (both of humans and animals).with the adjectival suffix -want. but it is not certain whether ura/i. BIG Hittite (Old) salli. 5. OH+. Common gender. Hitt.] 'sausage' could hardly be inherited). It should be noted that phonetically Hitt. more categorically in [Kloekhorst 2008: 795]).

11. as it is standardly glossed. OH+. BURN TR.'breast' is contained in Hitt. dark(?)'. paradigm: hastai / hasti-. BREAST Hittite (Old) takkani. 10. Neutral gender. which can be a nursery word or a reduplicated formation from the IE root 'to suck'. Cognate with Luwian (C) has 'bone' (although st > s is unclear) and the basic IE term for 'bone'.'black(?). Except for the thematic vowel. Cf. The same root *takk. regularly corresponds to Germanic *dankwa-z ~ *denkwa-z 'dark'.6 8. Weeks 1985: 188. BLACK Hittite (Old) tankui. HED H: 233. There is.HEG T: 107. but it seems that all of them belong to the cultural vocabulary. References and notes: Hittite (Old): HEG T: 34. a small number of Proto-Nakh loans in the Hittite lexicon. References and notes: Hittite (Old): tankui. References and notes: Hittite (Old): HED E-I: 305.'breast' is treated as a North Caucasian loan: Proto-Nakh *dokʼ 'heart' (< Proto-North Caucasian *yĕrkʼwĭ 'heart'). OH+. Kloekhorst 2008: 256. heteroclitic paradigm: esh-ar / ish-an-.'to embrace' (OH+) with a different suffix. We are not aware of any Hittite-Nakh contacts that would be intense enough to cause borrowing of items on the Swadesh wordlist. 9. Weeks 1985: 49. takkaliya. 12. OH+. In [Николаев 1985: 64] Hitt. Weeks 1985: 48. [Kloekhorst 2008: 875]. indeed. Kloekhorst 2008: 829. Cf.(1). References and notes: Hittite (Old): HW2 H: 425. but not very probable for general reasons. This solution is phonetically attractive. also an expression for 'female breast': teda-n [HEG T: 343]. Neutral gender. Kloekhorst 2008: 325. BONE Hittite (Old) xastai {hastai} (1). takkani. BLOOD Hittite (Old) esx-ar {esh-ar} (1). Hittite (Old) war-nu.(1).(1). Cognate with Luwian (C) ashar 'blood' and the basic IE term for 'blood'. Polysemy: 'black / dark'. OH+. Luwian (C) takkui. .

Common gender. Incorrectly glossed by Kloekhorst as 'to kindle. s. [HED A: 108]. A mi-conjugation verb. but these verbs have a technical ritual meaning: 'to burn smth. Common gender. OH+.'to burn (intr.~ IE 0-. References and notes: Hittite (Old): HW2 A: 60. HEG S: 837. COLD Hittite (Old) eg-u-na. CLOUD Hittite (Old) alpa.'nail (refers both to fingernails and toenails)' [Melchert 1993: 204] and the basic IE term for 'nail' with the rare. OH+. t. HED A: 37. probably a cognate of Ancient Greek καίω 'to burn (tr. Apparently the Luwian term for 'to burn (tr. to set fire to'.'to go' (cf. References and notes: Hittite (Old): CHD S: 180. etc. Kloekhorst 2008: 723. Corresponds to Luwian (C) tammuga. 15. OH+. where nail clippings are mentioned. Apparently consists of the preverb *aw. although possible.(used with the fire-like logogram FLAMMAE(?)).)'. Kloekhorst 2008: 169.'to come'. frost. Celtic and Baltic words for 'icicle' and 'ice'. the similar structure of the verb 'to go' q. samesiya-.)' is the causative stem ki-nu. ice'.'something white' seems semantically dubious. The Luw. Kloekhorst 2008: 234. 13.and the common IE root *ey. Another candidate is the frequent Hitt. COME Hittite (Old) uw=a.'heat'. not the more specific 'to come'. but its basic meaning is rather 'to arrive (at)'.'. samenu-. Slav. 16. see [CHD S: 122 ff. Germanic *alb. hi-conjugation verb ar. OH+. but secure correspondence Hitt. for fumigation. References and notes: Hittite (Old): HED E-I: 258. [Kloekhorst 2008: 196].].'to boil. NAIL (CLAW) Hittite (Old) sankuwai. cook'.(1). paradigm: uw=a.)'. word is indeed known from the ritual context.(1). The connection to Latin albus 'white'. 14. Isolated within Anatolian and probably IE as well. Probably cognate with Balto-Slav.(1). A cognate of Germanic.v. . *wĭr. but Melchert’s supposition that Luwian possessed two separate terms for 'nail' and 'nail clippings' looks typologically odd. Derived from the noun ega. Kloekhorst 2008: 992. *war.). Corresponds to Luwian (C&H) awi.'cold.7 References and notes: Hittite (Old): Kloekhorst 2008: 924.~ Luw. A causative formation from ur-/war. OH+. A second candidate is Hitt. References and notes: Hittite (Old): HEG U: 156./ u=e-.[HW2 A: 208].(1).

GI7. An IE cognate is Tocharian A & B yok.) ~ kk (pl.was the basic Indo-Hittite root for 'to die'. Kloekhorst 2008: 167. tars-ant.~ akk. 21.'to die' [Melchert 1993: 250].~ akk. LÚkuwan- ~ kun- 19.) is not entirely clear. [Kloekhorst 2008: 306] can also be used in the meaning 'to die'. ēb-rius 'drunk')./ mar. paradigm: egu. The nature of the consonant alternation g (sg.~ wara/i. DIE Hittite (Old) ag. OH+.'to disappear. The same concerns the verb mer. Figuratively the verb hark. to vanish' [HED M: 148]. References and notes: Hittite (Old): HW2 A: 51.'to get lost. perish' [HED H: 157].'to drink'. References and notes: Hittite (Old): HED E-I: 261. superseded by *mer. UR. DRINK Hittite (Old) egu.{had-ant-} (1). [Kloekhorst 2008: 848].'to dry'.is apparently applicable exclusively to food stuff. make dry') [HEG T: 219].'to drink' and maybe Luwian (C) u. [Kloekhorst 2008: 577]. Anatolian cognates are Palaic ahu. After the split of Tocharian the root was lost (a possible retention may be seen in Lat. EAR . Kloekhorst 2008: 328.after the split of Tocharian. DRY Hittite (Old) xad-ant. OH+. HED H: 247. It is therefore probable that *wel. An IE cognate is Ancient Greek ἄζω 'to dry up'. The common IE root is known from Hitt.8 17. but it is not the default word for this meaning. disappear./ agu-. ag. A hi-conjugation verb. HED A: 17. References and notes: Hittite (Old): HW2 H: 478. but tars-ant. OH+. Hitt.(a participle from the rare verb tars. lose oneself.'dog'. DOG References and notes: Hittite (Old): Unknown. normally written by the ideograms UR.'to become dry. 'hound-man' and Luwian (H) zwani. 18. In the other Anatolian branch 'to die' is expressed by the root *wal-: Luwian (H) wala/i. Seems isolated within Anatolian and IE. Kloekhorst 2008: 236. A mi-conjugation verb.is an unclear innovation in this case.'to drink(?)'.(1). A regular participial formation from the verb had. 20. Another candidate is Hitt.(1).

