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National Aeronautics and Space Administration

Reference Guide to the

SpacE Station
RefeRence Guide to the

SpacE Station


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august 2006

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The International Space Station (ISS) is a great international,
technological, and political achievement. It is the latest step in
humankind’s quest to explore and live in space. The results of the
research done on the ISS may be applied in various areas of science,
enable us to improve life on this planet, and give us the experience
and increased understanding that can eventually equip us to journey
to other worlds.
This book is designed to provide a broad overview of the
Station’s complex configuration, design, and component systems, as
well as the sophisticated procedures required in the Station’s
construction and operation.
The ISS is in orbit today, operating with a crew of three. Its
assembly will continue through 2010. As the ISS grows, its capabilities
will increase, thus requiring a larger crew. Currently, 16 countries are
involved in this venture.
Assembly Stages.....................................................................................................................9

Defines the characteristics of the ISS today, the design as it will be upon completion,
and all of the assembly stages that have changed its appearance from the beginning
through to Assembly Complete.

Elements.................................................................................................................................. 21
Describes the characteristics of each principal module of the ISS.

Transportation/Logistics................................................................................................ 37
Describes the launch vehicles and carriers required to transport the components,
crews, and consumables that support the ISS throughout its mission.

Systems................................................................................................................................... 47
Provides an overview of each functional grouping of ISS hardware and the truss
assembly, which serves as the structural backbone of the ISS.

ISS International Facilities and Operations............................................................ 65
Details the international partners’ principal locations, installations, and activities.

Missions................................................................................................................................... 75
Displays a quick guide to the flights flown to the ISS and the crews responsible for its
construction and operation.

Interesting Facts................................................................................................................. 85

Appendix................................................................................................................................. 93

Contacts......................................................................................................Inside back cover

Shown in the foreground, a telephoto view of the
U.S. Lab. Clockwise from the left, the Pressurized Mating
Adapter, the Space Station Remote Manipulator System,
Soyuz, and Pirs. In the background, the U.S. Airlock.
International Space Station Guide
Associate Administrator
 Space Operations Mission Directorate

The International Space Station (ISS) affords a unique
opportunity to serve as an engineering test bed for flight systems
and operations critical to NASA’s exploration mission. U.S.
research on the ISS will concentrate on the long-term effects of
space travel on humans and engineering development activities
in support of exploration. This research will help enable human
crews to venture through the increasingly longer missions and
greater distances necessary to visit Earth’s planetary neighbors.

The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA)
looks forward to working with our partners on ISS research and
engineering development and operations that will help open up
new pathways for future exploration and discovery beyond low-

Earth orbit.

—William H. Gerstenmaier
Associate Administrator
NASA Space Operations Mission Directorate
Telephoto close-up. Soyuz to left.
Space Station Remote Manipulator
System extends over Pressurized
Mating Adapter 3. Functional Cargo
Block in foreground.
assembly stages
As of mid-2006, the International Space Station (ISS) has been
continuously crewed for more than 5 years and is about 50 percent
complete with approximately 180 metric tonnes (198 tons) of mass on
orbit. There are 16 elements in orbit today, 9 elements ready for launch
at Kennedy Space Center in Florida, and 6 elements in process at
international partner sites. When the assembly is complete, the ISS will
be composed of about 420,000 kilograms (925,000 pounds) of hardware
brought to orbit in about 40 separate launches over the course of more
than a decade. To date, there have been over 50 flights to the ISS,
including flights for assembly, crew rotation, and logistical support.
ISS Assembly Complete, 2010.

ISS Assembly
ISS, June 2006 Complete, 2010

Length 52 m 74 m
(171 ft) (243 ft)

Width 73 m 110 m
(240 ft) (361 ft)

Mass 186,000 kg 419,600 kg
(410,000 lb) (925,000 lb)

Pressurized volume 449 m3 935 m3
(15,860 ft3) (33,023 ft3)

Array surface area 892 m2 2,500 m2
(9,600 ft2) (27,000 ft2)

Power 26 kW 110 kW

ISS, June 2006.
International Space Station Guide
Assembly Stages
11 ISS Configuration

Principal Stages in Construction
The ISS, at Assembly Complete, is to be the largest humanmade object ever to orbit Earth. The ISS is to have a pressurized volume
of 935 m3 (33,023 ft3), a mass of 419,600 kg (925,000 lb), maximum power output of 110 kW, with a payload long-term average power
allocation of 30 kW, a structure that measures 110 m (361 ft) (across arrays) by 74 m (243 ft) (module length), an orbital altitude of
370–460 km (230–286 mi), an orbital inclination of 51.6o, and a crew of six.
Building and sustaining the ISS requires 80 flights over a 12-year period. As of 2006, 21 flights have been flown in support of ISS
assembly. As many as another 17 Shuttle missions and 2 Russian launches are currently planned to complete the assembly. Currently,
logistics is supported by the Space Shuttle, Progress, and Soyuz.
Future logistics/resupply missions will also be provided by the European Automated Transfer Vehicle (ATV) and Japan’s H-II
Transfer Vehicle (HTV). The U.S. Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV) and commercial systems will support ISS logistics in the future.

Stage/Date Element Added Launch Vehicle

Nov. 1998 Functional Cargo Block (FGB). Proton

2A Space Shuttle
Dec. 1998 Node 1, Pressurized Mating Adapter (PMA) 1, 2. STS-88

July 2000 Service Module (SM). Proton

3A Space Shuttle
Oct. 2000 Zenith 1 (Z1) Truss, PMA 3. STS-92

A=U.S. Assembly J=Japanese Assembly E=European Assembly R=Russian Assembly
International Space Station Guide International Space Station Guide
Assembly Stages Assembly Stages
ISS Configuration 12 13 ISS Configuration

Stage/Date Element Added Launch Vehicle Stage/Date Element Added Launch Vehicle

4A Space Shuttle
Dec. 2000 Port 6 (P6) Truss. STS-97
Sept. 2001 Russian Docking Compartment (DC) and Airlock. Soyuz

5A Space Shuttle 8A Space Shuttle
Feb. 2001 U.S. Lab. STS-98 Apr. 2002 Starboard Zero (S0) Truss. STS-110

6A Space Shuttle 9A Space Shuttle
Apr. 2001 Space Station Remote Manipulator System (SSRMS). STS-100 Oct. 2002 S1 Truss. STS-112

11A Space Shuttle
Nov. 2002 P1 Truss. STS-113
7A Space Shuttle
July 2001 U.S. Airlock. STS-104
A=U.S. Assembly J=Japanese Assembly E=European Assembly R=Russian Assembly
International Space Station Guide International Space Station Guide
Assembly Stages Assembly Stages
ISS Configuration 14 15 ISS Configuration

Stage/Date Element Added Launch Vehicle Stage/Date Element Added Launch Vehicle


Space Shuttle
13A.1 S5 Truss. STS-118
12A Space Shuttle
Aug. 2006 P3/P4 Truss. STS-115

Space Shuttle
Space Shuttle 10A Node 2, P6 relocated. STS-120
12A.1 P5 Truss, retracting P6 arrays. STS-116

Space Shuttle
Space Shuttle
1E ESA Columbus Module. STS-122
13A S3/S4 Truss. STS-117
A=U.S. Assembly J=Japanese Assembly E=European Assembly R=Russian Assembly
International Space Station Guide International Space Station Guide
Assembly Stages Assembly Stages
ISS Configuration 16 17 ISS Configuration

Stage/Date Element Added Launch Vehicle Stage/Date Element Added Launch Vehicle

JEM-ELM Exposed Section (ES),
Japanese Experiment Module Experiment Logistics 2 J/A JEM-Exposed Facility (JEM-EF). Space Shuttle
Module Pressurized Section (JEM-ELM-PS), and Canadian
1J/A Special Purpose Dexterous Manipulator (Dextre). Space Shuttle

3R Russian Multi-Purpose Laboratory Module. Proton
1J JEM Pressurized Module (PM). Space Shuttle

20A Node 3 and Cupola. Space Shuttle

15A S6 Truss. Space Shuttle
A=U.S. Assembly J=Japanese Assembly E=European Assembly R=Russian Assembly
International Space Station Guide International Space Station Guide
Assembly Stages Assembly Stages
ISS Configuration 18 19 ISS Configuration

Stage/Date Element Added Launch Vehicle

Current ISS On-Orbit Elements
Module Length Mass Launched Launch Vehicle

FGB (Zarya) 12.8 m (42 ft) 25,000 kg (55,000 lb) 11/20/98 Proton

Node 1 (Unity)/PMA 1 & 2 10.4 m (34 ft) 14,900 kg (33,000 lb) 12/04/98 STS-88

Service Module (Zvezda) 13.1 m (43 ft) 24,600 kg (54,200 lb) 7/12/00 Proton

8,755 kg (19,227 lb)/
Z1 Truss/PMA 3 4.6 m (15 ft) 10/11/00 STS-92
1,168 kg (2,575 lb)

9R Russian Research Module. Proton P6 Truss 18.3 m (60 ft) 14,550 kg (32,100 lb) 11/30/00 STS-97
73.2 m (240 ft) across
extended solar array
A=U.S. Assembly J=Japanese Assembly E=European Assembly R=Russian Assembly
U.S. Lab (Destiny) 8.5 m (28 ft) 24,100 kg (53,100 lb) 02/07/01 STS-98

SSRMS (Canadarm 2) 17.7 m (58 ft) 1,502 kg (3,311 lb) 04/19/01 STS-100

U.S. Airlock (Quest) 4.6 m (15 ft) 9,920 kg (21,900 lb) 07/12/01 STS-104

Docking Compartment/
4.9 m (16 ft) 3,838 kg (8,461 lb) 09/15/01 Soyuz
Airlock (Pirs)

S0 Truss/Mobile
13.4 m (44 ft) 12,100 kg (26,700 lb) 04/08/02 STS-110

Mobile Base System 5.8 m (19 ft) 1,450 kg (3,200 lb) 06/05/02 STS-111

S1 Truss 13.7 m (45 ft) 12,300 kg (27,100 lb) 10/07/02 STS-112

P1 Truss 13.7 m (45 ft) 12,300 kg (27,100 lb) 11/23/02 STS-113

Soyuz (typical) 7 m (22.9 ft) 7,167 kg (15,800 lb) N/A Soyuz

Progress (typical) 7.3 m (24 ft) 1,750 kg (15,800 lb) N/A Soyuz

Current and Future Totals
Length Width Volume Mass

June 2006 52 m 73 m 449 m3 186,000 kg
(171 ft) (240 ft) (15,860 ft3) (410,000 lb)
with Progress across array 186 t (205 tons)

Assembly Complete 74 m 108.5 m (356 ft) 935 m3 419,600 kg
(243 ft) arrays extended (33,023 ft3) (925,000 lb)
with ESA ATV 457 t (420 tons)

Space Shuttle docked to Node 2. SSRMS and Truss at top.
International Space Station Guide
Assembly Stages
ISS Configuration 20

ISS Assembly Sequence
The table below shows the plan for completion. Assembly and logistics flights are plotted as a function of time and percent of total mass.
100 L AA A
90 A
80 L
% Assembly Completed by Mass

50 A
40 L
LA A U.S. Assembly Flights
30 LA A Russian Assemby Flights
A L U.S. Logistics Flights
20 A International Logistics Flights
10 A

1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010

Important Dates
Nov. 20, 1998 First element launched (FGB)

Dec. 4, 1998 Shuttle mission carried first U.S. component, Node 1 (Unity)

July 12, 2000 Early living quarters launched by Russians, Service Module (Zvezda)

Nov. 2, 2000 Start of permanent human presence on the ISS (Expedition 1)

Nov. 2000 First set of U.S. arrays made the ISS the most powerful spacecraft ever

U.S. laboratory Destiny delivered (provided command and control and an
Feb. 2001
experiment platform)

Apr. 2001 Canadian robotic arm extended the “reach” of the Station for assembly

July 2001 U.S. airlock Quest arrived, allowing U.S. spacewalks without the Shuttle

Apr. 2002 S0 Truss (central truss segment); Mobile Transporter launched

June 2002 Mobile Base System (platform on which SSRMS can attach for translation across truss) installed

Sept. 2002 S1 Truss installed

Nov. 2002 P1 Truss installed

July 2005 Space Shuttle Return to Flight (STS-114) a logistics mission

2009 Six-person crew

2010 Assembly Complete
Building and maintaining the International Space Station (ISS)
is a very complex task. An international fleet of space vehicles
launches ISS components; rotates crews; provides logistical
support; and replenishes propellant, items for science experi-
ments, and other necessary supplies and equipment. The Space
Shuttle must be used to deliver most ISS modules and major
All of these important deliveries sustain a constant supply
line that is crucial to the development and maintenance of the
International Space Station. The fleet is also responsible for
returning experiment results to Earth and for removing trash and
waste from the ISS.
Currently, transport vehicles are launched from two sites on
Earth. In the future, the number of launch sites will increase to
four or more. Future plans also include new commercial trans-
ports that will take over the role of U.S. ISS logistical support.
International Space Station Guide
39 Launch Vehicles

Soyuz Proton H-II Ariane Shuttle
Russia Japan Europe United States

Russia Japan Europe U.S.

