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Nowacek Source: College Composition and Communication, Vol. 60, No. 3 (Feb., 2009), pp. 493-516 Published by: National Council of Teachers of English Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/20457079 . Accessed: 23/09/2013 01:45
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Rebecca S. Nowacek
SoVery HardtoDo? WhyIs BeingInterdisciplinary on thePerils andPromise of Thoughts Pedagogy Interdisciplinary
This essay explores thechallenges facingstudents and teachers in the interdisciplinary class and drawing classroom.Based on observations of a team-taughtinterdisciplinary on cultural historical activitytheory, I argue that thepsychological double binds that resultfromtheclash ofdifferent disciplinaryactivitysystemsconstituteboth thegreat est challenge and richestpotential of interdisciplinary classrooms.
Fish, in his 1989 essay "Being Interdisciplinary Is So Very Hard to
interdisciplinarity impossible. Do:' pronounced Defining interdisciplinarity as
the attempt to escape "the prison houses of our various specialties to the open range ... of a general human knowledge, he declared that such a goal "is not a
What passes forinterdisciplinarity, possiblehumanachievement" Fish (237).
argued, is in fact littlemore than either disciplinary imperialism or the emer gence of a new discipline. In the years since, Fish's definition and dismissal of
inprint. havegone largely in interdisciplinarity unchallenged But inpractice,
terdisciplinary programs have multiplied at a dizzying pace. If interdisciplinarity is impossible, what are we tomake of the "interdis ciplinary" learning communities, first-year seminars, and senior capstone courses that are an increasingly common feature of undergraduate general edu CCC 60:3 /FEBRUARY 2009 493
This content downloaded from 220.127.116.11 on Mon, 23 Sep 2013 01:45:09 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions
My conception is informed by recent work in cultural historical activity theory. physical) 494 This content downloaded from 148. consists of fourelements: a subject.but not impossible. CHAT turns our attention from a focus on a single (albeit dynamic) disciplin ary discourse community to a view of overlapping and interlocking activity systems.159. I focus on the challenges faced by participants in a team-taught interdisciplinary course designed to fillgeneral education requirements for first-year university students.206. either an individual or a collection of people.Drawing on thesociocultural and especially analysesofVygotsky. must negotiate double binds placed upon them when various disci plines conflict. to engage in authentically interdisciplinary work? ByFish's definition. an object of attention and themotive (official or unofficial) that drives activity in the system. To illustrate. Interdisciplinary work-interdisciplinary teaching.132 on Mon. In this essay I draw on cultural historical activity theory (CHAT) and classroom research to explain why interdisciplinary teaching and learning are very difficult. interdisciplinary studies and writing studies can beneficial enjoyamutually classrooms offer a relationship: interdisciplinary for and powerful context writinginstruction. Leont'ev. theanswerisno:we I cannot. much less students in their firstyears of undergraduate studies. Defining Interdisciplinarity Central to understanding interdisciplinarity is an understanding of ofdisciplinarity and thus of interdisciplinarity disciplinarity. the double bind can also facilitate viduals. agree. but if higher-order thinking about disciplines and the role ofwriting within them. and themediational tools (cultural and discursive as well as usedwithinthesystem. Understood in thisway.CCC 60:3 / FEBRUARY 2009 cation programs? By one recent count. Engestrom. over half of current general education reforms include interdisciplinary programs orcourses(Ratcliff). An activity system. to do. and thinking-is work on the boundaries and intersections of disci plines. in itsmost basic representation (see Figure 1). I argue. Those double binds can limit and constrain thework of indi made an object of reflection. writinginstruction offers a pow erfulmeans to help students engage in interdisciplinary learning. Both students and instructors. escape disciplinary for constraints knowledge unfettered by discoursecommunities. Are these pro indisguise?Is itpossible for grams merelydisciplinary imperialism anyone. 23 Sep 2013 01:45:09 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . learning. But interdisciplinarity isnot simply a desire to slip the yokeofdisciplinarity. work that doesnot transcend but rather transforms ourunderstanding ofdisciplines.
superb sisof amediationaltool writing assignedinthe general education curriculum. Theworld ofhumanaction. disciplines solely itistrue that tradistinction toone another. fi activity systems institutional Disciplinary theinterrelation ofsubject. unconscious negotiations.159. turf in relation toone another. 23 Sep 2013 01:45:09 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . isnot freedom from alldisciplinary constraints butaware disciplinary thought 495 This content downloaded from 148. and object/motive.in thisview. ity system withinanotherfacea series and often unpredictable. borrowed Activity theory helpsus tosee that materials arenever otheractivity and pure or devoidof resonancesfrom thoroughly systems. have though historically disciplines often defined in order and used their and tools to stake out objects.132 on Mon.is replete with often suchactivity in systems. used inothersystems history of dergraduate class) isoften (suchas thefield journalism or theacademicdiscipline professional ofhistory) but for very dif ferent motives.NOWACEK / WHY IS BEING INTERDISCIPLINARY SO VERY HARD? Mediational Tools Subject Object Motive Basic Figure 1: anactivity system.206. can be under interdisciplinary thought stoodas theshift a recognition of from of thecoexistence but appar multiple ently independent activity systems to an awareness of the overlap and used in one activity system (for instance. as RussellandYafiezillustrate intheir CHAT analy Furthermore. stresses thatindividuals mediationaltoolsfrom one disciplinary using activ of complex. elements of incon Understood as activity arenotdefined systems. individuals participate multiple simultaneously activity systems. the review essay assigned in an un interanimation of thoseactivity The defining characteristic of inter systems. Given thisviewof disciplines. nallytaketheir meaninganddefinition from tools. motives.
