4
4.1: CONSTRUCT THE DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS
4.1.1: Identify Type Of Differential Equations
 Order The number of the highest derivative in a differential equation. A differential equation of order 1 is called first order; order 2
second order, etc.
Example:
i.
2
1
1
y
x
dx
dy
+
+
= first order differential equation
ii. x y
dx
dy
x sin
2
+ first order differential equation
iii.
2
2
2
2 4 x y
dx
dy
dx
y d
= + second order differential equation
 Degree The power of the highest order derivative in
the equation. A differential equation of degree is called first degree, second degree, etc.
Example:
i. x xy
dx
dy
xy
2
= first order differential equation with first degree.
ii.
2
2
1 
.

\

= +
dx
dy
x y first order differential equation with second degree.
iii. x y
dx
dy
dx
y d
2 cos 10 2
2
2
2
= +


.

\

second order differential equation with second degree.
DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS
Try this!
Determine order and degree for below equations:
a)
3
2
4
x
x
dx
dy +
= 
.

\

b) 0 sin
2
= + t
dt
ds
t
c) 0 2 4
2
2
= + + xy
dx
dy
dx
y d
x
d) 0 2 3
2
2
2
= + +


.

\

y
dx
dy
dx
y d
49
First order differential equation
4.1.2: Construct The Differential Equation
 Example (a):
Construct the differential equation for y = A sin 2x
Solution:
Step 1: Write down the question as the 1
st
equation
y = A sin 2x
Step 2: Differentiate
for the 1
st
equation (make it as 2
nd
equation)
y = A sin 2x
= 2A cos 2x
Step 3: For the 3
rd
equation, properly arrange the constant.
= 2A cos 2x
)
Step 4: Substitute 3
rd
equation into 1
st
equation and simplify the final calculation.
y = A sin 2x
)
(
 Example (b):
Construct the differential equation for y = Cx
3
+ x
4
Solution:
Step 1: y = Cx
3
+ x
4
Step 2:
= 3Cx
2
+ 4x
3
Step 3:
1
2
3
1
2
3
50
First order
differential equation
Step 4: y = Cx
3
+ x
4
(
 Example (c):
Construct the differential equation for y = Ax
2
Bx + x
Solution:
Step 1: Write down the question as the 1
st
equation
y = Ax
2
Bx + x
Step 2: Differentiate
for the 1
st
equation (make it as 2
nd
equation).
y = Ax
2
Bx + x
= 2Ax B + 1
Step 3: If the differentiation still have 2 constants, do the second order differentiation (make it as 3
rd
equation).
Step 4: For the 3
rd
equation, properly arrange the constant (make it as 4
th
equation).
)
Step 4: Substitute 4
th
equation into 2
nd
equation.
= 2Ax B + 1
*(
) (
)+
) (
)
Step 5: Arrange the second constant properly (make it as 5
th
equation).
(
) (
1
2
4
3
5
51
Second order differential equation
Step 6: Substitute both 4
th
and 5
th
equation into 1
st
equation.
y = Ax
2
Bx + x
*
)+
*(
+
=
) (
) (
) () (
) (
) () (
) () (
)
4.2: FIRST ORDER DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS
 There are 4 types of first order differential equations:
o Direct integration
o Separable variables
o Homogenous equation
o Linear equation (integrating factors)
4.2.1: Direct Integration
 Form of
()
 Example (d):
Solve below differential equation
Solution:
Step 1: Solve using direct integration
Try this!
Construct the differential equation for:
a) y = A cos x + B sin x
b) y = Ax
2
+ 3
c) y
2
= 5Ax
d) y = Dx
2
+ Ex
52
4.2.2: Separable Variables
 Form of
()()
()
()
 Example (e):
Solve below differential equation
Solution:
Step 1: Separate two variables with x on the right and y on the left.
Step 2: Solve the integral
tan y = tan x + c
4.2.3: Homogenous Equation
 Form of substitution
 Example (f):
Solve below differential equation
(
Solution:
Step 1: Separate the equation
Step 2: Substitution
)
Step 3: Substitute 3
rd
equation into 1
st
equation
(
1
2
3
53
Step 4: Replace 2
nd
equation into Step 3
(
)
()()
()
()
Step 5: Separate the variables with x and v on different sides
Step 6: Solve the integral
]
Step 7: Replace
)+
54
4.2.4: Linear Equation (Integrating Factors)
 Form of
 Example (g):
Solve below differential equation
( )
( )
Solution:
Step 1: Simplify
) (
)
()
) ( )
) ( )
Step 2: Identify P and Q
( )
Step 3: Integrating factor of P
()
()
()
ln x = ln x
1
e
ln (x2)
= e
(x2)1
e
ln F
= F
= (x2)
1
FP =
55
Step 4: Substitute into equation
( )
( )
Step 5: Solve the integral
( )
Step 6: Simplify y
( )
( )
( ) ( )
( )
( )
Try this!
Solve below differential equation:
a) (
) (
b) ( ) (
) ( )
c) (
d) (