Soyuz SL-4 Proton SL-12 H-II Ariane 5 Space Shuttle

First launch 1957 1965 1996 1996 1981
1963 (Soyuz variant)

Launch site(s) Baikonur Baikonur Tanegashima Guiana Kennedy Space Center
Cosmodrome Cosmodrome Space Center Space Center

Launch performance 7,150 kg 20,000 kg 16,500 kg 18,000 kg 18,600 kg
payload capacity (15,750 lb) (44,000 lb) (36,400 lb) (39,700 lb) (41,000 lb)
105,000 kg (230,000 lb),
orbiter only

Return performance N/A N/A N/A N/A 18,600 kg
payload capacity (41,000 lb)
105,000 kg (230,000 lb),
orbiter only

Number of stages 2 + 4 strap-ons 4 + 6 strap-ons 2 + 2 strap-ons 2 + 2 strap-ons 1.5 + 2 strap-ons

Length 49.5 m 57 m 53 m 51 m 56.14 m
(162 ft) (187 ft) (173 ft) (167 ft) (18.2 ft)
37.24 m (122.17 ft),
orbiter only

Mass 310,000 kg 690,000 kg 570,000 kg 746,000 kg 2,040,000 kg
(683,400 lb) (1,521,200 lb) (1,256,600 lb) (1,644,600 lb) (4,497,400 lb)

Launch thrust 6,000 kN 9,000 kN 5,600 kN 11,400 kN 34,677 kN
(1,348,800 lbf) (2,023,200 lbf) (1,258,900 lbf) (2,562,820 lbf) (7,795,700 lbf)

Payload Soyuz Service Module H-II Ariane Automated Shuttle Orbiter
Examples Progress Functional Transfer Vehicle Transfer Vehicle Nodes, U.S. Lab
Pirs Cargo Block (FGB) (HTV) (ATV) Columbus, JEM,
Research Module (RM) Truss elements
Multipurpose Lab Airlock, SSRMS
Module (MLM)

The largest U.S. and Russian launch vehicles are used to place elements of the ISS, crew, and cargo in orbit.
Eventually, Japanese and European launch vehicles will support cargo delivery. Currently, only the U.S. Space
Shuttle provides the capability to return significant payloads.
International Space Station Guide International Space Station Guide
Transportation/Logistics Transportation/Logistics
Soyuz 40 41 Progress

Soyuz Progress Progress
approaches ISS.
S.P. Korolev Rocket and Space Corporation Energia S.P. Korolev Rocket and Space Corporation Energia
(RSC Energia) (RSC Energia)
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ Soyuz spacecraft have been in use since the mid-1960s and have been upgraded
periodically. Soyuz can support three suited crewmembers for up to 3 days. A nitrogen/ Progress is a resupply vehicle used for cargo and propellant deliveries to the ISS. Once
oxygen atmosphere at sea level pressure is provided. The vehicle has an automatic docked to the ISS, Progress engines can boost the ISS to higher altitudes and control the
docking system and may be piloted automatically or by a crewmember. The Soyuz orientation of the ISS in space. Typically, three Progress vehicles bring supplies to the
TMA used for the ISS includes changes to accommodate larger and smaller crewmem- ISS each year. Progress is based upon the Soyuz design, and it can either work
bers, an improved landing system, and digital electronic controls and displays. autonomously or can be flown remotely by crewmembers aboard the ISS. After a
Soyuz departs ISS.
VHF Radio
Progress vehicle is filled with trash from the ISS, and after undocking and deorbit, it is
Command Primary
Radio Antenna
Antenna Propulsion System incinerated in Earth’s atmosphere at the end of its mission.
Solar Array Propulsion
Kurs Antenna System Stepped Scan
Array Antenna
Controls and Displays Solar Array
Booster Attachment VHF Radio
Structure Antenna

Reentry Module Hatch Attitude Control
Engines Kurs
Stowage Orbital Module Command
Radio Antenna
Crew Environmental Attachment
Control Electronics Bat- Kurs
Progress cargo module interior. Antenna
Periscope Control
Probe and Drogue Engines
Launch mass 6,441 kg (14,200 lb) Docking System
Descent Module
Descent module 2,630 kg (5,800 lb)
Orbital module 1,179 kg (2,600 lb) Section
Fluids Storage
Soyuz being prepared for launch. Pressurized
Instrumentation/ 2,360 kg (5,200 lb) Section le
propulsion module du
Instrumentation/ g Mo
Propulsion e li n
Module fu
Delivered payload 30 kg (66 lb)
(with three crewmembers) le
o Mo
Returned payload 50 kg (110 lb) Length 7.4 m (24.3 ft)

Length 7 m (22.9 ft) Progress prelaunch processing. Maximum diameter 2.7 m (8.9 ft)
Soyuz descent module interior. Progress prior to reentry.
Launch and Aborts
Maximum diameter 2.7 m (8.9 ft) Mission Sequence Span with solar arrays 10.6 m (34.8 ft)
Cargo Load
1A Abort using escape rocket
Maximum Typical*
Diameter of habitable 2.2 m (7.2 ft) Escape rocket jettison, nose shroud
2 Launch mass 7,150 kg
modules separation (160 seconds in full) Dry cargo 1,800 kg 1,070 kg (15,800 lb)
Staging (186 seconds)
3 such as bags (3,968 lb) (2,360 lb)

Solar array span 10.7 m (35.1 ft)
3 6 7 3A Abort by separation of Soyuz Cargo upload capacity 2,230–3,200 kg

7A Water 420 kg 300 kg

3A 8 Orbital velocity (526 seconds)
4 (925 lb) (660 lb) (4,915–7,055 lb)

Volume of orbital module 6.5 m3 (229.5 ft3)
9 Return Air 50 kg 47 kg
2 Soyuz retrofire, orbital module separation,
5 (110 lb) (103 lb) Pressurized habitable volume 6.6 m3
reentry module separation (233 ft3)
Volume of descent module 4 m3 (141.3 ft3) 1A Pilot parachute deploys
Refueling 1,700 kg 870 kg
propellant (3,748 lb) (1,918 lb)
Drogue parachute deploys
Engine thrust 2,942 N
Descent G-loads 3–4 g
1 7A Main parachute reefed Reboost 250 kg 250 kg (661 lbf)
propellant (550 lb) (550 lb)
Main parachute fully deployed

Reentry heatshield jettison
Waste 2,000 kg 2,000 kg *Measurements are
Final landing speed 2 m/s (6.6 ft/s) from the 21 P flight. Orbital life 6 mo
10 Landing, retro rocket firing capacity (4,409 lb) (4,409 lb)
International Space Station Guide International Space Station Guide
Transportation/Logistics Transportation/Logistics
Space Shuttle Orbiter 42 43 Multi-Purpose Logistics Module

Space Shuttle Orbiter/ Multi-Purpose Logistics
Discovery, Atlantis, Module (MPLM)/Leonardo,
Endeavour Raffaelo, Donatello
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ NASA/Alcatel Alenia Space
The Italian-built Multi-Purpose Logistics Module (MPLM)
The U.S. Space Shuttle provides Earth-to-orbit and return capabilities and in-orbit serves as the International Space Station’s “moving van”
Crew support. The diversity of its missions and customers is testimony to the adaptability of by carrying laboratory racks filled with equipment,
Access Hatch
its design. As of mid-2006, the Shuttle experiments, and supplies to and from the Station
Payload Bay Maneuvering
had flown 115 times. The Shuttle’s aboard the Space Shuttle.
Star Orbital and
Door Hinges
Attitude Maneuvering
Engines primary purpose during the remaining Mounted in the Shuttle’s cargo bay for
System Pod 4 years of operation will be to complete launch and landing, the modules are transferred
Nose Cap the assembly of the ISS. By 2010, it will to the Station using the Shuttle’s robotic arm
be retired. after the Shuttle has docked. While berthed to
the Station, racks of equipment and stowage
items are unloaded from the module, and racks
and equipment may be reloaded to be transported
Aft Bulkhead
back to Earth. The MPLM is then detached from
Vernier the Station and positioned in the Shuttle’s cargo bay
Body Flap for the trip home.

Air Data
Probe Aileron/Elevon

External Tank
Forward Reaction Umbilical Door Reinforced Carbon-
Control Primary Main Landing Carbon Leading Edge
Engines Gear Door
Hydrazine and Nitrogen
Tetroxide Tanks
Rudder and Remote
Length 37.2 m (122.2 ft) Speed Brake Thermal Control
Radiators Manipulator Forward Attitude
Control Engines
Height 17.3 m (56.7 ft) Main Engines

Wingspan 23.8 m (78 ft) Maneuvering MPLM berthed at Node 1. Stowage within MPLM.

Aft Attitude
Typical mass 104,000 kg (230,000 lb) Control
Nose Landing
Cargo capacity 16,000 kg (35,000 lb) Body Flap Gear
(typical launch and return to ISS) Flight
Elevon Deck
Main Landing Gear
Pressurized 74 m3 (2,625 ft3) Fuel Cells
habitable volume

Mission length 7–16 days, typical Length 6.6 m (21.7 ft)

Number of crew 7, typical Diameter 4.2 m (13.8 ft)

Atmosphere oxygen-nitrogen Mass (structure) 4,685 kg (10,329 lb)

Cargo Bay Mass (payload) 9,400 kg (20,700 lb)

Length 18.3 m (60 ft) The Shuttle approaches the Racks 16, 5 active
ISS carrying the Multi-Purpose
Logistics Module (MPLM). Shuttle berthed at the U.S. Lab, PMA 2. MPLM interior during cargo transfers.
Diameter 4.6 m (15 ft) Pressurized habitable volume 31 m3 (1,095 ft3)
International Space Station Guide International Space Station Guide
Transportation/Logistics Transportation/Logistics
JAXA H-II Transfer Vehicle 44 45 Automated Transfer Vehicle

JAXA H-II Transfer Vehicle Automated Transfer Vehicle
Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA)/ European Space Agency (ESA)/European Aeronautic
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, Ltd. Defence and Space Co. (EADS) ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

The H-II Transfer Vehicle is an autonomous logistical resupply vehicle designed to The European Space Agency Automated Transfer Vehicle is an autonomous logistical
berth to the International Space Station using the Space Station Remote Manipulation resupply vehicle designed to dock to the International Space Station and provide the crew
System (SSRMS). HTV offers the capability to carry logistics materials in both its internal with dry cargo, atmospheric gas, water, and propellant. After the cargo is unloaded, the ATV
pressurized carrier as well as in an unpressurized carrier for exterior placement. It is is reloaded with trash and waste products, undocks, and is incinerated during reentry.
launched on the H-II unmanned launch vehicle and can carry dry cargo, gas and water, and
After rendezvous propellant. After fresh cargo is unloaded at the ISS, the HTV is loaded with trash and waste Spa AT V
with the ISS, the HTV products; after unberthing and deorbit, it is incinerated during reentry. B u s ra f t
awaits grappling by Attitude Control Int
the SSRMS. on
Engines (20) C a r e g ra t e
u lsi go
(b C a r r i
r o p u le
Primary M P L ased on e r
Engines M de
ics P
si g n
) ISS Artist’s rendering shows the
vion le Ser
ATV approaching the ISS.
M o d u M o d v ic e
Primary u le
ed A
uri z Engines (4)
npr arrier

d U
ri z e
P re arrier

Interior view of
HTV pressurized Titanium Tanks,
(for carrying water, Length 10.3 m (33.8 ft)
carrier. propellant, and oxygen)
Maximum diameter 4.5 m (14.8 ft)
Lithium Ion Cargo
Batteries Environmental Compartment
Earth Sensors Control System Span across solar arrays 22.3 m (73.2 ft)
ISPRs (8)
Solar Launch mass 20,750 kg (45,746 lb)
Hatch and Array
Berthing Ring Exposed Pallet
(to ISS Node) Payload
Cargo upload capacity 7,667 kg (16,903 lb)
Exposed Pallet
Spacecraft Engine thrust 1,960 N (441 lbf)
Forward Attitude
Control Engines International
Standard Payload Integrated Orbital life 6 mo
Racks (ISPRs) Cargo Carrier
Length 9.2 m (30 ft)
Cargo Load

Maximum diameter 4.4 m (14.4 ft) Russian-built
probe and Dry cargo such as bags 5,500 kg (12,125 lb)
drogue docking
Launch mass 16,500 kg (36,375 lb) system.
Water 840 kg (1,852 lb)

Cargo upload capacity 5,500 kg (12,125 lb)
Air (O2, N2) 100 kg (220 lb)

Pressurized habitable
14 m3 (495 ft3)
volume Refueling propellant 860 kg (1,896 lb)
Probe and Drogue
Docking System
Unpressurized volume 16 m3 (565 ft3) Reboost propellant 4,700 kg (10,360 lb)
The HTV is berthed onto JEM by the The HTV primary propulsion system
Space Station RMS. performs rendezvous maneuvers. The ATV during manufacture.
Orbital life 6 mo Waste capacity 6,500 kg (14,330 lb)
International Space Station Guide
Crew Exploration Vehicle 46

Crew Exploration Vehicle
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ NASA has initiated the development of the Orion Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV).
The first Orion flights are planned for 2012–2014 and will support the ISS.

The CEV approaches the ISS.

Commercial Orbital
Transportation Services
NASA is seeking commercial providers of launch and return logistics services to support
the ISS after the Space Shuttle is retired. The first COTS demonstration missions are
planned for 2010.


