Notes and Key to Symbols in All Tables NA means data not available, and "---" means less than 0.

5 percent. Column sums may not equal totals because of rounding. In 1988 the BLS changed its sampling frame to include smaller firms and more industries than before (see the Data Appendix). As a result, the EBS tabulations for 1998 and thereafter are not precisely comparable with earlier figures. In some cases, the Bureau of Labor Statistics tabulated 1988 results using a sampling frame similar to that employed in previous years. For comparability purposes these "old-scope" data have been presented, where available, under columns headed "1988†". Tabulations not so labelled employ the new, larger survey sampling frame for 1988 on. Sources for All Tables: Mitchell (1992), and U.S. Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics, "Employee Benefits in Medium and Large Firms, 1981-1997". and unpublished data from the BLS for 1988† figures.

Table 1 Age and Length of Service Requirements for Pension Participation: Defined Benefit Pension Plans, 1981-97 Percenage of full-time participants 1986 1988† 1988

Type of requirements

1981

1982

1983

1984

1985

1989

1991

1993

1995

1997

No minimum age and/or service requirements 41 With minimum age and/or service requirements 59 Service only 20 <=1 year NA Age only 4 Age and service 35 Age 25 and 1 year* NA Age 21 and 1 year* NA With maximum age limitation**

39

37

37

40

40

37

33

35

29

34

31

31

61 23 NA 4 34 NA NA

63 20 18 3 39 35 NA

63 22 20 3 39 34 NA

59 23 21 3 32 NA 13

59 21 17 3 35 NA 18

63 27 23 3 33 NA 31

66 28 24 3 34 NA 33

66 26 22 4 34 NA 31

71 26 26 4 39 NA 36

66 26 26 4 37 NA 30

69 27 25 3 36 NA 34

68 28 27 1 36 NA 34

58

61

55

61

61

58

47

47

NA

NA

NA

NA

NA

See Notes to Tables; also * The Employee Retirement Income Security Act (ERISA) of 1974 required that pension plans allow full-time employees age 25+ with at least 1 year of service to participate. The Retirement Equity Act of 1984 required that nearly all plans allow participation to full-time employees age 21+ with at least 1 year of service by June 1986. The 1986 data surveyed plans prior to the law change. ** ERISA permitted plans to impose a maximum age for participation within 5 years of the plan's normal retirement date. The Omnibus Reconciliation Act of 1986 eliminated such maximums for plan years beginning in January 1988, with slightly later dates for collectively bargained plans. Data exclude supplemental pension plans.

Table 2 Vesting Schedules: Defined Benefit Pension Plans, 1980-97 Percentage of full-time participants 1985 1986 1988 88 69 17 NA 89 69 18 NA 82 62 15 45

Vesting formula Cliff Vesting: * Full vesting after: 10 years at any age 10 years after given age 5 years at any age Graduated Vesting: ** Full vesting after: <10 years of service 15 years of service

1980 89 70 19 NA

1981 91 67 21 NA

1982 90 66 22 NA

1983 89 65 22 NA

1984 89 66 19 NA

1989 89 29 9 44

1991 92 16 --69

1993 96 12 --79

1995 96 6 NA 87

1997 96 6 --85

11 NA 5

13 NA 4

12 NA 4

13 NA 4

14 NA 4

13 NA 3

13 6 3

17 9 5

11 9 2

8 5 NA

4 NA NA

3 NA NA

3 3 ---

See Notes to Tables; also: *A cliff vesting schedule requires an employee to satisfy specific service conditions in order to become 100% vested. ERISA defined 10 years as the maximum requirement for this form of vesting. The Tax Reform Act of 1986 required single-employer plans to convert to a 5-year schedule if using cliff vesting. This provision was to be adopted by most plans during 1989, with slightly later dates for collectively bargained plans. ** Graduated vesting schedules give an employee rights to a gradually increasing share of accrued pension benefits, eventually reaching 100% at specified age and/or service points. Data exclude supplemental pension plans.

Table 3 Defined Benefit Plans: Employee Contribution Requirements 1993-1997

Percentage of full-time participants 1993 1995 1997 % with employee contribution required % pre-tax contribution allowed
See Notes to Tables; also Data exclude supplemental pension plans.