however. devour’ [HED K: 72]. EARTH Hittite (Old) tegan (1). verb karap.~ IE 0. Cf.. 23..'to hear. the Hitt.'to eat'. Luwian (C&H) ad. References and notes: Hittite (Old): HED E-I: 315./ ad-. EAT Hittite (Old) ed.(although the Anatolian so-called "lenition" /gʷ/ for *kʷ requires additional investigation). paradigm: tegan / takn-. The Hitt.‘to eat (of animals). [Kloekhorst 2008: 442]. is derived from the same root. it . t. EYE Hittite (Old) saguwa. The Hitt.~ istam-in. 25. Corresponds to Luwian (C) tiyamm(i).v./ with a graphical epenthesis.9 Hittite (Old) istam-an. References and notes: Hittite (Old): HEG T: 292. References and notes: Hittite (Old): CHD S: 65. Kloekhorst 2008: 261. Kloekhorst 2008: 704. An Anatolian cognate is Luwian (C) tumm-ant. verb istamass.'eye' and the basic IE term for 'eye' with the rare. OH+. Neutral gender.(1).~ Luw.'to eat'.(1). to listen to' q. A mi-conjugation verb. (H) takam.'earth'. paradigm: ed. Apparently the onset is phonetically /st. look' is derived from this term. HEG S: 731. The root was lost in IE (connections with Ancient Greek and Avestan forms with the invariant meaning 'an organ of perception' or 'a hole in the head' are semantically unsatisfactory).'ear' [Melchert 1993: 232] (with the frequent Luwian simplification of the initial cluster st-). verb saguwa-ye. s. References and notes: Hittite (Old): HED E-I: 458. OH+. 22. 24. Common gender. Corresponds to Luwian (C&H) tawa/i. EGG References and notes: Hittite (Old): Apparently unattested. Kloekhorst 2008: 858. OH+.'earth'. Cognate with Palaic ad. Neutral gender.'to see. A Common IE term.(1). but secure correspondence Hitt. OH+. Kloekhorst 2008: 411. A Common IE term.

[CHD P: 198]. [Kloekhorst 2008: 635]. The meaning 'feather' is scantily attested. but may correspond to the main IE term for 'feather'. candidate (although in [HEG P: 538] it is not glossed as 'feather' at all). Corresponds to Luwian (C) tain 'oil'. HEG S: 717. Neutral gender.'fat (adj. MH.10 is not the main Hitt. causative wark-nu. heteroclitic paradigm: pVttar / pVttan-.~ mashuwaya. Hittite (Old) sagan (1) / app-ucci {app-uzzi} (2). FIRE Hittite (Old) paxxur {pahhur} (1). FEATHER Hittite (Old) patt-ar ~ pitt-ar (1). Kloekhorst 2008: 698.'fat (adj. word for 'to see' q. May be cognate with Luwian (C) pahur 'fire(?)'. however. References and notes: Hittite (Old): CHD P: 240.v. Polysemy: 'oil / fat'. OH+. Neutral gender. FISH References and notes: Hittite (Old): Unknown. whose primary meaning is 'wing'. OH+. [Kloekhorst 2008: 646]. Neutral gender. heteroclitic paradigm: pahhur / pahhuen-. Isolated within Anatolian and IE. 2) app-uzzi (see below). The second candidate is part-awar ~ part-aun. Kloekhorst 2008: 658. Corresponds to the main IE term for 'fire'. Two Hitt. 28. but it is the best Hitt. tallow'. [HEG P: 508]. so we treat both words as synonyms.)'. root * wark-. Glossed as 'animal fat. References and notes: Hittite (Old): CHD S: 35. paradigm: sagan / sakn-. .see [CHD P: 148]. wark-ess. also the Hitt. but for one MH ritual context the semantics 'feather' is sometimes suspected. Polysemy: 'fire / campfire / embers / fever'.'to get fat'. but lacks reliable IE cognates. 26.HW2 A: 193. FAT N. Cf. [HEG P: 458]. words for 'fat' compete with each other: 1) sagan. Kloekhorst 2008: 613. normally written with the ideogram KU6. OH+. It seems impossible to make the choice proceeding from known contexts (note that normally 'fat' is denoted by the ideogram Ì). in fact. Kloekhorst 2008: 195. Neutral gender. Concerning a sometimes proposed equation between KU6 and the hapax parhuwaya. HEG P: 366. 29. 27. retained in wark-ant.)'). References and notes: Hittite (Old): CHD P: 12. the normal translation 'wing' also fits the discussed hišuwa-passage. The reading of the first vowel is unclear: a or i.'to make fat' [Kloekhorst 2008: 963] (corresponds to Palaic graphical waqqak-ant. HED A: 103. The word pattar ~ pittar is isolated within Anatolian. Polysemy: 'wing / feather'.

word is concealed under the ideogram GÌR.'to run. . No reliable IE etymology. 31. [CHD P: 234] suspects that pada. Luwian (H) suw-a. Hitt. Common gender.v. Lycian pede/i. 32.(1).'to arrive'. but in known contexts this term is exclusively applied to animals. Cf. Kloekhorst 2008: 614. GOOD Hittite (Old) assu. The same root is contained in Hitt. References and notes: Hittite (Old): CHD P: 40. FLY V. A hi-conjugation verb.'foot'. both of which contain the IE root *ey.'to give'. Kloekhorst 2008: 794. 33.'to fill' and Palaic suw-a-ru. FOOT Hittite (Old) pada. also the verb pittai.(1).'to come' q. 35. Corresponds to Luwian (C&H) pada/i. for which see [Pecchioli Daddi 2010]. FULL Hittite (Old) suwu.'to go' with different prefixes. The IE etymology is unclear. Kloekhorst 2008: 653. ektu 'leg' [HED E-I: 260]. which is once attested in the meaning 'to fly' (said of the goddess Ištar) [CHD P: 354]. References and notes: Hittite (Old): HEG S: 1125. 34. ar.is cognate with the main IE candidate for 'to fly'. (H) pia. We fill the slot with pa=iand uw=a-. but note that in all cited examples the Hitt. Palaic iterative pi-sa'to give'. 35. OH+. [CHD P: 19.'to go.11 30. References and notes: Hittite (Old): Ünal 1973: 34.. the discussion in [Kloekhorst 2008: 615]. Lycian piye.'to give'. etc.'foot' and to the basic IE term for 'foot'. HEG P: 376. see [Ünal 1973: 34]. GIVE Hittite (Old) pai. Hittite (Old) pa=i.'to give'. OH+. CHD P: 19. 355]. pittai.~ pattai..(1). Cf. HEG P: 531.can also denote 'leg'. [Kloekhorst 2008: 655]. cf.v.(1). In Hittite the idea of flying is normally expressed with various verbs of movement: pai.'to fill'. suw-a. References and notes: Hittite (Old): CHD P: 231.~ uw=a. 355.'full' [Kloekhorst 2008: 796]./ pi-. Another candidate for 'human leg' can be the Hittite (and apparently Luwian) word talla-. paradigm: pai. Polysemy: 'to give / to pay / to grant / to hand over'. OH+.(1).~ pattai. go away' q. uwa. to flee'. Corresponds to Luwian (C) pai..