Cargo Return

Rendezvous Crew Return

Docking or Berthing

(Prox Ops)
External/Internal Cargo
Delivery and Disposal
Cargo Transfer Internal Cargo Delivery
and Return
Crew Transportation
The International Space Station (ISS) flight systems make up the core
functional infrastructure of the on-orbit ISS. The ISS flight systems
consist of Habitation; the Crew Health Care System (CHeCS);
Extravehicular Activity (EVA); the Environmental Control and
Life Support System (ECLSS); Computers and Data Management;
Propulsion; Guidance, Navigation, and Control; Communications;
the Thermal Control System (TCS); and the Electrical Power System
(EPS). These flight systems provide a safe, livable, and comfortable
environment in which crewmembers perform scientific research.
Payloads, hardware, software, and crew support items on the ISS
operate within the capabilities of these flight systems.
International Space Station Guide
49 Integrated Truss Assembly


Integrated Truss Assembly
5 15
25 9
10 6 15
The truss assemblies provide attachment points for the solar arrays, thermal control radiators, and 37
external payloads. Truss assemblies also contain electrical and cooling utility lines, as well as the mobile 5 15
transporter rails. The Integrated Truss Structure (ITS) is made up of 11 segments plus a separate com- 24
10 37
ponent called Z1. These segments, which are shown in the figure, will be installed on the Station so that 11 5 4
6 32 4
they extend symmetrically from the center of the ISS.
At full assembly, the truss reaches 108.5 meters (356 feet) in length across the extended solar arrays. 42 30 12 22 31
ITS segments are labeled in accordance with their location. P stands for “port,” S stands for “star- 37 37
26 37
board,” and Z stands for “Zenith.” 38 15
Initially, through Stage 8A, the first truss segment, Zenith 1 (Z1), was attached to the Unity Node 37 17
4 20
zenith berthing mechanism. Then truss segment P6 was mounted on top of Z1 and its solar arrays and 16
radiator panels deployed to support the early ISS. Subsequently, S0 was mounted on top of the U.S.
Lab Destiny, and the horizontal truss members P1 and S1 were then attached to S0. As the remaining 37
1 22
9 P6
members of the truss are added, P6 will be removed from its location on Z1 and moved to the outer 2 16
10 31
8 10 39
end of the port side.

37 7
29 36

35 39


39 23
41 14 13
2003–06 configuration, 10 21 16
looking from nadir. 17 10
15 14

37 9 1 37 40
39 U.S. Lab 20
5 39
19 Outboard Lower Camera
23 40

37 20 Photovoltaic Radiator
17 28 21 Pump Flow Control Assembly
31 35
10 37 10 22 Pump Flow Control Subassembly
21 27 39 7 8 Charged Particle Directional Spectrometer 23 Pump Module

9 19 9 Direct Current Switching Unit (DCSU) 24 PVR Controller Unit
5 10 DC-to-DC Converter Unit (DDCU)
15 5 25 PVR Grapple Fixture Bar
6 4

1 Solar Array Alpha Rotary Joint 11 Deployed Thermal System Radiator 26 Radiator Beam Valve Module
2 Ammonia Tank Assembly 12 Grapple Fixture 27 Remote Power Control Modules
3 Assembly Contingency 13 Inboard Lower Camera 28 Rotary Joint Motor Controller

S4 4
Baseband Signal Processor
Battery Charge Discharge Unit
14 Main Bus Switching Units
15 Mast Storage Canister
29 S-Band Antenna
30 Solar Array Alpha Rotary Joint Drive
Lock Assembly
16 Mobile Transporter Rails

4 6 Beta Gimbal Assemblies 31 Solar Array Wing
17 Multiplexer/De-Multiplexers
7 Cable Trays 32 Stowed Photovoltaic Radiator
20 18 Nitrogen Tank Assembly (interior to truss)
33 Struts
34 Thermal Control System Radiator Beam

S6 Manual
Space to Ground
Antenna (SGANT) Z1 S0
35 Thermal Radiator Rotary Joint with Flex
Hose Rotary Coupler
36 Transponder
Z1-to-U.S. Lab 37 Trunnion
U.S. 38 UHF Antenna
Z1-to-U.S. Lab Airlock
Umbilical 39 Umbilical Mechanism Assemblies
20 31 40 Umbilicals
41 Unpressurized Cargo Carrier Attachment
Z1-to-S0 Node 1 U.S. Lab Node 2
42 Wireless Video System Antenna
2003–06 configuration, looking from aft. S-Band Antenna
Structural Assembly
Mounting locations of truss elements
view of top/forward/starboard
on Node 1 and U.S. Lab, starboard side view
International Space Station Guide
Habitation 50

Habitation Haircut in SM.

The habitable elements of the International Space Station are mainly a series of cylindrical
modules. Many of the primary accommodations, including the waste management compartment
and toilet, the galley, individual crew sleep compartments, and some of the exercise facilities,
are in the Service Module (SM). A third sleep compartment is located in the U.S. Lab,
and additional exercise equipment is in the U.S. Lab and the Node. Additional habitation
capabilities for a crew of six will be provided prior to completion of ISS assembly.
Preparing meal in galley. Playing keyboard in U.S. Lab.
Shaving in SM.

soyuz service module fgb node/airlock u.s. lab

U.S./Joint Airlock

U.S. Lab Computer U.S. Lab Temporary
Workstation Sleep Station (TSS)
SM mid compartment and treadmill.
SM forward compartment. Stowage container in FGB.
Node Passageway

Stowed Food Trays in FGB
SM Sleep Remote Docking SM Transfer
Compartment Control Station Compartment
Russian water containers.
Microgravity Science Glovebox in U.S. Lab

FGB Corridor and Stowage

Stowage in Node 1

Toilet in Waste Management Crewmembers Exercise on U.S. Lab Window
Compartment SM Treadmill
Crewmembers with Orlan Suits in Pirs
International Space Station Guide
51 Crew Health Care System

Crew Health Care System (CHeCS)/
Integrated Medical System
The Crew Health Care System (CHeCS)/Integrated Medical System is a suite of hardware on the
ISS that provides the medical and environmental capabilities necessary to ensure the health and safety
of crewmembers during long-duration missions. CHeCS is divided into three subsystems:

Leroy Chiao uses RED. Crew uses medical restraint and defibrillator.

soyuz service module fgb node/airlock u.s. lab

Volatile Organics
Blood Sample Reflotron Analyzer (VOA)

Bonner Ball Neutron CHeCS Rack
Treadmill Vibration
Particle Detector and
Water Sampling Isolation System (TVIS) Resistive Exercise
Phantom Torso for radiation
and Analysis measurement experiments. Device (RED)

Water Samples
(taken for ground
Saliva Sample Kit analysis of contamination)

Countermeasures System (CMS)—The CMS
provides the equipment and protocols for the perfor-
mance of daily and alternative regimens (e.g., exercise)
to mitigate the deconditioning effects of living in a
microgravity environment. The CMS also monitors crew- CardioCog From left to right:
members during exercise regimens, reduces vibrations Intravehicular Charged
Particle Directional
during the performance of these regimens, and makes Spectrometer (IV-CPDS)
periodic fitness evaluations possible. Microbial Surface Sampling Cycle Ergometer with Vibration (gold box) and Tissue
Isolation System (CEVIS) Equivalent Proportional
Counter (TEPC) detector
Environmental Health System (EHS)—The EHS (gold cylinder).
monitors the atmosphere for gaseous contaminants (i.e.,
from nonmetallic materials off-gassing, combustion prod-
ucts, and propellants), microbial contaminants (i.e., from
crewmembers and Station activities), water quality,
acoustics, and radiation levels.

Health Maintenance System (HMS)—The HMS
provides in-flight life support and resuscitation, medical
Potable water Crew Medical Defibrillator.
care, and health monitoring capabilities. sampler. Restraint System
Acoustics measurement kit. Atmosphere Grab Microbial air sampler.
Velo-Ergometer (CMRS).
Sampler Container.
International Space Station Guide
Te m p . & Air
ISS Systems
H umid
it y CO2
U.S. Regenerative Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS)
Environmental Control 52 Con trol A i r Re
turn Oxygen Generation Water Recovery Water Recovery
CO2 1 Catalytic Reactor 12 Reactor Health Sensor
System (OGS) Rack System Rack 1 (WRS-1) System Rack 2 (WRS-2)
2 Deionizer Beds 13 Storage Tanks H2
Waste Cabin Air Cabin Return
Mgm t. Trace a n t 3 Digital Controller 14 Urine Processor
Con ta trol Pumps 2 8 14 3
Con m bly 4 Distillation Assembly 15

Environmental Control and
Waste Products a s se
Air Sub 15 Volume reserved for
5 Electrolysis Cell Stack later CO2 Reduction 14
O2 6 Gas Separator System 12 6 17
Urine 11

Life Support System (ECLSS)

Recovery U rine
en 16 Water Processor
O x yg ion 7 Multifiltration Beds 13

O2/N ra t Delivery Pump 1
at Gene

Control 8 Particulate Filter
e Processed Urine 17 Water Processor 18
N2 9 Power Supply Pump & Separator 3
a ter Po ta b r ate
r 10 Product Water Tank 18 Water Processor
uc Wa te ing ct W
od s P rodu Wastewater Tank
s 11 Pumps & Valves
Pr P roc e 4
Earth’s natural life-support system provides the air we breathe, the water we drink, and other 9 5 7
=Process Water 16
conditions that support life. For people to live in space, however, these functions must be Regenerative environmental = Oxygen 10

control life support in the U.S. =Urine
performed by artificial means. The ECLSS includes compact and powerful systems that provide segment of the ISS. (vented overboard) =Brine
the crew with a comfortable environment in which to live and work. Crew System
=Potable Water =Humidity Condensate
Potable Water Hand Wash/
System Shaving

progress service module fgb node/airlock u.s. lab shuttle

CWC Bags (used by
astronauts to carry water
from the Shuttle to the ISS)

Vozdukh (absorbs carbon
dioxide from crew)
Elektron (produces oxygen Lithium Hydroxide (LiOH) Contingency Water Container (CWC) bag.
from water through elec- cartridge used for eliminating
trolysis; vents hydrogen out CO2 from air, backup system. Fuel Cells (make
Lithium Hydroxide
of the Station) electricity and
Cartridges (absorb
carbon dioxide) water from oxygen
Russian EDVs used to store and and hydrogen)
CO2 transport water.

O2 CO2
Crew breathes in
OXYGEN air and generates OXYGEN Crew breathes
AIR carbon dioxide Fans and filters circulate air in air and generates
AIR and water vapor. AIR and filter out contaminants. carbon dioxide and H2O
water vapor.

H2O O2 H2O
Condensate Water
Delivery of High Processor (condenses N2 CELL
Pressure Oxygen and water vapor from air)
Air on Progress O2
Freshwater ECLSS on the ISS provides the following functions: O2
Water Delivery Storage
from Progress Tanks Lab Condensate
Oxygen and N2
Storage Tank (for
• Recycle wastewater (including • Maintain total cabin pressure condensate water)
Nitrogen (Shuttle
replenishes the
urine) to produce drinking • Detect and suppress fire gases stored in the N2
(potable) water airlock tanks)
• Maintain cabin temperature and N2
• Store and distribute potable water humidity levels
Carbon Dioxide N2
• Use recycled water to produce • Distribute cabin air between ISS Removal Assembly
Russian EDVs (used to oxygen for the crew modules (ventilation) (CDRA, adsorbs
store reclaimed water) carbon dioxide
• Remove carbon dioxide from the from crew)
SM gas analyzer.
cabin air
In the future, a new U.S. Regenerative
• Filter the cabin air for particulates Environmental Control and Life Support
and microorganisms System will take additional steps toward
• Remove volatile organic trace gases closing the water cycle; it will take
from the cabin air humidity condensate from the cabin air
• Monitor and control cabin air and urine from the crew and convert these
Common Cabin Air Assembly
partial pressures of nitrogen, into drinking water, oxygen for breathing, (CCAA, condenses water
Solid Fuel Oxygen
Generator (SFOG, burns oxygen, carbon dioxide, methane, and hydrogen. vapor from air)
Airflow ventilation fan. candles to produce oxygen,
backup system) hydrogen, and water vapor
International Space Station Guide
53 Computers and Data Management

Computers and Data Management
Data bus architecture consists of
The system for storing and transferring information essential to operating the ISS has been functioning • 100+ MIL-STD-1553B • 190 payload remote
at all stages of assembly. From a single module to a large complex of elements from many international data buses, terminals,
• 60+ computers into • 600+ international
partners, the system provides control of the ISS from either U.S., Russian, Canadian, and soon the which software can be partner and firmware
European and Japanese segments of the ISS. loaded as necessary, controller devices, and
• 1,200+ remote • 9 0+ unique types of
terminals, remote devices.

SSRMS Control and Robotics Workstations

soyuz service module fgb node/airlock u.s. lab

Maneuvering Truss
Segments into Place
at SSRMS Workstation
Laptop (in SM crew quarters) Primary Command Crew uses Progress Remote
Workstation in SM Control workstation in SM

(mounted externally on
the truss).

Laptop and TVIS Control
(located near galley)

TORU Remote Progress Multiplexer/Demultiplexer Mass
Docking Workstation Memory Unit (MMU) Processor
Data Cards in U.S. Lab

Human Research Facility

Russian Segment Workstations
International Space Station Guide
Propulsion 54


The ISS orbits Earth at an altitude that ranges from 370 to 460 kilometers
(230 to 286 miles) and a speed of 28,000 kilometers per hour (17,500 miles
per hour). Owing to atmospheric drag, the ISS is constantly slowed. Therefore,
the ISS must be reboosted periodically in order to maintain its altitude. The ISS
progress service module fgb node/airlock destiny
must sometimes be maneuvered in order to avoid debris in orbit. Furthermore, shuttle
the ISS attitude control and maneuvering system can be used to assist in
3 rendezvous and dockings with visiting vehicles, although that capability is not
1 2
10 usually required.