3 1

3 1

5 NA

Table 4 Minimum Age and Service Requirements for Early Retirement: Defined Benefit Pension Plans, 1980-97 Percentage of full-time participants 1984 1985 1986 1988

Type of requirement Plans permitting early retirement * Service requirements alone 30 years required Age requirements alone Age 55 Age and service requirements: Age 55 and 5 years Age 55 and 10 years Age 55 and 15 years Age 60 and 10 years Age 62 and 10 years Age plus service sum Sum equals 80 or less Sum equals 85 or more Plans not permitting early retirement
See Notes to Tables; also

1980

1981

1982

1983

1989

1991

1993

1995

1997

98 10 9 9 8 3 NA NA NA NA 5 NA 3

98 5 5 10 9 4 36 11 4 --9 NA 6

97 5 5 9 9 4 35 10 4 --10 NA 5

97 6 6 10 10 3 35 9 5 --9 6 5

97 5 5 10 9 4 39 7 5 --10 6 5

97 4 4 9 9 3 43 8 4 --10 5 4

98 5 5 10 10 3 41 7 4 --9 5 4

98 7 6 10 10 4 44 10 5 --4 2 1

97 6 5 6 6 9 43 8 4 2 4 1 ---

98 7 6 6 5 17 32 10 4 2 6 2 1

95 5 4 2 2 20 32 12 3 2 3 2 ---

96 NA NA NA NA NA NA NA 1 -4 3 ---

95 8 8 3 3 20 30 9 2 1 8 6 1

2

2

3

3

3

3

2

2

3

2

5

4

5

* Early retirement is defined as the point when a worker can retire and immediately receive accrued benefits based on service and earnings; benefits are reduced for years prior to the normal age. Data exclude supplemental pension plans.

Table 5 Minimum Age and Service Requirements for Normal Retirement: Defined Benefit Pension Plans, 1980-97* Percentage of full-time participants 1985 1986 1988† 1988 14 14 37 4 4 29 39 1 2 --4 1 3 1 11 4 2 1 2 10 1 4 3 13 13 40 4 4 32 36 2 1 3 3 1 3 1 7 4 1 2 2 11 1 5 4 9 9 35 4 4 27 41 1 1 2 3 3 2 4 13 2 3 1 2 15 1 6 5 7 7 42 3 6 33 39 1 1 2 2 3 1 --11 2 2 1 5 12 1 5 4

Type of requirement Service requirements alone 30 years required Age requirements alone Age 60 Age 62 Age 65 Age & service reqs. Age 55 and 20 years Age 55 and 30 years Age 60 and 1-5 years Age 60 and 10 years Age 60 and 15-20 years Age 60 and 30 years Age 62 and 1-5 years Age 62 and 10 years Age 62 and 15-20 years Age 62 and 30 years Age 65 and 5 years Age 65 and 10 years Age plus service sum Equals 80 Equals 85 Equals 90 +
See Notes to Tables; also

1980 11 11 45 2 4 39 37 NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA 2 NA 6 1 3 1

1981 14 14 46 2 4 39 33 2 2 --2 **1 2 1 8 **2 2 1 3 7 --3 1

1982 13 13 43 2 4 36 36 2 2 --2 **2 2 1 9 **2 2 1 5 8 1 3 2

1983 17 16 38 4 2 31 36 2 2 --2 **3 4 1 6 **2 3 1 5 9 1 4 2

1984 17 16 40 3 4 33 34 2 2 2 2 2 3 1 7 2 1 1 3 9 1 4 2

1989 8 7 43 4 6 33 37 1 1 2 2 1 3 2 10 2 2 2 2 12 1 6 4

1991 8 7 39 2 6 30 46 1 1 --2 1 2 2 7 4 --10 4 6 1 3 ---

1993 5 4 33 3 3 26 55 --3 3 1 --4 5 7 3 1 15 2 8 1 NA 2

1995 6 5 48 1 3 36 48 --3 1 3 --2 4 9 7 2 9 2 9 1 NA 1

1997 5 4 41 3 3 29 46 ----1 2 1 2 3 11 3 1 15 3 8 1 NA ---

*At normal retirement a participant can retire and receive unreduced benefits immediately. **Data available for 15 years' service only instead of 15-20. Data exclude supplemental pension plans.

