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Shakkottai Homework 1 Solutions

Fall 2013 shakkott@ece.utexas.edu

Problem 1 We are given that P (B − A) = 0.15, P (A ∪ B ) = 0.65 and P (B c ) = 0.70. Determine P (A) and P (A ∩ B ). Solution : P (B − A) = P (B ) − P (A ∩ B ) = 0.15 Now, P (B ) = 1 − P (B c ) = 1 − .70 = 0.30 =⇒ P (A ∩ B ) = 0.15 We know that , P (A ∪ B ) = P (A) + P (B ) − P (A ∩ B ) = 0.65 =⇒ P (A) = 0.50 Problem 2 Let A and B be two sets.

(a) Show that (A ∩ B ) ∪ (A ∩ B c ) = A. Also show that (A ∩ B )c = Ac ∪ B c . (b) Assume that a fair 6 sided die is rolled. Let A be the event where the sum is less than or equal to 6. Let B be the event that both the numbers are different. Verify the properties in part (a). Solution : Part a : We have B ∩ B c = φ and B ∪ B c = Ω. Suppose x ∈ (A ∩ B ) ∪ (A ∩ B c ), =⇒ x is either in A ∩ B or in A ∩ B c . This naturally implies that x ∈ A. =⇒ (A ∩ B ) ∪ (A ∩ B c ) ⊂ A Now, suppose x ∈ A . Now suppose that x does not belong to neither A ∩ B nor A ∩ B c . As x ∈ / A ∩ B , therefore x is • in A but not in B . In this case we contradict that x ∈ A ∩ B c . • in B but not in A. But this contradicts our assumption that x ∈ A • neither in A nor B , which again is a contradiction. So, x ∈ (A ∩ B ) ∪ (A ∩ B c ) =⇒ A ⊂ (A ∩ B ) ∪ (A ∩ B c ). =⇒ A = (A ∩ B ) ∪ (A ∩ B c ). Next we have to prove that (A ∩ B )c = Ac ∪ B c . Suppose x ∈ Ac ∪ B c =⇒ that x belongs to either Ac or B c . So, if x ∈ A ∩ B , then x is neither in Ac nor in B c , so this is a contradiction. So, x ∈ (A ∩ B )c . =⇒ Ac ∪ B c ⊂ (A ∩ B )c . Similarly it can be proven that (A ∩ B )c ⊂ Ac ∪ B c . Thus we get , (A ∩ B )c = Ac ∪ B c

1).364. Number of ways in which n people can have their birthday such that no two people have theirs on the same day = 365. (1. 3). 1). (4. 2). 1). (2. P(atleast two people having their birthday on the same day) = 1 . (1. Problem 3 Show that P (A) + P (B ) − P (A ∩ B ) = 1 − P (Ac ∩ B c ).364. So. 365n 365. Number of ways of n people having their birthday in a year = 365n (as each person has a choice of 365 days before them). 2). (2. 5).(365−n+1) So.Part b : A = {(1...(365 − n + 1).. 3). (1. Let us deﬁne the events. We note that in the area below the line x = y .75 as shaded in the Figure 1. P(none having their birthday on the same day) = 365. (4. We assume that both of them choose the number independently and uniformly distributed from [0.75. Use this identity to calculate the probability that out of n people.y} must be less than 0. 5). (2. (1. 2). (3. 2).5. .25 more than that of Axle. (2.. 1).. P (A) + P (B ) − P (A ∩ B ) = 1 − P (Ac ∩ B c ). (2.Prob(none will occur). (3. (5. (3. 2). 3). 1)} A ∩ B c = {(1. 3)} So. (6. as the equation governing the event is x + y ≤ 0. (4. 3). 1). 1).364. (2. 365n Problem 4 Jimmy and Axle each choose a real number between 0 and 1.(365−n+1) =⇒ P(atleast two people having their birthday on the same day) = 1 − . Find the probabilities P (A). We can then represent the sample space as a square on the x and y axis as shown in Figure 1. P (D). 2). (1. A = (A ∩ B ) ∪ (A ∩ B c ). 1).. (4.. (3.5. 1). (4. 4). 3). (5. 4).363 . 4). 1)} B = {(1. 3). (3. Make necessary assumptions. . (2.. A: The sum of the numbers is less than 0. • The event B states that the max{x. (3. B: The maximum of the numbers is less than 0. 2). C: The two numbers are equal. • In this context the event A bounded by the line x + y = 0. Now by De Morgan’s law. 2). 4). 1).363. P (B ). (2. (1. atleast two will have their birthday on the same day of the year. (Ac ∩ B c )c = A ∪ B So. Hence we get the area as shown in Figure 1.5. (5. Solution : P (A) + P (B ) − P (A ∩ B ) = P (A ∪ B ) . 2). P (A ∩ D). P (A ∩ B ).75.. 1].P(none having their birthday on the same day). Solution Let x be the value Jimmy chooses and y be the value Axle chooses. (3. D: Jimmy’s number is atleast . P (C ). (2. in these two areas it sufﬁces to limit x and y respectively to a value less than 0. 5). x is greater and in the area above this line y is greater. 6)}c =⇒ A ∩ B = {(1.363. This implies that the probability that atleast one will occur is equivalent to 1 . (1. 4).

2).(3.2).1). (b) Given that the roll resulted in a sum of 7 or less.(1.(6.(6.5).(3.(1. =⇒ P (A) = 20 36 (b) B : {sum is 7 or less} = {(1.(2.4).(4.2).3).(2.1).3). P rob(X ) = area(X ) area(samplespace) .(1.4).(3.3).5).1). Figure 1: The events It must be noted that the numbers are all equiprobable in the sample space.3).4).(3.2).(2. (A∩B ) Now calculate P (A|B ) = P P (B ) . (d) Given that the two dice land on different numbers.(1.4).(1.6).(1.4). We roll two fair 6-sided dice. ﬁnd the conditional probability that the two differ by atleast 2.(6. Note that A ∩ B is the set of events that are common to A and B . Problem 5 equally likely.1). which may be counter-intuitive. For example P (A ∩ B ) can be calculated by ﬁnding out the area that is both in A and B .(3.(2.(1.2).2).4)}.(5. So.(4.1).6). Each one of the 36 possible outcomes is assumed to be (a) Find the probability that two numbers differ by 2 or more. • The event D represents the are where x − y ≤ 0. .2).25 and is shown in the ﬁgure below.(2.(3.(3.(5.(1.6). so the probability of Jimmy and Axle choosing the same number is 0.6).3).(5.(4.(2.5). So.1)}. =⇒ |A| = 20.6).1). Note that the event C is just a straight line with 0 area. (c) Find the probability that second die has number greater than that of ﬁrst die.(4.1).3).5).1). P (C ) = 0.2).• The event C is just the straight line representing x = y .(2.1).(6.(5.(5.3).(4.(2. With the above reperesentation the probability of the events and their intersection can be easily found out by calculating the area under the respective events. Solution : (a) A : {two numbers differ by 2 or more} = {(1.5).(6. This points us to the fact that the real line is uncountably dense.(4. ﬁnd the probability that the sum is greater than or equal to 5.

So. There are 15 cases where the ﬁrst number is greater 15 and 15 cases when the second is greater. D : { Sum is greater than or equal 5}. (d) C : {Two dice land on different numbers}. . P rob = 36 . Find P (C ∩ D) and P (C ) to calculate P (D|C ).(c) There are 6 cases when the numbers are equal.

Homework 1 solutions

Homework 1 solutions

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by अजय प्रताप सिंह

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