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BrightonLabourProcessGroup(1)
THECAPITALISTLABOURPROCESS
' J ustascom m od itiesare, atthesam etim e, usev al uesand v al ues, sotheprocess
of prod ucingthem m ustbeal abourprocess, and atthesam etim e, aprocesso/
creatingv al ue" .
(Marx, Capital . I, p . 18 1) .
INTRODUCTION
Theul tim atem aterial basisof pol iticsinthecapital istm od eof prod uctionis
inthed ual d om inanceof capital ov erl abour : inthef orm of ow nershipof the
m eansof prod uctionontheonehand , and thef orm of real control ov erthe
processof prod uctionontheother . Or, asitissom etim esput, inthe
appropriationby capital of theprod uctand of nature . Thisd om inanceisnev er
d ef initiv el y establ ished onceand f oral l . Thev ery m ov em entof capital
accum ul ation, (w hichchangesl abourm ark ets, l abourprocesses, geographical
d istributionof prod uction, prod uctsnew cond itionsof id eol ogical and pol itical
cl assstruggl e, and soon), ensuresthatthisd ual d om inanceisal w ay shav ingto
bere- establ ished innew cond itions
. Itsreprod uctionisaprocessw hichis
cond ucted by cl assstruggl e, and toeachf orm of d om inancetherecorrespond sa
specif icterrainof cl assstruggl e
.
Until recentl y Marxistanal y sisof thed om inanceof capital hasbeen
rem ark abl y one- sid ed
. Ithasconcentrated oncapital ' sappropriationof the
prod uct, anal y singthecontrad ictionsof capital ism atthel ev el of v al ue, w hil e
negl ectingcapital ' sappropriationof nature, thel ev el of usev al ues . The
recentinterestinthel abourprocess, (e
. g .
Brav erm an, Gorz )iscl earl y am aj or
stepf orw ard , butinourv iew f urtherprogressd epend sonthed ev el opm entof
anad eq uatetheory of the capital ist l abourprocess, throughw hichcapital
appropriatesnature .
Inord ertod ev el opsuchatheory w ebel iev ethatitisessential togoback to
basictheoretical conceptsand toel aboratetheircontentascl earl y and as
rigorousl y aspossibl e . Thepresentpaperiscl earl y nom orethanasm al l stepin
3
thisd irection, w iththel im ited aim of d ef iningtheinherentstructural rel ations
betw eenl abourand capital w iththecapital istl abourprocess(CLP) . Itisa
necessary f irststeptow ard sotheraim s, aim sw hichw ed onotpursuehere . We
d o not d eal w ith l abour processesw hicharenot d irectl y tind erthe
d eterm inationof thel aw of v al ue
(e
. g . ined ucation, in
m ed icine) ;
and w ed onot
d eal w ithl abourprocessesw hichd onot d irectl y restonw age- l abour (e . g .
d om esticl abourprocessesof reprod uctionof l abourpow er) . Itisal soim portant
tonotethatouranal y sesarenotconcrete . Wed onotd eal w iththeconcrete
d ev el opm entof l abourprocesseshistorical l y ind if f erentbranchesof ind ustry ,
butonl y w iththeund erl y ingl im its, tend enciesand f orcesw ithinw hichthese
d ev el opm entstak epl ace . And ouranal y sesarenotconj unctural
. Butw ed ocl aim
thattheconceptsd ev el oped hereareessential toany suchconcreteanal y ses,
w hetherourinterestsand purposesbeprim aril y historical orpol itical orboth
.
Thisabstracttheoretical w ork m atters . Itm attersbecauseitad d stoourpow er
to
grasptheconcrete - concreted ev el opm entsintheCLP, concreteconj unctures . It
thereby ad d stoourpow ertound erstand and toinv erv enein cl assstruggl es
.
1
. THELABOURPROCESSANDTHERELATIONSOFPRODUCTION
Capital istprod uctionisbothal abourprocess, "hum anactionw ithav iew to
theprod uctiono/ use- v al ues", (Marx, Capital , l , p . 17 9 ) and aprocessof the
prod uctionof sel f - expand ingv al ue, of v al orisation . Inev ery society therehav e
tobel abourprocesses, butv al orisationisaprocessspecif ictocapital ism . It
m eansthatcapital ism isasocial sy stem inw hichagiv enq uantity of abstract
social l y necessary l abourtim e(v al ue)hastheproperty of beingabl etoactiv ate
and social isey etm orel abourtim e, and thuscreatead d itional , surpl us, v al ue .
Theprod uctionprocessof capital initsf ul l y d ev el oped f orm tak espl ace
w ithintw o sets of capital istrel ationsof prod uction . Onetheonehand thereare
therel ationsof prod uctioninthesphereof exchange(Marxsom etim escal l s
them "econom icrel ations") . Capital inthef orm of m oney canbuy the
com m od itiesthatitneed stoassem bl einord ertoinitiatetheprod uction
process ;thisim pl iesthereareav ail abl eonthem ark etm eansof prod uctionand
l abourpow erascom m od ities .
Therel ationsof prod uctioninv ol v ed here
("f reel abour", w ages, exchangev al ueetc . )w erehistorical l y d ev el oped l ong
bef oretheappearanceof thecapital istrel ationsof prod uctioninthesphereof
prod uctionitsel f . Theseexchangerel ationsarethem sel v esreprod uced by the
prod uctionprocessinthattheprod ucttak esthef orm of com m od itiesw hich
m ustbeexchanged f orm oney (e . g . by the"f reel abour"w hichhasnoother
accesstom eansof subsistence)inord erf orthecircuittorecom m ence
.
How ev er, f orthegeneral isationof these"econom ic"rel ationsof prod uction
and f ortheirexpansiv ereprod uctiontherem ust al so
hav ebeend ev el oped the
rel ationsof prod uctionw ithinprod uction
. Thel atterarethev ariousaspectsof
thecontrol of thel abourprocessby capital
. Inord erthatthecapital istm od eof
prod uctionbehegem onic, capital m ustestabl ishitsow nspecif icf orm of control
ov erl abourw ithinprod uction ;i
. e
. itm ustd ev el opspecif icf orm sof coercion .
4
Whereas the existence of l abour pow er as a com m od ity im pl ies the
reparation of l abourf rom them eansof prod uction, thel abourprocessbrings
them back togetheragain .
.
(inthel abourprocess)l abourre- establ ishesitsunionw iththeobj ectiv econd itions
w hicharethem atterand organsof itscreativ eactiv ity . Thehid etanned by the
w ork eristreated by him sim pl y astheobj ectof hisprod uctiv eactiv ity and notas
capital . Itisnotthecapital ist' shid ehetans" . (Marx, Unchapitresned itd uCapital , p .
17 1, cf . Capital 1, Penguin, p . 10 0 7 )
. '
Butnow they aretogetheronterm sthataresetby capital and inord ertopursue
theobj ectiv esof capital . Capital assem bl esm eansof prod uctionand l abour
pow erand setsthem tow ork , butitd oessoinaw ay thatisd eterm ined by the
obj ectiv eof v al orisation, of m axim isingsurpl us- v al ueprod uctionand asf aras
possibl eel im inatesal l otherpotential l y conf l ictingobj ectiv es . Capital need s
real control of thel abourprocessprecisel y becausethef orm al separationof
l abourf rom them eansof prod uctioniscancel l ed inreal ity by them aterial f orm
of l abourprocessinw hichl abourand m aterial sand instrum entscom bine .
Capital need stohav econtrol ov erthef orm of thiscom bination, because
w hatev ertheinstrum entsand m aterial s(e . g . w hatev erthetechnol ogy )thereis
al w ay sm orethanonew ay of ef f ectingthecom binationand thereisal w ay sthe
possibil ity of theprocessbeinginf orm ed by som eobj ectiv eother thanthatof
v al orisationand potential l y inconf l ictw ithit,
(e . g . theobj ectiv eof heal thy and
saf ew ork ingcond itions, orof asocial l y usef ul prod uct) . Theunity of theprocess
of v al orisationand thel abourprocessincapital istprod uctionisnotsim pl y
tobe
grasped interm sof expl oitation
. Expl oitationreq uiressuf f icientcontrol ov er
theam ountof w ork d one, and thel engthof thew ork ingd ay , toensurethatthe
w ork ersprod uceav al uegreaterthanthev al ueof theirl abourpow er . Butunl ess
thereisaspecif ichistorical d ev el opm entof anad eq uateobj ectiv eand subj ectiv e
basisinthel abourprocessitsel f , inthem aterial , technical and social
organisationof thel abourprocess, therew il l bea non- correspond ence betw een
therel ationsof prod uctionatthel ev el of v al ueand therel ationsof prod uctionat
thel ev el of usev al ues. Therew il l beanon- id entity betw eenf orm al ,
j ud icial
econom icsubj ectsand m aterial econom icsubj ects
. Marxtal k sabouttherebeing
aconf l ict
betw eeneconom icrel ationsand rel ationsw ithinthel abourprocess ;
and aboutthem aterial and social f orm of thel abourprocessnotal l ow ing
the
"capital istrel ationtobereal ised in anad eq uatem anner, (Marx, UnChapitre
ined itd uCapital
. p . 2 2 2 . Capital 1, Penguinp . 1. 0 3 7 ) . Ad ev el opm entof the
l abourprocessisnecessary sothat
"thisf ound ation of them aterial f orm constitutesthebasisf orthed ev el opm entof
capital istrel ations, w hichreq uiretheref oread ef initel ev el of d ev el opm ent of the
5
prod uctiv ef orcesinord ertotak eontheirad eq uatef orm
. . .
