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List of Practicals 1. Practice of some internal and External DOS Commands 2. Write simple batch program. 3.

File and program management in windows 4. Familiarization with the ftp ,http etc. supported by various protocols 5. Practice of some UNIX commands 6. Write simple shell script 7. Introduction to text editing and word processing 8. Exposure to advance feature supported by some editors 9. Net Surfing 10. Creation and usage of E- mail account 11. Write small program using C language 12. Handling of data structure in C 13. Familiarizing mail account using PINE, deleting, creating folder/ mailmessages, adding signature, creating directory of addresses. 14. Compressing data file using WINZIP & WINRAR 15. Introduction to various extension of files as TXT, EXE, BAK, BAT, BMP, DOC, XLS, PPT, PDF, HTML, JPEG, MPEG, MP3, DAT & AVI Note : List may be modified according to new software available.

File Management on Windows Computers File Management is very important; firstly computer files need to be found. If they are not stored in an ordered, methodical way you may never be able to find them again or a lot of time may be wasted trying to find a particular file. Secondly, files need to be backed up. Diskettes, CDs and even hard drives can become corrupted. It is also possible to delete important files by mistake - human errors occur frequently when a person is very tired - leading to the loss of that important assignment. If only there was another copy on another disk...

What is a File? Computer information is stored in a file. When you create data on your computer, at your direction the computer will save it as a file. You designate the file name. You should give your file a name that not only has meaning now, but will also have meaning in the future. (Eg CP1010_Designing_a_Multimedia_Page) Disk/Hard Drives Disk/Hard drives are the storage devices for your files. In the GATCF Labs, you will be required to store your data on:

Removable USB Flash Hard Drives (H :\) Removable CD/CD-Writer/DVD Drives (F :\) Share Drive (E :\) Home Drive (I :\)

The Drive letters may be different on different machines SO BE CAREFUL. Home Drives I:\ Each Student has 10 megabytes of storage space on the central server known as Homes Drive. When using the GATCF you can save files to your Homes Drive which is also known as I:\ Drive. These files can later be retrieved from another GATCF machine or any computer anywhere with an Internet connection. Temporary Storage (Shared Drive) There is a temporary storage space, which has a maximum capacity of 20 Gigabyte. This storage space is communal, that means that if you place your document on this space ANYONE can look at your documentation. Furthermore this space is temporary and all files and documents will be DELETED in the early hours of each morning. Folders Folders (directories) are storage units, in which you can create folders to store your files, to make them easier to locate. The concept is similar to that of a filing cabinet. If files were placed in a filing cabinet in no particular order, then they would be difficult or even impossible to find. They are therefore placed in drawers, folders and subfolders. Equivalently, your disk can be broken up into a series of folders and subfolders. Why do files need to be managed?

Computer files need to be found. If they are not stored in an ordered, methodical way you may never be able to find them again or a lot of time may be wasted trying to find a particular file. For instance, you may create a folder called 2010, to store all your data for the year 2010. Within that folder you could create folders for each of your subjects, by subject codes. Inside your subject folder, say CN3300 you could then create other folders such as Assignments and Notes. You could then save your first assignment for CN3300, in the Assignment directory within the CN3300 directory (which is in 2010 directory). You could save as One_AssignmentTitleName. Finding this file should then be relatively easy. Computer files need to be backed up - it is easy to lose an entire assignment or your thesis due to a corrupt disk. It is also really easy to delete a file or forget to save it properly when you are very tired or in a hurry. My Computer File management on the GATCF computers is done using My Computer. Open My Computer, by double clicking on the My Computer icon on the desktop. You will see a list of devices available to your computer.

You will have access to save or read data from a removable USB stick, (H:) to save data to the Share Drive, (F:) to save or read data from a CD Rom or DVD, and your Homes drive will be shown as your logon ID. To see what is in these drives you can double click on the drive (E: F, or H :) and the contents of the drive should appear in the Contents Window to the right of the window. This will show all Folders and Files in the home drive. (I:\)

You can explore further by double clicking on each folder until you ether locate the file you are searching for or the location you wish to save your file in. Warning: The first time you try to save from applications like Microsoft Office they will default to the My Documents folder on D:\. Be aware that this is a local folder and ANY data saved to it will be wiped on logout. Remember to change the save location to H:\ or I:\ Drive to ensure you dont lose your work. Copying Files or Folders in My Computer To copy a file or folder from drive to drive you:

Click (with the right mouse button) on the file or folder that you want to copy. Select Copy from the drop down menu. Then navigate to the folder or drive/disk you want to place your copy into.