a connotation often found inwritings on interdisciplinarity. 23 Sep 2013 01:45:09 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . morecomprehensive. In the pages that follow I use the example of one classroom to illustrate the pitfalls and promise of interdis classrooms.206.This is not the failing of a single classroom but emblematic of a largerproblem in general education: "Unfortunately.159. it is a type of abnormal discourse that can empower individuals in limited but powerful ways by making visible previ may obscureothers. in part because both were unaccustomed to discussing the rhetorical domain of academic literacy. But di rect. explicit discussion of similarities and differences among multiple disci plinary ways of knowing is not easy to achieve.CCC 60:3 / FEBRUARY 2009 complements. interlocking activity systems can help us see why.132 on Mon. My analyses here draw on and extend thework ofRussell and Yaniez. Although their focal stu their analysis of the difficulties facing students strugglingwith a book review in an undergraduate dent Beth had written reviews forher high school history class and a college journalism course.with differ ent motives and different genre rules. who use CHAT assigned to elucidate the challenges of general education courses through Irish history course. However. which can make ences salient-in part because of the patterned isolation the differ and strategic to dis not inevitably classroom but certainly powerful-abouttheinterdisciplinary ambiguity the contradiction in general education gives rise to" (354). Beth and her instructor were slow to recognize those differences. Interdisciplinary thought as I am describing it is not somehow morepurethan disciplinary knowledge more superior. Such an analysis can also help us seewhat ispowerful-perhaps as a site for writing instruction. It is not a tran will liberate us from thedehumanizing scendent critical consciousnessthat constraints of disciplines. In actuality. The simultaneous offer taught interdisciplinary tobe immersed theopportunities of presence multipleinstructors heightens in and discuss the rhetorical dimension of disciplinary expectations. "this similarity proved to be maddeningly deceptive" (347).we do not have a robust vocabulary for talking about the dif ferences inwriting in different activity systems. of disciplines. Beth's Irish history course was a new activity system. and interrelations ofa limited number nessof theconstraints. ciplinary 496 This content downloaded from 148. Rather. evenas it ouslyinvisible it remains Althoughinterdisciplinarity as I defineit isnot impossible. very hard to do-and an analysis that focuses on the interdisciplinary class uniquely. connections and constraints. Team courses one suchopportunity. room as the site of overlapping. Their analysis suggests that teachers need to create opportunities cuss the rhetorical domains of knowledge in various activity systems.
oral final exam ac from the various disciplines and was evaluated by all three professors. 497 This content downloaded from 148. Monday 10-10:50 History: Chapter 6 Middle Ages Tuesday 9:30-10:45 Literature: Wife ofBath (con't) Wednesday 10-10:50 History: excerpts Aquinas' Treatise On Law 11-11:50 Literature: The Courtier Thursday 9:30-10:45 Religious Studies: Aquinas' Summa (con't) 11-12:15 History: Chapter 7 Middle Ages 11-11:50 Literature: Wife ofBath's Prologue& Tale 11-12:15 Religious Studies: Aquinas' Summa 2:Interdisciplinary Asample Figure Humanities II: week schedule. as Interdisc knowncolloquially II. Unfortunately. dis cussions would sometimes go overtime or segue fromone to the next without a break. I did not have adequate cess to those exams to discuss them here. This was the second in a three-semester sequence designed to fillseveral gen eraleducationrequirements. was composedof three distinctthree-credit classes-literature. and religious studies-in which all eighteen students in the course had to enroll. in each other's classes on a regular basis.132 on Mon.N OWAC E K / WH Y IS B E ING INTE RD ISC IP LI N ARY SO VE RY H A RD ? One Mediational Tool.159. Because sions met back to back in the same room with all the same participants. history. but professors attended and participated Sessions with only one professor present were the exception. the ses As Figure 2 illustrates. Four Activity Systems: Teaching the Thesis-Driven Essay in"lnterdisc" The example Iprovide comes from my observations of a team-taught interdis to first-year courseoffered atVillanova ciplinary honorsstudents University.206. each professor developedand gradedhis or her own assignments. each class period had a disciplinary designation. though. Only one assignment-a required students to integratematerial collaborative. students kept separate notebooks foreach compo nent discipline and spoke of a given class period as belonging to a particular professor. Generally. 23 Sep 2013 01:45:09 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . The course. Given the separate but coordinated structure of the course. As Figure3 suggests. can Interdisc be considered Scholars of interdisciplinarity often dis truly interdisciplinary? between which involves mere juxtaposition tinguish the multidisciplinarity.
Figure and interdisciplinarity. of the constraints.inthe on disciplinary studiesscholars. open topic midterm take-home take-home final medieval diary 2 informalresponse papers **FrenchRev. went beyondjuxtaposition tobuildon and respondtodiscussions and often More importantly thestandard distinction ledby their colleagues. we must turn to the experience of individuals nego weakness ofvarious Giventhis the disciplinary activity systems. "draws perspectives and in interdisciplinary their added). tiating overlaps Iprefer of the touse theterm distinction. though.159. wordsoftwo ofdisciplines. 23 Sep 2013 01:45:09 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . thedefining characteristic of interdisciplinary is"awareness thought argued. on Chaucer **3-4 pg. the pro several to maximizeopportunities totreat thesyllabus fessors intentionally organized Milton concurrently) material (for students read Calvinand related instance. First.CCC 60:3 / FEBRUARY 2009 Interdisc Literature II Interdisc History II Olivia S)* RogerB)* (Professor (Professor **2-3 pg.To someextentI tegrates insights" (KleinandNewell3.206. complements. taken ingroupsof three. so I have also professors *Studentsaddressed their a thesis *'Indicates assignmentsdescribed as requiring 3:Interdisciplinary Humanities II:The semester ata glance. on Faustus **4-5 pg. Instead. termpaper take-home midterm take-home final Interdisc Religious Studies II Thomas H)* (Professor **8-10 pg. on Aquinas *`8-10 pg. accountfor If.132 on Mon.emphasis distinction thatinterdisciplinary thought should haveechoed this byarguing as a shift from be understood indepen recognizing multiplebut apparently dent activity systems to being aware of the overlap among those activity sys tems. and interrelations of a limited number of we cannottestfor of interdisciplinarity then the presence by look disciplines:' ing at a syllabus. highly regarded which. including presentation and insightsfrom of a thesisthatintegrates information all three disciplines by theirfirst names. and interdisciplinary between does juxtaposition integration multidisciplinary of individual as Ihave not sufficiently theimportance cognition. multidisciplinary/interdisciplinary interdisciplinary more broadly as a descriptor of courses that attempt to bring 498 This content downloaded from 148. comparative midterm take-home take-home final The semesterculminated inan oral final. IdescribeInterdisc as interdisciplinary for reasons.