Kloekhorst 2008: 471. which also lacks IE cognates. A difficult case. GREEN Hittite (Old) xaxxal-uwant. but I believe that . HAND Hittite (Old) kessar (1). Corresponds to Luwian (C) is(sa)ra/i. Apparently with polysemy: 'green / yellow'. Common gender. The Palaic and Luwian (C) word for 'good' is wasu. which in its turn is treated in [ Николаев 1985: 60] as a North Caucasian loanword (NCauc. Old Indian sú 'good'. HED H: 4.[Melchert 1993: 266].'greenery.]'. 'arm' seem to be unknown.~ xaxli-want.{hahhal-uwant. (wild) vegetation' [HW2 H: 3]. which is unattested in known NCauc. Unclear if applied to head hair only. Kloekhorst 2008: 268. but the proposed NCauc.'to be good / loved' (corresponds to Luwian (H) aza. 37. ancestral forms. Apparently the same root is contained in the Hitt. ishiya-ni. 35. OH+. The most probable reading of SI12 / SI12.[HED H: 4]. hahli-want-.'hand'. Isolated within Anatolian and IE. HED A: 196. References and notes: Hittite (Old): HED K: 160. the Hittite word is concealed under the Sumerograms SI12 or SI12. HAIR Hittite (Old) teda-na. Indeed. which can denote 'arm' or at least 'upper arm' ([Kloekhorst 2008: 395] w. hahla-want.(C) [Melchert 1993: 206]. OH+.'hand'. Cognate with Ancient Greek ἐύς 'good'. Cognate with the basic IE term for 'hand'.~ hahla-want-} (1). MH+.'to love').). etc. in almost all cases where the semantics of 'green' or 'yellow' can be suspected. Polysemy: 'head hair [pl.'body hair' [HED E-I: 400]. Polysemy: 'hand / paw'.'to make yellow/green'. Polysemy: 'good / dear / favourable'. [Kloekhorst 2008: 267]. Cf. [Kloekhorst 2008: 392].SI12 and haṣartu is Hittite *hahhala/i-. see [HW2 H: 4]. All these stems are derived from the noun hahhal / hahhall. lit. (H) istra/i. Common gender. it is not clear whether Hittite distinguishes 'green' and 'yellow' or if both color tones were denoted by one word (in accordance with the Sumerian and Akkadian strategy). [HW2 H: 12]. The Luwian term for 'head hair' is apparently tapp-ani. Kloekhorst 2008: 223. Second. Reliable candidates for Hitt. First.] / a single head hair [sg. to wrap'.SIG7) '(to be) green-yellow.~ ass-iya. Hitt. although some other paronymous adjectival formations are attested in phonetic writing with the meaning 'green / yellow': hahhal-uwant-.'hand'. source seems dubious because of the different meaning and the assumed metathesis of l. which is traditionally treated as a deverbative from ishiya. [HED H: 3]. SIG7. Hence also various verbs such as hahhal-e-ske.~ hahli-want. medial verb ass. hahhall looks like a Fremdwort. 36.'to become yellow/green'. OH+.~ ishie-ni. of tree or bush'). [Kloekhorst 2008: 268].~ xaxla-want. References and notes: Hittite (Old): HEG T: 345. hahl-ahh.(1).'to bind. ishunau-. Cf.12 References and notes: Hittite (Old): HW2 A: 492. References and notes: Hittite (Old): HW2 H: 12. *qĕleqĭ 'a k. pale' or under the Akkadogram haṣartu '(yellow-)green wool'.SI12 (= SIG7. verdure. Lycian izre/i.

Kloekhorst 2008: 469.(C) [Melchert 1993: 58].and istam-ana.and maybe huballas. 41. Cannot be separated from the main IE term for 'head'.with different suffixes. Cognate with Palaic kart.'of a horn' (C) and to the basic IE term for 'horn'. 39.(thus [Kloekhorst 2008: 413]). represents the morphologically unquestionable derivation from the term for 'ear' q. Kloekhorst 2008: 314. Corresponds to the basic IE term for 'heart'.v. An alternative and more tenable solution is to treat istam-ass. but these word are very rare and certainly cannot be considered the default terms. especially if we suppose the polysemy 'sinew / biceps' (thus [HED E-I: 403]. Polysemy: 'head / person / front / beginning'. heteroclitic paradigm: harsar / harsn-. Kloekhorst 2008: 412.'heart'. the Luwian (C) verb for 'to hear'. Nevertheless. Neutral gender. noun istam-ana.(1). Neutral gender. Polysemy: 'heart / center'. OH+. tummant-iya-. Corresponds to Luwian zuran. a terminus technicus 'hunting .'ear' q. crosslinguistically.as a denominal formation < istam-an-s. References and notes: Hittite (Old): HW2 H: 344. HED H: 187. A mi-conjugation verb. [HED K: 321]) and further an optional shift 'biceps' > 'upper arm' as a pars pro toto construction (thus [Catsanicos 1996: 201] with typological parallels). but it should be noted that. although morphological details are not so clear.v.13 the traditional translation 'sinew' is more acceptable./ kart-i-. paradigm: kir / kart.. Luwian adj. HEART Hittite (Old) kir ~ kart. although the fricativization * k > h is quite irregular for Hittite. References and notes: Hittite (Old): HED K: 189. Polysemy: 'to hear / to listen to / to perceive'. if we suppose consonant cluster simplification after the addition of the suffix m-. OH+. Other designations of 'head' in Hittite are etymologically obscure hala.'horn' (H). 40. OH+. heteroclitic paradigm: karawar / karaun-.(1). Luwian (C&H) zart. The same root is contained in the Hitt. References and notes: Hittite (Old): HED E-I: 452. the semantic derivation 'ear' > 'to hear' is. surprisingly. HEAR Hittite (Old) istam-ass. 38. References and notes: Hittite (Old): HED K: 77. zarwani(ya). which may contain the same ancient root. HEAD Hittite (Old) xars-ar {hars-ar} (1). The Luwian term for 'head' is harmaha/i. very rare. Theoretically both istam-ass. HORN Hittite (Old) karaw-ar (1). Kloekhorst 2008: 446. Cf. Neutral gender.can be independently derived from the root *stam. OH+.'heart'.