Use- v al ue : herecapital m ustconf orm tothenatureof thel abourprocess
. Butitis
precisel y herethatl abourd oesnotm erel y bel ongtoand becom eincorporated w ith
m aterial sand m eansof l abour, but, al so
social com btnationi of l abourand the
correspond ingd ev el opm entof theineansof l abour"
. (Marx, Onchapitrem ed itd u
Capital , pp . 2 2 2 - 2 5 2 , Capital I, Penguinpp . 1113 7 , 10 5 6 1 .
Itisim portanttonoteherethatw henMarxtal k sof thed ev el opm entof the
prod uctiv ef orcesheexpl icitl y d oesnotref ersol el y tothed ev el opm entof the
technical
basisof prod uction . Thed ev el opm entof theprod uctiv ef orcesthatis
thebasisf orthereal subord inationof l abourtocapital isad ev el opm entof both
theobj ectiv econd itionsof l abour, and of thesocial com binationsof l abour
. The
capital istl abourprocesscannotbespecif ied onthebasisof itstechnol ogical
com ponents . Butal sonotethatitcannotbespecif ied onthebasisof therel ation
establ ished w ithinitbetw eenthe ind iv id ual
w (, rk erand theinstrum entsof
prod uction
. Itcanonl y bespecif ied asaparticul arf orm
of social or, k anr_ration of
l abour, af orm w hichisaspecif icf orm of coercionand thereal isationonan
ad eq uatebasisof theobj ectiv eof v al orisation
.
Thusitisnotsim pl y am atterof capital specif y ingthel engthof thew ork ing
d ay , and theam ountof w ork tobed one
. Thereal l abourprocess' itsel f m ustbe
transf orm ed intoaspecif ical l y capital ist
l abourprocess, theinnerstructureof
w hichexpressestheobj ectiv eof v al orisationw ithoutm ed iation
.
"Theprocessof prod uctionisthe im m ed iate
unity of thel abourprocessand the
processof v al orisation, j ustasitsim m ed iateresul t
- thecom m od ity
isthe
im m ed iate unity of use- v al ueand exchange- v al ue"
. (Marx,
f inchapitreined itd u
Capital . p. 14 5 , Capital 1,
Penguinp . 9 9 1)
So the
capital istl abourprocessistheunity of the
processesof
v al orisatum
and the
real l abourprocessonthead eq uatebasisof aspecif icf orm of social
organisationof l abour.
Weshal l now d iscussj ustw hatthisinv ol v esand how itisreal ised inconcrete
l abourprocesses .
2 . FORMALSUBORDINATION
Whenthel abourprocessisonl y f orm al l y subord inated tocapital thereis
prod uctionof surpl usv al ueand itsappropriation, buttheobj ectiv eand
subj ectiv econd itionsof l abouraresuchastoprov id eam aterial basisf or
continual resistancetotheim positionof v al orisationastheuniq ueobj ectiv eof
theprod uctionprocess
. Real control of prod uctionisnoty etf irm l y inthehand s
of capital
. Thereisstil l arel ationshipbetw eenl abourand thecond itionsof
6
l abourw ithinprod uctionw hichprov id el abourw ithad egreeof control and
hencew ithal ev erw ithw hichtoenf orceitscl assobj ectiv esw hichm ay , of course,
bed if f erentf rom thoseof thef ul l y d ev el oped prol etarianl abourof them ature
capital istm od eof prod uction . They m ay beobj ectiv esof artisanal l abour, craf t
prerogativ esov errecruitm entintothetrad esand ov erthecontentand
perf orm anceof w ork , and soon .
Thisk ind of non- correspond encew asgeneral inthehistorical period in
w hichsim pl ecooperationw asstil l thed om inantf orm of thesocial organisation
of thel abourprocess ;butitsurv iv estosom eextentinsocial f orm ationsin
w hichthem aturecapital istm od eof prod uctionisd om inant(f orexam pl ein
partsof theconstructionind ustry )
. Itcanev enreappearw ithinbrand new
spheresof prod uctioninthef ul l y d ev el oped CAP . Consid erf orexam pl e
Michael Chanan' sanal y sisof thel abourprocessintheprod uctionof f il m : he
id entif iesastheprincipl econtrad ictionof f il m prod uctionf orcapital precisel y
thisnon- correspond encebetw eentheobj ectiv eof v al orisationand thebasisof
prod uctioninspecif icsk il l sw hichtend tobebey ond thereachof therigoursof
capital istcontrol (Chanan, 19 7 6 ) .
Thef orm sw hichconstitutethebasisof f orm al subord inationare
:
w age- l abour(l abourw ithnoaccesstothem eansof subsistenceexceptv iasal eof
l abour- pow er) ;m eansof prod uctioninthef orm of com m od ities ;m eansof
subsistenceinthef orm of com m od ities ;the p rod uct
. i n thef orm of
com m od ities .
Notethatal thoughthissubord inationisf orm al itnonethel ess
if af orm of
subord ination, of com pul sion .
Thef orm sof coercioninprecapital istm od esof
prod uctionw ered irectl y pol itical and social . Inthetransitional phase(and the
existenceof f orm al w ithoutreal subord inationis ad ef inition of aphaseas
transitional -
cf . Bettel heim ontransitiontosocial ism , (Bettel heim , 19 7 5 ))
com pul siontak esf orthef irsttim e aneconom ic f orm - thecom pul siontosel l
l abour- pow erinord ertoIiv e . Thiseconom icpow erof capital ov erl aboural l ow s
capital , ev enonthebasisof unchanged technical m eansand m ethod sof
prod uction, to coercef rom . l abourad egreeof intensity , d urationand continuity
of prod uctionq uiteunl ik ethattobef ound intheprev iousf orm sof prod uction
(ind epend entartisan, peasantf arm ing), i . e. ital l ow scapital toextractabsol ute
surpl usv al ue . Ital soal l ow s, inf actev ennecessitates, anincreased scal e of
prod uction
. Thisincreased scal eis, say sMarx, thereal basisonw hichthe
specif ical l y capital istm od eof prod uctiond ev el opsassoonasthehistorical
cond itionsaref av ourabl e .
Theim portanceof thisanal y sisof f orm al subord ination, itspow ertocl arif y
and organisehistorical inv estigationcanbev ery w el l il l ustrated by ref erenceto
thew id el y read paperby StephenMargl in, "Whatd obossesd o? : Theorigins
and f unctionsof hierarchy incapital istprod uction" . Itisav ery good exam pl eof
theunnecessary conf usionthatcanbeprod uced by theabsenceof Marx' s
theoretical concepts
. Margl inv ery usef ul l y d ocum entsthed ev el opm entof
f actory d iscipl ineand superv isionund ercapital
priorto thed ev el opm entof
m achine- based prod uction . Itshow show thecl assstruggl ew aged by capital to
im poseitsd om inanceonl abourconstituted thed ev el opm entof capital ist
7
rel ationsof prod uctionbef orethed ev el opm entof thosef orcesof prod uction
associated w ithm achinof acture
. (Ontheim portanceof thisargum entaboutthe
l ink betw eentherel ationsand thef orcesof prod uctionintheestabl ishm entof a
m od eof prod uctionseethecom m entbel ow onthe"Scientif icand
Technol ogical Rev ol ution")
. Unf ortunatel y , how ev er, Margl ind oesnotw ork
w iththem arxistconceptsw hichw euseinthispaperand w hichw oul d hav e
enabl ed him tograspthishistorical phasetheoretical l y (specif ical l y the
conceptsof f orm al subord ination, absol utesurpl us- v al ue, l abourpow er, l abour
tim e, f orcesand rel ationsof prod uction)
. Histhesis, w ithw hichw eagree, isthat
hierarchical organisationof w ork w asim posed onl abournotby technol ogical
innov ations(asisargued by m ostbourgeoishistoriansof "theind ustrial
rev ol ution")butby capital and itsneed toaccum ul ate
. Butthispositionisbased
ontheargum entthatsuperv isionand d iscipl ine, w hil ered ucingcosts, d id not
increasetechnical
ef f iciency , asif capital coul d be"m otiv ated "
either by
accum ul ation
or by technical ef f iciency , butnotboth
. Thisconceptual isation
ef f ectiv el y prev entsMargl inf rom beingabl etocontributeany thingtothe
anal y sisof thegeneral tend ency , intheCMP, tothe
continual rev ol utionising of
theinstrum entsand social organisationof prod uction, atend ency inw hich
"ef f iciency "insom esensecl earl y pl ay sapart
. Theshol eprobl em , how ev erl ies
inbeingabl etoprov id eanad eq uateconcepthere
. Marx' sanal y sisisthatf orm al
subord inationresul ted , am ongotherthings, inanincreased
intensity of l abour
.