9 Although the ISS typically relies upon large gyrodynes, which utilize
electrical power, to control its orientation (see “Guidance, Navigation, and
1 Progress Cargo Module 8 Control”), when force that is beyond the production capability of the gyrodynes
4 Main Engines (2) 7 Correction and Docking Engines (2)
2 Propellant Resupply Tanks
5 Attitude Control Engines (32) 8 Docking and Stabilization Engines (24)
is required, rocket engines provide propulsion for reorientation.
3 Progress Propulsion
System 6 Propellant Tanks (4) 9 Accurate Stabilization Engines (16) Rocket engines are located on the Service Module, as well as on the
10 Propellant Tanks (16)
Progress, Soyuz, and Space Shuttle spacecraft.
10 The Service Module provides 32 13.3-kilograms force (29.3-pounds
5 7
3 2 1 8 force) attitude control engines. The engines are combined into two groups
4 9 of 16 engines each, taking care of pitch, yaw, and roll control. Each Progress
provides 24 engines similar to those on the Service Module. When a Progress
is docked at the aft Service Module port, these engines can be used for pitch
Progress Rocket Engines Service Module Rocket Engines FGB Rocket Engines and yaw control. When the Progress is docked at the Russian Docking Module,
Progress is used for propellant Main Engines: 2,300 kgf (661 lbf), lifetime of 25,000 seconds FGB engines are deactivated once the the Progress engines can be used for roll control.
resupply and for performing reboosts. one or both main engines can be fired at a time; they are fed from Service Module is in use.
For the latter, Progress is preferred the Service Module’s propellant storage system
over the Service Module. Progress uses
Correction and Docking Engines: Besides being a resupply vehicle, the Progress provides a primary method
Attitude Control Engines: 32 multidirectional, 13.3 kgf 2 axis, 417 kgf (919 lbf)
four or eight attitude control engines,
all firing in the direction for reboost.
(29.3 lbf); attitude control engines can accept propellant fed
Docking and Stabilization Engines:
for reboosting the ISS. Eight 13.3-kilograms force (29.3-pounds force)
from the Service Module, the attached Progress, or the FGB
24 multidirectional, 40 kgf (88 lbf)
Orbital Correction Engine: 1 axis, 300 propellant tanks Progress engines can be used for reboosting. Engines on the Service Module,
kgf (661 lbf) Accurate Stabilization Engines:
Attitude Control Engines:
16 multidirectional, 1.3 kgf (2.86 lbf) Soyuz vehicles, and Space Shuttle can also be used. The Progress can also be
28 multidirectional, 13.3 kgf (29.3 lbf)
Service Module Propellant Storage
Two pairs of 200-L (52.8-gal) propellant tanks (two nitrogen
FGB Propellant Storage
used to resupply propellants stored in the FGB that are used in the Service
tetroxide N2O 4 and two unsymmetrical dimethyl hydrazine
[UDMH]) provide a total of 860 kg (1,896 lb) of usable There are two types of propellant Module engines. The ESA ATV and JAXA HTV will also provide propulsion and
propellant. The propulsion system rocket engines use the tanks in the Russian propulsion system:
hypergolic reaction of UDMH and N2O 4. The Module employs bellows tanks (SM, FGB), able both to reboost capability.
a pressurization system using N2 to manage the flow of receive and to deliver propellant, and
propellants to the engines. diaphragm tanks (Progress), able only
to deliver fuel.
Sixteen tanks provide 5,760 kg
(12,698 lb) of N2O 4 and UDMH storage:
eight long tanks, each holding 400 L
(105.6 gal), and eight short tanks, each
holding 330 L (87.17 gal).
International Space Station Guide

55 Extravehicular Activity

Extravehicular Activity (EVA)
To date, there have been more than 69 EVAs (operations outside of the ISS
pressurized modules) from the ISS totaling some 400 hours. Approximately 124
spacewalks, totaling over 900 hours, dedicated to assembly and maintenance
of the Station will have been accomplished by Assembly Complete. Most of
these EVAs have been for assembly tasks, but many were for maintenance,
repairs, and science. These tasks were conducted from three different
airlocks—the Shuttle Airlock, the U.S. Quest Airlock, and the Russian
Pirs. Early in the program, an EVA was conducted from the Service Module
Transfer Compartment. EVAs are conducted using two different spacesuit
designs, the U.S. Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU) and the Russian Orlan.
The operational lessons of the ISS in the areas of EVA suit maintainability,
training, and EVA support may prove critical for long-duration crewed missions
that venture even further from Earth.
International Space Station Guide International Space Station Guide
Systems Systems
U.S./Joint Airlock 56 57 Mctivity
Extravehicular A obility Unit

U.S./Joint Airlock (Quest) Extravehicular Mobility
NASA/Boeing Unit (EMU)
NASA/Hamilton Sundstrand/ILC Dover
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ The Quest airlock provides the capability for extravehicular activity (EVA) using ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
the U.S. Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU). The airlock consists of two
compartments: the Equipment Lock, which provides the systems and volume The EMU provides a crewmember with life support and an enclosure that enables
for suit maintenance and refurbishment, and the Crew Lock, which provides the EVA. The unit consists of two major subsystems: the Life Support Subsystem (LSS)
actual exit for performing EVAs. The Crew Lock design is and the Space Suit Assembly (SSA). The EMU provides atmospheric containment,
Crewmember exits
based on the Space Shuttle’s Rack thermal insulation, cooling, solar radiation protection, and micrometeoroid/orbital
the airlock extra- airlock design. debris (MMOD) protection.
vehicular hatch. Cabin Air
Vent Communications Carrier

Equi TV Camera
pme Cabin Air In-Suit Drink Bag
nt Lo
ck Rack
Power Supply
Assembly (PSA)
Crew Light
Lock Radio
and Warning
Display and Computer
Battery Stowage Battery Charging Assembly (BCA) Control Console
Assembly (BSA)
In-Flight Refill Unit (IRU) Sublimator
Extravehicular Mobility Unit Water Tank
(EMU) Water Recharge Bag Luminaire

Don/Doff Contaminant
Assembly Oxygen Control
Control Cartridge


Space Suit O2 Tanks
Assembly 4
Common Berthing (SSA) Secondary 3
Mechanism and Node O2 System 5
Hatch Connection for 6
Service and
Intravehicular Cooling Umbilical 1 Thermal Micrometeoroid Garment (TMG). Cover:
Hatch Ortho/KEVLAR® reinforced with GORE-TEX®.
Primary Life Support
Extravehicular Hatch System (PLSS) 2 TMG Insulation. Five to seven layers of aluminized
Nitrogen Tank Mylar® (more layers on arms and legs).
Control Valve 3 TMG liner. Neoprene-coated nylon ripstop.
4 Pressure garment cover. Restraint: Dacron®.
Nitrogen Tank Colored
Mike Fincke, flight engineer on Expedition 5 Pressure garment bladder. Urethane-coated
ID Stripe nylon oxford fabric.
9, inside Quest’s Equipment Lock.
Toolbox 2 6 Liquid cooling garment. Neoprene tubing.

Toolbox 1 Oxygen Suit’s nominal pressure 0.3 atm (4.3 psi)
Tank Liquid Cooling
and Ventilation
Atmosphere 100% oxygen

Oxygen Primary oxygen tank 900 psi
EVA Hatch Tank

Length 5.5 m (18 ft)
Secondary oxygen tank 6,000 psi (30-min
The Simplified Aid For EVA Rescue (SAFER) provides a pressure backup supply)
Width 4.0 m (13.1 ft) compressed nitrogen-powered backpack that permits a
crewmember to maneuver independently of the ISS. Its prin-
cipal use is that it allows a crewmember to maneuver back to Maximum EVA duration 8h
Mass 9,923 kg (21,877 lb)
the Station if he or she becomes detached from the ISS.
Airlock in preparation for launch in the Mass of entire EMU 178 kg (393 lb)
Launch July 2001, on STS-104, ISS flight 7A. Space Station Processing Facility at
Space Shuttle mission STS-104 berths Quest to
date The Shuttle berthed to the starboard
side of Node 1. the starboard side of Node 1 in July 2001. Kennedy Space Center. Suit life 30 yr
International Space Station Guide International Space Station Guide
Systems Systems
Russian Docking Compartment and Airlock 58 59 Orlan Spacesuit

Russian Docking Orlan Spacesuit
Compartment (DC) and Science Production Enterprise Zvezda

Airlock (Pirs [Pier]) The Orlan-M spacesuit is designed to protect an EVA crewmember from the ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
S.P. Korolev Rocket and Space Corporation Energia vacuum of space, ionizing radiation, solar energy, and micrometeoroids. The main
(RSC Energia) body and helmet of the suit are integrated and are constructed of aluminum alloy. Crewmember in liquid cooling garment prepares
View of the zenith end Arms and legs are made of a flexible fabric material. Crewmembers to enter Orlan hatch.
of the DC, with probe enter from the rear via the backpack door, which allows Liquid Cooling Garment
extended, as it prepares to
dock with the ISS in 2001.
Pirs provides the capability for extravehicular activity using Russian Orlan suits. rapid entry and exit without assistance. The Orlan-M
Pirs also provides contingency capability for ingress for U.S. EMU EVAs. Addition- spacesuit is a “one-size-fits-most” suit.
ally, Pirs provides systems for servicing and refurbishing the Orlan suits. The nadir O2 Regulator Backpack
Docking System on Pirs provides a port for the docking of Soyuz and Progress
logistics vehicles. When the final Russian science module arrives, Communications Cap Reserve O2
Docking Bottle
System Probe Pirs will be moved to the zenith Service Module port.
Attitude Control and
Wide-Beam Antenna Suit Pressure Water Bag
Zenith Docking Gauge
System (male) and
High-Gain Electrical
Hatch Entrance to
Wide-Beam Antenna Antenna Control Panel Lithium
Service Module
Stela Manipulator EVA
Boom for Moving Hatch 2 Fluid Umbilical
High-Gain Drain Valve Crew and Cargo Connector CO2 Sensor Filter
Antenna Backpack
Attitude Control Closure
Antenna Strap
Water Filter

Kurs Antenna
Cover Over
Moisture Collector
EVA Hatch 2 Valves
Primary O2 Bottle

EVA Hatch 1 Movable Handrail Nadir Docking System
Position of Crew While
Preparing for EVA and Hatch Port for Pneumohydraulic
Soyuz or Progress View of the nadir end of the DC. Safety Control Panel
Pressure and Deposit
Interior Orlan Emergency
Monitoring Unit
Storage O2 Hose Radio Telemetry
Colored ID Stripe
Interior Red—Commander
Control Console Blue—Flight Engineer

Umbilical Battery

Nadir Docking System Refueling
and Hatch Port for Hydraulic Valves
Soyuz or Progress

DC in preparation
for launch.
DC in preparation for launch.

Length 4.9 m (16 ft) The suit operates at a nominal 0.4 atm (5.8 psi)
with a 100% oxygen atmosphere.
Maximum diameter 2.55 m (8.4 ft)
The suit’s maximum EVA duration is 7 hours.
Mass 3,838 kg (8,461 lb)
The weight of the entire Orlan assembly is 238 lb.
Volume 13 m (459 ft )
3 3

Orlan is designed for an on-orbit lifetime of 12 EVAs
Interior of Orlan suit with rear or 4 years without return to Earth.
Launch date August 14, 2001, on
access hatch open.
Progress M, ISS mission 4R Inside Pirs, the crew prepares Orlan suits for EVA. Pirs Module location at Service Module nadir.
International Space Station Guide International Space Station Guide
Systems Systems
Communications 60 61 Guidance, Navigation, and Control

GPS antenna on S0 Truss.

Communications Guidance, Navigation,
The radio and satellite communications network allows ISS crews to talk to the
and Control (GN&C)
ground control centers and the orbiter. It also enables ground control to monitor and
Ku band radio in U.S. Lab. maintain ISS systems and operate payloads, and it permits flight controllers to send The International Space Station is a large, free-flying vehicle. The attitude or orienta-
commands to those systems. The network routes payload data to the different control tion of the ISS with respect to Earth and the Sun must be controlled; this is important GPS
centers around the world. for maintaining thermal, power, and microgravity levels, as well as for communications.
The communications system provides the following: The GN&C system tracks the Sun, communications and navigation satellites,
• T wo-way audio and video communication among crewmembers aboard the ISS, and ground stations. Solar arrays, thermal radiators, and communications antennas
including crewmembers who participate in an extravehicular activity (EVA); aboard the ISS are pointed using the tracking information.
• Two-way audio, video, and file transfer communication between the ISS and The preferred method of attitude control is the use of gyrodynes, Control Moment
flight control teams located in the Mission Control Center-Houston (MCC-H), Gyroscopes (CMGs) mounted on the Z1 Truss segment. CMGs are 98-kilogram
other ground control centers, and payload scientists on the ground; (220-pound) steel wheels that spin at 6,600 revolutions per minute (rpm). The high-
rotation velocity and large mass allow a considerable amount of angular momentum
• Transmission of system and payload telemetry from the ISS to the MCC-H and
to be stored. Each CMG has gimbals and can be repositioned to any attitude. As
the Payload Operations Center (POC);
UHF antenna on the P1 Truss. the CMG is repositioned, the resulting force causes the ISS to move. Using multiple
• Distribution of ISS experiment data through the POC to payload scientists; and
CMGs permits the ISS to be moved to new positions or permits the attitude to be held
• C ontrol of the ISS by flight controllers through commands sent via the MCC-H. constant. The advantages of this system are that it relies on electrical power generated
by the solar arrays and that it provides smooth, continuously variable attitude control.
Tracking and Data Relay Satellites (TDRS) CMGs are, however, limited in the amount of angular momentum they can provide
(in geosynchronous orbit)
and the rate at which they can move the Station. When CMGs can no longer provide
Russian Luch Satellite* the requisite energy, rocket engines are called upon.
(in geosynchronous orbit)

S Band Service Module
Star Sensor Control Moment Gyroscopes on the Z1 Truss.