Table 6 Benefit Formulas in Defined Benefit Pension Plans, 1980-97 Percentage of full-time participants 1985 1986 1988† 1988 29 28 70 57 27 13 7 26 25 72 57 29 15 8 27 26 71 54 26 17 10 26 25 72 55 30 17 11

Formula based on Dollar amount* No alternative** Earnings Terminal earnings No alternative** Career earnings No alternative** Cash account or money purchase Percent of contributions

1980 30 27 68 53 21 15 8

1981 32 29 66 50 26 16 10

1982 30 28 67 52 27 15 9

1983 28 27 70 54 24 16 10

1984 28 27 68 54 24 14 8

1989 22 19 75 64 35 11 6

1991 23 21 70 56 38 14 10

1993 22 21 72 61 40 11 8

1995 23 23 69 58 40 11 6

1997 23 23 67 56 37 11 8

---

---

---

1

2

---

---

1

1

2

3

3

3

6

---

2

2

1

2

1

---

---

1

1

4

2

2

3

See Notes to Tables; also

*Dollar amount refers to a flat monthly amount per year of service. **Alternative formulas are generally designed to provide a minimum benefit for employees with short service or low earnings. Data exclude supplemental pension plans.

Table 7 Definition of Earnings Used in Earnings-Based Benefit Formulas: Defined Benefit Pension Plans, 1988-97

Type of formula Basic or straight-time earnings only Plus overtime Shift differentials Bonuses Commissions
See Notes to Tables; also Data exclude supplemental pension plans.

1988 44 43 35 32 32

Percentage of full-time participants 1989 1991 1993 1995 53 37 30 29 28 56 35 19 30 20 67 32 23 NA 19 62 32 24 NA 18

1997 NA NA NA NA NA

Table 8 Career Earnings Benefit Formulas by Type: Defined Benefit Pension Plans, 1983-91 Percentage of full-time participants 1986 1988 1989 1991 40 5 29 --4 60 56 4 --35 3 24 2 5 63 57 5 1 40 8 23 2 8 59 43 4 12 36 6 21 1 7 60 51 4 9

Type of formula Flat percent per year of service Less than 1.25 percent 1.25-1.74 1.75-2.00 2.00 or more Percent per year of service By earnings By service Other
See Notes to Tables; also Data exclude supplemental pension plans.

1983 37 7 26 1 2 63 60 3 ---

1984 36 5 27 3 1 64 62 2 ---

1985 31 6 18 1 6 68 63 4 1

1993 NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA

1995 NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA

1997 NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA

Table 9 Terminal Earnings Benefit Formulas by Type: Defined Benefit Pension Plans, 1983-97 Percentage of full-time participants 1986 1988 1989 1991 84 4 10 69 13 1 1 11 3 57 7 32 5 13 43 20 16 7 82 4 12 67 13 1 1 11 5 54 6 34 4 10 46 23 16 7 81 3 12 65 16 1 3 12 3 54 12 25 5 12 46 24 16 6 82 6 10 67 15 2 1 11 3 42 9 24 3 5 57 36 9 13

Type of formula Definition of terminal earnings: Five years Last 5 High 5 High consecutive 5 Three years Last 3 High 3 High consecutive 3 Other Fraction of pay used in benefit formulas: Flat percent per year of service Less than 1.25 percent 1.25-1.74 1.75-2.00 2.00 or more Other percent per year of service By earnings By service Other
See Notes to Tables; also Data exclude supplemental pension plans.

1983 83 5 8 70 14 --2 12 3 47 8 23 4 11 53 23 24 6

1984 86 2 9 75 11 1 1 9 3 49 5 26 5 14 51 24 22 5

1985 84 5 11 70 12 1 3 7 4 50 6 29 5 9 50 25 18 7

1993 83 3 16 65 14 1 3 9 2 48 9 30 4 5 51 36 7 8

1995 78 3 11 64 17 --5 12 3 37 12 18 3 4 62 41 8 13

1997 78 1 13 65 17 1 5 12 3 35 11 14 9 5 65 39 11 16

Table 10 Dollar Amount Benefit Formulas by Type: Defined Benefit Pension Plans, 1983-97 Percentage of full-time participants 1986 1988 1989 1991 1993 59 73 81 95 97 4 --2 1 2 10 8 7 5 6 10 16 12 8 6 21 20 18 26 12 10 19 23 23 29 3 5 16 17 18 2 5 3 15 25 40 27 19 5 3 6 8 4 3 1 34 19 15 2 2

Amount per year of service Flat monthly amount <$5.00 $5.00-9.99 $10.00-14.99 $15.00-19.99 $20.00-24.99 $25.00-29.99 $30.00 + Amount varies With service With earnings
See Notes to Tables; also Data exclude supplemental pension plans.