Thusev enthoughtherew asnod ecreaseintheabsol uteam ountof concrete
l abourreq uired f ortheprod uctionof agiv encom m od ity , therew asnev erthel ess
ad ecreaseintheam ountof
l abourpow er thathad tobeboughtinord erf orthis
com m od ity tobeprod uced
. Theprosority of thew ork ingd ay w asd ecreased
;the
l abourtim ef ortheprod uctionof aunitcom m od ity d ecreased asaproportionof
thew ork ingd ay ;necessary l abourtim ed ecreased
;and absol utesurpl us- v al ue
increased . Thel abourprocessw as, theref ore, m oreef f icient
asaprocessof
v al orisation,
and onl y thisconceptof ef f iciency canm ak esenseof theaim sof
capital both
intheperiod of f orm al subord ination
and intheperiod of
rev outionised f orcesof prod uctionand real subord ination
.
Form al subord inationisaspecif ical l y capital istorganisationof thesocial
f orm sof com pusl ion, and thischangeintheorganisationof m aterial prod uction
f orm sthebasisonw hichd ev el opsthespecif ical l y capital istm od eof prod uction
(thef orcesof prod uctionand thecapital istrel ationsof prod uction)
. Itisw orth
em phasisingthesgpointsby q uotingatl engthf rom Marx' sexpositionof them
inachapterw hichheoriginal l y intend ed topl aceattheend of V ol
. l of Capital ,
butw hichrem ained until v ery recentl y unav ail abl einEngl ish
.
"Ical l f orm al sabord inatsonof l abourtocapital
thef orm w hichisbased onabsol ute
surpl us- v al ue, becauseitisd istinguishabl eonl y f orm al l y
f rom theanterioranod es sit
prtxl uctiononthebasis of w hichitsl xm taneousl y springs
up our is introd uced ) . . .
8
Theonl y thingthatchangesisthef orm of
coercion, orthem ethod em pl oy ed to
extractsurpl usl abour . Form al
subord inationis essential l y :
I
. thepurel y m onetary rel ationbetw eentheappropriatorand thesuppl ierof
surpl usl abour
. Subord inationisaconseq uenceof the specif iccontent
of thesal e
and isnotanteriortoitasitisw hentheprod ucerisinsom erel ationotherthan
them onetary one (i . e .
otherthanarel ationbetw eenpossessorsof com m od ities)
totheexpl oiterof hisl abour
;f orexam pl eby v irtueof arel ationof pol itical
coercion . Thesel l erisonl y inarel ationof econom icd epend enceonthebuy er
becausethel atterow nsthecond itionsof l abour
: itisnol ongeraf ixed pol itical
and social rel ationw hichsubj ectsl abourtocapital
.
2
. thef actthatthe obj ectiv econd itionsof l abour
(m eansof prod uction)and the
subj ectiv econd itions
of l abour(m eansof subsistence)conf rontl abourascapital
and arem onopol ised by thebuy erof l abour- pow er
: itisf rom thisthatthef irst
pointf ol l ow s, becauseif itw erenotf orthisthew ork erw oul d hav enoneed to
sel l hisl abourpow er . . .
Atthebeginningthereisnoinnov ationinthem od eof prod uctionitsel f
: the
l abourprocessis
carried outexactl y asbef oreexceptthatitisnow subord inated
tocapital
. Nev erthel ess, asw ehav eal read y show n, thered ev el opsinthe
prod uctionprocess
: (a)aneconom icrel ationof d om inationand subord ination
;
becausethecapital istishencef orththeconsum erof l abour- pow erheis
theref orethesuperv isorand organiserof it
. (b)greatl y increased continuity and
intensity of l abour, asw el l asagreatereconom y intheuseof thecond itionsof
l abour, becauseev ery thingisputtow ork insuchaw ay thattheprod uctcontains
nom orethanthesocial l y
necessary l abourtim e (and , if possibl e, l ess) ;. . .
Ontheonehand thecapital istm od eof prod uction . . . giv esad if f erentf orm to
m aterial prod uction, ontheotherhand thischangeinthem aterial f orm
constitutesthebasisf orthed ev el opm entof capital istrel ations, w hichthus
req uireaspecif icl ev el of d ev el opm entof theprod uctiv ef orcesinord erthat
they (capital istrel ations)canf ind an
ad eq uatef orm " . (Marx, Unchapitreined it
d uCapital , pp
. 2 0 2 , 2 4 8 . Capital , 1, Penguinpp
. 10 2 5 , 10 3 5 )
.
3
. REALSUBORDINATION : V ALORISATIONINCOMMAND
Capital m ustcreatecapital istl abourprocess . Itm usthav epow erinthev ery
heartof prod uctionitsel f sothatitcanhav easol id m aterial basisf orits
ov errid ingobj ectiv e
: V al orisationincom m and ! This
itachiev esonthebasisof - a
seriesof l ink ed and m utual l y inter- d epend entd ev el opm ents
:
theextractionof rel ativ esurpl usv al ue
theem pl oy m entof m achinery
theconsciousappl icationof scienceand technol ogy
them obil ity and repl aceabil ity of l abour, (thef orm ationof thereserv earm y )
l argescal eprod uction
.
9
Thesearethem aterial basesf or new rel ationsbetw eencapital and l abour,
rel ationsthatenf orcereal subord ination .
Real Subord inationof . LabourtoCapital ortheSpecif ical l y Capital istMod eof
Prod uction' . . . w ehav eshow nind etail thatw iththeprod uctiono/ rel ativ e
surpl us- v al ue, thew hol eof thereal f orm of them od eof prod uctionism od if ied , so
thatw earenow concerned w iththe specs/ ical l y capital ist m od eof prod uction(f rom
thepointof v iew of technol ogy al so), Itisonthisbasis - and sol el y asaconseq uence
of it - thatared ev el oped rel ationsof prod uctionw hichareincorrespond encew ith
the capital istprocess of prod uction, rel ationsbetw eenthev ariousagentsof
prod uction, inparticul arbetw eencapital istand w age- l abourer . Asthef orcesof
prod uctionof society d ev el op, (ortheprod uctiv epow erof l abour)they aresocial ised
and becom ed irectl y social Icol l ectiv e), asaresul tof cooperation, thed iv isionof
l abourw ithinthew ork shop, theuseof m achinery , and , ingeneral the
transf orm ationsw hichtheprod uctionprocessund ergoesasaresul tof theconscious
appl ication of thenatural sciences, of m echanics, of chem istry etc . , appl ied w ith
d ef initetechnol ogical obj ectiv es, and asaresul tof ev ery thingthatisinv ol v ed in
l abourcond ucted ona l argescal e, etc . "(Marx, Unchapstresned itd uCapital . p . 19 9
Capital . I, Penguin, p. 10 2 4 ) .
In Capital Marxanal y sesthestagesof thisd ev el opm entof real subord ination
f rom sim pl ecooperationthroughm anuf acturetom achinof acture . The
introd uctionof m achiery isacul m inationof thisd ev el opm entbecauseital l ow s
capital tobreak throughthel im itsw ithinw hich, und ersim pl ecooperationand
m anuf acture, itcoul d ef f ectareal com m and ov erthel abourprocess .
Butw hatexactl y arethese new rel ations betw eentheagentsof prod uction
thatbecom epossibl ew iththeuseof m achinery ?And how exactl y isitthatthis
technical basisal l ow sthesenew rel ationstobef orm ed ?What, m otherw ord s, is
theconnectionbetw eenm achinery and thereal subord inationof l abourto
capital ?Marx' sansw erinv ol v esf ourm ainconcepts . (Wew il l onl y beconcerned
w iththef irsttw oof these) .
1 . The real separation of constantf rom v ariabl ecapital , of l abourf rom the
cond itionsof l abour .
2 . The obj ectiv eorganisation of the col l ectiv ew ork er
repl acingthesubj ectiv e
organisation .
3
. The f etishism of technol ogy / f ixed capital .
4 . Thereprod uction
of therel ations of prod uction(thel abourprocess
becom ingthesiteof thisreprod uction) .