is not entirely clear either (< *mn?). KNEE Hittite (Old) kenu ~ kanu (1).(1). Kloekhorst 2008: 112. sg. pronoun is nom. The Hitt. me'./ kun-. Direct stem.-dat. loins'. although paradigmatically it is somewhat problematic. [HEG S: 961]. suppletive paradigm of the 2 nd p. References and notes: Hittite (Old): HED K: 146. [Kloekhorst 2008: 740] (without etymology). Its Luwian (H) correspondence can be seen in the scribe title kwananala-. OH+. em. A mi-conjugation verb. KILL Hittite (Old) kuen. KNOW Hittite (Old) sakk. Oblique stem. The double -mm.(1). Corresponds to Luwian (H) amu 'I. u may initially have penetrated into acc. References and notes: Hittite (Old): Hoffner & Melchert 2008: 134. zik (< *tik).14 horn. Lycian ẽmu 'I'. drinking horn': sawitra-. I1 Hittite (Old) uk (1). Represents the basic IE term for 'knee'. References and notes: Hittite (Old): Hoffner & Melchert 2008: 134./ ẽm. Isolated within Anatolian. Kloekhorst 2008: 485. acc. thus. although the Anatolian prothetic vowel is unclear. 912. OH+. References and notes: Hittite (Old): HED K: 206. sg. . sg. 42. me'. where the old direct stem was superseded by the oblique one.). 44.v. 42. pronoun. ammuk 'me' and from there spread onto the direct stem uk. but corresponds to the IE 1st p. 912. Apparently the basic Indo-Hittite root for 'to kill'. Neutral gender.'thee' (q.'me'. A cognate of the IE oblique stem in m-. literally 'engraver'.(2). is probably under the influence of the oblique stem of the 2 nd p. 45. Polysemy: 'knee / penis. Cognate with Palaic kinu 'penis' [Eichner 2010: 52]. paradigm: kuen. Kloekhorst 2008: 112. Kloekhorst 2008: 467. I2 Hittite (Old) amm. Polysemy: 'to kill / to slay / to ruin'.-dat. The u-vocalism in Hitt. 43. pronoun tu. sawadar [CHD S: 317]. HEG U: 21. OH+. Lydian amu 'I. tuk. OH+.

(C) [Melchert 1993: 26]. but with secure IE cognates. OH+. 47. IE. acknowledge. In Luwian the verb 'to know' is an etymologically obscure stem uni. Luwian (H) tarsa. Isolated within Anatolian and. a+ra/i. Luwian (C) zi. OH+.15 References and notes: Hittite (Old): CHD S: 21. but semantic shifts between various verbs of knowing in IE languages require additional investigation.means rather 'shoots'. likewise isolated within Anatolian.(1).~ ara/i (H). not 'leaf'. Common gender. References and notes: Hittite (Old): HED K: 169. Neutral gender. 46. recognize. Polysemy: 'leaf / foliage'. apparently. In Luwian 'long (spatial/temporal)' is expressed by an etymologically obscure stem array(a).'to know. to honor' [HED K: 42]. HEG S: 709. also Hitt. Isolated within Anatolian and apparently IE. Polysemy: 'to know (about) / to experience / to pay attention to / to recognize / to remember / to be expert in / to be acquainted with'. Polysemy: 'long (spatial) / long (temporal)'. Cf. A medial verb. [HEG P: 446] incorrectly glosses it as 'bud. Kloekhorst 2008: 819. but corresponds to the basic IE term for 'long'.(1). Kloekhorst 2008: 645. Kloekhorst 2008: 695./ sekk-. The Palaic term for 'liver' is etymologically unclear pannu. References and notes: Hittite (Old): CHD L-N: 72. Isolated within Anatolian. 49. .'to lie'. paradigm: sakk. LONG Hittite (Old) talugi.(1). A hi-conjugation verb. HEG L-M: 54.(H and maybe C) [Melchert 1993: 241]. Kloekhorst 2008: 525. LIVER Hittite (Old) lessi (1). kan-ess. sciō 'to know'.[Eichner 2010: 52]. LEAF Hittite (Old) parstu. HED L: 97. 48. Cognate with the main IE candidate for 'to lie'. [Kloekhorst 2008: 434]. shoot'. Applied both to humans and things. References and notes: Hittite (Old): HEG T: 61. Isolated within Anatolian. Kloekhorst 2008: 473. OH+. Corresponds to Palaic ki'to lie'. OH+. OH+. An IE comparandum may be seen in Lat. References and notes: Hittite (Old): CHD P: 190. LIE Hittite (Old) ki.

~ mekki. etc.~ Old Indian h is irregular. MAN Hittite (Old) pesan.(1).-acc. Old Indian máhi 'big'. pēnis 'penis' and other terms for male genitalia. References and notes: Hittite (Old): CHD L-M: 245. Kloekhorst 2008: 206. Glossed as 'much. 53. The Luwian word for 'many. Polysemy: 'moon / Moon-deity / month'. LOUSE References and notes: Hittite (Old): Unattested. Isolated within Anatolian.is an adjective. OH+. rebus .. but nom. but the correspondence Hittite voiceless velar -kk. HED M: 119. mekki can also be used adverbially. 54. many.~ Ancient Greek -γ. OH+. Kloekhorst 2008: 670./ pisen. which may etymologically correspond to the Hitt. numerous'. HED A: 151. Common gender.is always concealed under ideograms. MANY Hittite (Old) mekk-i (1). MOON Hittite (Old) arma. References and notes: Hittite (Old): HW2 A: 313. In Luwian the word for 'man' is an etymologically obscure stem zida/i. paradigm: pesan. word arma. but can be safely revealed with the help of phonetical complements. much' is ma (H). The main word mekk. but corresponds to Lat. MEAT References and notes: Hittite (Old): Unknown.(1).(C) [Melchert 1993: 284]./ pesn-. Common gender. Kloekhorst 2008: 572. normally written with the ideogram UZU. stem. References and notes: Hittite (Old): CHD P: 324. Cognate with Ancient Greek μέγας 'big'.16 50. sg. The Hitt. HEG P: 585. 52. HEG L-M: 181. 51. OH+. see [van den Hout 2010: 239]. n.