U.S. Global Positioning
ISS configuration, 2003–2006. Service Module System (GPS) Navigation
Ku Band Sun Sensor Signal Timing and Ranging
(NAVSTAR) Satellites

Russian Global
Navigation Satellite System
(GLONASS) Satellites

Service Module
Horizon Sensor
Control Moment Gyroscope gimbals used
for orienting the ISS.

Russian Lira
(transmits direct HCMG 2 HCMG 3
to ground) Fringe Pattern
UHF Band
EVA Crew-
Yuri Onofrienko during communications pass. Corner Prism
members Detector

Mirrors (3)
Optical Cavity
Ham Radio (transmits Output Pulses
directly to the ground)
Anode (2) HCMG 2 HCMG 4
Laser Counterclockwise Beam
Mission Control Center The Rate Gyroscope Discharge HNET
(relays communications Assemblies (RGAs) are
to remote locations) the U.S. attitude rate
Space Shuttle
S Band and Ku Band (relayed sensors used to measure the
from the ISS via TDRS satellite) changing orientation of the
ISS. RGAs are installed on the Transducer Cathode Sensor Input
back of the Truss, under the
GPS antennas, and they are
impossible to see on the ISS Path Length
Tammy Jernigan wearing EMU communications * Luch not currently in use. unless shielding is removed. Control Circuit Forces are induced as CMGs are repositioned.
carrier (“Snoopy cap” ).
International Space Station Guide International Space Station Guide
Systems Systems
Electrical Power System 62 63 Thermal Control System

Electrical Power System Thermal Control System
The EPS generates, stores, and distributes power and converts and distributes The TCS maintains ISS temperatures within defined limits. The four components
Crewmember Mike Fincke replaces the secondary power to users. used in the Passive Thermal Control System (PTCS) are insulation, surface coatings,
Remote Power Controller Module (RPCM) heaters, and heat pipes.
on the S0 Truss.
The Active Thermal Control System (ATCS) is required when the environment
Solar Array Wing (SAW) (has 2 arrays and
or the heat loads exceed the capabilities of the PTCS. The ATCS uses a mechanically
32,800 solar cells; converts sunlight to DC pumped fluid in closed-loop circuits to perform three functions: heat collection, heat
power, producing a maximum of 31 kW at the
beginning of its life and degrading to 26 kW
Photovoltaic Radiator (circulates
transportation, and heat rejection.
after 15 years; each cell is approximately
14% efficient, which was state-of-the-art at
cooling fluid to maintain EPS/ Inside the habitable modules, the internal ATCS uses circulating water to trans-
battery temperature)
the time of design) port heat and cool equipment. Outside the habitable modules, the external ATCS
uses circulating ammonia to transport heat and cool equipment.
Nickel-Hydrogen Batteries (store Port and Starboard
electrical energy for use during the night; Solar (Array) Alpha Rotation Radiator panels
Battery Charge Discharge Unit [BCDU] Joint (SARJ) (tracks the Sun from truss below
controls each battery’s charge) throughout Earth orbit)
U.S. solar array.
Water Pumps
Solar Array

Main Bus Switching Units (MBSUs) (route
power to proper locations in the ISS) Electrical Energy Electrical Energy

Direct Current (DC) Switching Unit (DCSU)
(routes power from the solar array to the
MBSUs in the S0 Truss that control power
to different ISS locations)
Sequential Shunt Unit
Primary Electric (SSU) (maintains constant
Power (160 V DC) voltage at 160 V, sending
Beta Gimbal (used for excess power back to array)
tracking the Sun because External Ammonia Coolant Loop External Ammonia Coolant Loop
of seasonal changes)

Power Coming
in from Arrays MBSUs

Electronics Control Unit Remote Power
(ECU) (controls pointing Controllers (RPCs) Heat Exchangers
Integrated Equipment of solar arrays) (control the flow Interface Internal Water Powered
Assembly (IEA) Truss of electric power Coolant to External Equipment
(houses EPS hardware) U.S. Lab to users) Ammonia Coolant (creates heat)

DC-to-DC Converter Units Module Temperature
(DDCUs)—Some Located on Water Coolant External Ammonia
Truss (convert primary Power Going from Loops (17 oC, Coolant Loops (remove
160-V power to secondary MBSUs Through 63 oF) heat through radiator)
124-V power) Umbilicals into U.S. Lab

DDCUs—Some Located
in Modules (convert
primary 160-V power to
secondary 124-V power) Radiator

Russian Triol Fluid
Water Coolant Loops Coolant Loop
(4 oC, 40 oF)

Starboard radiator panel
Crewmember Mike Fincke holds an RPCM in the after deployment.
Quest Airlock. It was later used to replace an
RPCM on the S0 Truss. Solar Array. Russian Module
Coolant Pumps
MCC Houston
facilities and operations
iss international
The International Space Station (ISS) Program’s greatest accomplishment
is as much a human achievement as it is a technological one—how best
to plan, coordinate, and monitor the varied activities of the Program’s
many organizations.
An international partnership of space agencies provides and operates
the elements of the ISS. The principals are the space agencies of the United
States, Russia, Europe, Japan, and Canada. The ISS has been the most
politically complex space exploration program ever undertaken.
(continued on the next page)
International Space Station Guide
ISS IFnternational
acilities and O
acilities and Operations
67 ICnternational
ontrol Centers

National Aeronautics and Space Administration
United States

Canadian Space Agency

European Space Agency

Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency
(continued from the previous page)
The ISS Program’s greatest accomplishment
The ISS Program brings together international flight crews;
is as multiple launchachievement
much a human vehicles; as it is
a technological one—how best to plan, Russian Federal Space Agency
globally distributed launch, operations, training, engineering, and development facilities;
coordinate, and monitor the varied activities
communications networks; and the international scientific research community.
of the Program’s Elements
many organizations.
launched from different countries and continents are not mated together until they reach
An international partnership of governments
orbit, and some elements that have been launched later in the assembly sequence were not
and their contractors provides and operates
yet built when the first elements were placed in orbit. the elements of the ISS. The principals are the
space agencies
Operating the ISS is even more complicated than other space of the United
flight endeavors States, Russia,
Europe, Japan, and Canada. The ISS has been
it is an international program. Each ISS partner has the primary responsibility to manage
the most politically complex space exploration
and run the hardware it provides. But the various elements provided by the
program ever ISS partners
undertaken. are multiple
It involves
aerospace corporations
not independent, and over time they must be operated as an integrated system. and nearly every space
agency across the globe working together as
program partners. The various communities
often have differing priorities and are
competing for the same resources.

The ISS Program integrates international
flight crews; multiple launch vehicles;
globally distributed launch, operations,
training, engineering, and development
facilities; communications networks; and the
international scientific research community.
Elements launched from different countries
and continents are not mated together until
they reach orbit, and some elements that
have been launched later in the assembly
sequence were not yet built when the first
International Space Station Guide I
International S paceSStation
Space tationGGuide
ISS International Facilities and Operations ISS
ISS International
nternational FFacilities andO
acilities and Operations
ISS Operations and Management 68 69 ISS Operations and Management

ISS Operations and
Management ESA European Space Research
and Technology Centre (ESTEC)
Noordwijk, Netherlands

ESA Headquarters
Paris, France

ISS Mission Control
Korolev, Russia

Glenn Telescience Support Center Gagarin Cosmonaut
Cleveland, Ohio, U.S. Training Center (GCTC)
CSA Headquarters, Star City, Russia
Mobile Servicing JAXA Headquarters
System (MSS) Control Roscosmos Headquarters Tokyo, Japan
and Training European Moscow, Russia
Saint-Hubert, Quebec, Canada Astronaut Centre JEM/HTV Control Center
Cologne, Germany
and Crew Training
Tsukuba, Japan

Russian Launch Control
NASA Headquarters Baikonur Cosmodrome,
Washington, DC, U.S. Baikonur, Kazakhstan
Columbus Control Center
Oberpfaffenhofen, Germany
H-II Launch Control
Ames Telescience Payload Operations Center (POC) Tanegashima, Japan
Huntsville, Alabama, U.S.
Support Center
Moffett Field, California, U.S. Module Development
Torino, Italy
Shuttle Launch Control
Kennedy Space Center, Florida, U.S.
ATV Control Center
ISS Training Toulouse, France
ISS Program Management
ISS Mission Control
Houston, Texas, U.S.

Ariane Launch Control
Kourou, French Guiana
International Station
pace S tation Guide I
International S paceSStation
Space tationGGuide
ISS International Operations
and O
acilitiesand perations ISS
ISS International
nternational FFacilities andO
acilities and Operations
United StatesXXXXXXXXX
of America 70 71 CXXXXXXXX

United States of America
National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA)

nasa headquarters (hq)
NASA Headquarters, in Washington, DC, exercises management over
the NASA field Centers, establishes management policies, and analyzes Canada
all phases of the ISS Program. Canadian Space Agency (CSA)

Johnson Space Center (JSC) Mobile Servicing System (MSS) Operations
Complex (MOC)
Johnson Space Center, in Texas, directs the ISS Program. Mission
Control manages activities aboard the U.S. segment of the ISS. JSC is The MSS Operations Complex in Longueuil, Quebec,
the primary Center for spacecraft design, development, and mission provides the resources, equipment, and expertise needed
integration. JSC is also the primary location for crew training. for the engineering and monitoring of the Mobile Servicing
System as well as for crew training.
Kennedy Space Center (KSC)
space station remote manipulator system
Kennedy Space Center, in Florida, prepares the ISS modules and Space
(SSRMS) Design and Development
Shuttle orbiters for each mission, coordinates each countdown, and
manages Space Shuttle launch and post-landing operations. The SSRMS was designed and developed by MacDonald,
Dettwiler and Associates, Ltd., in Brampton, Ontario.
Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC)
Marshall Space Flight Center’s Payload Operation Center (POC) is the
ground control center for experiments and payloads being operated on
the ISS. MSFC has also overseen development of most U.S. modules
and the ISS ECLSS system.

Telescience Support Centers (TSCs)
Telescience Support Centers around the country are equipped to conduct
science operations on board the ISS. These TSCs are located at Marshall
Space Flight Center in Huntsville, Alabama; Ames Research Center
(ARC) in Moffett Field, California; Glenn Research Center (GRC) in
Cleveland, Ohio; and Johnson Space Center in Houston, Texas.

Design, Development, Testing, Evaluation, and
Integration (DDTE&I)
Boeing is NASA’s prime ISS contractor. It oversees the development,
testing, and preparation for launch of the ISS elements.
International Space Station Guide International Space Station Guide
ISS International Facilities and Operations ISS International Facilities and Operations
Europe 72 73 Japan

European Space Agency (ESA)

EUropean Space Research and Technology
Centre (ESTEC)
The European Space Research and Technology Centre, the largest site and
the technical heart of the ESA, is in Noordwijk, in the Netherlands. Most Japan
ESA projects are developed here by more than 2,000 specialists. Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA)

Columbus Control Centre (COL-CC) and Automated In addition to the JAXA headquarters in Tokyo and other field
Transfer Vehicle CONTROL centre (ATV-CC) centers throughout the country, Tsukuba Space Center and
Two ground control centers are responsible for controlling and operating Tanegashima Launch Facility are JAXA’s primary ISS facilities.
the European contribution to the ISS program. These are the Columbus
Control Centre and the Automated Transfer Vehicle Control Centre. Tsukuba Space Center (TKSC)
The COL-CC, located at the German Aerospace Center (DLR), in
Oberpfaffenhofen, near Munich, Germany, will control and operate the JAXA’s Tsukuba Space Center is located in Tsukuba Science
Columbus Research Laboratory and coordinate European experiments City. As part of the International Space Station project, the
(payload) operations. The ATV-CC, located in Toulouse, France, on the Japanese Experiment Module (JEM) “Kibo” is developed and
premises of the French space agency Centre National d’Etudes Spatiales tested at TKSC. JAXA is preparing the Kibo Control Centre
(CNES), will control and operate the ATVs. for support of the JEM once it is launched. Astronaut training
for JEM will be conducted at JAXA.
Guiana Space Centre (GSC)
Tanegashima space center (TNSC)
Europe’s Spaceport is situated in the northeast of South America in French
Guiana. Initially created by CNES, it is jointly funded and used by both the The Tanegashima Space Center is the largest space-development
French space agency and ESA as the launch site for the Ariane 5 vehicle. facility in Japan and is located in the south of Kagoshima
Prefecture, along the southeast coast of Tanegashima. The Osaki
Range is onsite for J-I and H-IIA launch vehicles. There are
European astronaut centre (EAC) also related developmental facilities for test firings of liquid-
The European Astronaut Centre of the European Space Agency is situated and solid-fuel rocket engines.
in Cologne, Germany. It was established in 1990 and is the home base of the
13 European astronauts who are members of the European Astronaut Corps.

User CentERs

User Support and Operation Centers (USOCs) are based in national
centers distributed throughout Europe. These centers are responsible for
the use and implementation of European payloads aboard the ISS.
International Space Station Guide
ISS International Facilities and Operations
Russia 74

Roscosmos, the Russian Federal Space Agency

Roscosmos oversees all Russian human
space flight activities.

Moscow Mission Control (TSUP)
Moscow Mission Control is the primary Russian facility for the control
of human space flight. It is located in Korolev, outside of Moscow.