Real separationispartl y am atterof scal e, aconseq uenceof thef actthat
1 0
prod uctionisnow l argescal eprod uctionand req uiresacertainl argem inim um
of capital f orittobeputinm otion . Insm al l scal eprod uctionitw as, asf arasthe
ind iv id ual l abourerw asconcerned , anaccid entand notof theessencethathe
l ack ed them eansof prod uction . Thisisstil l trueof som ef orm sof m anuf acture
.
Inasw eat- shopgarm entf actory thegirl (usual l y )w how ork sthesew ing
m achinecoul d easil y ow nsucham achinehersel f
. Thescal eof capital ist
prod uctionbased onm anuf acturem ay m ak eitd if f icul tf ornew ind iv id ual
capital iststoariseoutof therank sof thew ork ingcl ass
;butitd oesnotm ak eit
im possibl e . There isstil l acertainf l uid ity betw eencapital , artisanal
groups, w ork ersere ;and itisnotnecessary totheactual l abourprocessitsel f that
itbesuperv ised by som eagentof capital . Inasm uchasitis, thisisaconseq uence
of aneconom iccom pul sionand notatechnical one . Capital is, f rom the
technical pointof v iew , red und ant . Ontheotherhand w ithm achinof actureitis
essential thattherebesom eagency , ov erand abov ethatof eachind iv id ual
w ork er, w hichassem bl esthem eansof prod uctionpriortothepurchaseof
l abourpow er
. (Fetishism arisesf rom thetend ency toseeitasanecessity that
thisagency becapital ratherthansom eothertransind iv id ual econom icsubj ect) .
Becauseprod uctionisnow col l ectiv e, onal argescal eand m achine- based , capital
canappropriatetoitsel f al l thef unctionsof specif ication, organisationand
control , and perf orm them ind epend entl y of l abour . Itcantheref oreim poseits
obj ectiv esonthel abourprocesssothatl abour, ev enw henitisbroughtintoreal
associationw iththecond itionsof l abour, d oessoinanantagonistic
rel ationship . Of coursethisrel ationof capital tol abourisnotastaticone, butis
constantl y reprod uced innew cond itions . Itisasiteof constantl y renew ed cl ass
struggl e . Thed om inanceof capital isreprod uced becausecapital hasboththe
pow erand thenecessity tocontinual l y rev ol utionisethef orcesof prod uction .
Thisisthe"f und am ental thesis"of abook by A . D. Magal ine . Hesay s :
"Inthecapital istm od eof prod uctiontheprincipal siteof thereporod uctionof the
rel ationsof prod uctionisthecl assstruggl einprod uction, acl assstruggl einw hich
thecapital istbourgeoisiehasthed om inantrol e, and w hichisexpressed inthe
continual upheav al inthetechnical and social organisationof thel abourprocess, i . e .
inthecontinual rev ol utionisingof thef orcesof prod uction
. And herew ecanrecal l a
thesisof the
Com m unistManif esto
: thebourgeoisie, incontrasttoal l preced ing
expl oitingcl asses, hasarev ol utionary basis, and itsd om inationisbased onthe
continual upheav al of them od eof prod uction" . (Magal ine, 19 7 5 , p . 6 0 )
Und erreal subord ination, l abourserv esthem achineand notthem achine
l abour
. Forsom e, particul arl y sk il l ed , w ork ersreal separationcom estothis, that
they cannotd otheirw ork exceptinal arge- scal ecol l ectiv el abourprocessw hich
existspriortoand ind epend entl y of theirbeingbroughtintoitby its
ow ner/ control l erCom parethem anw hosesk il l ism onitoringaconsol eina
pow erstationw iththoserem nantsorim itatorsof pre- m achinof acturel abour
suchaschippies, pl um bers, d om esticappl iancerepairm enand soon, w hom ov e
intoand outof rel ationsw ithcapital inw ay sthatd epend oneconom icrather
II
thanapparentl y technical com pul sion .
Withm achinof acturecapital now haspow erov erconstantcapital ;itcannow
bed esigned and organised w ithoutref erencetothetrad itional sk il l sand craf ts .
Thew hol epointof m achinery isthespeed w ithw hichitcanef f ectm echanical
transf orm ations . From now oncapital break sthroughthel im itsrepresented by
thespeed sw ithw hichl abourcoul d perf orm thesef unctions . Beingnol onger
d epend entonthem thel abourprocessisd esigned around theperf orm anceof
them achine, and thew ork erhastoperf orm inaccord ancew ithitsneed srather
thanv ice- v ersa . Capital control sthisprocessbecauseitcanassem bl eal l the
k now l ed geand m aterial sstored upinm achinery , k now l ed geand m aterial s
w hichthem sel v esd ev el opund erthesw ay of capital and f rom w hichl abouris
entirel y separated .
How d oescapital usethisreal pow erof control toachiev ev al orisation?Or
w hatisitaboutm achinof acturethatal l ow scapital tousethispow ertoprom ote
v al orisationtothed om inantobj ectiv eof theprocess± Itisthatthereisnow a
particul ar f orm of col l ectiv ew ork er . Any col l ectiv ew ork erreq uires
organisationand superv ision . Thecol l ectiv ew ork erof m achinof actureal l ow s
theim positionof theauthority of capital
. Thatisbecausecapital can
m onopol isethek now l ed gereq uired tod esignand enf orcethew ay inw hicheach
ind iv id ual w ork erf unctionsasanappend agetoam achine, i . e . theinterf aces
betw eenm achinef unctionsand l abourf unctions ;and al sotheintegrationof the
v ariouspartial processesintoaw hol e . Therearetw othingsw orthem phasising
heresincethey areof tenf orgotten . Machinof acturetransf orm snotonl y the
w ork of eachind iv id ual l abourerbutal sotheirarticul ationintoa- sy stem . In
ad d ition, thepow erof capital isrepresented notonl y initspow ertod esignand
organisem achinesy stem sbutal soinitspow ertoenf orcethel abourd iscipl ine
req uired tok eepthatm achinesy stem inef f ectiv e(f rom thepointof v iew of
capital )operation . Real subord inationisam atterof boththek ind of
instrum entsof l abourthatareem pl oy ed and al sothef orm of social com bination
thatisim posed onl abour, thereal isationof thepow erof capital inthef orm of
f actory d iscipl ine . Theseareal l aspectsof w hatMarxcal l sthe"rational "or
"obj ectiv e"organisationof l abour(rational and obj ectiv ef rom thepointof v iew
of capital and itsaim s, thatis)and w hichhed istinghishesf rom the"subj ectiv e"
organisationtobef ound inm anuf acture
.
Inm anuf actureeachw ork erorgroupof w ork ersstil l hassom ed egreeof
control ov erthecontent, speed , intensity , rhy thm , etc . of w ork ;and the
integration, thebal ancingorharm onisingof thecol l ectiv ew ork isstil l
em pirical . Itisstil l w ork ed outonthebasisof observ ationof actual w ork rather
thancal cul ated bef orehand onthebasisof k now l ed geof them achinef unctions
.
Com parethej obof al inesuperv isorinbal ancinganassem bl y l inew iththatof a
m achineshopsuperv isoral l ocatingand d istributingj obsinhisshoponthe
basisof inf orm ationcom ingtohim f rom progresschaser, prod uctionengineers,
stock d em and setc . Whatw ehav ehereisthecal cul abil ity of theprocessbased on
astand ard isationof m achinef unctions, com pared w iththenon- stand ard isabl e,
m erel y ind uctiv el y cal cul abl eprogressof w ork inm anuf acture . Withthe
d ev el opm entof m achinof acturecapital attem ptstogiv ethesam etornev ento
1 2
j obsthatretainanon- m achinebasis . Park sand gard ensw ork ers, gasf ittersand
othertool usersarebroughtw ithinasim il arf orm al f ram ew ork of stand ard ised
ratesf orthej ob, stand ard tim esf orthej oband soon, ev enthoughthetechnical
basisf orthisisl ack ingbecauseeachj obw il l conf rontthew ork erw ithm any
unpred ictabl enon- stand ard contingencies . Und erm anuf acturecapital d oesnot
hav ethek now l ed georcontrol torigorousl y im posecheapnessof l abour,
intensity , econom y of m aterial sand soon .
Thusthecapital istl abourprocessisthatspecif icf orm
of
thecol l ectiv ew ork er
based onm achinof actureinw hichcapital , hav ingam onopol y of k now l ed geand
pow erov ertherel ationsbetw eenl abourand them eanso
f prod uction, usesthis
pow er, thisreal d om ination, inord ertoenf orcetheobj ectiv eof v al orisation .