or kassud'neck(??)' [Eichner 2010: 52-53]. support'. 55. One of the most stable IE words with secure Nostratic cognates.17 writings and various derivatives.'name'.(1). References and notes: Hittite (Old): CHD L-N: 31. A Common Anatolian term (Lycian ar . NEW Hittite (Old) newa. 59. paradigm: ayis / iss-. 57. NECK Hittite (Old) kuwatt-ar (1). Cf. HEG L-M: 27. A cognate of Luwian (C) aas'mouth'. NAME Hittite (Old) laman (1). alaman. paradigm: laman / lamn-. Lyc. Neutral gender. the Palaic word kassu. 56.'name'. Neutral gender. 58. heteroclitic paradigm: kuwattar ~ kuttar / kuttan-. but further etymology is uncertain. scruff / top of shoulders / mainstay. Polysemy: 'name / reputation'. OH+. HED A: 15. words for 'mouth'. The Luwian term for 'mountain' is probably *ariyatt(i)(literally 'elevation'). References and notes: Hittite (Old): HW2 A: 48.'moon'. MOUNTAIN References and notes: Hittite (Old): Unknown. normally written with the ideogram HUR. OH+. therefore represents the basic Indo-Hittite term for 'mouth'. Latin. Polysemy: 'neck / nape of the neck. Cognate with Luwian (H) alaman. etc. OH+.). HED L: 51. Kloekhorst 2008: 166. Isolated within Anatolian and IE. References and notes: Hittite (Old): HED K: 313. etc. Kloekhorst 2008: 517. MOUTH Hittite (Old) ayis (1). see [Melchert 1993: 27]. Neutral gender. Corresponds to Indo-Iranian. References and notes: .SAG.

OH+. cf. verb negu. Pinault). One of the most stable IE words. 62.with cluster simplification in Hittite./ *ksp. Apparently contains the basic IE negative morpheme *ne.'evening. *sā/sī.~ tittida. cf. 63. negut. Isolated within Anatolian.'new'. fem. The Luwian prohibitive negation is ni-s. 'one'. Lycian ne. nit./ xšafn. 'jener. NOSE Hittite (Old) tidida. dusk'. etymologically obscure. Note . Corresponds to the main negations in the rest of Anatolian: Palaic ni. HEG N: 284. Apparently corresponds to the IE pronominal demonstrative stem *so-. it should be noted that the plain root without the t-suffix is also retained in some Ancient Greek forms.'night'. Negation of assertion. but with the semantics of 'night' rather than 'evening. root is cognate with the Indo-Iranian term for 'night': Old Indian kṣáp.'to become evening' [CHD L-N: 432].(1).for the expected **ne-/ni. OH+. HED N: 68. ONE Hittite (Old) si. nightfall'. der'.~ sia. fem. Should be analyzed as sp-ant. Kloekhorst 2008: 597.'night' < IE *ksep. HEG N: 320. corresponds to Hitt. na (H). Common gender. [HEG N: 302]. although Hitt. Polysemy: 'nose / muzzle'. also unclear Ancient Greek ἴα fem. latter ni (H). References and notes: Hittite (Old): Hoffner & Melchert 2008: 341. Apparently the onset is phonetically /sp. Kloekhorst 2008: 605. especially the Old Indian variant syá. For the prohibitive negation the particle le is used (OH+) [Hoffner & Melchert 2008: 344].-J. Corresponds to Luwian (C) nawa/i. HED N: 95.. Avestan xšapan. Lydian ni. References and notes: Hittite (Old): Hoffner & Melchert 2008: 154. *negʰʷ-t..> *nekʷ-t-. NOT Hittite (Old) na-tta (1). [HED N: 79]. References and notes: Hittite (Old): HEG T: 393. derived from the Hitt. Polysemy: 'new / fresh'. Kloekhorst 2008: 404. CHD L-N: 409. 61. The Hitt. [Kloekhorst 2008: 602].(1). OH+.with the common suffix -ant-. the latter lacks IE cognates (a sometimes proposed connection to the same IE *ne is unjustified).(1). 60. na. nit. Probably common gender. The Common IE term for 'night'.is unclear. OH+. OH+. Luwian nawa (C&H). Kloekhorst 2008: 750. NIGHT Hittite (Old) ispant. This numerical meaning for sia. References and notes: Hittite (Old): HED E-I: 431./ with a graphical epenthesis.18 Hittite (Old): CHD L-N: 455.can be paralleled by some forms of the Tocharian paradigm '1' (as per G.

[HED M: 165]. normally written with the ideogram SA5.(1). mida~ midi. References and notes: Hittite (Old): CHD P: 69. Isolated within IE. 66.(C) [Kloekhorst 2008: 317] (occasionally borrowed into Hittite). so it may be suspected that mida. but apparently not vice versa. The IE root oy. ROOT . RED References and notes: Hittite (Old): Unknown. OH+. The main candidate for the phonetical reading of SA5 is Hitt. journey’). original paradigm is probably antuwahhas / antuhs-. It is likely that this stem should be analyzed as an archaic formation an-tuwahh. This stem looks archaic. The Luwian word for 'road' is haruwa. Kloekhorst 2008: 340. HED A: 79. 68. References and notes: Hittite (Old): HW2 A: 109. 64. Common gender.19 that the semantic shift 'this' > '1' is quite common cross-linguistically. Kloekhorst 2008: 188.'equal'.~ mitta.represents some terminus technicus and not a generic word for 'red'. HEG P: 398. Common gender.(H) 'time (occasion. Cognate with Luwian pars. but it is isolated within Anatolian and IE. anki 'once'. but not to other objects. [Kloekhorst 2008: 583]. Polysemy: 'road / path / trail / campaign.(1). Isolated within Anatolian. but in all known examples mida. if the translation is correct. Common gender. which is likewise isolated within Anatolian and IE (note that Luwian haruwa. Kloekhorst 2008: 621.v.[CHD L-N: 301]. and twekk. RAIN Hittite (Old) heyu. 67. occurrence)'.'body' can also be used in the meaning 'person'. Anatomical terms harsar 'head' q. OH+.refers only to wool.'(having) breath inside'. References and notes: Hittite (Old): HED H: 301. PERSON Hittite (Old) antuwaxxas {antuwahhas} (1). military expedition / journey / caravan / time (occasion.resembles the Hurro-Urartian term for 'road': hari. ROAD Hittite (Old) palsa. 65. [HEG L-M: 218]. Luwian ayawala 'equal'.'1' is retained in Hitt. ant. as well as Akkadian harrānu ‘road. occurrence)'.

~ surka.(H) [Kloekhorst 2008: 166]. 70. Luwian (H) ta-tar-iya 'to curse' etc.(2). HED M: 126. 69.is a cognate of Slavic *dē.'to say' (apparently to be separated from the Common IE root for 'to put. SAY Hittite (Old) mema. In latter compositions te. probably derived from *as./ tar.A.). which becomes the only default verbum dicendi in New Hittite [CHD L-N: 263].(1). the second root tar. A mi-conjugation verb with a suppletive paradigm: te. Isolated within Anatolian and IE. Kloekhorst 2008: 857./ tar-. Common gender.'to pronounce' and other IE forms of expressive saying (including Palaic tar-ta. but it should be noted that the semantic derivation 'mouth' > 'to say' is surprisingly rare.) ~ tar (pl. The Luwian verb for 'to say' is asaza. OH+.).'mouth' q. OH+. Kloekhorst 2008: 792.must be compared with Baltic *tar.. References and notes: Hittite (Old): HEG S: 1209.HED T: 140.is beeing superseded by mema-. SEE Hittite (Old) au. 2) te.v. May be written by the ideogram SAHAR.'curse'.20 Hittite (Old) surki. 870. Isolated within Anatolian and IE. References and notes: Hittite (Old): CHD L-N: 254. OH+.HI.~ au-s.(1). 71. References and notes: . cross-linguistically. A hi-conjugation verb.(1) / te. SAND References and notes: Hittite (Old): Unattested. lay'). HEG L-M: 186. The first root te. ROUND References and notes: Hittite (Old): Unattested.(sg. 72. Kloekhorst 2008: 573. 291. There are two closely synonymous verbs 'to say' in archaic Hittite: 1) mema-.