in [the most college writing. the history professor.159.had intheir overthose different motives-but glossed differences assignments very and classdiscussions. engaged students in discussions munication about their expectations. distributed a description of his expectations per on the French Revolution: fora term pa 499 This content downloaded from 148. theyworked to teach writing: they sequenced assignments. 23 Sep 2013 01:45:09 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . The semester included more thantwo dozenepisodesofexplicit writing instruction. they were also committed with and about writing.206. For example. these three pro fessorsmeant very different things by theword "thesis"-in CHAT terms. qualifies in Interdisc IIwere In essence. The religious studies professor conferenced with students and wrote copious comments on their ten-page analytical papers. "What you are writing inmy part of the course. and the interdisciplinary course thatwas the sum of in thosefour remained con those parts. distributed amongall three The Interdisc instructors disciplines. a literature class. despite the effort theyput into teaching writing. the Interdisc II classroom certainly as interdisciplinary.thestudents and teachers participating reallyparticipating in four activity systems: a history class."However. The history professor assigned re action papers thatwere the springboard for in-class discussions. In such terms. Roger(all and student names professor are pseudonyms). These three professors were not sim to teaching ply reflective and dedicatedteachers. The literature professor frequently assigned to jumpstart in-class class discussionand encouraged students to freewrites revise their formal close-analysis essays.N OWAC E K / WH Y IS B E ING INTE RD ISC IP LI N ARY SO VE RY H A R D? disciplines into dialogue. Early in the semester. a religious studies class. is the religious studies] part of the course.132 on Mon. and I think in thesis-driven essay. Throughout thesemester theinstructors stressed thesimilarities intheir expectations regarding thesis. But all systems employed (among other tools) the mediational tool of the thesis-driven essay. at one point. the literature profes sor said to the class. did not simply assign writing. during one of the rare periods when he was the only instructor present. with the benefit of hindsight and transcripts it is clear that. Tracing the use and representa tions of the thesis-driven essay by professors and students helps make visible the overlaps and conflicts among the four activity systems and cuts to the heart ofwhat is so challenging and promising about interdisciplinary teaching. Althoughtheparticipants systems ownsometimes sometimes conflict stant. and worked tomake some assignments an opportunity forexploration and com rather than simply evaluation. thesystems had their overlapping. ing objects and motives.
A topic iswhat you're going to talk about..That comes later. it simply "I am going towrite my paper about.he leftopen the possibility that students might never articulate an 500 This content downloaded from 148. she articulated a personally have to say about it. however. distrib uted an assignment asking students to "explain the difference" between a pair of critical comments on one of Chaucer's prologues and to "compar[e] the in terpretation of Chaucer each position enables you tomake. .but provide an analysis of a At best. a thesis. Roger went on to orally explain what he meant by "thesis" and its relationship to"topic. it will argue to a conclusion.206. your thesis isyour argument:' As she replied. At the beginning of the next week.. Your com pleted paper should not merely narrate an event. though. who's a writer about writing I like a lot. she said. your thesis is your argument. that'sa thesis.." Notice step number one isnot "I am going to Step number one is topick a topic. that the essence of your paper should relyon the primary sources. You don't set out toprove something. paper shouldbe approximately10-15 pageswith appropriatedocumentation and written clearlyand thoughtfully. Olivia initially distinguished topic and thesis much as Roger did: "Yeah.CCC 60:3 / FEBRUARY 2009 The purpose of the history termpaper is towrite history fromoriginal sources. in fact.Topic is me your topic. you should also look at secondary sources as needed. A thesis iswhat you As she continued.The question you pose for yourself. 23 Sep 2013 01:45:09 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . A thesis. the literature professor. it'snot a thesis. Peter Elbow. "has to venture something. The students responded by echoing Roger's language exactly. Remember." motive considerably different fromRoger's. The textbook will provide an overview for background and a start-upbibliog raphy. asking stu dents to explain their understanding of the two. The theoryis thatyou're not surewhat the argument is going to be until you've looked at the resources. not an argument." So when you tell should be a phrase.you set out to seewhere the evidence leads you. says ithas to stick its neck out." Like Roger. bibliography.. Olivia.132 on Mon. If itdoesn't stick its neck out.Okay? The mediational tool of the thesis essaywas given particular meaning and form the evidence leads you"-a methodological approach he by Roger's overridingmotive of getting students to reason fromprimary sources by "see[ing] where associated with the discipline of history." Roger wanted students to startwith a topic and work theirway to a the sis.A thesis is an argument. Olivia initiated a conversation on the difference between thesis and topic.159." That's not a topic. prove that. saying "the topic is the broad overview of what you're doing..
NOWACEK / WHY IS BEING INTERDISCIPLINARY SO VERY HARD? explicit thesis: "Atbest:' Roger says in his assignment.original sin. a thesis. students asked for explanation One student remarked that "it seems tome that it [asks for]a regurgitation of Aquinas. What keypre conceptions. will. human beings achieve salvation.predestination.. conclusions..: Olivia's focus on an argumentative thesis offered a striking contrast to which thefirst studies assignment givenbyThomas. It's a criticalexercise-it has tobe-because you are picking these thingsout. the paper "will argue to a conclusion.and organize it intoan argument. Roger even stated inthe "is implicit notbe "expressly writtenin thatthethesis paper"andmight one place...Be his defense lawyer." As Thomasdescribedinthetext ofhis assignment.206. itsneckout" thanon "see[ing] more on "stick[ing] where theevidenceleads you.159.You will probablywant to deal with issues like virtueand habit. Well. And it'svery much like what Olivia . What apparently irreconcilable"truths" is he tryingto harmonize? . advance an argumentative thesis.. Thomas used. you toput into thepaper. I want you tomake a case forthe reasonableness ofAquinas' theologyon this issue." In response. the word "thesis" to hispaper: describe When you analyze a writer you're just not regurgitating.grace.etc. nextassignment onMarlowe's Faustusalso stressed theexplicitly ar Olivia's gumentative nature of the necessary thesis: "Please remember to . was tocontainanyargument.. having a clearly articulated and argumentative thesis in the paper was vital.. thereligious professor.which is "what you're going to talk about"' cannot replacethethesis. Iwant you freewrites] 501 This content downloaded from 148. 23 Sep 2013 01:45:09 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . So what you'regoing to do ispresent a Thomistic analysis of salva tion. free choice.."During the lastweek of the semester. which is"what youpersonally have tosay"about thattopic. so you're going to have to choose. Anticipate objections to the theoryand defendAquinas against them.arguing them..." For Olivia. going to have to order.. a topic.132 on Mon. You're criticizing. has been having you do [in in-class when you analyze a textand you thinklike Aquinas. [A]t the end youmay append your own personal critique as to its failings. or arguments separate you from Aquinas? Puzzledby theassignment and attempting tounderstand whetherthis paper further inclass. according toAquinas.You should also describewhat you feel to be the operative prin ciples or problems around which Aquinas organizes his theologyon this issue... In your paper Iwant you to recreate theway inwhich. was due within a week of theFaustus assignment and did not even contain the word "thesis." Themediationaltoolof thethesis-driven was essay given quite a different meaningbyOlivia'soverriding which focused motive.weigh There's toomuch Aquinas for ing them. forthefirst time...