4 . V ALORISATIONANDCAPITALISTMANAGEMENT
V al orisationistheobj ectiv eof capital istm anagem ent . Machinof actureisthe
m aterial basisw hichal l ow scapital totak epow erov erthel abourprocessand to
theretransl atethisobj ectiv eintoasy stem of concreteprod uctionrel ations . It
al l ow scapital tod esignthel abourprocesssoastoachiev etothem axim um
d egreepossibl eonthebasisof agiv enl ev el of d ev el opm ent :
speed of perf orm anceof task s
;
intensity intheperf orm anceof task s (i . e . d ecreasingthegapsbetw een
successiv eoperations) ;
m axim al precision, pred ictabil ity and q ual ity of transf orm ationsbeingw ork ed
ontheobj ectof l abour ;
continuity of prod uction (i . e . el im inatehol d ups, bottl eneck sand risk sof
break d ow nord isruption)
;
cheapl abourand l abourf unctionssuchthatl abouriseasil y repl aceabl e
(i . e .
m inim ised epend enceonspecif icand scarcel aboursk il l s)
;
econom y of raw m aterial s, energy , etc.
Thepow erthatcapital hastopursuetheseobj ectiv esisinpart, butonl y in
part,
thepow erof capital tosel ect, d esignord ev el opm achinery and other
aspectsof thetechnol ogy inv ol v ed inthel abourprocess . Capital al sohas, and
m usthav e, thepow ertod esignand operatethesocial organisationof
prod uctionw ithintheenterprise
. Itm usttheref oreorganisenotonl y the
m achinesand theirintegrationbutal soasy stem of
pow errel ations thef unction
of w hichul tim atel y istod ef ineand enf orcethed iscipl ineof thel abourprocess
.
Inad d itionitm ustorganiseasy stem of inf orm ation prod uction, d if f usionand
processing, w hichw il l beapresuppositionof thecorrectf unctioningof the
m achineand d iscipl inesy stem s . Of coursethisinf orm ationsy stem w il l itsel f
inv ol v ethed esign, sel ectionand operationof technical eq uipm entof v arious
k ind s(tel ephones, ty pew riters, com putersetc . etc . ) . Letuscal l theseaspectsof
thel abourprocess : (i)m aterial transf orm ations(ii)d iscipl ine(iii)inf orm ation .
Theq uestionof w hethertechnol ogy isorisnotneutral isnow easy toansw er
w ithinthisl im ited f ram eof ref erence
. Consid ertheprod uctiontechnol ogy
(responsibl ef orm aterial transf orm ations)
. Itiscl earl y notneutral inonesense,
1
3
sinceithasbeetchosenord esigned by capital intheinterestsof v al orisation
.
Sinceothertechnical sol utionsal w ay sexisttoperf orm any particul arm aterial
transf orm ations, and totheextentthatthesem ightbechosenitobj ectiv esother
thanv al orisationw eretak enintoaccount(em pl oy ingparticul ark ind sof l abour
av ail abl el ocal l y , w ork ers' heal thand saf ety , red ucingpol l utionef f ects, or
w hatev er)thentothatextentthetechnol ogy ref l ectstheobj ectiv esof capital
.
Ontheotherhand giv en
acertainprod uctiontechnol ogy (say anim ported
m achine- sy stem inChina), thenthatv ery technol ogy canal w ay sbeused f or
obj ectiv esotherthanv al orisation
. Theim portantpointistod esignthe
d iscipl ineand inf orm ationsy stem s, and thew ay inw hichl abourisbroughtinto
rel ationw iththem achinery soastoad v anceotherobj ectiv es(d if f erent
j ob
d ef initions, d if f erentd iv isionand rotationof j obs, d if f erentsy stem of
pow er- pol iticsincom m and instead of v al orisation)
. Inthissituation, of course,
therem ay beanon- correspond encebetw eenthef orm of thel abourprocessand
therel ationsof prod uction, w hichnecessitatesaperm anentstruggl ein
prod uctionagainsttheef f ectsof thisnon- ad eq uatem aterial base
. Buty oud on' t
hav eacapital istl abourprocesssim pl y by v irtueof hav inganautom atic
spinningj enny and sel f - actingm ul e .
Obsiousl y thisbrief com m entisnotm eanttobeasol utiontoal l thecom pl ex
probl em sconcerningtheexactrel ationshipbetw eenthed ev el opm entof
technol ogy and capital istrel ationsof prod uction, and theextenttow hich
technol ogy itsel f acutal l y em bod iestheserel ationsinm aterial f orm
. Itisonl y
m eanttoem phasisethatconcretel y theCLP
al w ay sf unctionsasacom binationof
them aterial instrum entsof prod uctionand asocial organisationof pow er, and
thatthel atterisnot d eterm ined by thef orm er
. Ourpositionisnotsom ek ind of
technol ogical d eterm inism
. Therel ationsof prod uctionarenotd eterm ined by
theinstrum entsof prod uction
. Thereiscl earl y agreatd eal m orew ork tobed one
ontheprobl em of theextenttow hichand thew ay sinw hichthed etail ed
technol ogical basesof prod uctiond ocorrespond tospecif ical l y capital ist
obj ectiv esand w oul d bed if f erentif theseobj ectiv esw ereov erthrow n
. Butsuch
probl em scannotm eaningf ul l y beraised atthisabstractl ev el
. Thepointisnutto
conf l atethepropostionthattheCLPref l ectstheobj ectiv esof capital (w hichis
w hatw eargueinthispaper)w iththepropositionthatthetechnol ogy of
prod uctioncorrespond stothoseobj ectiv es
. Thearticl eby And re(iorz ,
"Technol ogy , techniciansand cl assstruggl e"
,
m ak esausef ul contributionhere,
ev enif itisnotw ithoutam biguities
. Wew oul d certainl y agreew ith(iorz s
pointsthat"thed iv sion, special isationand separationof j obsinind ustrial
prod uction"aref unctionsnotof
technical
im perativ esbutof theim perativ esof
capital ,
and thatthetransitiontosocial ism w il l certainl y req uirea
rev ol utionisingof the
f orces
of prod uction(and inparticul arotthek ind s, range
and d istributionof sk il l s)
. Butconcretel y m uchm aterial prod uctionw il l hav eto
rak epl ace, inthetransitional period , onthebasisof giv entechnol ogiesand
m achinesy stem s
. Anew generationof "social istm achinery "w il l potspring
intoexistenceov ernight
. Thef ocusand em phasisof cl assstruggl ew ithin
prod uctionw il l be(asitisinChinatod ay )ontheq uestionsof orgail isal ion,
control and pow er, i
. eontheq uestionWhod om inatesw hom !
.
How , concretel y , d oescapital tak esuchm achinery and useitasthebasisf or
itsow nf orm sof coercion? Capital d esignsthej obstobed onearound the
spinningm achinery - them achinery d oesn' td oit . Thered oesn' t hav e tobethe
m achineoperator, theassistantand thepiecer, al ittl egroupof threew ork ers
w ithaw el l d ef ined internal pow erand d iscipl inestructure . Capital integrates
thew ork of thisl ittl egroupw iththatof othergroupsand otherd epartm ents-
theengineeringd epartm entw hichcontrol sthespeed of theshaf tw hich
d el iv ersthepow ertothespinningm achine, and w hichal sohasthepow erto
sw itchonand of f - thed espatchd epartm entw heretheoutputof thespinning
team ism easured and grad ed . Thism eansthatthereisabasisf orasy stem of
pay m entsand penal ties - bonuses, and sanctionsf orpoorq ual ity ;norm sw hich
hav etobem etand canonl y bem etif them achinem ind erim posesaf ierce
d iscipl ineand intensity of l abouronthepiecerw hoev enhastorisk hisbod y to
gethistak sperf orm ed w hil ethem achineisinm otion . (Cal l ing, 19 7 0 , especial l y
chapters9 - 11) .
Ingeneral , f orcingspeed , intensity and continuity of prod uctiononthe
w ork ersisachiev ed by capital by v irtueof itspow ertocal cul ateand thento
im posenorm sf orj obperf orm anceand ratesf orthej ob, q ual ity stand ard sand
sanctionsf orf ail ingtom eetthem . Thism eansim pl em entingsy stem sof
superv isionand of pay m entand penal ty w hichd epend on : (i)thek now l ed ge
capital hasof theobj ectiv epropertiesand potential itiesof them achinesy stem s ;
(ii)thepow erthatithasby v irtueof therepl aceabil ity of l abour ;(iii)the
inf orm ationthatcapital hasw hichal l ow sittocontinual l y operatethispow er
(inf orm ationaboutw ork ers' outputsinterm sof bothq uantity and q ual ity ) . The
f ascinatingthingisthatthisw hol enetw ork of capital istpow erand control is
al m osttotal l y inv isibl etoacad em icresearchersintothesociol ogy of w ork , j ob
satisf actionand soon .