[HEG S: 1005]. Another candidate is the Hitt. 76. but corresponds to Indo-Iranic *sas. Kloekhorst 2008: 252. ses. Cf.e. but its meaning is rather 'to have the faculty of sight' and 'to look'.(1). A medial or mi-conjugation verb. Normally a medial verb. paradigm: es. Kloekhorst 2008: 227. Isolated within Anatolian. OH+).'eye'). OH+. to dwell'. OH+.(C) [Melchert 1993: 135] (polysemy: 'to look at / to see / to experience'). SLEEP Hittite (Old) supp. SKIN References and notes: Hittite (Old): Unknown. References and notes: Hittite (Old): HED E-I: 291.(derived from the noun saguwa.'to sleep'./ sas. to see)'. normally written by the ideogram NUMUN. Corresponds to Luwian (C) awa 'behold!' and to an IE root of perception: Ancient Greek ἀΐω 'to perceive (i. Old Indian āvíṣ 'evidently.]'.~ maluli. [Kloekhorst 2008: 746] (mi-conjugation verb. References and notes: Hittite (Old): HEG S: 1175. 74. One possible candidate is an etymologically obscure stem miluli. 77. Polysemy: 'to sit / to sit down / to reside / to settle. HEG U: 5. Hitt. OH+. SIT Hittite (Old) es.[CHD L-N: 253]. 116. Indo-Iranian *ās.'to be seated.[HED K: 270]. SEED References and notes: Hittite (Old): Unknown. to hear./ as-. before the eyes'. etc. [HEG L-M: 210]. 75. a word for 'hide': kursa. inhabit [trans. Polysemy: 'to see / to look / to watch / to read'. The second candidate is ses. but its underlying meaning is rather 'to rest' than 'to sleep' proper. SMALL . to stay' (the aspiration remains unclear). Kloekhorst 2008: 787.'to sit. but apparently represent the basic Indo-Hittite term. but its exact translation is uncertain. A hi-conjugation verb (stem au-/u-) as well as a mi-conjugation verb (stem aus-). [HED M: 124]. 73. see [CHD S: 55]. Cognate with Ancient Greek ἡσ'to sit.(1).21 Hittite (Old): HED A: 234. Corresponds to Luwian (H) as. The Luwian term for 'to see' is apparently mana.is also isolated within Anatolian. to dwell'. verb saguwa-ye.

(1)./ miya. Apparently a cognate of Old Indian dabh-rá.'to step.is probably the default reading of the ideogram TUR. OH+. kappi. 'few. [Kloekhorst 2008: 869]. OH+. Isolated within Anatolian (Kloekhorst [2008: 886] claims that the Hitt. place oneself' [HEG T: 357]. small. Hitt.'to move' corresponds to Hitt. References and notes: Hittite (Old): HW2 A: 194.'little. smoke (n. because normally 'small. occur'. The reading of the first vowel is unclear: a or u. SMOKE Hittite (Old) tuxxui. OH+. Cf. verb tiya. 80.'little. [HW2 A: 66]. A medial verb. HED A: 104.'to grow' (lit. We know three Hittite adjectives that can aspire to the status of this generic term. Isolated within Anatolian and IE (IE *er.is regarded as IE negative *n plus the participle of the Hittite verb mai. but its meaning is more likely to be closer to Eng. . paradigmatically: tVhhui. kappi.)'. tebu 'a few' [HEG T: 311]. Applicable to both animate and inanimate subjects. Kloekhorst 2008: 195.seems to be the main candidate. Traditionally am(m)iy-ant. References and notes: Hittite (Old): HEG T: 417. A hapax (the word is normally written by the ideogram MUL). few'. The third adjective is tebu. References and notes: Hittite (Old): HED K: 61. [Kloekhorst 2008: 879] (apparently corresponds to Luwian (C&H) ta. Out of these. but reflects the basic Indo-Hittite term for 'star'. a few'. ar. in phonetic writing it is applicable both to inanimate and animate objects. STAR Hittite (Old) xaster. amiy-ant. deficient'. HED H: 238. the Hitt. 79. Seems to lack reliable IE etymology. A possible Anatolian cognate is Lydian καμβειμ 'grandchild'. adv. OH+. The basic Indo-Hittite root for 'to smoke (vb.'to come to stand').~ tahhui} (1). Kloekhorst 2008: 326. but it is not obligatory. little' is written with the ideogram TUR.[HED A: 47]. go stand. Kloekhorst 2008: 439.and tVhhuwai-. 'non-grown'). despite the fact that there are some morphological and phonetical difficulties.(1). but it still seems uncertain). Isolated within Anatolian. References and notes: Hittite (Old): HW2 H: 434.~ taxxui {tuhhui. but it seems that originally this adjective may have referred to animate objects only. although in NH am(m)iy-ant. Common gender. OH+. verb tuhhai. A difficult case. 78. STAND Hittite (Old) ar.is also applicable to inanimate objects. Kloekhorst 2008: 895.'to arrive').~ ammiy-ant. [Kloekhorst 2008: 171]. Polysemy: 'to stand / to be present.22 Hittite (Old) kappi.means 'to produce smoke'.{haster-} (1).). The second candidate is Hitt.

82.is traditionally translated as 'stone' [HW2 A: 53]. [Kloekhorst 2008: 650]. tiwad(i). Cf. sky-god'. agu..v. A very probable candidate for the reading of KUN in Hittite is the etymologically obscure sisai [HEG S: 1008].(C). [Kloekhorst 2008: 168]. also passi-la-. the meaning 'seashell' seems more probable [CHD P: 73. In the case of Hittite it is the Hattian loan istanu. pebble' [CHD P: 206]. the verbs applied to water-snakes are pai.v. siwatt. identical to the situation with expressions for 'to fly' q. STONE References and notes: Hittite (Old): Unknown.'to go. THAT Hittite (Old) aba. normally written by the ideogram KUN. 207]. also pai. Hitt.23 81. SWIM References and notes: Hittite (Old): Unattested.(1). Sun-god(dess).(-1).'day-lit sky. Sun-goddess'. In Anatolian and Mesopotamian traditions the word for 'sun' is syncretized with names of the Sun deity. [HED A: 24]. SUN Hittite (Old) istanu. As noted in [Ünal 1973: 34]. and uwa. normally written by the ideogram NA4. [Kloekhorst 2008: 757]. In other Anatolian languages we observe stems that correspond to Hitt. References and notes: . 83. whose basic meaning is 'small stone. but we prefer to leave the slot empty.'to come' q. 84. go away' q.(or tiyad-) 'Sun deity'. in fact./ astanu.~ astanu.in the meaning 'to go across the sea (said of persons)' [CHD P: 33].'sun.(H) 'Sun deity' [Kloekhorst 2008: 766]. majesty' < Hatt. Luwian tiwad. estan / astan 'sun. [HEG P: 520]. derived from the IE root *dyew. References and notes: Hittite (Old): HED E-I: 465. Cf. 85. but. TAIL References and notes: Hittite (Old): Unknown.'day': Palaic tiyatt.v.