1983 71 3 16 16 27 4 1 3 29 3 28

1984 75 --19 18 30 4 2 2 25 5 20

1985 66 3 10 16 28 4 2 2 34 8 26

1995 94 4 2 4 9 15 9 51 6 6 ---

1997 97 8 4 3 10 12 11 50 3 3 ---

Table 11 Integration of Benefit Payments With Social Security: Defined Benefit Pension Plans, 1980-97 Percentage of full-time participants 1984 1985 1986 1988 1989 44 56 36 20 39 61 40 27 38 62 43 38 62 39 26 37 63 41 24

Type of formula Without integrated formula With integrated formula Benefit offset by SS payment* Excess formula**
See Notes to Tables; also

1980 55 45 30 16

1981 57 43 33 10

1982 55 45 35 10

1983 45 55 35 20

1991 46 54 19 36

1993 52 48 17 31

1995 49 51 14 37

1997 51 49 13 36

24

*Pension benefit calculated is reduced by a portion of primary social security payment. **Pension formula applies lower benefit ratio to earnings subject to social security taxes below a specified dollar threshold. Data exclude supplemental pension plans.

Table 12 Reduction Factors for Early Retirement and Early Receipt of Deferred Vested Benefits: Defined Benefit Pension Plans, 1982-97 Type of formula (1) Early retirement reduction factor where applied: Uniform percentage* per year Less than 3.0 percent 3.0 3.1 to 4.9 5.0 to 5.9 6.0 6.1 and over Percent varies with: Age Service (2) Deferred vested reduction factor where applied: Uniform percentage* per year Less than 3.0 percent 3.0 3.1 to 4.9 5.0 to 5.9 6.0 6.1 and over Percent varies with: Age Service (3) Def. vested available prior to normal age Reduction same as early
See Notes to Tables; also *Uniform percentage early retirement factors may approximate actuarial reductions. Data exclude supplemental pension plans.

1982

1983

1984

Percentage of full-time participants 1985 1986 1988 1989 1991

1993

1995

1997

46 2 7 9 7 16 5 30 3

45 1 7 8 9 16 3 35 3

41 1 7 10 6 15 2 56 3

49 2 10 12 7 14 3 49 2

46 2 10 9 9 13 3 51 2

50 3 8 9 10 14 6 49 2

49 3 8 10 12 11 4 49 1

47 3 6 10 8 15 4 49 3

36 2 4 10 8 11 2 54 10

40 4 3 7 7 14 5 57 3

43 3 6 6 9 17 4 57 4

NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA

NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA

NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA

NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA

NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA

34 1 4 4 6 12 5 65 1

34 1 5 7 9 8 4 65 1

34 1 5 6 4 13 5 65 1 NA 49

NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA 98 46

NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA 93 60

NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA 90 52

Table 13 Average Pension Replacement Rates for Specified Illustrative Workers: Defined Benefit Pension Plans, 1984-93 Retirement annuity as percent of final earnings* Illustrative worker with 1984 1985 1986 1988 10 years of service and final annual earnings of: $15,000 11.0 10.9 11.1 11.9 20,000 9.9 9.8 10.0 10.5 25,000 9.7 9.5 9.7 10.0 30,000 9.7 9.5 9.7 9.8 35,000 9.7 9.6 9.7 9.8 45,000 --------55,000 --------65,000 --------20 years of service and final annual earnings of: $15,000 20,000 25,000 30,000 35,000 45,000 55,000 65,000 30 years of service and final annual earnings of: $15,000 20,000 25,000 30,000 35,000 45,000 55,000 65,000
See Notes to Tables; also *The maximum private pension was calculated using the earnings and service shown, not reduced for early retirement or joint-and-survivor annuities. Replacement rates refer to the ratio of the retirement pension to the final year's earnings. Data exclude supplemental pension plans.

1989 12.1 10.9 10.4 9.9 9.8 -------

1991 14.2 NA 12.0 NA 11.2 10.8 10.8 10.8

1993 8.1 NA 6.9 NA 6.6 6.4 6.3 6.3

21.0 18.8 18.4 18.5 18.6 -------

21.2 19.1 18.6 18.6 18.7 -------

21.6 19.5 18.9 18.9 19.1 -------

23.1 20.4 19.3 19.0 19.1 -------

23.4 21.1 20.0 19.8 19.9 -------

27.4 NA 22.9 NA 21.4 20.9 20.8 20.1

17.0 NA 15.0 NA 14.1 13.5 13.3 13.3

30.8 27.4 26.6 26.5 26.5 -------

31.4 28.3 27.6 27.3 27.3 -------

31.5 28.5 27.6 27.4 27.4 -------

33.5 29.6 28.0 27.3 27.3 -------

34.6 31.3 29.7 29.4 29.5 -------

39.3 NA 32.5 NA 30.8 30.2 29.0 29.1

27.0 NA 23.6 NA 22.2 21.5 21.0 21.0

Later years information not published.