Toconsid erj ustoneexam pl eof thisbl ind nessonecoul d l ook atapapercal l ed
' J obenl argem ent : acasestud y "by Bigganeand Stew art . Thispaperexam inesa
caseinw hichl ine- organised assem bl y w asrepl aced by ind iv id ual bench
assem bl y , sothatthew ork erw asnol ongerpaced by thel ine . What, then,
control sthew ork erw hositsal oneathisbenchand w ork sw ithoutany d irect
superv ision?' Theem pl oy eeis, inef f ect, inbusinessf orhim sel f ;hem ay tak e
personal tim eathisow nconv eneince, and m ay accel erateord ecel eratehisw ork
pacew ithoutbeingaf f ected by oraf f ectingothers" . Inf act, of course, thisw ork er
isnot"inbusiness"atal l . Heisaw ageearner . And if he real l y paced him sel f
accord ingtohisow nconv enience(and w entof f toaf ootbal l m atchw henhe
w anted to, and w ork ed niceand sl ow l y soastoav oid back ache, and stopped f ora
chatw ithhisshopstew ard abouthow toov erthrow capital )thenhew oul d
im m ed iatel y bef orcef ul l y rem ind ed thatitisnotthej obof aw ageearnertotak e
thistal k of hisow nconv eneiencetooseriousl y . Hew oul d f al l bel ow thenorm s
f orthej ob(w hichw erenod oubtd eterm ined "obj ectiv el y "by som e"technical
experts"w ithouthisconv eneicncehav ingbeentak enintoaccount), and he
w oul d f ail tom ak ead ecentw age, orhew oul d besenttosom eotherd epartm ent
asapunishm entorsim pl y getthesack . Hecannotaf f ord tobebl ind toal l this
pow erthatcapital hasov erhim , ev enthoughthosew hostud y him , of course, d o
1 5
notbothertom entionit . Asf orq ual ity : ev ery com pl eted unitisputby the
w ork erhim sel f throughanautom ated testingroutine . If it' snotuptoscratchhe
hastod oitagain . Of coursenosuperv isorisstand ingthere tof orcehim tod oit
again . Butif hed oesn' t, thenhed oesn' tgetpaid , and thecom puterisk eepingan
ey eontheresul tsof theseq ual ity control tests
. Itistheey esand earsof capital ,
enf orcingd iscipl ine . Onew ay of interpretingthiscaseof "j obenl argem ent
then, istosay thatthew ork ercanf ind out"w hetherornotthej obisd one
correctl y ", and that"thisisam atterof prid eof w ork m anship"
. Otcourse,
anotherw ay of puttingitistosay thatheonl y getspaid f orw ork w hichpasses
thetest, and thatm anagem enthasboththepow ertow ithhol d pay m entand the
inf orm ational m eanstoexercisehispow er . Thisincreaseintheef f iciency of the
pow erof capital isinterpreted by theauthorsasanincreaseinthew oerk er' s
"senseof responsibil ity " . They ev en
hav etheef f rontery tosuggest' thatsuch
"j obenl argm enr"has"genuinesignif icanceinthel ightof thef actthatthel ev el
of ed ucationcontinuestorise", and thatthereisal so"anincreaingneed tom ak e
w ork m eaningf ul "
. '
Any acad em icd iscussionof j ob- satisf action, al ienationortheef f ectsof
autom ation, w hichf ail stod escribethesy stem of pow erby w hichcapital d ef ines
and enf orcesthel im itsw ithinw hichl abouriscom pel l ed tooperate, canbe
throw nstraightinthew astepaperbask et ;f orinstance, if itf ail stom entionthe
sy stem of pay m entthataso- cal l ed sem i- autonom ousgroupisw ork ingund er . or
if it"f orgets"tod escribethesy stem of norm sand penal ties
. and theautom ated
inf orm ationsy stem m ak ingthem operativ einthecaseof som eenl arged "j ob
.
Capital d oesnotal w ay sneed tocontrol l abourby specif y ingthetask sand rates
f oranind iv id ual , ratherthanagroup
. And itd oesnotneed toexerciseitspow er
v iaasy stem of d irectf ace- to- f acepow errel ations(f orem en
etc . ),
Thef actthat,
instead , itisacom puterd ock ingy ourpay orsend ingy outoanotherd epartm ent
asapunishm ent, orgeneral l y k eepinganey eontheintensity and q ual ity of
y ourl abour, d oesnotm eanthatthel abourprocesshasceased tobecapital ist
.
Whatisitthatm ak esitcapital ist?Abstractl y , thecriteriotf oracapital istl abour
processisthatitisaprocessinw hichv al orisationisincom m and
. Concretel y ,
thisistransl ated intothepow ertod esignand operatesy stem sof m aterial
transf orm ation, d iscipl ineand inf orm ation
.
Thecapital istl abourprocess it
thetransitionof theobj ectiv eof v al orisation
intoaconcretesocial organisationof prod uction
;thatisw herethed esignand
operationof sy stem s
of phy sical pl ant, inf orm ationprocessingand f actory
d iscipl inearethem aterial isationof thepow erof capital toenf orceitsobj ectiv es
onl abour
.
5
. THEIMMANENTLAWSOFTHECAPITALISTLABOURPROCESS
Thethreebasicstructural f eaturesof thecapital istorganisationof thel abour
processare
: (I)thed iv isionof intel l ecrural and m anual l abour
;(ii)hierarchical
control
;(iii)f ragm entation/ d esk il l ingof l abour
. Butitisv ery im portantto
w ork outtheprecisetheoretical contentof theseconcepts, tok now w hatisand
I6
w hatisnotessential tothem and w hataretheirl im its
. Thisisbecauseitisv ery
easy f orthem tobetotal l y triv ial ised , asind eed they usual l y areby bourgeois
social scientists" . Thel atterthink thatonerend ersaconceptrigorousby
"operational ising"it, by giv ingitapreciseem pirical d ef inition
. How ev er, if one
giv estheseconceptsem pricial d ef initionsinterm sof thetheory of thecapital ist
l abourprocess, oneprod ucesutterl y triv ial and arbitrary conceptsinterm sof
w hichonecanprov eany thingonel ik es
. Forexam pl e, onecanprov eby
ref erencetothej obof m onitoringd ial sinanoil ref inery thatthed ay sof m anual
l abourareov er
;onecanprov eby ref erencetosom e"enl arged "assem bl y j ob
thatthed ay sof unsk il l ed , f ragm ented l abourareov erw eareenteringanew
epoch
;oronecanprov eby ref erenceto"sem i- autonom ousgroups"thatthe
hierarchy of control inprod uctionisd issol v ing, thatthereisatrend to
d em ocracy ontheshopf l oor .
(i)Thed iv isionof intel l ectual and m anual l abour .
Ad iv isionbetw een conception and executionis
im m anentinthecapital ist
l abourprocess : and inthatsensew em ay speak of anim m anentd iv isionof
"intel l ectual "and "m anual "l abour
. Itisanaspectof them onopol y thatcapital
hasonthek now l ed geand pow erov erthed esignof prod uctionsy stem s
. Onl y by
hav ingand reprod ucingthatm onopol y cancapital im poseitsobj ectiv es
. Seenin
thisl ight(w hichisv ery obv iousl y w hatMarxhasinm ind in
Capital ), the
d iv isionhasnothingtod ow ithad iv isionbetw eenm ental and bod il y f unctions
of thehum anorganism , tak eninapurel y abstractsense . Al l hum anl abour
inv ol v esbothm ind and bod y . Manual l abourinv ol v esperceptionand thought
.
Now ork issoutterl y routinised thatitcanbeperf orm ed w ithouthav ingany
conceptual organisationof itw hatsoev er
. Eq ual l y , al l m ental l abourinv ol v es
bod il y activ ity w hichisinm any casesav ital l y im portantaspectof it . Abov eal l ,
f rom ourpointof v iew , itshoul d benoted thattheprod uctionof scienceand
technol ogy arem aterial practicesw hichinv ol v e"m anual l abour", and of course
Marxk new thisv ery w el l
. Cl earl y , then, f rom thepointof v iew of thetheory of
thecapital istl abourprocesstheim portantd iv isionisthatbetw eenthosew ho
prod uceorappl y scientif icand technol ogical k now l ed geinthed esignof
prod uctionsy stem sand ind ay tod ay probl em sol v inginv ol v ed intheoperation
of thesy stem , and thosew hoserel ationshipw iththeprod uctionsy stem is
cal cul ated , stand ard ised and specif ied inad v anceby capital intheinterestsof
prod ucinganoutputw hichisk now nw ithprecisioninad v ance
.
w ork ersw hosej obsconsist sim pl y of m onitoringthef unctionof continuous
f l ow processesareinnow ay anexceptiontothisd iv ision . "Manual "l abourhas
al w ay sperf orm ed suchm onitoringtask s
. Theonl y d if f erences, f rom thepresent
pointof v iew , arethat
: (a)thesetask sarenow perf orm ed w ithoutm anual
operationsonthesy stem beingperf orm ed , (orratherw ithouthum an
interf erencew iththetransf orm ationprocessbeingperf orm ed )and (b)that
thesetask sarenow j ustasstand ard ised , routinised and pred ictabl e, and hence
und erthecontrol of capital , astrad itional l abourf unctionsare
.