Right click within the folder or drive and select Paste

To exit My Computer, click on the cross in the top right corner or choose the menu File, then Exit. Creating Folders To create a new folder, open My Computer and double click on your disk or drive. From the menu bar (top of the screen), choose File then select New and choose Folder. You will then be prompted for the name of your new directory (New Folder). You can now type in your chosen name for this folder. Folder names should have meaning so that it is easy for you to know what is stored in that folder. (Make sure that the New Folder name is highlighted before you name the folder.) If you wish to put a folder within a folder, open the existing folder (by double clicking on it) and create and name a new folder as before. Saving Files Ask yourself. "Is my document worth more than the price of a CD or USB disk?" I'm sure the answer is always yes. You should save files regularly. If for some reason the computer shuts down or hangs, while you are in the middle of your work, you will lose everything since your last save. You can save files on your Homes drive (I :), USB or a DVD/CD-Writer. If you are in a pinch you could save your file to the shared drive and then save it as an attachment and email it to your-self. Another idea is if you copy and paste the file in your email body and the send it to yourself (This is handy if your file is all text) To save a file simply click on your File menu then click Save As, then in File name you should put a name that has meaning for easier management. If you have already saved a file you can go to the File menu and click on save.

Copying Files or Making Backups It is important to have more than one copy of a file, since disks can be damaged and you can lose them as well. Backing up your files will prevent the misfortune of lost data, which is equivalent to lost work and time. If you want to copy only one file or document from drive to drive, disk to drive or vice versa you can use My Computer. To copy a file or folder from Disk to Disk the best way is to make a 'Temporary' file in your Homes drive or the Tempshare drive. Next copy the file or folder you want to that 'Temporary' folder. Check that the file has copied correctly to the 'Temporary folder'. Then click on a hard drive. Now insert the other disk you want to put the file or folder in and copy from you 'Temporary' folder to your other disk drive. The same procedure applies for copying from disk to CD, USB or I: drive and vice versa. Copying drive to drive or disk/temp/CD to drive you does not have to make the 'Temporary folder' you can copy straight into the drive or disk/USB/CD. Remember that the files or folders will only stay in the share drive for 24 hours and ANYONE can look at these file or folders. Moving Files

Files can be moved to different folders (directories) or from one disk drive to another. To move a file between folders, you will need to view the available folders. Folders are arranged like a 'tree'. The 'tree' may have a number of 'branches'. To see all the folders available expand the branches of your file tree. Each branch should have a plus sign beside it if you click on this plus sign then the 'tree' expands. If it has a minus sign, then click on this to collapse the branch. To move a file between folders and which are on different drives, open the folder that currently contains the file, by double clicking on it. Click on the file using the left mouse button (this should highlight the file). Hold the shift key down. While holding the left mouse button down, drag the file to the new folder. If you are moving folders or files in the same drive in My Computer just drag and drop. Deleting Files Click on the file that you wish to delete. To delete the file click the file you want to delete, and then from the menu bar choose File and then delete. You will be asked if you want to delete this file, if you do choose yes and the file will be deleted. Otherwise choose No. Deleting Folders (directories) You can delete a folder and its contents if you wish. Click on the folder that you wish to delete and continue as per Deleting Files. Note that deleting a folder will delete all files and folders within that folder. Be sure that this is what you want to do before answering yes to the prompts. When asked if you want to delete the folder and its contents. Once you delete a file in My Computer it's gone for good! 10/1/07 Rev3 1 Windows XP File Management As you work with a computer creating more and more documents, you need to find a way to keep this information organized. Without a good organizational method, all your files are lumped together in one place. Therefore, it is very important to understand file management. Understanding Drives, Folders and Files When you create something (typically referred to as a document) on your computer it must be saved. The first time you save the document it becomes a file. Files are stored in folders on a disk. *A drive is the hardware that seeks, reads and writes information to and from a disk - which is where computer data is physically stored. The terms disk and

drive are often used interchangeably. Drives are identified by a letter. Windows XP includes many tools for file management, and the most commonly used tool is My Computer. My Computer is used to view all drives, folders and files that are available on your computer and to perform many file management tasks easily and efficiently. To See What's on Your Computer: 1. Open My Computer located on the Desktop Removable Storage Hard Drives* Holds contents of My Documents2 The hard drive is partitioned into 2 drives. The C:\ drive has files associated with the operating system and other applications. The D:\ drive is used to store all the files that you create. This was done in case a problem occurs with the operating system; Information Technology is able to fix one drive without harming the other. To See What's on Your Hard Drive: 1. Under Hard Disk Drives, double-click the Local Disk (D:) 2. Click on the Documents folder to select it The Documents folder also contains the contents of the My Documents folder. The My Documents folder is the Windows default location for many or all of the files saved on your computer. To View the Contents of My Documents: 1. Double-click on the Documents folder or click on My Documents located

on the left 3 The contents of My Documents is displayed. File and Folder Tasks When you select a file or folder a list of hyperlinked tasks is displayed in the left panel. You can rename, copy, move, or delete the file or folder. You can also send a file in e-mail or publish it to the Web. In addition to the basic file and folder tasks provided, there are several folders that provide links to specialized tasks. For example, the My Pictures and My Music folders provide task links that can help you manage your picture and music files. Additional hyperlinked tasks provided in the left panel include Other Places, which allows you to navigate to another drive or folder or return to My Computer. It also provides Details about the file or folder that is currently selected. To Create a New Folder: 1. Open My Documents (or the folder that will contain the new folder) 2. Under File and Folder Tasks, click Make a New Folder 3. A new folder is displayed with the default name, New Folder, selected 4. Type a name for the new folder, and then press ENTER. 4 Viewing Files and Folders Overview Windows provides several new ways for you to arrange and identify your files when viewing them. When a folder is open, you can access each of the following view options on the View menu. Show in Groups Show in Groups allows you to group your files by any detail of the file, such as name, size, type, or date modified. For example, if you group by file type, image files appear in one group, Microsoft Word files appear in