Table 14 Prevalence of Postretirement Benefit Increases: Defined Benefit Pension Plans, 1983-97

With postretirement increase available Automatic COLA increase Discretionary increase granted, last 5 years
See Notes to Tables; also Data exclude supplemental pension plans.

1983 51 NA NA

1984 47 NA NA

Percentage of full-time participants 1985 1986 1988 1989 1991 1993 1995 1997 41 35 27 24 NA 10 7 NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA 4 6 3 4 NA NA

Table 15 Maximum Benefit Provisions: Defined Benefit Pension Plans, 1984-97

Type of formula Not subject to maximum Subject to maximum* Limit on service years Less than 20 20-29 30-39 40 or more Other limit
See Notes to Tables; also

1984 58 42 34 2 5 32 4 11

1985 60 40 34 2 3 24 5 8

Percentage of full-time participants 1986 1988 1989 1991 1993 59 60 59 61 63 41 40 41 39 37 36 37 37 37 37 2 1 1 1 5** 6 6 5 5 22 23 24 25 25 7 9 9 8 7 7 6 6 4 1

1995 65 35 33 5** 29 5 1

1997 67 33 31 6** 6 19 6 2

*Sums of individual items do not equal totals because more than one maximum may apply. **Sum of <20 and 20-29 years. Data exclude supplemental pension plans.

Table 16 Disability Retirement Provisions: Defined Benefit Pension Plans, 1980-97

Plan characteristics Disability retirement available Minimum requirements for disability retirement where available: No age or service Service only Age only Qualifies for LTD* Benefit provisions for disability retirement where available: Immediate Unreduced normal Other Deferred Service credit to retirement Other
See Notes to Tables; also *Long term disability insurance. Data exclude supplemental pension plans.

1980 1981 1982 87 88 89

Percentage of full-time participants 1983 1984 1985 1986 1988 1989 1991 1993 1995 1997 91 90 85 89 92 81 79 69 73 75

16 61 1 11

15 57 1 18

16 56 --20

14 57 --21

17 52 --22

16 54 --20

13 50 --25

13 57 1 31

12 56 --31

20 54 --18

11 36 1 16

11 28 --17

NA NA NA NA

70 55 15 30 24 6

67 51 16 33 27 6

66 51 15 34 30 4

66 50 16 34 29 5

62 48 14 38 31 7

60 47 13 40 32 8

55 41 14 45 37 8

52 39 13 48 39 9

57 42 15 43 37 6

63 46 17 37 28 9

41 32 10 28 24 4

45 29 16 28 24 4

46 30 16 25 21 4

Table 17 Defined Benefit Plans: Lump Sum Available at Retirement, 1991-97 Percentage of full time participants 1991 1993 1995 1997 % with Lump Sum Full Amount Amount Limited
See Notes to Tables; also Data exclude supplemental pension plans.

14 9 5

10 9 3

15 15 5

23 22 1

Table 18 Participation in Retirement and Capital Accumulation Plans, 1985-97 Percentage of full-time employees 1988† 1988 1989 1991 1993 88 82 83 79 78 69 68 69 69 NA 2 2 1 1 NA 17 12 12 9 NA 12 18 17 21 22

Plan participation 1985 Covered by a plan 92 Retirement only* 71 Capital accumulation only** 1 Both 20 Not covered by a plan 8
See Notes to Tables; also

1986 91 67 1 22 9

1995 80 NA NA NA 20

1997 79 NA NA NA 21

Data exclude supplemental pension plans. *Includes defined benefit and defined contribution plans such as money purchase pensions, profit sharing, and savings and thrift plans when employer contributions must remain in the participant's account until retirement, death, disability, separation from service, age 59 1/2, or hardship. **Includes plan in which employer contributions may be withdrawn from participant's account prior to retirement, death, disability, separation from service, age 59 1/2, or hardship.

Table 19 Combinations of Retirement and Capital Accumulation Plans, 1985-91

Combinations covering participants Defined benefit plan with: No other plan Profit sharing* Savings/thrift Stock plan Money purchase Profit sharing plan with: No other plan Savings/thrift Stock plan Money purchase plan with: No other plan Savings/thrift Savings/thrift plan with: No other plan Stock plan with: No other plan
See Notes to Tables; also

Percent of full-time participants 1985 1986 1988 1989 1991 89 45 5 15 23 --9 7 1 1 ------1 1 ----85 35 13 15 22 --11 8 1 1 ------3 2 1 1 76 45 9 21 1 1 12 10 1 1 5 5 1 5 5 1 1 76 42 7 24 2 1 10 8 1 1 5 4 1 8 8 1 1 59 35 5 15 1 1 16 8 5 --7 5 3 29 15 2 NA

*Includes profit sharing and saving/stock combination plans; excludes pure cash profit sharing plans. Data exclude supplemental pension plans.