159. So it is a [Aquinas'] understanding of this. his overriding motive As theassignment suggests would was to help students "think likeAquinas.. Instead they found "unanticipated but profound differences among individual teachers' pedagogies 502 This content downloaded from 148. I have presented the conflicts among motives tools as conflicts among disciplinary activity systems. Throughout and mediational this analysis. Thaiss has argued that the notion ofwriting in the disciplines has led to unproductive generalizations tors and mask that stereotype instruc the richness of their complex and sometimes hybrid disciplin ary backgrounds. Similarly.. type sentence: "The most important thing for is Aquinas aboutsalvation ." Such a thesis is notable not for the de gree that it sticks itsneck out.132 on Mon. fora thesis were quite distinct fromOlivia's and Roger's expectations. they come to understand a worldview very different from their own while simulta skills. The most important thing for major prin salvation.. He proposes a focus on writing in the course (WIC). but for the degree that itaptly identifiesAquinas' and organizing coreassumptions principles. given ciples he's using. andThomas underscored. But what evidence is there that theway these instructors represent thesis is repre sentative of their disciplines? This is a question worth asking. a change in focus that "would allow researchers to observe the richness of each course context without having to fit that context within the arbitrary category of a so-called discipline" (316).salvationworks in the following reconstructionof his argument. they "did not see disciplinary genres accul turating students to distinct patterns of thought" (450)." or "Given[Aquinas'] understanding of__ salvation works in the followingways. ways. foralthough it has long been an article of faith in thewriting in the disciplines (WID) litera ture that different disciplines have (sometimes profoundly) differentways of knowing and textual conventions." Thomas's he modeled a thesiswith aMadlib expectations Indeed. has been having you do when you analyze a text and you think likeAquinas.. What ties the system together? What's the important thingabout it? Why does it work or notwork? Your thesiswill prob Aquinas about ably come in that sort of a shape.206.He's combining them. meant that despite neously honingtheir analytical Thismotive. 23 Sep 2013 01:45:09 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . Severino and Trachsel report that in the course of examining assignments from a wide variety of disciplines within a college of liberal arts and sciences." By doing so.CCC 60:3 / FEBRUARY 2009 most to reallythinklike Aquinas. Thomas's claim that "it's verymuch likewhat Olivia . he explained.He has a few And thengo throughand say:well. the usefulness of that article of faith has recently come into question.though.. to understand Aquinas about salvation is.
Furthermore.132 on Mon.. Thomas's assignment can be easily classified in Murphy's typology as a human research paper ("[R]ecreate theway inwhich. 503 This content downloaded from 148.. beings achieve salvation." differences that "seemed unrelated to the teachers' disciplinary training" (453. instance.emphasis added). For. So what evidence is there that disciplines. and not just personal prefer ences. but to evaluate itor criticize it" ). Thomas's explanation of his expectations fora thesis coincides with the view ofwriting inreligious studies providedin Murphy's Reasoning andRhetoricin Religion. (There are very few scholarly or popular analyses ofwriting in the disciplines of religious studies or theology at the undergraduate level. according toAquinas. the operative principles or problems around which Aquinas organizes his theology").159. the description of the thesis essay pro vided by each of the Interdisc instructors does resonate with scholarly and popular analyses of how towrite in these disciplines.. 23 Sep 2013 01:45:09 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .) says students are likely to encounter in reli gious studies and theology classes are research papers ("for example.NOWACEK / WHY IS BEI NG INTERDISCI PLI NARY SO VERY HARD? and response preferences.. no individual can be said to be fully representa tive of an entire discipline. However. Roger's representation of thesis can be contextualized within a vociferous debate in the discipline of history. Murphy echoes Thomas's in-class discussion of it (ordinarily) regurgitation versus argument by explaining that although "itmight be ob jected that a research paper does not make any claims because contains no explicit arguments-it simply reports on its subject:" such objec tions "overloo[k] the fact that all such descriptions are selective and involve judgment about what is important" and therefore include the "implicit claim not only thatwhat is reported is true but also that it represents (1) a fair and balanced account of (2) themost important aspects of the subject in ques tion" (72). Describe . While Thomas's representation of thesis fitsneatly into a very small body of scholarly analysis of religious studies.206. write a theory of the origin of evil" ) and analysis papers ("the paper on Augustine's theory of evil becomes an analysis paper when one is asked not only to describe Augustine's position. are at work here? Because disciplines are such complex and internally variegated social structures. though Klemm fo theologians and cuses on the rhetorical strategies of contemporary academic the six types of papers Murphy paper on Augustine's Yaghjianoffers thoughtful ofwritingin seminary analysis Among training. with the option ofmaking it an analysis paper ("at the end you may append your own personal critique as to its failings").
for instance. and the history professors interviewed by Stockton insisted on the need to "take a stance" and "make an argument" when writingfor history (50). when responding to papers they rewarded not explicit argument but implicit argument subtly em bedded within narrative: "to move beyond expository argument and toward the implicit arguments of narrative is judged to be amark of growth in student writing" (67). seeMarwick). his representation of thesis certainly can be contextualized within the discipline's conflicted views ofwriting. but who rarely earned higher than a B on her history pa pers. not just hedge or wonder. Olivia tells her students that a thesismust "stick its neck out. this incipient center of gravity" of a piece ofwriting.Roger's insistence that a thesis may not appear at the start of the essay or be explicitly argumentative may appear idiosyncratic ButStockton arguesthat the history profes rather than disciplinary. many historians emphasize writing history as Thisprivileging ofexplicit active andargumentative. valued in literary studies. one that brings particular significance to questions about the roles of narra in history writing.0 average in her literaturemajor. although Roger (who did not align himself with poststructuralist theories) may not rep resent themost current. In thewake of poststruc turalist theories of authorship.159. The importance of an explicitly argued thesis is stressed inBarnet's 504 This content downloaded from 148. although sors she interviewed claimed to value explicit argument. was deemed "too forceful" by one of her history professors. argumentation isreflected in the WID literature: Walvoord and McCarthy's Professor Breihan values ex the importance of an plicit argumentation andwould even on occasion "consciously sacrific[e] subtlety of historical interpretation in order to emphasize taking a clear stand on an issue" (104). Resonating with Stockton's claim that explicitly argumentative prose is valued in literary studies." and must be "something that can be quarreled with" (20)-also resonates with popular and scholarly analyses of writing literary analysis.CCC 60:3 / FEBRUARY 2009 Poststructuralist viewsofauthorship have sparked ongoing debateabout the nature ofwriting history (see. The student's explicitly argumentative prose. Greene's history of science professor notes that "the first thing to realize about an essay is that itmust make argument" (568)." This allusion to Peter Elbow-who says that the "main point.White. 23 Sep 2013 01:45:09 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . Thus. tive and explicit argumentation fora riposte. common. Beaufort's co-author fromhistory asked students to "frame a hypothesis and an argument" (57).132 on Mon. In light of this trend.206. or popular view ofwriting in history. Stockton offers the example of a student with a 4. should "stick its neck out.