Gagarin Cosmonaut Training Center (GCTC)
The Gagarin Cosmonaut Training Center, at Zvezdny Gorodok (Star
City), provides full-size trainers and simulators of all Russian ISS mod-
ules, a water pool used for spacewalk training, centrifuges to simulate
G-forces during liftoff, and a planetarium used for celestial navigation.

S.P. Korolev Rocket and Space Corporation Energia
(RSC Energia)
RSC Energia, in Korolev, outside of Moscow, integrates spacecraft
hardware and manages the ISS Program implementation for the
Russian segment.

KHrunicheV State Research and Production Space Center
Khrunichev, in Moscow, is the prime contractor for the Functional Cargo
Block, Service Module, and Proton launch vehicles.

science production enterprise Zvezda
Science Production Enterprise Zvezda, in Tomolino, near Moscow, is the
primary developer of the Russian Orlan and Sokol spacesuits that are used
for the ISS.

Baikonur Cosmodrome
The Baikonur Cosmodrome, in Kazakhstan, is the chief launch center
for both piloted and unpiloted space vehicles. It supports the Soyuz and
Proton launch vehicles and plays an essential role in the deployment and
operation of the International Space Station.

institute for biomedical problems (IBMP)
The Institute for Biomedical Problems, outside Moscow, conducts scien-
tific research and develops hardware for the protection of crew health.
High-performing personnel are key to International Space Station (ISS)
mission success. International crewmembers and ground controllers
who support assembly, logistics, and long-duration missions have highly
specialized skills and training. They also utilize procedures and tools
developed especially for the ISS.
The experience gained from the ISS Program has improved the
interaction between the flight crews and ground-team members and
has made missions safer and more effective. Moreover, working with
teams from many countries and cultures on the ground and in space has
provided (and continues to provide) innovative solutions to critical
operational challenges.
International Space Station Guide International Space Station Guide
Missions Missions
ISS Expeditions and Crews 76 77 Expedition Crews

ISS Expeditions and Crews Expedition 1 Expedition 8
William Shepherd, U.S. Michael Foale, U.S.
Expedition Patch Crew Expedition Patch Crew
Yuri Gidzenko, Russia Alexander Kaleri, Russia
Sergei Krikalev, Russia Launched: Oct. 2003
Launched: Oct. 2000 Returned: Apr. 2004
Returned: Mar. 2001 193 days on ISS (195 in space)
136 days on ISS (141 in space)
Expedition 1 Expedition 8
Expedition 9
Expedition 2 Gennady Padalka, Russia
Yuri Usachev, Russia E. Michael Fincke, U.S.
Jim Voss, U.S. Launched: Apr. 2004
Susan Helms, U.S. Returned: Oct. 2004
Launched: Mar. 2001 186 days on ISS (188 in space)
Returned: Aug. 2001
163 days on ISS (167 in space) Expedition 10
Expedition 2 Expedition 9
Leroy Chiao, U.S.
Expedition 3 Salizhan Sharipov, Russia
Frank Culbertson, U.S. Launched: Oct. 2004
Vladimir Dezhurov, Russia Returned: Apr. 2005
Mikhail Tyurin, Russia 191 days on ISS (193 in space)
Launched: Aug. 2001
Returned: Dec. 2001 Expedition 11
125 days on ISS (129 in space)
Sergei Krikalev, Russia
Expedition 3 Expedition 10
John Phillips, U.S.
Expedition 4 Launched: Apr. 2005
Yury Onufrienko, Russia Returned: Oct. 2005
Carl Walz, U.S. 177 days on ISS (179 in space)
Daniel Bursch, U.S.
Launched: Dec. 2001 Expedition 12
Returned: June 2002
William McArthur, U.S.
190 days on ISS (196 in space)
Valery Tokarev, Russia
Expedition 4 Expedition 11
Launched: Sept. 2005
Expedition 5
Returned: Apr. 2006
Valery Korzun, Russia 184 days on ISS (190 in space)
Sergei Treschev, Russia
Peggy Whitson, U.S. Expedition 13
Launched: June 2002
Pavel Vinogradov, Russia
Returned: Dec. 2002
Jeffrey Williams, U.S.
178 days on ISS (185 in space)
Thomas Reiter, Germany (start July 2006)
Expedition 5 Expedition 12
Launched: Apr. 2006
Expedition 6 Returned: Sept. 2006 (projected)
Kenneth Bowersox, U.S.
Nikolai Budarin, Russia
Expedition 14
Donald Pettit, U.S. Michael Lopez-Alegria, U.S.
Launched: Nov. 2002 Mikhail Tyurin, Russia
Returned: May 2003 Sunita Williams, U.S.
159 days on ISS (161 in space) Scheduled: Sept. 2006–Mar. 2007
Expedition 6 Expedition 13
Expedition 7
Yuri Malenchenko, Russia Note: Only professional astronauts participating in ISS functions
Edward Lu, U.S. are included. See page 83 for Space Flight Participants who have
visited the ISS.
Launched: Apr. 2003
Returned: Oct. 2003
183 days on ISS (185 in space)

Expedition 7 Expedition 14
International Space Station Guide International Space Station Guide
Missions Missions
STS Missions and Crews 78 79 STS Missions and Crews

STS Missions and Crews
Space Shuttle Missions to the International Space Station
Mission Patch Crew Mission Patch Crew Mission Patch Crew Mission Patch Crew

STS-88 STS-106 STS-98 STS-105

STS-96 STS-92
STS-102 STS-108

STS-101 STS-97
STS-100 STS-110

STS-88 Endeavour STS-106 Atlantis STS-98 Atlantis
STS-104 sts-111
Robert Cabana, U.S. Terrence Wilcutt, U.S. Kenneth Cockrell, U.S.
Nancy Currie, U.S. Scott Altman, U.S. Robert Curbeam, U.S.
Sergei Krikalev, Russia (Roscosmos) Daniel Burbank, U.S. Marsha Ivins, U.S.
James Newman, U.S. Edward Lu, U.S. Thomas Jones, U.S.
Jerry Ross, U.S. Yuri Malenchenko, Russia (Roscosmos) Mark Polansky, U.S.
Frederick Sturckow, U.S. Richard Mastracchio, U.S. Launched: Feb. 7, 2001
Launched: Dec. 4, 1998 Boris Morukov, Russia (Roscosmos) Returned: Feb. 20, 2001
Returned: Dec. 15, 1998 Launched: Sept. 8, 2000
Returned: Sept. 19, 2000 STS-102 Discovery STS-104 Atlantis STS-108 Endeavour STS-111 Endeavour
STS-96 Discovery James Wetherbee, U.S.
Michael Gernhardt, U.S. Daniel Tani, U.S. Franklin Chang-Diaz, U.S.
Kent Rominger, U.S.
STS-92 Discovery
James Kelly, U.S.
Charles Hobaugh, U.S. Linda Godwin, U.S. Kenneth Cockrell, U.S.
Janet Kavandi, U.S. Dominic Gorie, U.S. Paul Lockhart, U.S.
Daniel Barry, U.S. Leroy Chiao, U.S. Paul Richards, U.S.
Steven Lindsey, U.S. Mark Kelly, U.S. Philippe Perrin, France (CNES)
Rick Husband, U.S. Brian Duffy, U.S. Andrew Thomas, U.S.
James Reilly, U.S. Daniel Bursch, U.S., up* Valery Korzun, Russia (Roscosmos), up*
Tamara Jernigan, U.S. Michael Lopez-Alegria, U.S. Yuri Usachev, Russia (Roscosmos), up*
Launched: July 12, 2001 Yuri Onufrienko, Russia (Roscosmos), up* Sergei Treschev, Russia (Roscosmos), up*
Ellen Ochoa, U.S. William McArthur, U.S. James Voss, U.S., up*
Returned: July 24, 2001 Carl Walz, U.S., up* Peggy Whitson, U.S., up*
Julie Payette, Canada (CSA) Pamela Melroy, U.S. Susan Helms, U.S., up*
Frank Culbertson, U.S., down* Daniel Bursch, U.S., down*
Valery Tokarev, Russia (Roscosmos) Koichi Wakata, Japan (NASDA) William Shepherd, U.S., down*
Launched: May 27, 1999 Peter Wisoff, U.S. Yuri Gidzenko, Russia (Roscosmos), down*
STS-105 Discovery Vladimir Dezhurov, Russia (Roscosmos), down* Yuri Onufrienko, Russia (Roscosmos), down*
Mikhail Turin, Russia (Roscosmos), down* Carl Walz, U.S., down*
Returned: June 6, 1999 Launched: Oct. 11, 2000 Sergei Krikalev, Russia (Roscosmos), down* Daniel Barry, U.S.
Launched: Dec. 5, 2001 Launched: June 5, 2002
Returned: Oct. 24, 2000 Launched: Mar. 8, 2001 Patrick Forrester, U.S.
Returned: Dec. 17, 2001 Returned: June 19, 2002
STS-101 Atlantis Returned: Mar. 21, 2001 Scott Horowitz, U.S.
STS-97 Endeavour Frederick Sturckow, U.S.
James Halsell, U.S.
STS-100 Endeavour Frank Culbertson, U.S., up*
STS-110 Atlantis
Susan Helms, U.S. Michael Bloomfield, U.S. * “Up” means that the crewmember launched on this
Vladimir Dezhurov, Russia (Roscosmos), up* Michael Bloomfield, U.S. flight; “down” means that the crewmember returned
Scott Horowitz, U.S. Marc Garneau, Canada (CSA) Jeffrey Ashby, U.S.
Mikhail Turin, Russia (Roscosmos), up* Stephen Frick, U.S. on this flight.
Yury Usachev, Russia (Roscosmos) Brent Jett, U.S. Umberto Guidoni, Italy (ESA)
Yuri Usachev, Russia (Roscosmos), down* Lee Morin, U.S.
James Voss, U.S. Carlos Noriega, U.S. Chris Hadfield, Canada (CSA)
James Voss, U.S., down* Ellen Ochoa, U.S.
Mary Weber, U.S. Joseph Tanner, U.S. Scott Parazynski, U.S.
Susan Helms, U.S., down* Jerry Ross, U.S. (continued on page 80)
Jeffrey Williams, U.S. Launched: Nov. 30, 2000 John Phillips, U.S.
Launched: Aug. 10, 2001 Steven Smith, U.S.
Launched: May 19, 2000 Returned: Dec. 11, 2000 Kent Rominger, U.S.
Returned: Aug. 22, 2001 Rex Walheim, U.S.
Returned: May 29, 2000 Yuri Lonchakov, Russia (Roscosmos)
Launched: Apr. 8, 2002
Launched: Apr. 19, 2001
Returned: Apr. 19, 2002
Returned: May 1, 2001
International Space Station Guide International Space Station Guide
Missions Missions
STS Missions and Crews 80 81 Expedition
S huttle ISSCM

STS Missions and Crews (continued from page 79) Shuttle ISS Missions
STS-112 Atlantis STS-114 Discovery
Mission Patch Crew Shuttle Flight/
Jeffrey Ashby, U.S. Eileen Collins, U.S.
ISS Sequence No. Launched Landed Docked
Sandra Magnus, U.S. James Kelly, U.S.
Pamela Melroy, U.S. Soichi Noguchi, Japan (JAXA)
STS-88/2A 12/04/98 12/15/98 6 d, 20 h, 38 m
Piers Sellers, U.S. Stephen Robinson, U.S.
STS-112 David Wolf, U.S. Andrew Thomas, U.S.
Fyodor Yurchikhin, Russia Wendy Lawrence, U.S. STS-96/2A.1 05/27/99 06/06/99 5 d, 18 h, 17 m
(Roscosmos) Charles Camarda, U.S.
Launched: Oct. 7, 2002 Launched: July 26, 2005 STS-101/2A.2a 05/19/00 05/29/00 5 d, 18 h, 32 m
Returned: Oct. 18, 2002 Returned: Aug. 9, 2005
STS-106/2A.2b 09/08/00 09/19/00 7 d, 21 h, 54 m
STS-113 Endeavour STS-121 Discovery
John Herrington, U.S. Steven Lindsey, U.S.
STS-92/3A 10/11/00 10/24/00 6 d, 21 h, 24 m
Paul Lockhart, U.S. Mark Kelly, U.S.
Michael Lopez-Alegria, U.S. Michael Fossum, U.S.
James Wetherbee, U.S. Piers Sellers, U.S. STS-97/4A 11/30/00 12/11/00 6 d, 23 h, 13 m
Kenneth Bowersox, U.S., up* Lisa Nowak, U.S.
Nikolai Budarin, Russia Stephenie Wilson, U.S. STS-98/5A 02/07/01 02/20/01 6 d, 21 h, 15 m
(Roscosmos), up* Thomas Reiter, Germany
STS-114 Donald Pettit, U.S., up* (ESA), up*
STS-102/5A.1 03/08/01 03/21/01 8 d, 21 h, 54 m
Valery Korzun, Russia Launched: July 4, 2006
(Roscosmos), down* Returned: July 17, 2006
Sergei Treschev, Russia STS-100/6A 04/19/01 05/01/01 8 d, 3 h, 35 m
(Roscosmos), down* STS-115 Atlantis
Peggy Whitson, U.S., down* STS-104/7A 07/12/01 07/24/01 8 d, 1 h, 46 m
Brent Jett, U.S.
Launched: Nov. 23, 2002
Christopher Ferguson, U.S.
STS-121 Returned: Dec. 7, 2002
Heidemarie Stefanyshyn-Piper, U.S. STS-105/7A.1 08/10/01 08/22/01 7 d, 20 h, 10 m
Joseph Tanner, U.S.
Daniel Burbank, U.S.
STS-108/UF-1* 12/05/01 12/17/01 7 d, 21 h, 25 m
Steven MacLean, Canada (CSA)
Scheduled to launch: Aug. 2006
Scheduled to return: Sept. 2006 STS-110/8A 04/08/02 04/19/02 7 d, 2 h, 26 m

STS-111/UF-2* 06/05/02 06/19/02 7 d, 22 h, 7 m
* “Up” means that the crewmember launched
on this flight; “down” means that the crew- STS-112/9A 10/07/02 10/18/02 6 d, 21 h, 56 m
member returned on this flight.