87.].'that (concerning the addressee)' ~ suppletive asi / uni / ini / ed. the Hittite deictic system is ternary. See notes on 'that'. far deictic pronouns are unattested in Lycian. I suppose that the binary system is the most probable solution for Proto-Anatolian (*kʸa. asi 'that (far)'.'this' ~ aba. Data of other Anatolian languages is summed up in [Melchert 2009]. she. sg. References and notes: Hittite (Old): HED K: 3. HED A: 86. As noted in [Hoffner & Melchert 2008: 142 ff. although some monophonemic connections are possible. binary: ka'this' ~ aba. C) aba. Kloekhorst 2008: 425.'that' remains without an unequivocal IE etymology.(1). Hittite is the only language.and aba-. OH+. The final -k in Hittite is probably under the influence of the 1st sg.shifted into near deixis (Lycian ebe 'this').'that' and this situation goes back to Proto-Anatolian. she.the oblique stem). pronoun uk 'I' q. Melchert 2009. Lydian introduces es/eš 'this' for near deixis (apparently es is the nominative form of the common gender.24 Hittite (Old): HW2 A: 130.)'. Various historical scenarios of the development of the deictic system in Anatolian languages are discussed in Melchert 2009. References and notes: . as is proven by the binary system of Luwian: (C&H) za. The third member of the Hittite system (suppletive asi / uni / ini / ed. *aba-). Kloekhorst 2008: 112. References and notes: Hittite (Old): Hoffner & Melchert 2008: 134. 87.'that (far or concerning the 3rd p.'this' ~ (H. Regularly originates from *tik and corresponds to the direct stems of the 2nd p. which resembles Hittite nom. not eš. The basic Hittite opposition is. although if the nominative is indeed es.'that (far or concerning the 3rd p. [Melchert 2009] also proposes that Lydian oš can mean 'that'..v.)') looks like a historical compound of some deictic morpheme a. he. THOU1 Hittite (Old) cik {zik} (1). OH+. it should go back to something like *as. far deixis 'that' can be expressed by morphologically unclear anni-. it'. It is interesting (although typologically normal) that in Lycian *aba. although it is not certain. it'. Polysemy: 'that. It seems that this paradigm is an inner Hittite innovation.is attested in the function 'that (anaphoric)' only. but it is not certain. 86. he. pronoun in the rest of Anatolian: Palaic ti. A reliable Proto-Anatolian cognate for the IE proximal demonstrative.(2). In Palaic the pronoun ka. The Indo-Hittite direct stem *ti was totally superseded by the oblique *tu after the split of Anatolian. Kloekhorst 2008: 191. [Kloekhorst 2008: 191: 220]. eš. THIS Hittite (Old) ka.+ pronominal endings + some deictic clitic -i [Hoffner & Melchert 2008: 145].retains its original meaning 'this'. Anatolian *aba. Luwian (C&H) ti. for which a ternary system is attested. however.vs. not *as-i. whose structure was clear to the Proto-Hittite speakers and underwent some levellings after the paradigms of the basic deictic pronouns ka. THOU2 Hittite (Old) tu. 1035.'that. OH+. Palaic aba. Direct stem. It can be summarized as follows: ka. prob.

91. the Hittite reading ta. Neutral gender. TONGUE Hittite (Old) lala. Cognate with Luwian (H) twa/i. 89. TWO Hittite (Old) ta. nevertheless. although the meaning shift to 'wood' occurred in many languages. Common gender. References and notes: . Milian tbi-su 'twice'. sg. Corresponds to Luwian (C) taru 'wood'. Kloekhorst 2008: 427. Corresponds to the oblique stems of the 2nd p. Common gender. HED L: 40. GO (WALK) Hittite (Old) iya.can be securely revealed. Polysemy: 'tongue / speech / blade'. Kloekhorst 2008: 112. Kloekhorst 2008: 515. IE. Normally written with an ideogram.~ pa=i. Kloekhorst 2008: 849. HEG L-M: 19. Luwian (H) tu.(1). TOOTH Hittite (Old) kaga. References and notes: Hittite (Old): HEG T: 5. Lycian kbi '2'. Without IE etymology. Isolated within Anatolian and. OH+. References and notes: Hittite (Old): CHD L-N: 21. apparently.'thou. Apparently onomatopoeic. Corresponds to the basic IE root for '2' (although the Hittite development *dw > T is surprising). 1035. 89. pronoun in the rest of Anatolian: Palaic tu.(1).'tongue. 88. TREE Hittite (Old) taru (1). thee'.'2'. OH+. References and notes: Hittite (Old): HEG T: 230. 90.25 Hittite (Old): Hoffner & Melchert 2008: 134. Apparently the basic Indo-Hittite term for 'tree'. Oblique stem.(1). Corresponds to Luwian (C) lala/i. gossip'. References and notes: Hittite (Old): HED K: 14. A cognate of IE *tu. Kloekhorst 2008: 826. OH+. 92.(1). OH+. Polysemy: 'tree / wood' (in [Kloekhorst 2008: 849] incorrectly glossed as 'wood' only).