thatwork forhistory? historians like to think that they're finding notopinion. 505 This content downloaded from 148. has termed Though what Wildermore recently indescribing interested how literary scholars Freyand Wilder areprimarily in to work order build these methods fore toeachother's knowledge. A topic in a sense is a phrase: I am going to do a paper about blank.." it'snot a thesis..159. Because reality...So it'snot just an opinion. You ought to be able to state your point in a thesis can of this ofexplicit dimension argument sentence" privileging (21). whichexplainstostudents that A Short Guide to Writing ing the intermediate stages of thewriting process "what the thesis of the essay will be-the idea thatwill be asserted and argued (supported with evidence) is still in doubt. Does Roger: Ah. to be more sophisticated erase "I think that.132 on Mon. an argument. who spontaneously oping a thesis: Roger: Think in terms of the distinction now between a topic and a thesis ."But ifyou can't say "I think that blah blah blah blah blah.. And thenwhen you're all done.N OWAC E K / WHY IS B E ING INTE R D ISC IP L IN ARY SO VE RY H A R D? dur aboutLiterature. respond ground the necessity of a clear argument articulated early in a literaryanalysis. A thesis is a declarative sentence that is as particular as possible. but there is no doubt about one thing:A good essay will have a thesis.. This interaction occurred during the eleventh week of class and was responded to Roger's advice on devel with thewords "I think get to your thesis. I don't think ithas to do with opinion.A final be seen in the persistence ofwhat Frey termed the "adversary method" and the"mistaken critic"topos. I think ithas to do That that'swhat pushes it towards analysis.206. What with is your personal analysis. but therewas little face-to-face dialogue among them. not too well. but in one such moment two in for a structors talked together in front of the class about their expectations initiated by Olivia.. Olivia: Well. thiswill be an interesting thing forus to find out. a point. Emphasizing Similarity.. And if this doesn't you work forhistory. their expectations for writing... Exceptions to that trend were rare. 23 Sep 2013 01:45:09 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .. you should be able to preface it that" and then complete the sentence.Eliding Difference: The Double Bind stressed among theprofessors thesimilarities Throughout classdiscussions. What were you going to say? Olivia: Iwas going to offer my definition of a thesis.When [turns to Olivia] thesis..
Olivia is proposing. a double bind is a scenario 506 This content downloaded from 148. tomake sure you guys are clear that you guess I feelmore comfortable with itnot prefaced by "I think that. Actually it comes out the same because ithas to be a declarative sentence.159. The conflicts among motives and mediational cal double bind. it was less explicitly argumentative. This brief exchange illustrates a great deal ofwhat's at stake in team-taught classrooms. the clear ten that" should not be in the text. Despite dency is to stress similarities. "maddeningly deceptive" and posed considerable challenges to the students enrolled in Interdisc. which forRoger meant allowing the thesis to evolve over time and perhaps reside only implicitly in the final text. Olivia:Right.Olivia was committed to a version of the thesis-driven essay that was more obviously argumentative. 23 Sep 2013 01:45:09 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . in theirmotives or their expectations for themediational re This reluctance todiscussdifferences posed difficulties to students sponsible for responding to all three assignments. themediational went by the same name in each of the the thesis-driven essay was the same: it three disciplines. And while Thomas too expected a clear tool of thesis.132 on Mon. Right? Because you can't say "I think that the French Revo the lution. as Russell and Yaniez say. I think basically we're saying the same thing. But when and Roger does initially resist what he sees to be a difference inways of knowing manifest in the textual convention they find they agree on the fact that "I think an initialwillingness to recognize differences tool. I guess I." Roger: I see. Ostensibly. I follow is a declarative sentence in itself."That sim plywhat would Olivia: [turning to the class] Iwant would never hand this in to anyone with the "I think that" still there. But these similarities were. and the professors affirmed similarities during discussion. they cease to pursue the possibility that there are furtherdifferences." But you can say "I think that a change in sexual mores produced French Revolution.And Iwould still say that if you think about itanalytically instead of subjectively thatmight help with history. Okay.But some of you might want to thinkmaybe in other disciplines about that." In CHAT tools put the Interdisc stu inwhich an dents inwhat Engestrom and other CHAT theorists identifyas "a psychologi terms.206. Oliviadoes openup the thatthere will interdisciplinary possibility be differences in their expectations.CCC 60:3 / FEBRUARY 2009 Roger: Mm hmm. Roger wanted students to approach texts and make claims as historians would.
507 This content downloaded from 148. earned high grades on all three papers under consideration here. any In Interdisc. situationsin Double binds are thoseuncomfortable and perhaps inevitable which individuals experience withinor betweenactivity contradictions sys tems (e. 23 Sep 2013 01:45:09 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . Analyses ofWill's texts indicate that he made subtle but important part because he adjustments to his essays in each discipline. suchdoublebindsarea double-edged pedagogical sword." If the double bind is also an opportunity for learning by expanding. To recognize the differences forthesisin thethree amongtheexpectations component would disciplines be to go against the classroom discourse stressing similarities. There were fewclassroom on thoseconflicts.132 on Mon. Engestrbm describes such outcomes as "learning by expanding. the question of how students in Interdisc negotiate the double bind presented by the thesis-driven essay becomes a particularly compelling one. chapter 3). between themotives and tools within a single activity system or between themotives of two different activity systems) but cannot articulate meta-awareness of those contradictions. However. but when these con flictspush individuals tometa-awareness and individuals are able to "make a metacommunicative statement" about theconflict chapter3).N OWAC E K / WHY IS B EI N G INTE RD ISC IP L IN ARY SO VE RY H AR D? two messagesor commands individual "receives whichdenyeachother-and theindividual isunable tocomment on the messages"(Engestrom. yet students had towrite for all three professors. stu opportunities to reflect leaving dents to come to anymeta-awareness of those conflicts on their own. One Student atWork: Negotiating an InterdisciplinaryDouble Bind Will. double binds can also facilitate higher-order thinking and critical insight. and all three professors identified him as one of themost successful students in the class.. (Engestrom.g. to ignore the to write less thansatisfactory would lead students differences papers. a first-yearstudent with a double major in religious studies and philoso phy. They can be baffling and even incapacitating for individuals.206. But Will was vexed by the process ofmoving among the various disciplinary expectations-in focused solely on mediational relied on a distinction between "research papers" and "analysis papers" that tools. he was not able to articulate how themo tives of various activity systems might alter those tools.159. thestudents received contradictory messages regarding the mediational tool of the thesis-driven essay: the type of thesis valued by any one professor would not necessarily be valued by his or her colleagues.