another group, and Excel files in another. Thumbnails Thumbnails view displays the images of a folder so you can quickly identify the contents of the folder. For example, if you store pictures in several different folders, in Thumbnails view, you can tell at a glance which folder contains the pictures you want. Tiles Tiles view displays your files and folders as icons. The icons are larger than those in Icon view, and the sort information you select is displayed under the file or folder name. For example, if you sort your files by type, "Microsoft Word document" appears under the file name for a Microsoft Word document. Filmstrip Filmstrip view is available in picture folders. Your pictures appear in a single row of thumbnail images. You can scroll through your pictures using the left and right arrow buttons. If you click a picture, it is displayed as a larger image above the other pictures. To edit, print, or save the image to another folder, double-click the picture. Icons Icons view displays your files and folders as icons. The file name is displayed under the icon; however, sort information is not displayed. In this view you can display your files and folders in groups. List List view displays the contents of a folder as a list of file or folder names preceded by small icons. This view is useful if your folder contains many

files and you want to scan the list for a file name. You can sort your files and folders in this view; however, you cannot display your files in groups. Details In Details view, Windows lists the contents of the open folder and provides detailed information about your files, including name, type, size, and date modified. In Details view you can also show your files in groups. 5 Selecting Files When you want to perform some file or folder-related tasks, you start by selecting that file or folder. You can select a single file or multiple files. To select consecutive files, click the first file, press and hold down the Shift key, and click the last file. The first and last files and all files in between are then selected To select nonconsecutive files, press and hold down the Ctrl key and click each file you want to select To select all the files, click the Edit menu and then click the Select All command, or press Ctrl+A To deselect a file, click outside the file list Copying Files and Folders There are 3 different ways to copy files and folders: 1. Using Files and Folder Tasks Select the files or folders to copy Under File and Folder Tasks, click Copy the selected items or Copy this folder6 In Copy Items, select the drive or folder you want to copy to, and then click Copy

2. Using the Right-Click Method: Select the files or folders to copy Right-click on the selected files Click on Copy Locate the destination folder and right-click on it Click on Paste7 If you are copying to another drive you can switch to that drive by clicking on the drop-down arrow in the Address Bar. 3. Using Drag and Drop If the My Computer window and the My Documents window are both open you can resize and position the windows so you can drag files from one location to another. Select the files to copy Click and hold the left mouse button down and drag the files to the destination folder Depending on where you are dragging the files to they will sometimes move instead of copy. To receive a prompt to move or copy use your right mouse button when dragging. Select the files Click and hold down the right mouse button Drag to the destination folder Select either Move here or Copy here from the shortcut menu 8 Moving Files or Folders Repeat the steps for copying with a few exceptions: 1. Using Files and Folder Tasks

After files are selected click on Move the selected items or Move this folder In Move Items, select the drive or folder you want to move to, and then click Move 2. Using the Right-Click Method: Select the files or folders to move Right-click on the selected files Click on Move Locate the destination folder and right-click on it Click on Paste 3. Using Drag and Drop Select the files to move Click and hold down the left mouse button and drag the files to the destination folder Deleting and Undeleting Files and Folders Eventually, your computer will become full of files, and youll have a hard time organizing and storing them all. You can delete any files you no longer need. You can also delete entire folders. When you delete a folder, the folder and all its contents are moved to the Recycle Bin. Windows XP doesnt really delete a file or folder; instead, it moves it to the Recycle Bin. If needed, you can retrieve the file or folder from the Recycle Bin. To Delete a File or Folder: 1. Select the file or folder you want to delete 2. Click Delete This File on the left 3. You are prompted to confirm the deletion

4. Click Yes to confirm Windows removes the file or folder, placing it in the Recycle Bin. 9 To Retrieve a Deleted File or Folder: Sometimes you will delete a file or folder by mistake. If you make a mistake, you can retrieve the file or folder from the Recycle Bin (as long as the Recycle Bin has not been emptied) and return the file or folder to its original location. 1. Double-click the Recycle Bin icon on your desktop 2. Select the file or folder you want to undelete 3. Click Restore This Item in the Task pane. The file or folder is then moved from the Recycle Bin back to its original location. 4. Click the Close button to close the Recycle Bin Emptying the Recycle Bin The content of the Recycle Bin takes up disk space, so you should periodically empty it. 1. Double-click the Recycle Bin icon 2. Select the file to undelete 3. Click Empty the Recycle Bin in the Task pane. Windows displays the Confirm Multiple File Delete dialog box, prompting you to confirm this action 4. Click Yes to empty the Recycle Bin