contains the preverb *pV. watar in the meaning 'water' is an independent semantic innovation from the same source. External comparison clearly speaks in favour of the latter scenario. Palaic ha. Kloekhorst 2008: 115. References and notes: Hittite (Old): Kloekhorst 2008: 987. It is unclear whether a-ant.). but corresponds to the basic Narrow IE term for 'water'. 616. but corresponds to the IE direct stem 'we'. Isolated within Anatolian. WE1 Hittite (Old) wes (1). References and notes: Hittite (Old): Hoffner & Melchert 2008: 134. which was retained in Luwian and Tocharian. OH+. OH+. Oblique stem.v.(1). Apparently the original meaning of pa=iwas 'to go away'.(cf. OH+.'to be hot / warm'. Therefore. unknown). Direct stem. In this case. Corresponds to the Luwian oblique . walk'. 'hot' are. two scenarios are equivalent.26 Hittite (Old): HED E-I: 330.denotes 'warm' only.'to go'. or both 'warm' and 'hot' (other reliable candidates for Hitt. Both OH+. HEG P: 371. Luwian war seems to be cognate with Tocharian *wər 'water'. the similar structure of the verb 'to come' q. WATER Hittite (Old) wad-ar (1). 95. The plain stem iya. HED A: 10. Kloekhorst 2008: 115. 1004. heteroclitic paradigm: wadar / widen-. CHD P: 18.{anz-} (2). but superseded by wod-r in Narrow IE after the split of Anatolian and Tocharian. Kloekhorst 2008: 164. whereas pa=i. Neutral gender. WARM (HOT) Hittite (Old) a-ant. Kloekhorst 2008: 380.and the same IE *ey.is cognate with IE *ey. Isolated within Anatolian and IE. An important fact is that the Luwian word for 'water' is war (C) [Melchert 1993: 257]. Isolated within Anatolian. References and notes: Hittite (Old): HW2 A: 44. Corresponds to Luwian (H) pa. which cannot phonetically correspond to the Hittite stem. Cf. OH+. Second. but in attested Hittite sources both verbs are close synonyms with the basic meaning 'to go.'to go'. the Indo-Hittite term for 'water' was wod-r. 94. 1004. 95. Hitt. 93. A medial verb ( iya-) as well as a mi-conjugation verb (pa=i-). the Indo-Hittite root for 'water' was *wer-. References and notes: Hittite (Old): Hoffner & Melchert 2008: 134. which was independently superseded by *wer. First. A regular participle from the verb ay. WE2 Hittite (Old) anc.in Luwian and Tocharian.'to be warm'. however.

{hahhal-uwant. what' (interrog.'who. Kloekhorst 2008: 488. lit. Kloekhorst 2008: 307. References and notes: Hittite (Old): HW2 H: 307. References and notes: . OH+. pronouns).(C&H). WOMAN References and notes: Hittite (Old): Unknown. WHAT Hittite (Old) kui.'us'. HED H: 169. HED K: 218. Corresponds to the basic IE interrogative-relative root.(1). Isolated within Anatolian. 96.~ xaxla-want. However. normally written with the ideogram MUNUS.and kuwan. this Indo-Hittite term is securely attested in Luwian wana. WHO Hittite (Old) kui. OH+. Cognate with Palaic & Luwian (C) kui.as a reading of MUNUS see [HED K: 306]. 100. and rel. 98.~ hahli-want. YELLOW Hittite (Old) xaxxal-uwant.(1). but represents the main Indo-Hittite term for 'white'. [Kloekhorst 2008: 501] w.~ hahla-want-} (1). References and notes: Hittite (Old): Hoffner & Melchert 2008: 149.{harki-} (1).27 stem anz. 97. See notes on 'who'.~ xaxli-want. References and notes: Hittite (Old): Hoffner & Melchert 2008: 149. HED K: 218.(C&H) 'woman' and Lydian kana. WHITE Hittite (Old) xarki. Originates from the Indo-Hittite oblique stem *ns. On the widely discussed possibility of kuin. Kloekhorst 2008: 488. 99.'wife'. Polysemy: 'who? / what?' (interrogative) / 'who / what' (relative). OH+.

Without IE etymology. 105. 103. powerful / heavy / well-fed / difficult / important'. Isolated within Anatolian. Isolated within Anatolian. See notes on 'green'. normally written by the ideogram MUN. 102. 104. In the specific meaning 'heavy' MH+. but various derivatives known from more archaic compositions prove its antiquity. References and notes: Hittite (Old): CHD L-N: 171.(1). Morphologically unclear. dūrát 'from afar'.28 Hittite (Old): HED H: 4. but may be a cognate of Ancient Greek δᾰσύς 'thickly wooded'. Kloekhorst 2008: 853. Kloekhorst 2008: 554. Kloekhorst 2008: 268. etc. SHORT Hittite (Old) maninkuwant. HEAVY Hittite (Old) tassu. FAR Hittite (Old) tuwa (1). SALT References and notes: Hittite (Old): Unknown. NEAR Hittite (Old) maninkuwan (1).(1). Polysemy: 'strong. Apparently. References and notes: Hittite (Old): HEG T: 259. The adverb tuwa seems to be attested exclusively in NH texts.v. OH+. but corresponds to Old Indian dūrám 'far away'. HW2 H: 12. with polysemy: 'green / yellow'. References and notes: . The same stem as 'short' q. HED M: 52. Latin dēnsus 'dense' despite semantic difficulties. Kloekhorst 2008: 904. References and notes: Hittite (Old): HEG T: 486. 101.

emaciated (of animals)' [CHD L-N: 121]. YEAR .as a composite of Germanic *ēla-z ‘eel’ + IE angʷʰi.'thin.v. [Kloekhorst 2008: 544]. 109. Common gender. HED M: 52. 110. References and notes: Hittite (Old): HED H: 428. Kloekhorst 2008: 384. where it normally denotes a chthonic monster (‘Serpent’ and ‘(Sea-)dragon’). but goes back to the Common Indo-Hittite deverbal term for 'wind'. WORM References and notes: Hittite (Old): Unattested. Cf.(1). The same stem as 'near' q. 107. Kloekhorst 2008: 368.'short'.~ illiyanku.{huw-ant-} (1). makl-ant. is formally possible. 108. [HEG LM: 98]. 106. Corresponds to Luwian (C) mannakuna/i. at least in the myth about the Sun god. analyzing illuyanka. Without IE etymology.represents a substrate term. [Kloekhorst 2008: 384]). normally written by the ideogram SIG. Morphologically unclear. in its turn the phonetical writing illuyanka. We tentatively fill the slot by the word illuyanka.‘snake’ (may be a basic term for ‘snake’ in Narrow IE). ‘Snake’ is normally written by the ideogram MUŠ in Hittite texts. J. the Cow and the Fisherman the plural form elliyankus is apparently used for snakes in general. HEG L-M: 123. However. OH+. SNAKE Hittite (Old) illuyanka. although the exact source is unknown (Hattic?). OH+. Isolated within Anatolian. THIN References and notes: Hittite (Old): Unknown. but seems factitious.(with various variants [HED E-I: 358].29 Hittite (Old): CHD L-N: 173. In all likelihood illuyanka.~ illiyanku. Polysemy: 'short (spatial) / short (temporal) / low / close'. Kloekhorst 2008: 554. References and notes: Hittite (Old): HED E-I: 358. although it is not quite certain.seems occur exclusively in mythological compositions. WIND Hittite (Old) xuw-ant. Katz’s etymology.

.(C&H) 'year'. although details are not entirely clear.(1). Cognate with Ancient Greek Fέτος 'year'. References and notes: Hittite (Old): Kloekhorst 2008: 1014. etc. OH+. Theoretically may correspond to Luwian ussa/i.30 Hittite (Old) witt. Common gender.