132 on Mon.Will spent almost no timeworking on the thesis cided it statement and introductory paragraph: "the intro and conclusion were also minutes very hard. Iwrote thisone actually a little differently Iwrite a lotofpapers. the paper on Marlowe's Faustus was an analysis paper.Will paper asWill understood assignments French Revolution as a research paper. asked and as a result he struggled to develop the thesis for that paper. But theAquinas about theAquinas Will's paper did not fallneatly into either of two genres.Will began by describing the unique writing process itrequired: than It was really hard to jump into. call fora clear "personal opinion:' and generally focus on a single text. they did not chal lengeWill's sense ofwhat to do or how to do it. each entails a particular writing process and results in a different kind of paper. Differences were evident in the text as well." Similarly. themotive of the analysis paper as he it meshed nicely with Olivia's motive ofmaking an argument that identified the history term paper on the "sticks its neck out. articulating an argumentative the secondary to showing mastery of the component parts of Aquinas' the thesis guiding model of salvation. the motivebehindthis tool is to demonstrate that outside research has been conducted and applied with some skill to the topic at hand.. Because fell into clearly discernible unproblematically with the expectations of his instructors.206. 23 Sep 2013 01:45:09 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . as Will described them.. just because I really didn't know what to say in them.but a lot longerand coveringa lot Part ofwhat was so differentwas that despite the fact that he finally had de was an analysis paper. According understood to Will... and fortunately themotive of a research it jibed with Roger's motive of encouraging students these two genres that were able to coexist to use primary texts to develop arguments as historians do..159. When paper. Usuallywhen I'vehad todo a paper of that length it was where I'dbeen working on itand studying it more like a researchkind of thing was reallyjust like the with the intentofwriting thepaper... [analysis]essays Iwrite usually. But this time it more material." ForWill. Whereas Will's Faustus paper made the low scenes and themain plot ofFaustus-"This a clear argument about the relationship between subplot ofDoctor Faustus 508 This content downloaded from 148. are relatively brief. address less narrowly defined topics. in CHAT terms.CCC 60:3 / FEBRUARY 2009 Will explained that although research and analysis papers are both ver sions of the thesis-driven essay. I did those in about five sis was combined. and require outsideresearch. happily. Research papers tend to be longer. Analysis papers. themotive of the analysis paper tool is tomake a clear and focused argument...
motive along Thomas articulated his classdiscussions during and interviews.159.132 on Mon. Butwhen thosedifferences in ity indifferences motives in the manifestedthemselves textually. Despite his good grades.206. 23 Sep 2013 01:45:09 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . Will doubted whetherthis was an appropriate way towrite a thesis. in Will's evaluation. kind of putting it in our own logical flow. Itwas not. Despitemeeting Thomas'sexpectations. In fact." Will had intuited the differences in themotives among the various activ paper was a regurgitation "more than he wanted to let was only "the structuring." This denigration of thework he had successfully done suggests itisfor howdifficult students-to the double participants-especially negotiate on them when bindsplaced collide." Will's notesalso indicate around Aquinas organizes that he believedthat thereasonableness he needed to"makea case for of Aquinas' ineach area onlysecondarily. on" since it systems hewas beingasked tonegotiate. particularly "insightful. theology" By identifying theseoperative prin Will "thought withAquinas"-exactly the ciplesand problems. activity disciplinary systems Will wrote but intuiting the successful papers. resulting me diationtools(as inthethesis his Will second-guessed work.there was no move toward apparentinterdisciplinary of thecon awareness learning-no 509 This content downloaded from 148.NOWACEK / WHY IS BEING INTERDISCIPLINARY SO VERY HARD? parallels Faustus' own downfall. ing it "a cop out. Because psychological Will could make nometacommunicative statement abouthowor whythose systems conflicted. Will that marginaliasuggest sawhis overall on "theoperative orproblems purposeas focusing principles which his theology. But evenif he composedthisthesis quickly. he remained puzzled byhis success. differences was amongthe activity systems notsufficient toescape the double bind. and his actions toward them mirror the ac ofhisAquinaspaper surveyed tionstaken statement against him"-the thesis the partsof component butdidnot"stick its neck Aquinas'model ofsalvation in in work out:' Will identified an important tension Aquinas' the penultimate ofhis introduction discussion sentence ("Thiscomprehensive leads ultimately to a model of salvation that acknowledges the omnipotence and supremacy of totheir own futures"). Will described his thesis as "a cop out:' as merely "a rehashing or a reformulation" thatwasn't "arguing" any one particular point. God aswell as theimportance ofhumans' contributions of the then overviewed theorganization sentence: Will de paper in thefinal than scribedthisthesis asmore summary argument. Will's drafts indicate that his was more than His scribbled success mere luck.call statements)." more than demandsomething Whereas analysis papersusually "regurgitation:' Will said theAquinas thatwas original.
foras the exchange between Olivia and Roger shows.206. Why? Why Being Interdisciplinary Is So Very Hard to Do Why did these teachers not make clear that themediational because tool of the thesis driven essay was operating quite differently in their various disciplines? Not theywere thoughtless or inattentive teachers. but that potential was not fullyrealized. My analyses of the Interdisc classroom suggest a companion gage inmeta-reflection on the differences within a community." "Educational am imagining here is reminiscent of Gerald Graff's injunction to "teach the success. The Interdisc classroom had great potential to facilitate discussions of the differences among disciplines. within the various activity systems inwhich they Perhaps themost important double bind facing the three Interdisc in structors was the conflict between themotives of their individual disciplinary activity systems and the activity system of Interdisc itself.however." Graff argues.132 on Mon. What if. to think alongwith great religious thinkers-conflicted we shiftour attention to the activity system of Interdisc with one another.As I have argued. complements. can be traced "to the ability of challenge: the ability to en an institution to create a community out of its differences" (172). tomake pointed arguments based on how lan guage operates in a text.159.in other words.CCC 60:3 / FEBRUARY 2009 of thesethree disciplines. structors' focus on common features of themeditational tool rather than dif feringmotives of the disciplinary activity systems did nothing to ameliorate this problem. But if as a whole. conflicts among or were participating. the professors had engaged inmeta-level discussions for writing and reasoning in their disciplines? What provided with a rich to serve as affordances I about their expectations if Will had been explicitly prompted to think about-and ing? What if. themotives that guided these three professors' disciplinary activity systems to think like a history major. Nor because were aware ferences. the three instructors were able to articulate a shared motive: to stress convergences and connections among the three disciplines. I believe that the lack of attention to disciplinary differences is best explained by the fact that these instructors were experiencing double binds of their own. Will's in and interrelations straints. They elabo rated this point together in a joint interview: 510 This content downloaded from 148. for theywere exceed were unaware of those dif they ingly thoughtful and committed. 23 Sep 2013 01:45:09 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . they of the differences to at least some degree. these conflicts were made conflicts as productive rather thanconfin vocabulary for describing-these for learning rather than constraints on it?The type of classroom discussion conflicts. Instead.