Later data not available.

Table 20 Participation In Cash or Deferred Plans Including Salary Reduction Plans, 1985-95

Type of plan Cash or deferred plan* Salary reduction plan Salary and thrift Profit sharing Money purchase Other
See Notes to Tables; also

1985 26 26 18 4 1 3

Percentage of full-time employees 1986 1988† 1988 1989 1991 33 31 21 6 1 3 42 40 27 9 --5 36 34 22 7 --6 41 38 28 4 1 5 44 40 28 4 1 4

1993 36 35 29 4 NA 3

1995 45 44 37 5 NA 2

*Cash or deferred plans are included only if they allow income to be deferred; data include employee contributions to various retirement plans but exclude cases where employee contributions may be required to a defined benefit pension plan. Data exclude supplemental pension plans.

Later data not available.

Table 21 Participation in Defined Contribution Plans, 1985-97 Percentage of full-time employees 1986 1988† 1988 1989 1991 1993 28 22 30 --2 32 21 2 --3 25 18 2 --6 30 16 3 --5 29 16 3 --7 29 13 3 --8

Type of plan Savings and thrift Profit sharing Stock ownership Stock bonus Money purchase
See Notes to Tables; also

1985 27 18 24 1 4

1995 41 13 5 2 7

1997 39 13 4 NA 8

Data exclude supplemental pension plans.

Table 22 Age and Length of Service Requirements for Participation, Savings and Thrift, Deferred Profit Sharing Plans and 401(k) Plans, 1985-97 Type of requirement Savings and Thrift Plans No minimum age & service requirements With minimum age and/or service requirements* Service only < 1 year 1 year 2+ years Age requirements Age 20 or less and 1 year service Age 21 and 1 year service Deferred Profit Sharing Plans No minimum age & service requirements With minimum age and/or service requirements* Service only < 1 year 1 year 2+ years Age requirements Age 20 or less and 1 year service Age 21 and 1 year service 401(k) Plans No minimum age/service requirements With minimum age/seniority Service only < 1 year 1 year 2+ years
See Notes to Tables; also *The Retirement Equity Act of 1984 required that nearly all plans allow participation to full-time empployees who have reached age 21 and have completed 1 year of service. Plans may impose a service requirement of up to 3 years if vesting is then immediate on participation. The compliance date for most plans was June 1986, but collectively bargained plus had slightly longer to comply. **Figures reported for service-only category in these years (age may also be required but separate tabulations NA) Data exclude supplemental pension plans.

1985 14 86 70 16 48 6 4 2 11 6 1985 NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA

1986 10 90 73 15 50 7 6 2 10 8 1986 14 86 69 11 49 9 3 2 12 7

1988 14 86 64 11 43 10 6 2 16 13 1988 9 91 66 15 44 6 4 1 21 19

Percentage of full-time participants 1989 1991 1993 15 18 17 85 62 12 45 5 5 1 19 15 1989 6 94 65 4 54 6 4 1 25 23 82 57 13 39 4 4 2 21 18 1991 5 95 60 6 52 2 6 5 29 --81 55 14 38 2 8 5 18 14 1993 16 82 55 14 37 3 11 6 16 12 1993 17 81 53 14 35 3

1995** 33 67 NA 11 55 2 NA NA NA NA 1995 24 76 76 9 59 8 NA NA NA NA 1995 27 67 NA 11 52 4

1997** 25 75 NA 22 52 2 NA NA NA NA 1997 31 69 NA 13 54 1 NA NA NA NA 1997 27 69 NA 13 54 1

Table 23 Vesting Schedules: Savings and Thrift, Deferred Profit Sharing, and 401(k) Plans, 1985-97 Type of plan Savings and Thrift Plans Immediate full vesting Cliff vesting* with full vesting after 1-2 years 3-4 5+ Graduated vesting** with full vesting after <4 years 5 6-9 10+ Other Deferred Profit Sharing Plan Immediate full vesting Cliff vesting* with full vesting after 1-2 years 3-4 5+ Graduated vesting** with full vesting after <4 years 5 6-9 10+ Other
(continued)