1 7
(ii)Hierurcby
Thisisim m anentinthecapital istl abourprocessby v irtueOf
itsinherentl y
antagonisticnature . Discipl ineisessential
sothatcapital canal l iiatel obs,
enf orcespeed sand intensities
. sanctionpoorq ual ity and soon . Thisisnota
pry chol o, y rcal thesis . Regard l essof theextenttow hichaw ork erniav
resign
him sel f to, orad aptto, thed em and sm ad eonhim by capital ,
( thatis, regard l ess
of thepsy chol ogical strategy of thew oerk er), itrem ainstruethatl abouru/ uv y a
hasaw id errangeof need sand aspirationsthancapital canal l ow
itsel f totak e
intoaccountinitsd esignof thel abourprocess- Capital is
/ orted totreatl abouras
rubj ectiv e
(thatis, intheinterestsof ef f iciency , totak enoteof thespecif icity ut
l abourasd istinctf rom m achines -
y oud on' tpenal isem achines, orpay them Or
send them hom eatsom eperiod of thed ay ornighttosl eep)
. Butitisal sof orced
toconf ineitsrel ationshiptol abourw ithinv ery sev erel im its
- l im itsd ef ined by
thew age- contractinthesphereof exchangeand by theobj ectiv eof v al orisation
inthesphereof prod uction .
Whatisessential tocapital isthierarchy isthatitisul tim atel y
capital that
giv esintstructionsw ithinthel abourprocess
. Itiscapital thatal l ocates
task s, that
specif iesratesand norm s, and thatenf orces
penal tiesf orf ail ure . Itis not
essential thatthe
perronthcation of capital
al w ay stak eaparticul ar torn, . The
trad itional
f orm of hierarchical control 1
m anagem ent- superv isor-
f orem an- groupl ead er)canbev ery expensiv e . Ithas
been instituted because
inf orm ationisreq uired atal l tim esabouttheperf orm ance, interm sOf q uantity
and q ual ity , of eachind iv id ual w ork er
. Y oucantrational l y al l ocaterew ard s and
puhishm ents(bonusesetc
. )unl essy ouhav ethisinf orm ation
. Ithasal sobeen
instituted w herethew ork of aparticul arshophastobecontinual l y re- al l ocated
soastointegratetheoutpututthatshopw iththechanging
need sof other
processes"d ow n- l ine",
w ithv aried custom erreq uirem ents, and sooil ,
(Ed w ard s . 19 7 1) . Thisisparticuarl y trueinm achine
shopsm ak ingal arge
v ariety of com ponents .
Capital d eterm inesthef orm
thatitspersonif icationtak es .
Withthe
autom ationof inf orm ation
processingand d if f usionsy stem s
itbecom es
possibl ef orcapital insom ecasestod ispensew ithsom eof thesetrad itional and
expensiv ef eaturesof control
. Inef f ectitcanautom atecontrol of l abour
. ' hay l or
d ev el oped thecontrol routineof startingthed ay inthem achineshopby giv ing
eachw ork eraj obsl ipw ithw ritteninstructionsabouthistask s
. Now ad ay sthere
areshopsw herethed ay startsby thew ork ersreceiv ingcom puterprintouts
specif y ingtheirw ork al l ocationsand sched ul es
. Nod oubtthesam ecom puter
receiv esinf orm ationd uringthed ay abouttheextenttow hicheach
w ork eris
d oinghisj ob .
Itisnotessential thattheinstructionsbegiv entoeachind iv id ual w ork er
ratherthantogroups ;butonecanseenow how sem i- autonoinousgroups"are
possibl eonl y w ithinv ery sev erel im its . They arepossibl etotheextentthat
capital cancontrol , v erity , specif y and m onitorthef unctionsand
w ork of the
groupsorigorousl y thatthegrouphasnom arginatal l f orinterposing
intoits
Organisationof l abouritsow nobj ectiv es .
"Autnnorny
It
onl y potitbl eonthe
1 8
basisof anincreaseinthem aterial basisof capital istpow er
- a parad oxf or
bourgeoisem piriciststol oosesl eepov er
. Toputitintheoretical term s : thisuse
of autom ation, f arf rom introd ucing anon- correspond ence
betw eencapital ' s
f orm al subord inationof l abourand them aterial basisof itsrel ationstol abourin
prod uction, onthecontrary prov id esanev enm oresol id f ound ationtoitsreal
subord inationof l abour
. Of coursethisreal subord inationistotal l y inv isibl eto
bourgeoisscience
. Onecanread w hol el ibrariesof articl eson"sem i- autonom ous
groups"w ithoutcom ingacrossananal y sisof thesy stem sof norm - settingand
penal tiesw ithinw hichthew ork of thegroupstak espl ace
.
(iii) Fragm entation/ Desk il l ing
Desk il l ingisinherentinthecapital istl abourprocessbecausecapital m ust
aim athav ingl abourf unctionsthatarecal cul abl e, stapd ard isabl eroutines
;
becausethisl abourm ustbeperf orm ed atthem axim um speed and w iththe
m inim um of "porosity "
;and becausecapital w antsl abourw hichischeapand
easil y repl aceabl e .
Itisq uited if f icul ttospel l outw hatisessential tothenotionof d esk il l ing
.
Therearethreeaspects
: (a)Firstof al l , thereistherepl acem entof the
rel ationshipbetw eenl abourand tool sby therel ationshipbetw eenl abourand
m achine
. Thiscom esd ow ntotherepl acem entof thecraf tsm anby them achine
operativ e
. Itcoul d bethatthesetw orel ationshipsaresim pl y incom -
m ensurabl e, sothattospeak of d esk il l inghereisconf using
. Thenotionof
d esk il l ingseem stoim pl y aq uantitativ eunil inearscal eof som ek ind , w hereas
craf tand m achine- operativ esk il l sm ay req uired if f erentscal es
. Itm ay be
abstractand arbitrary toargueaboutw hetherornotthereis"m oresk il l "
inv ol v ed inbeatingm etal sw ithham m ersintocraf tartif actsoroperating
certainm etal - w ork ingm achines.
(b)Second l y , al l task sreq uiringsom especial sk il l f ortheiroperationare
d iv id ed of f asseparatej obs
. Inasm uchassk il l isstil l req uired itisd istributed to
asf ew , special ised w ork ersaspossibl e(e . g . d esignw ork , m achinesetting,
m aintenance) .
(c)Third l y , thereisthetend ency f ortherem ainingunsk il l ed orsem i- sk il l ed
task stobeseparated outf rom oneanotherand d istributed tod if f erentj obs . This
m eansthef ragm entationof ev enunsk il l ed task s
. Thisthird aspectof cl esk il l ing,
how ev er, isonl y atend ency . The extent
tow hichcapital f ragm entsunsk il l ed
l abour(orred ucesthetim ecy cl eof operationsof eachind iv id ual ow rk er)is
d eterm ined by thew ay inw hichthosetask sareintegrated w itheachotherand
w ithancil l ary task s
. Itinv ol v essuchprobl em sasphy sical l ay outof m achines,
m aterial transf ersand q ual ity control
. So- cal l ed j ob- enl argem entexperim ents
w hichoperateentirel y atthel ev el of recom biningagroupof unsk il l ed task s
im prov eef f iciency f orcapital if they sol v ed if f icul tprobl em sof l ine- bal ancing
and q ual ity control , asl ongasthem aterial sf l ow and superv isioncanbe
perf orm ed ef f ectiv el y
. Com puters, w hichm ak eitpossibl etoautom atethe
q ual ity control and m onitoringof ind iv id ual l abourperf orm ancew ithoutf aceto
1 9
f acesuperv ision, introd ucef orcapital thepossibl ity of experim entingw ith
m od if ied sy stem sof assem bl y d esign . Thef und am ental pointhereisthatthis
canonl y tak epl ace giv en thatl abourroutineshav ebeensothoroughl y d esk il l ed
and f ragm ented thatthey canberecom bined and y etstil l rem ainbothf ast,
cal cul abl eand m onitorabl eand req uirev ery l ittl etraining . J ob enl argrnent
presupposesd eik il l ing! Itistherecom binationof sm al l num bersof cal cul abl e
routines . Onl y inthebrainof abourgeoisacad em iccoul d an"enl arged "j obof
routineassem bl y operations, tak ingpl acew ithinthestrictestand m ost
rigorousnetw ork of capital istcontrol , betak entorepresenttheem ergenceof a
new ord erinw hichl abour, nol ongeral ienated , becom esf reeand hum an . Once
again, inreal ity autom ation
increases real subord inationof l abourtocapital
.