STS-113/11A 11/23/02 12/07/02 6 d, 22 h, 6 m
Soyuz docked to the FGB. The Space
Shuttle is in the background.
STS-114/LF-1* 07/26/05 08/09/05 8 d, 19 h, 54 m

STS-121/ULF-1 .1* 07/01/06 07/17/06 8 d, 19 h, 16 m
Astronauts Franklin R. Chang-Diaz (center frame)
and Philippe Perrin (partially obscured) work in
TOTALS: 134 d, 9 h, 48 m tandem on the second scheduled session of EVA
for the STS-111 mission.

* “UF” means utilization flight; “LF” means logistics flight; “ULF” means utilization and logistics flight.

Astronaut Michael L. Gernhardt
participates in a spacewalk aimed
toward wrapping up work on the
second phase of the ISS.
International Space Station Guide
83 Soyuz ISS Missions

Soyuz ISS Missions
Spacecraft Launched (Docked) Landed Crew Up Crew Down

Yuri Gidzenko, Russia (Roscosmos), Talgat Musabayev, Russia (Roscosmos),
Soyuz TM-31
10/31/00 186 days 05/06/01 Sergei Krikalev, Russia (Roscosmos), Yuri Baturin, Russia (Roscosmos),
William Shepherd, USA (NASA) Dennis Tito, USA, SFP

Talgat Musabayev, Russia (Roscosmos), Viktor Afansayev, Russia (Roscosmos),
Soyuz TM-32
04/28/01 186 days 10/31/01 Yuri Baturin, Russia (Roscosmos), Claudie Hagniere, France (CNES),
Dennis Tito, USA, SFP Konstantin Kozayev, Russia (Roscosmos)

Viktor Afansayev, Russia (Roscosmos), Yuri Gidzenko, Russia (Roscosmos),
Soyuz TM-33
10/21/01 196 days 05/05/02 Claudie Hagniere, France (CNES), Roberto Vittori, Italy (ESA),
Konstantin Kozayev, Russia (Roscosmos) Konstantin Kozayev, Russia (Roscosmos),

Yuri Gidzenko, Russia (Roscosmos), Sergei Zalyotin, Russia (Roscosmos),
Soyuz TM-34
04/25/02 198 days 11/10/02 Roberto Vittori, Italy (ESA), Frank De Winne, Belgium (ESA),
Konstantin Kozayev, Russia (Roscosmos) Yuri Lonchakov, Russia (Roscosmos)

Sergei Zalyotin, Russia (Roscosmos), Nikolai Budarin, Russia (Roscosmos)
Soyuz TMA-1
10/30/02 186 days 05/04/03 Frank De Winne, Belgium (ESA), Kenneth Bowersox, U.S. (NASA)
Yuri Lonchakov, Russia (Roscosmos) Donald Pettit, U.S. (NASA)

Yuri Malenchenko, Russia (Roscosmos) Yuri Malenchenko, Russia (Roscosmos)
Soyuz TMA-2
04/26/03 185 days 10/28/03 Edward Lu, U.S. (NASA) Edward Lu, U.S. (NASA)
Pedro Duque, Spain (ESA)

Michael Foale, U.S. (NASA) Michael Foale, U.S. (NASA)
Soyuz TMA-3
10/18/03 192 days 04/30/04 Alexander Kaleri, Russia (Roscosmos) Alexander Kaleri, Russia (Roscosmos)
Pedro Duque, Spain (ESA) Andre Kuipers, Netherlands (ESA)

Gennady Padalka, Russia (Roscosmos) Gennady Padalka, Russia (Roscosmos)
Soyuz TMA-4
04/19/04 187 days 10/24/04 Edward Michael Fincke, U.S. (NASA) Edward Michael Fincke, U.S. (NASA)
Andre Kuipers, Netherlands (ESA) Yuri Shargin, Russia (Roscosmos)

Salizhan Sharipov, Russia (Roscosmos) Salizhan Sharipov, Russia (Roscosmos)
Soyuz TMA-5
10/14/04 193 days 04/24/05 Leroy Chiao, U.S. (NASA) Leroy Chiao, U.S. (NASA)
Yuri Shargin, Russia (Roscosmos) Roberto Vittori, Italy (ESA)

Sergei Krikalev, Russia (Roscosmos) Sergei Krikalev, Russia (Roscosmos)
Soyuz TMA-6
04/15/05 180 days 10/11/05 John Phillips, U.S. (NASA) John Phillips, U.S. (NASA)
Roberto Vittori, Italy (ESA) Gregory Olsen, U.S., SFP

Valery Tokarev, Russia (Roscosmos) Valery Tokarev, Russia (Roscosmos)
Soyuz TMA-7
10/01/05 190 days 04/08/06 William McArthur, U.S. (NASA) William McArthur, U.S. (NASA)
Gregory Olsen, U.S., SFP Marcos Pontes, Brazil, SFP

Pavel Vinogradov, Russia (Roscosmos) Pavel Vinogradov, Russia (Roscosmos)
Soyuz TMA-8 178 days 09/25/06
03/30/06 Jeffrey Williams, U.S. (NASA) Jeffrey Williams, U.S. (NASA)
12S planned planned
Marcos Pontes, Brazil, SFP TBD

Space Flight Participant (SFP)
International Space Station Guide
Progress ISS Missions 84

Progress ISS Missions
ISS Flight
Spacecraft* Sequence Launched Undocked Duration (Docked) Deorbit

Progress M1-3 1P 08/06/00 11/01/00 84 d, 7 h, 51 m 11/01/00

Progress M1-4 2P 11/16/00 02/08/01 82 d, 7 h, 39 m 02/08/01

Progress M-44 3P 02/26/01 04/13/01 46 d, 22 h, 58 m 04/13/01

Progress M1-6 4P 05/21/01 08/22/01 91 d, 5 h, 38 m 08/22/01

Progress M-45 5P 08/21/01 11/22/01 91 d, 6 h, 21 m 11/22/01

Progress M1-7 6P 11/26/01 03/19/02 110 d, 22 h 03/20/02

Progress M1-8 7P 03/21/02 06/25/02 92 d, 11 h, 29 m 06/25/02

Progress M-46 8P 06/26/02 09/24/02 87 d, 7 h, 36 m 10/14/02

Progress M1-9 9P 09/25/02 02/01/03 124 d, 23 h 02/01/03

Progress M-47 10P 02/02/03 08/28/03 205 d, 7 h, 59 m 08/28/03

Progress M1-10 11P 06/08/01 09/04/03 85 d, 8 h, 26 m 10/03/03

Progress M-48 12P 08/29/03 01/28/04 150 d, 4 h, 55 m 01/29/04

Progress M1-11 13P 01/29/04 05/24/04 113 d, 20 h, 06 m 06/03/04

Progress M-49 14P 05/25/04 07/30/04 63 d, 16 h, 11 m 07/30/04

Progress M-50 15P 08/11/04 12/22/04 130 d, 13 h, 34 m 12/22/04

Progress M-51 16P 12/23/04 02/27/05 65 d 03/09/05

Progress M-52 17P 02/28/05 06/16/05 106 d, 1 h, 5 m 06/16/05

Progress M-53 18P 06/17/05 09/07/05 80 d, 5 h, 41 m 09/07/05

Progress M-54 19P 09/08/05 03/03/06 173 d, 23 h, 24 m 03/05/06

Progress M-55 20P 12/21/05 6/19/06 179d 06/20/06

Progress M-56 21P 04/24/06 Planned TBD TBD

Progress M-57 22P 06/24/06 Planned TBD TBD

* All Progress spacecraft were/will be launched by Soyuz launch vehicles.
interesting facts
International Space Station Guide
Interesting Facts
87 Interesting Points/EVA


Interesting Points • As of June 2006: EVA

• T he ISS effort involves more than • Includingthe launch of the first • As of August 2006:
100,000 people in space agencies, module—Zarya at 1:40 a.m. e.s.t.
at 500 contractor facilities, and in on November 20, 1998—there • Spacewalks (EVAs): 69 (28 Shuttle-
37 U.S. states. That’s almost half of have been 55 launches to the ISS based, 41 ISS-based) totaling
the entire population of the U.S. state (37 Russian flights and 18 U.S./ 410 hours.
of North Dakota. Shuttle flights).
• Building the ISS in space has been
• As of June 2006, the number of • The 38 Russian flights include 3 compared to changing a spark plug
crewmembers and visitors who have modules (Zarya, Zvezda, and Pirs), or hanging a shelf while wearing roller
traveled to the ISS included 116 different 13 Soyuz crew vehicles, and 22 skates and two pairs of ski gloves with
people representing 10 countries. Progress resupply ships. all your tools, screws, and materials teth-
ered to your body so they don’t drop.
• Living and working on the ISS is • At Assembly Complete, 80 space
like building one room of a house, flights will have been scheduled to
moving in a family of three, and asking take place using five different types
them to finish building the house while of launch vehicles.
working full time from home.
International Space Station Guide International Space Station Guide
Interesting Facts Interesting Facts
Physical Parameters 88 89 Physical Dimensions

Physical Parameters a conventional three-bedroom house. • At Assembly Complete, the ISS will • At Assembly Complete, a maximum Meals Environmental Control
There are 9 research racks on board plus measure 110 m (361 ft) end to end. That’s 110 kW of power, including 30 kW
Mass 16 system racks and 10 stowage racks. equivalent to the length of a U.S. football of long-term average power for • Crews have eaten about 23,000 meals • ISS systems recycle about 6.4 kg (14 lb)
field, including the end zones. applications, is/will be available. and 20,000 snacks, which equals 18,150 or 6.42 L (1.7 gal) of crew-expelled air
• The mass of the ISS currently is 186,000 • At Assembly Complete, more than kg (40,000 lb) of food. Approximately each day. 2.7 kg (6 lb) of that comes from
kg (410,000 lb) (equivalent to about 120 telephone-booth-size rack facilities Electrical Power Thermal Control 3,630 kg (4 tons) of supplies are the U.S. segment. The processed water
132 automobiles). will be installed in the ISS for operat- required to support a crew of three for is then used for technical or drinking
ing the spacecraft systems and research • The solar array surface area currently on • Currently, there are 21 honeycombed about 6 months. purposes.
• At Assembly Complete, the ISS will be experiments. orbit is 892 m2 (9,600 ft2), which is large aluminum radiator panels, each mea-
about four times as large as the Russian enough to cover 75% of the U.S. House suring 1.8 m x 3 m (6 ft x 10 ft), for a • Based on input from ISS crew members, • The ISS travels an equivalent distance to
space station Mir and about five times • When completely assembled, the ISS of Representatives Chamber (42 m x 28 total of 156 m2 (1,680 ft2) of ammonia- the most popular on-orbit foods are the Moon and back in about a day. That’s
as large as the U.S. Skylab. will have an internal pressurized volume m = 1,176 m2) (139 ft x 93 ft = 12,927 ft2). tubing-filled heat exchange area. shrimp cocktail, tortillas, barbecue equivalent to crossing the North American
of 935 m3 (33,023 ft3 ), or about 1.5 Boeing beef brisket, breakfast sausage links, continent about 135 times every day.
• At Assembly Complete, the ISS will 747s, and will be larger than a five-bed- • At Assembly Complete, 12.9 km (8 mi) • At Assembly Complete, there will be chicken fajitas, vegetable quiche,
have a mass of almost 419,600 kg room house. of wire will connect the electrical power 42 honeycombed aluminum radiator macaroni and cheese, candy-coated Data Management
(925,000 lb). That’s the equivalent of system. panels, each measuring 1.8 m x 3 m chocolates, and cherry blueberry
more than 330 automobiles. Physical Dimensions (6 ft x 10 ft), for a total area of 312 m2 cobbler. The favorite beverage to • Fifty-two computers will control the
• Currently, 26 kW of power is generated. (3,360 ft2) of ammonia-tubing-filled wash it all down? Lemonade. systems on the ISS.
• The entire 16.4-m (55-ft) robot arm • The ISS solar array surface will be heat exchange area.
assembly will be able to lift 99,790 kg large enough to cover the U.S. Senate • At Assembly Complete, the solar array Crew Hours • The data transmission rate is 150 Mb
(220,000 lb), which is the mass of a Chamber more than three times over at surface area is 2,500 m2 (27,000 ft2), an Module Berthing per second downlink with simultan-
Space Shuttle orbiter. Assembly Complete. acre of solar panels. • While a year of Space Shuttle oper- eous uplink.
• To ensure a good seal, the Common ations (seven crew members, 11-day
Habitable Volume • A solar array’s wingspan of 73 m (240 • At Assembly Complete, there will be a Berthing Mechanism automatic missions, five flights per year) results • Currently, 2.8 million lines of software
ft) is longer than that of a Boeing 777, total of 262,400 solar cells. latches pull two modules together in 9,240 total crew hours, 1 year of ISS code on the ground will support 1.5
• The ISS has about 425 m3 (15,000 ft3) which is 65 m (212 ft). and tighten 16 connecting bolts with operations—26,280 total crew hours million lines of flight software code,
of habitable volume—more room than a force of 8,618 kg (19,000 lb) each. (three crew, 365 days)—is almost three which will double by Assembly
times that amount. Complete.
International Space Station Guide International Space Station Guide
Interesting Facts Interesting Facts
Research and Applications 90 91 Education/Crew Medical Care

