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a) Characteristics of Carbohydrates:
✔ They have carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen, often in a ratio of or near
✔ They are polar and therefore hydrophilic.
✔ Organic compounds containing only C,H and O. H and O in a
proportion similar to water. Basic formula: Cx (H2O)
✔ After water, carbohydrates are the most abundant food by
photosynthesis occur in many processes in plant foods: cereals,
legumes, tubers, vegetables and fruits.
✔ Also found in animal foods: milk.
✔ Carbohydrates such as glucose, are the main source of energy in our
body which are metabolized in the liver.

b) Characteristics of Lipids
✔ Lipids are part of all the membranes of all body cells.
✔ Some are flexible, while others are rigid to almost a total molecular
flexibility, some sharing and other carbon-free form hydrogen bridges.
✔ Most lipids have a polar character type and has a large
✔ The hydrophobic region of lipid is the only show that carbon atoms
attached to hydrogen atoms.
✔ Lipids are a group of organic compounds that have carbon plus hydrogen
and oxygen. Lipids are found in plants, animals and microorganisms.

Properties of Lipids
✔ Character Anfipático.
✔ Melting Point.
✔ Esterification.
✔ Saponification.
c) Characteristics of Proteins
✔ Proteins are macromolecules, are biopolymers, consist of large
numbers of simple repetitive structural units.
✔ All proteins are carbon, hydrogen, oxygen and nitrogen and sulfur also
have almost all.
✔ The fundamental units are amino acids.
✔ The Nitrogen content represents 16% of the total mass of the
✔ Proteins have different functions: transport of electrolytes such as
sodium, potassium and chlorine.
✔ An essential protein in our body is albumin which is responsible for
what is called the oncotic pressure is what keeps the blood volume.

Properties of Proteins
✔ Solubility.
✔Capacity electrolytic.
✔Shock of Hp.

d) Characteristics of Nuclei Acids
✔ Nucleic acids, DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) and RNA
(deoxyribonucleic acid) polymers are specialized to store, transmit
and express genetic information into amino acid sequences, which
after some processes make up the proteins of a cell.
✔ The molecular mass of DNA is generally greater than that of RNA.
✔ Units that are nucleic acids are nucleotides.
✔ Nucleic acids are compounds of high molecular weight, are

a) Proteins: Lack of protein causes two major diseases that are called
marasmus and kwashiorkor are caused by malnutrition. These diseases occur
in parts of the world where there is poverty and these are given in times of
b) Carbohydrates: Diseases caused by carbohydrates is when you have a
high glycemic index and this causes a risk for diabetes, obesity and even
heart disease. But before this happens you have several symptoms such as
having fatigue, depression, cancer, loss of hair.

c) Lipids: Gaucher disease is the most common of the lipid storage
diseases. Oily material is obtained in the spleen, liver, kidneys, lungs, brain
and bone marrow. Symptoms may include enlarged spleen and liver, skeletal
disorders and bone lesions that can cause pain. The disease also affects
men and women.
Other diseases of Fabry disease is caused by a buildup of fatty material in
the autonomic nervous system, eyes, kidneys and cardiovascular system.

d) Nuclei Acids: While profits are important, there is also risk. For
example, the introduction of genes that cause cancer in a common infectious
organism, like influenza virus, can be very dangerous. Therefore, in most
countries, experiments with DNA is under strict control.


The accumulation of lipids in the arteries produces cholesterol, this
happened to my uncle Edgard but the doctor said the stress and tension can
lead to hypertension, tachycardia and blood cholesterol. So my uncle has a
special diet, consume low-carb, for example, one bread at breakfast and is
integral, at lunch eat vegetables instead of rice and meat with seasoning
and cooked on the grill.

Marcelo Acosta