1985 25 12 3 2 7 28 4 16 4 4 35

1986 26 20 5 7 8 25 2 15 4 4 29

Percentage of full-time participants 1988† 1989 1991 1993 1995 27 30 31 34 33 20 3 7 10 32 4 21 3 4 21 24 2 11 12 30 4 19 5 2 16 31 2 9 19 35 3 21 10 ----29 2 9 18 33 5 18 10 ----25 1 5 18 24 3 12 8 -----

1997 29 30 3 6 21 33 10 15 9 -----

NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA

29 2 2 1 1 66 --3 14 49 4

22 2 ----2 73 1 7 29 35 2

37 12 --4 8 50 2 6 28 15 1

40 18 --1 16 41 2 4 37 -----

18 21 --6 15 55 2 16 37 1 ---

37 22 2 2 17 34 1 4 28 1 ---

29 30 3 6 21 33 10 15 9 -----

Table 23 (continued) 401(k) Plans Immediate full vesting Cliff vesting* with full vesting after 1-2 years 3-4 5+ Graduated vesting** with full vesting after <4 years 5 6-9 10+ Other
See Notes to Tables; also

1993 34 26 2 8 16 37 4 18 14 -----

1995 39 24 1 5 18 27 3 13 10 -----

1997 34 27 3 5 19 32 11 13 9 -----

*A cliff vesting schedule requires an employee to satisfy specific service conditions in order to become 100% vested. ERISA defined 10 years as the maximum requirement for this form of vesting. The Tax Reform Act of 1986 required single-employer plans to convert to a 5-year schedule if using cliff vesting; this provision was to be adopted by most plans during 1989, with slightly later dates for collectively bargained plans. **Graduated vesting schedules give an employee rights to a gradually increasing share of accrued pension benefits, eventually reaching 100% at specified age and/or service points. Data exclude supplemental pension plans.

Table 24 Employee Contributions in Savings and Thrift and 401(k) Plans, 1985-97 Type of plan Savings and Thrift Plans Basis of maximum contribution, if allowed/required: Specified dollar amount Fraction of earnings <=5% 6-9 10 11-14 15 16 17-19 20+ Other Tax status of contribution, if allowed/required: Pretax contribution allowed 401(k) Plans Basis of maximum contribution, if allowed/required: Specified dollar amount Fraction of earnings <=5% 6-9 10 11-14 15 16 17-19 20+ Other Tax status of contribution, if allowed/required: Pretax contribution allowed
See Notes to Tables; also Data exclude supplemental pension plans.

1985 2 97 --5 17 21 8 32 8 6 1 65

1986 2 98 1 10 13 20 9 29 8 7 --75

1988 2 95 1 8 13 19 14 24 9 6 3 85

Percentage of participants 1989 1991 1 97 2 9 12 20 17 21 9 7 2 92 1 93 5 7 12 11 20 22 10 5 5 98

1993 2 91 5 10 19 15 19 16 4 2 7 NA

1995 1 83 2 5 10 13 21 18 7 6 16 NA

1997 1 89 2 4 7 15 33 17 8 3 10 NA

NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA

NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA

NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA

NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA

NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA

2 91 5 8 19 15 19 16 4 2 7 NA

1 83 4 10 12 13 20 12 7 5 16 NA

1 87 4 5 11 11 31 11 7 3 12 NA

Table 25 Employer Contributions in Savings and Thrift Plans, 1985-97 Percentage of full-time participants 1989 1991 1993 1995 1997 4 36 47 12 1 39 43 14 NA 40 46 15 NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA

Employer matching* contributions Specified dollar amount: Fraction of salary up to: <=5% 6% >=7%
See Notes to Tables; also

1985 9 12 52 14

1986 7 28 54 11

1988 5 35 47 11

*Employees may contribute a percentage of salary up to a maximum; ceilings on employer matching contributions are generally lower. Data exclude supplemental pension plans.

Table 26 Provisions of Deferred Profit Sharing Plans, 1986-97

Type of formula Employer contributions: Based on specified formula Fixed % of profits Other formulas No formula Allocation of profits to employees: Equally to all Based on earnings alone Based on earnings and service Other Loans from employee's accounts: Permitted
See Notes to Tables; also Data exclude supplemental pension plans.