• In the International Space Station’s U.S. ISS over 64 months of continuous • The ISS provides an excellent viewing Education • In-flight education downlinks (part weightless and is being studied to
segment alone, 1.5 million lines of flight research. Nine research racks are on platform for Earth; its range covers more of Education Payload Operations) see if it can slow the rate of bone
software code will run on 44 computers board. More than 7,700 kg (17,000 than 90% of the populated areas of the • Educational activities relating to the have linked crewmembers aboard the loss that occurs in space.
communicating via 100 data networks lb) of research equipment and facili- planet. Station crews have taken more ISS include student-developed experi- ISS with students around the world. The
transferring 400,000 signals (e.g., pres- ties have been brought to the ISS. than 200,000 images of Earth—almost a ments; educational demonstrations and students have studied the science activi- • Genetic techniques will soon be
sure or temperature measurements, valve third of the total number of images taken activities; and student participation in ties on the ISS and living and working in used to examine the microbial
positions, etc.). • Research topics have been diverse— from orbit by astronauts. classroom versions of ISS experiments, space in preparation for asking questions environment of the Space Station,
from protein crystal growth to NASA investigator experiments, and ISS of the crewmembers. Through broad- and culture studies will determine
• The ISS will manage 20 times as many physics to telemedicine. New • About 700,000 NASA digital pho- engineering activities. casts sponsored by Channel One and the the effect of the space environment
signals as the Space Shuttle. scientific results from early Space tographs of Earth are downloaded U.S. Department of Education, over 30 on the growth of microbes. This will
Station research, in fields from basic by scientists, educators, and the • From early 2000 through April 2006, million students have been able to watch allow better assessment of the risks
science to exploration research, are public each month from the “Gate- 24 unique types of educational programs the interviews. of pathogens to crewmembers on
Research and Applications being published every month. way to Astronaut Photography of involved 31.8 million students, and over long-duration missions.
Earth” ( 12,500 teachers participated in ISS- Crew Medical Care
• Expedition crews conduct science • Some 100 scientists, from as many insti- based education workshops. • Medical ultrasound will be used as
daily, across a wide variety of fields, tutions, have been principal investigators • In 2005, ISS astronauts took key • Information from biomedical research on a diagnostic tool should a crewmember
including human research, life sciences, on ISS research, either completed or photographs of the hurricane damage • In the EarthKAM experiment, nearly ISS is designed to develop countermea- be hurt, even if the rest of the crew has
physical sciences, and Earth observation, ongoing. NASA research has involved in Mississippi and Louisiana, as well 1,000 schools and 66,000 middle school sures to the negative effects of long- not been previously trained in how to
as well as education and technology lead investigators from the U.S., Belgium, as damage and recovery efforts from students have controlled a digital camera duration space flight on the human do a specific type of scan. The same
demonstrations (http://exploration. Canada, France, Germany, Italy, Japan, the tsunami in Sri Lanka; documented on board the ISS to photograph features body so that future astronauts will be telemedicine techniques benefit patients the Netherlands, and Spain. On some floods and droughts; and took detailed of Earth. The students have investigated able to explore more safely. For example, in rural areas and may eventually allow
experiments, these principal investigators photographs of cities around the world, a wide range of topics such as defores- ultrasound images taken on ambulances
• As of June 2006, 90 science investi- represent dozens of scientists who share from London to Jeddah to Irkutsk. tation, urbanization, volcanoes, river • Resistive exercise allows astronauts to be sent ahead to the hospital.
gations have been conducted on the data to maximize research. deltas, and pollution. to do weight training while they are
International Space Station Guide
Interesting Facts
Exploration 92

Systems developed for use on ISS may serve as the basis of future lunar outposts.

The International Space Station (ISS) is
instrumental to the exploration of space.
Efficient, reliable spacecraft systems are critical to reducing crew and mission risks.
The development and testing of systems of the ISS will reduce mission risks and
advance capabilities for missions traveling interplanetary distances.
As we expand permanent human presence beyond low-Earth orbit to the
Moon and, later, to Mars and beyond, we will face challenges in management;
integration; remote, long-duration assembly and maintenance operations; science
and engineering; and international culture and relationships. The ISS Program is
providing critical insight and amassing new knowledge in all of these areas, and the
ISS experience can help to guide our success in space exploration.

International Space Station Guide
Image Sources 94

NASA wishes to acknowledge the use of
images provided by:

Canadian Space Agency

European Space Agency

Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency

Roscosmos, the Russian Federal Space Agency
International Space Station Guide International Space Station Guide
Appendix Appendix
Image Sources 94 95 Acronym List

Acronym List
1P Progress flight DLR German Aerospace Center HTV H-II Transfer Vehicle [JAXA]
1S Soyuz flight DMS Data Management System IBMP Institute for Biomedical Problems
AC Assembly Complete DOS Long-Duration Orbital Station ICC Integrated Cargo Carrier
[Russian] ICS Internal Communications System
ACU Arm Control Unit
EADS European Aeronautic Defence
ARC Ames Research Center IEA Integrated Equipment Assembly
and Space Company
ARIS Active Rack Isolation System IRU In-flight Refill Unit
ECLSS Environmental Control and Life
ATCS Active Thermal Control System Support System ISPR International Standard Payload Rack
atm Atmospheres ECS Exercise Countermeasures System ISS International Space Station
ATV Automated Transfer Vehicle, ECU Electronics Control Unit ITA Integrated Truss Assembly
launched by Ariane [ESA] ITS Integrated Truss Structure
EDR European Drawer Rack
ATV-CC Automated Transfer Vehicle IV-CPDS Intravehicular Charged Particle
EDV Water Storage Container [Russian]
Control Centre Directional Spectrometer
EF Exposed Facility
BCA Battery Charging Assembly JAXA Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency
EHS Environmental Health System
BCDU Battery Charge Discharge Unit JEM Japanese Experiment Module
ELC Express Logistics Carrier
BSA Battery Stowage Assembly JEM-ELM Japanese Experiment Module-
ELM Experiment Logistics Module
CBM Common Berthing Mechanism Experiment Logistics Module
EMU Extravehicular Mobility Unit
CC Control Center JEM-ELM-EF Japanese Experiment Module-
EPM European Physiology Module Experiment Logistics Module-
CCAA Common Cabin Air Assembly
EPS Electrical Power System Exposed Facility
CCC Contaminant Control Cartridge
JEM-ELM-ES Japanese Experiment Module-
ERA European Robotic Arm
CDRA Carbon Dioxide Removal Assembly Experiment Logistics Module-
ESA European Space Agency Exposed Section
CETA Crew and Equipment Translation
Aid/Assembly ESTEC European Space Research and JEM-ELM-PS Japanese Experiment Module-
Technology Centre Experiment Logistics Module-
CEV Crew Exploration Vehicle
ETC European Transport Carrier Pressurized Section
CEVIS Cycle Ergometer with Vibration
Isolation System EVA Extravehicular Activity JEM-PM Japanese Experiment Module-
Pressurized Module
CHeCS Crew Health Care System ExPCA EXPRESS Carrier Avionics
JEM-RMS Japanese Experiment Module-
CMG Control Moment Gyroscope EXPRESS Expedite the Processing of
Remote Manipulator System
Experiments to the Space Station
CMRS Crew Medical Restraint System
JSC Johnson Space Center
FGB Functional Cargo Block
CMS Countermeasures System
kgf Kilogram Force
FRAM Flight Releasable Attachment
CNES Centre National D’Études Spatiales
Mechanism kN Kilonewton
[French space agency]
FRGF Flight Releasable Grapple Fixture KSC Kennedy Space Center
NASA wishes to acknowledge the use of COF Columbus Orbital Facility
FSA Roscosmos, Russian Federal lbf Pound Force
COL-CC Columbus Control Centre
images provided by: COTS Commercial Orbital
Space Agency LF Logistics Flight
FSL Fluid Science Laboratory LiOH Lithium Hydroxide
Transportation Services
GASMAP Gas Analyzer System for Metabolic LSS Life Support Subsystem
Canadian Space Agency CPDS Charged Particle Directional
Analysis Physiology
Spectrometer Mb Megabit
GB Gigabyte
European Space Agency CRPCM Canadian Remote Power MBS Mobile Base System
Controller Module GCM Gas Calibration Module
MBSU Main Bus Switching Unit
CSA Canadian Space Agency GCTC Gagarin Cosmonaut Training Center
Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency MCC Mission Control Center
CTB Cargo Transfer Bag GN&C Guidance, Navigation, and Control
MDM Multiplexer-Demultiplexer
Roscosmos, the Russian Federal Space Agency CWC Contingency Water Container GLONASS Global Navigation Satellite System
MELFI Minus Eighty-Degree Laboratory
DC Docking Compartment; Freezer for ISS
Direct Current GPS Global Positioning System
MGBX Microgravity Science Glovebox
DCSU Direct Current Switching Unit GRC Glenn Research Center
MLE Middeck Locker Equivalent
DDCU DC-to-DC Converter Unit GSC Guiana Space Center
MLM Multipurpose Laboratory Module
DDT&E Design, Development, Test, HMS Health Maintenance System
MMOD Micrometeoroid/Orbital Debris
and Evaluation HRF Human Research Facility
(continued on page 96)
International Space Station Guide
Acronym List and Definitions 96

Acronym List (continued from page 95) Definitions
MMU Mass Memory Unit S0 or S Zero, Starboard trusses Assembly Complete
MOC MSS Operations Complex S1, etc. Final integrated arrangement of ISS elements
SARJ Solar (Array) Alpha Rotation Joint Assembly Stage
MPLM Multi-Purpose Logistics Module
SAFER Simplified Aid for EVA Rescue Integrated arrangement of ISS elements
MSFC Marshall Space Flight Center
SASA S-Band Antenna Structural Assembly
MSS Mobile Servicing System Linking of two spacecraft, modules, or elements;
SAW Solar Array Wing uses apparatus with wide internal hatch
MT Mobile Transporter
SFOG Solid Fuel Oxygen Generator Docking
NASA National Aeronautics and
Space Administration SFP Space Flight Participant Linking of two spacecraft; uses apparatus with
narrow internal hatch
NAVSTAR Navigation Signal Timing and SGANT Space-to-Ground Antenna
Ranging [U.S. satellite] Element
SM Service Module
A structural component such as a module or
NPO Production Enterprise [Russian] SPDM Special Purpose Dexterous truss segment
NTO Nitrogen Tetroxide Manipulator
NTSC National Television Standards SS Space Shuttle A stay on board the ISS; the long-duration crew
Committee SSA Space Suit Assembly during a stay on the ISS
OMS Orbital Maneuvering System SSIPC Space Station Integration and Increment
OGS Oxygen Generation System Promotion Center Period of time from launch of a vehicle rotating
ISS crewmembers to the undocking of the return
ORU Orbital Replacement Unit SSRMS Space Station Remote
vehicle for that crew
OVC Oxygen Ventilation Circuit Manipulator System
SSU Sequential Shunt Unit
P1, P6, etc. Port trusses Flight of a “visiting” Space Shuttle, Soyuz, or other
STS Space Transportation System vehicle not permanently attached to the ISS
PCAS Passive Common Attach System
TCS Thermal Control System Module
PDA Payload Disconnect Assembly
TDRS Tracking and Data Relay Satellite An internally pressurized element intended
PDGF Payload Data Grapple Fixture for habitation
TEPC Tissue Equivalent
PLSS Primary Life Support System
Proportional Counter Multiplexer
PM Pressurized Module A computer that interleaves multiple data
TKS Orbital Transfer System
PMA Pressurized Mating Adapter management functions
TKSC Tsukuba Space Center
POC Payload Operations Center; Nadir
TMA Transportation Modified Directly below, opposite zenith
Primary Oxygen Circuit
PROX OPS Proximity Operations Port
TMG Thermal Micrometeoroid Garment Left side, opposite starboard
PSA Power Supply Assembly
TNSC Tanegashima Space Center Rendezvous
PSC Physiological Signal Conditioner Movement of two spacecraft toward one another
TORU Progress Remote Control Unit
PTCS Passive Thermal Control System [Russian] Space Flight Participant
PVGF Power Video Grapple Fixture TSC Telescience Support Center Nonprofessional astronaut
PVR Photovoltaic Radiator TSS Temporary Sleep Station Starboard
Right side, opposite port
RED Resistive Exercise Device TSUP Moscow Mission Control
RGA Rate Gyro Assembly TVIS Treadmill Vibration Isolation System Directly above, opposite nadir
RM Research Module UDMH Unsymmetrical Dimethylhydrazine
RMS Remote Manipulation, UF Utilization Flight
Manipulator System
UHF Ultra-High Frequency
RPC Remote Power Controller
ULF Utilization and Logistics Flight
rpm Revolutions Per Minute
UMA Umbilical Mating Assembly
ROEU-PDA Remotely Operated Electrical
USOC User Support and Operations Centre
Umbilical-Power Distribution
Assembly VDC Voltage, Direct Current
RPCM Remote Power Controller Module VDU Video Distribution Unit
RSC Rocket and Space Corporation VOA Volatile Organic Analyzer
RV Reentry Vehicle WRS Water Recovery System
S&M Structures and Mechanisms Z1 Zenith 1, a truss segment
United States of America


ISS Partners:

Russian Federation

European Space Agency

NASA SP-2006-557
ISBN 0-9710327-2-6