... to stress similarities grew from several sources. taught Interdisc with a different literature professor twenty years earlier.132 on Mon. at the This [focus on disciplinary differences] is [The pri might put a seed in theirmind thatmaybe end of four years will germinate. figuring out what the disciplinary differences are becomes a real problem. Roger: And I think to the extent it's team-taught the effortgoes into trying to make the linkages. cultural studies. might be interesting to do a little bit more of thatwith them because there are questions there." Another motivation for stressing convergences. they would not be able to distinguish personal idiosyncrasy from disciplinarity.. So since we can't do everything." Now.. which [students] can do stuff when they see .206." All three instructors agreed that they might be seen as doing types of history-material And I'm just not sure as freshmen they've had enough exposure at the college level to intellectual cultural history. was his sense that "now the disciplines seem to be merging inmany ways.in Roger's words.. with the influx of theNew Historicism.NOWACEK / WHY IS BEING INTERDISCIPLINARY SO VERY HARD? Olivia: I think there's also a very genuine question in our minds about how It I think much disciplinary difference is the point [ofwhat we do in Interdisc].. As Tho mas explained on another occasion. all of the ority] is all theways in convergences. perhaps."fuzzy.because they disciplinary exposure. "I'm not sure that they can separate us as what we do: what is it thatThomas does and what is it that's Tho people from mas." Finally. We in some of them.. Olivia: And I think the priority for all of us is precisely the opposite.. Until theyget another somebody likeme tomake a comparison. I think all three of us could tell you what some of those things are [but] I'm not sure if the students in the class could. he knew "exactlywhat the differences [between history and literature]were.159. I think that'smore important to all of us.. reallyput flesh and bones on the concept of discipline.. and other changes in literary the differences between the studies.. Thomas: I think thatwould be asking a good deal toomuch of them. Rogerexplainedthat history.. There are things that literary studies can do that history can't and vice versa. so abstract for them that I doubt that they could get theirminds around it. 23 Sep 2013 01:45:09 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . Roger admitted. themotivation to stress convergences sprang from a sense that it 511 This content downloaded from 148. It grew This shared motive partly from a sense that the students were not cognitively ready for interdisci plinary lackedsufficient work. disciplines hadbecome.. when he history. Not trying to show the differences.
159. the unofficial motive of "getting along" within the larger system of interdisciplinary collaboration conflicts with and gener ally trumps any effort to recognize the diverse officialmotives of the various involved. only when about can they Olivia collaborate. their successfully epistemological disagreements in-class exchange thesis shows the pseudocommunity impulse in action: disagreement was uncomfortable. so works-tries to So. enceof the undergraduate The way inwhich the university is organized takes a culture that is a seamless verygood reasons.132 on Mon. Wineburg. And indeed the students frequentlypraised how integrated the class was. done. though.How argue.. and they quickly moved toward agreement. directly against the type ofmeta-discourse can make interdisciplinary classrooms on difference that I have argued powerful contexts for learning and can writing in the disciplines. and differences: downplay Woolworth term a pseudocommunity. But on theother hand.206.we trytohave theboundaries broken down.There are good reasons that's whole and chops itup. the understandable ever. And for misleading. activity systems disciplinary In such cases.and it's weave itback togetheragain. In CHAT terms. sawconnections oftenthey inteam-taught interdisciplinary class instructors working Furthermore. motiveof stressing worked thisshared convergences Ironically. But the difficulty of realizing the potential of the interdisciplinary classroom as a site to explore disciplinary connections 512 This content downloaded from 148. avoiding a more difficult but more productive discussion ofdifferences. how amongtheir work for thethree disciplines. with sepa boundaries are not there.Grossman and colleagues found that participants were eager to get along with their new colleagues and quick to attribute differences of opinion to su perficial personality conflicts rather than any fundamental epistemological disagreements. interdisciplinarity-whereit Milton .CCC 60:3 / FEBRUARY 2009 usual fragmented experi thestudents a valuablecounterpoint totheir offered As Thomas explained: curriculum. 23 Sep 2013 01:45:09 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .Grossman and Roger's and colleagues desire forharmony easily becomes an the participants recognize unfortunate tendency to gloss over legitimate and significant differences.. because the that what theylearn inmy section suddenly shows up in we do chop itup [administratively. In their study of high school literature and history teachers working together to design an interdisciplinary curricu lum.Even if rategrades foreach component discipline]. it is an artificialconstruction. and impulse to stress similarities rooms must fight againstanother powerful todevelop thetendency whatGrossman.
to engage in authentically interdisciplinary work? The answer lies in how we define "authentically interdisciplinary work" and how we go about fa awareness it. the double binds for learning by expanding.N OWAC E K / WH Y IS B E IN G INTE RD ISC IP LI N A RY SO VE RY H A RD ? not be laid solely at the feet of individual instructors who are "too nice" or teaching. The challenge interdisciplinary teaching.But if by interdisciplinary work we mean work that takes place in and becomes aware of the intersections of various disciplinary activity systems. possible I return to a question I posed in the introduction: is it for anyone. by facilitating opportunities to reflect on and make meta-com municative statements about those conflicts. much less students in their firstyear of undergraduate studies. What selves-make careful and conscious it means how disciplinary activity systems interlock isnot to have a perfectmeta-aware is helping students-and inquiries intowhat happens when we use tools and motives fromone discipline in that of another.And if velop ameta-awareness of how and why those conflicts occur. they are better positioned to learn through them. The briefwindow I have provided into one team-taught inter howopportunities for classroom illustrates discussing and reflect disciplinary 513 This content downloaded from 148. Conclusion: The Promise of Interdisciplinary Pedagogy By way of conclusion. that of the The Interdisc instructors disciplines cilitating thought qua disciplines and their differences was too much to ask of first-year stu areexpectedtonegotiate suggest thatstudents dents. but ifpartici pants can identify and name these double binds. fortheconflicts among the "insufficiently thoughtful" about their various activity systems place double binds on instructors as well as students. interdisciplinary doublebinds is impossible for anyone-but he stacks Fish arguesthatinterdisciplinarity as thedesireto transcend thedeckbydefining interdisciplinarity disciplines entirely. andother individuals negotiate the conflicts among motives. to be sure. aware of our forinterdiscipli interdisciplinarity is indeed possibleand theopportunities nary learning are more prevalent than we often think. I have described can even provide opportunities Such learning is not easy or inevitable for students or teachers. 23 Sep 2013 01:45:09 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . To become ness of disciplinary boundaries.206. is tohelp for understood thus.159. The double binds that arise when elements of disciplinary activity systems conflict can serve as constraints or as affordances. mediational elements of disciplinary activity systems by identifying and naming those double binds. participants can begin to de These conflicts are negotiable. but Will's experiences withor withoutthe benefit of meta-awareness. can describe and analyze them. tools.132 on Mon.