1986 59 NA NA 41

Percentage of full-time participants 1988 1989 1991 1993 1995 55 16 39 45 60 10 50 40 52 10 42 48 40 9 31 60 62 24 38 38

1997 62 17 45 38

1 61 10 8

1 74 12 13

1 64 9 26

2 52 13 33

7 52 11 30

6 56 7 31

18 49 8 24

25

32

19

27

23

33

32

Table 27 Provisions for Withdrawal of Employer Contributions Prior to Retirement, Disability or Termination of Employment: Savings and Thrift Plans, 1985-97

Type of formula No withdrawals permitted Withdrawals permitted For any reason No penalty Some penalty For hardship reason* No penalty Some penalty
See Notes to Tables; also

1985 20 80 61 30 30 19 14 3

1986 18 82 56 19 37 26 21 5

Percentage of full-time participants 1988† 1988 1989 1991 1993 29 28 29 50 51 71 42 15 26 29 21 6 72 41 14 25 30 22 7 71 37 17 18 34 27 7 50 24 16 8 26 17 9 47 29 NA NA 18 NA NA

1995 43 43 16 NA NA 28 NA NA

1997 48 52 18 NA NA 35 NA NA

*Commonly expressed hardship reasons include purchase or repair of primary residence, death or illness in the family, education of an immediate family member, or sudent uninsured loss. Data exclude supplemental pension plans.

Table 28 Loan Provisions of 401(k) Plans: 1993-97

Loans Permitted Hardship only Any reason Not permitted Not determinable
See Notes to Tables; also

Percentage of full-time participants 1993 1995 1997 43 49 51 3 4 6 39 44 45 56 1 46 15 40 9

*Many plants offer more than one form of cash distribution so sums of individual items exceed total. Data exclude supplemental pension plans.

Table 29 Method of Distribution of Account at Retirement: Savings and Thrift Plans, 1985-97

Type of distribution Cash distribution* Lifetime annuity Installments Lump sum
See Notes to Tables; also

1985 99 29 59 99

1986 99 25 52 98

Percent of full-time participants 1988 1989 1991 1993 1995 97 25 49 95 97 28 52 96 99 30 52 99 NA 30 48 98 NA 17 30 85

1997 NA 25 41 91

*Many plans offer more than one form of cash distribution so sums of individual items may exceed total. Data exclude supplemental pension plans.

Table 30 Method of Distribution of Account at Retirement: 401(k) Plans: 1993-97

Type of distribution Cash distribution Lifetime Annuity Installments Lump Sum
See Notes to Tables; also Data exclude supplemental pension plans.

Percentage of full-time participants 1993 1995 1997

34 49 98

21 34 92

27 41 91

*Many plans offer more than one form of cash distribution so sums of individual items exceed total.

Table 31 401(k) Plans: Investment Choices: 1993-97

Investment Choices Employee permitted to choose 401 (k) investments: 1-2 choices 3 choices 4 choices > 5 choices
See Notes to Tables; also Er: Employer, Ee: Employee Data exclude supplemental pension plans.

Percentage of full-time participants 1993 1995 1997 Ee Er Ee Er Ee Er 86 11 23 28 25 58 8 13 16 22 83 4 15 26 37 64 3 11 16 35 86 3 11 21 31 65 2 8 14 24

Table 32 Saving and Thrift Plans: Investment Choices, Investment Types, and Frequency of Investment Changes: 1989-97 Percentage of full-time participants 1991 1993 1995 Ee Er Ee Er Ee Er 91 15 32 29 20 62 16 33 25 22 86 12 21 30 24 58 7 13 17 21 74 3 13 21 28 58 3 10 13 26

1989 Investment Choices Employee permitted to choose saving & thrift plan investments: 1-2 choices 3 choices 4 choices >5 choices Types of investment choices: Company stock Common stock LT interest-bearing sec. Diversified stock/bond Guaranteed Investment Money market CD Frequency of investment changes: Total with choice allowed - Anytime - Specified No. 1/yr 2-4/yr >5/yr
See Notes to Tables; also Data exclude supplemental pension plans.

1997 Ee 87 2 11 21 47 Er 65 2 3 14 34

Ee 90 25 36 23 15

Er 53 22 40 20 16

60 79 32 26 64 35 3

50 83 37 31 59 41 4

50 87 44 26 71 38 2

36 90 46 27 70 43 2

43 68 42 42 43 26 1

49 49 28 33 30 20 1

40 59 48 41 25 30 4

27 48 36 31 20 25 2

42 69 59 54 20 35 3

25 50 43 40 15 28 2

NA NA NA NA NA NA

NA NA NA NA NA NA

NA NA NA NA NA NA

NA NA NA NA NA NA

NA 29 65 5 51 9

NA 32 63 4 49 10

74 38 31 3 20 8

58 32 21 2 15 4

87 47 32 2 22 8

65 36 22 1 17 4