CCC 60:3 / FEBRUARY 2009 ingon thesedisciplinary collisionsarise in suchclassrooms andwhy those opportunities aresometimes squandered. Very Hard expanding/ (2001): 525-69. about theinternal logic of those disciplinary systems. or Not by "Writing History: Informed Genre Theory?" Genre Across the Curriculum. they offer a powerful for context learning about therelationships among various disciplinary activ systems. Laboratory of Comparative 10 April 2001. 7th ed. Sam Wineburg. Anne Herrington and Logan: Utah State UP.132 on Mon. 1994. Beyond the Culture Wars: Teaching the Conflicts Can New Revitalize American Education. in There's No Such Thing As and Pam. December 2006 January <http://depts. HarperCollins. Norton. While team-taught interdisciplinary classrooms are not the only contexts for such learning. Culture. for learning about interdisciplinarity. Sylvan. 1992. Writing without Teachers.5 (1990): 507-26. Helsinki. Engestr?m. January 2006 <http://lchc.htm>. in the Teaching of English 35 Is So "Being Interdisciplinary to Do. Frey. Olivia. Virginia Chappell. Williams. "What Makes Stephen Woolworth. Mind. Anne. Grossman. A Short Guide toWriting about Literature. Elbow. 3 Human Cognition.44-64.206." Profession 89 (1989): 15-22. Activity "The Question of Authen a First-Year in ticity: Teaching Writing College History of Science Class. 2005. Teacher Community Different from a Gathering of Teachers?" University of Teaching Center for the Study of 2000. Fish.231-42. Women's "Beyond Literary Darwinism: Voices and Critical Discourse. Gerald." Research Homepage. Rpt.edu/ MCA/Paper/Engestrom/ toc.3 and Policy. York: W. and ity activity about themediational tools central to those activity systems: in other words. Acknowledgments I would like to thank the professors and students of Interdisc IIfor allowing me into theirclassroom and sharing their work and ideas so generously.159. W Greene.ucsd. Stanley. How Ed. Peter. 1973. This research was supported in itsearly stages by an NCTE Grant-in Aid and more recently by a Summer Faculty FellowshipfromMarquette University. Free Speech and It's a Good ThingToo. I would also like to thankDeborah Brandt. disciplinarity. David Russell. and the role ofwriting in thedisciplines. Charles Moran. Krista Ratcliffe. Stuart. New York: Oxford UP. Washington: 514 This content downloaded from 148. Beaufort. College English Graff. 1987. and an anonymous CCC reviewerfortheircomments and advice on earlier versions of this manuscript. 23 Sep 2013 01:45:09 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . and John A. Yrjo.washington. Learning by Expanding. New York 1996." 52. Works Cited Barnet. New York Oxford UP.
Arthur. Susan H. and William H. 2001. Interdisciplinary of the Undergradu A Comprehensive Guide 449-55. Jerry Gaff and James Ratcliff. "'Big Picture People Rarely Become Histori ans': Genre Systems and the Contradic tions of General Education. 331-62.NOWACEK / WHY IS BEING INTERDISCIPLINARY SO VERY HARD? edu/ctpmail/PDFs/Community-GWW 01-2001. John S. Russell. edu/books/ selves_societies/>. Allan Megill. Thinking and Writing in Study of Students College: A Naturalistic inFour Disciplines. The Content of the Form: and Historical Narrative Discourse Baltimore: Representation. Where College Entrance Board. The Status of in the Year 2000: General Education Survey. 1998. of Teachers of History: Knowledge. 1987. Hampshire. Ed. In addition to teaching courses in advanced composition and a semi 515 This content downloaded from 148. Criticism' Revisited: Mistaken of Literary Critics.159. PA: Trinity P 1994. 1987. Language. David. et al. of Theologi Going. Klein. Severino. "Starting aWriting Fellows Program: or Crossing Disciplines Crossing International Journal of Pedagogies?" Strategies.206. Ed. Laura." The Rhetoric of the Human Sciences. and Social Justice. 2001. Evidence. Charles and David R." Writing Selves /Writing Societies. 1997.pdf>.132 on Mon.Nowacek isassistant professor of rhetoricand composition at University. Ed. Council White. 3 Bazerman a National Hayden. Barbara E. Communication WAC: Christopher. IL: National Urbana. Urbana. 23 Sep 2013 01:45:09 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .3-22. 2001. "Writing Cultures. Ed.colostate. Russell. Reasoning inReligion. James L. Complex Contexts. "The Rhetoric cal Argument.1 (2005): Written Communication 76-119. Nancey C. The New Nature McCarthy. Learning 11 (2004/2005): Stockton. Essays H. David R. U ofWisconsin P. Valley Forge. Walvoord. Enculturating Writing at Two Theologi cal Schools: Mapping Rhetorics of Correlation 128-40. Rebecca S. Carol." WAC for theNew Millennium: Strategies for Continuing Writing Across the Curriculum McLeod Council 299-326. New York Examination Klemm. IL: National of English. Ed.. and Donald N. of Teachers of English. American Colleges and Universities. "Theory in Have We Been. International. Madison: Marwick. and Liberation. and Arturo Ya?ez. McCloskey. '"The Rhetoric Johns Hopkins Wilder. and Lucille Programs." 22." Written Narrating 12. Newell. in Interdisciplinarity: from the Literature." and Religion5. Rpt.3 (2002): Theology Teaching January 2006.1 (1995): 47-73. "Writing in History: the Subject of Time. <http://wac. and Rhetoric Murphy. Practices. et al. UP." Handbook ate Curriculum: to Purposes. Summary of DC: Association of Washington. "Advancing Studies. Julie Thompson. and Change. and Mary Trachsel. UK: Palgrave. Nowacek Marquette Rebecca S. Yaghjian. William Newell. 1991.. Ratcliff. Sharon. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.. Where Are We Thaiss. Nelson. Lucretia B.
She is currently at work on a book manuscript exploring the role ofwriting in interdisciplinaryclassrooms. She is a 2005-6 Carnegie Scholar with theCarnegie Academy for the Scholarship of Teaching and Learning and her articles have ap peared inCollege English. and Research in theTeaching ofEnglish.206. 23 Sep 2013 01:45:09 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .CCC 60:3 / FEBRUARY 2009 nar for new TAs. JGE: The Journal ofGeneral Education. 516 This content downloaded from 148.159.132 on Mon. she teaches an interdisciplinary senior capstone course in Marquette's honors program.
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