6 . THEEXTENSIONOFMACHINOFACTURE
Wecaninv estigatechangesinthel abourprocessbothinrel ationtochanges
intheirtechnical basisand inrel ationtochangesinthem anagem entof control ,
al thoughthesearecl earl y interd epend ent . Inrel ation t othef orm eronem ight
l ook , f orexam pl e, atcontinuousf l ow processes, num erical control m achine
tool s, otheraspectsof autom ationand of m echanisationof inf orm ation
processing, etc . Inrel ationtothesecond onem ightf ocusontheid eol ogy and
practiseof ' J obDesign", of the"hum anisationof w ork "m ov em entand soon
.
Som einnov ationsinl abourprocessesaresuchthatthis(ratherarbitrary )d is-
tinctionw oul d hav enorel ev ance(e . g
. thecel l ul arorganisationof sm al l batch
m achineshopprod uction) . Ourgeneral thesisw ithrepsecttosuchchangesis
thatthey hav eind eed tak enpl acew ithinthel im itsconceptual ised inthetheory
of theCLP, asm oreand m oreprocessescom em oreand m oreperf ectl y to
exem pl if y itscapital istcharacter
. Ithasbeenanexpansionof capital ist
m achinof acturead d thereby of thereal subord inationof l abourtocapital
.
Itisw orthpointingoutsom eim pl icationsof thisthesis . Itw oul d f ol l ow that
w eseeno"f ourthera", nobreak w ithm achinof acturew hichw oul d constitutea
f ourthterm intheseriessim pl e- cooperation/ m anuf acture/ m achincif acture . It
f ol l ow sal sothatw eseenoem ergenceof anon- correspond encew iththeCLP,
nobasicchangeof prod uctionrel ationsatthel ev el of usev al uethatw oul d l eav e
theserel ationsinconf l ictw iththecapital istprod uctionrel ationsatthel ev el of
v al ue. Wed onotseethel abourprocessitsel f , initsinternal structure, asthesite
of anew contrad ictionbetw eentheexpl oitationof l abourontheonehand and
itssupposed technical com m and of theprocessontheother
. Dev el opm entsin
thel abourprocesssuchashigh- speed continuousf l ow m assprod uction,
autom ation, sem i- autom ousgroupsd onot, theref ore, signal theem ergenceof a
"anew era' inw hichal l thebrutal itiesof m achine- based prod uctionw oul d be
l ef tbehind
. Nord othey announcetheim pend ingov erthrow of capital ist
rel ationsw ithinprod uction . Al thoughw ecannotd ev el optheargum entinthis
paperw ew antittobecl earthatw eseeourpositionasonew hichw oul d al l ow
f oraf und am ental ref utationof v iew ssuchasthosej ustm entioned , and in
particul ar :
2 0
(a) The"Scientif icand Technol ogical Rev ol ution"thef if
Thisthesisstatesorim pl iesthatthereisan"autonom ous"d ev el opm entof
thef orcesof prod uctionw hichcom eintoconf l ictw ithcapital istexpl oitation
w ithinprod uctionitsel f ;and thatthesed ev el oped f orcesof prod uction
(autom ated processes, technical l y sk il l ed l abour)aretheem bry onicreal isation
inad v anceof social istprod uctionprocesses . Itrel iesonatechnicist
interpretationof "f orcesof prod uction"
. Forexam pl e Man, Science, Technol ogy
(abook w rittenby authorsf rom theSov ietUnionand Cz echosl ov ak ia)seem s,
d espiteprotestationstothecontrary , toexpressav iew of social d ev el opm ent
sim il artothatgiv eninMarx' sf am ous(butunf ortunate)rem ark in
ThePov erty
of Phil osophy that
"social rel ationsarecl osel y bound upw ithprod uctiv ef orces . Inacq uiringnew
prod uctiv ef orcesm enchangetheirm od eof prod uction ;and inchangingtheirm od e
of prod uction, inchangingtheirw ay of earningal iv ing, they changeal l theirsocial
rel ations . Thehand m il l giv es y ou society w iththef eud al l ord ;thesteam - m il l , society
w iththeind ustrial capital ist" .
And , itseem s, thecom putergiv esussocial ism .
"Thereisanatural organicinterconnectionbetw eentheappl icationof the
achiev em entsscored by thescientif icand technol ogical rev ol utionand the
d ev el opm entof social ism , aconnectionsim il artothatbetw eenthe18 thcentury
technol ogical upheav al sconnected w iththeind ustrial rev ol utionontheonehand ,
and thed ev el opm entof capital ism ontheother
.
Theessenceof theind ustrial
rev ol ution, asasocial process, l iesinachangeinthestructureof thef orces
of
prod uction"
(Acad em iesof Scienceof Cz echosl ov ak iaand
U. S . S . R. ,
19 7 3 , p . 10 4 )
Wehav ebeenarguinginthispaperthattheessential signif icanceof the
d ev el opm entof m achinof acturew asthed ev el opm entof aspecif ical l y capital ist
l abourprocess, apositioncl earl y q uited if f erentf rom thatof theseEast
Europeanauthors
. The"ind ustrial rev ol ution"w asaphaseinthecl assstruggl e
inw hichcapital d ev el oped am aterial basisf orthereal subord inationof l abour .
Thepol itical im pl icationsof thesed if f erentanal y sesarem anif est . The
"Scientif icand Technol ogical Rev ol ution"anal y sis 6 tend stoseethetrad itional
phaseand itspreparationf orcom m unism notinterm sof cl assstruggl ebutin
term sof thegrad ual autonom ousd ev el opm entof the"f orcesof prod uction",
(und erstood as' technol ogy ' )and ev enm orenarrow l y interm sof the
d ev el opm entof autom ation . Itisathoroughl y d epl eticised v iew of social
d ev el opm entw hichiscl earl y v astl y d if f erentf rom that, f orexam pl e, of the
2 1
Chinese .
(b) ThePost- Ind ustrial Society ' thesis .
Thereisam ountainof bourgeoisid eol ogy w hichassertsthatw ehav e, asa
resul tof d ev el opm entsintechnol ogy , entered anew era, anera
w hichw il l be
"post- ind ustrial "and w hichischaracterised by thed isappearanceof
al ienation
inw ork
Consid erf orexam pl ethew ork of L
. Dav ies . Heargues
thattheageof
Tay l orism and itsconcom itantd e- sk il l ingand al ienationw asatransitional one
and thatw earenow enteringanew ' ' post- ind ustrial "erainw hich
w ork w il l be
characterised by highersk il l and autonom y of thew ork er, by thed om inanceof
superv isory , d iagnosticand cognitiv eratherthanm anual sk il l s
. (L . Uav iesand j .
C
. Tay l or (ed . ) , 19 7 4 )Dav ies' w ork isnotj ustanacad em icexercise
butis
increasingl y beingused by capital istm anagem entinitsattem pttof ind
w ay sof
"hum anising"w ork and ov ercom ingw ork ers' resistancetothe
hegem ony of
capital inthel abourprocess . Itisim portant
tobeabl etoconf rontthis
id eol ogical initiativ ew ithnotonl y thef actthat
inrecentd ev el opm entsof
l abourprocesses, tarm oreim portant, q uantitativ el y ,
thanautom ationin
m aterial shand l ing, hasbeentheenorm ousgrow thof sem i- sk il l ed cl erical
and
other"serv icew ork "(asisshow nby Harry Brav erm anin
L4 bourand Monopol y
Capital , 19 7 4 )
;butal so, thattheactual contentand pow errel ationsinv ol v ed are
notatal l asthey ared escribed by theseprophetsof thenew age
. Butf orthis
w e
need theoretical conceptsand notj ustem pirical m easurem ents
of intuitiv el y
rel ev antv ariabl es .
Ourpositionisthatthem otorof history
isneitheran
autonom ous
d ev el opm entof thef orcesof prod uctionnorthed ev el opm entof "technol ogy
,
butcl assstruggl e, and thatastarasthel abourprocessiscon[ erned thisstruggl e
tak espl aceonw hatisessential l y thev ery sam eterrainasthatanal y sed by
Marx,
thatof capital istm achinotacture .
CONCLUSION
Wehav ed iscussed thegeneral d eterm inationsw hichprod ucethespecif ical l y
capital ist
characterof thel abourprocesscapital ism
. Thed iscussionoccursinthe
contextof acapital istcrisisw hich, asacrisisof accum ul ation, m ustseek a
sol utioninareorganisationof them aterial cond itionsof v al orisation, that
is, in
thel abourprocess, Butacrisisf orcapital issim ul taneousl y acrisisf orl abour, a
crisisof pol itical strategy and of theory , inw hichthel abourprocessal soappears
asacentral el em ent
. How ev er, j ustascapital d om inatesthereal l abourprocess
and hol d stheinitiativ einitsrestructuring, soal sotheterm sinw hich
theoretical accountsof thel abourprocessareposed aresubj ectto
interv ention
by capital and itsid eol ogies . Thism eansthatthetheoretical
f orm sinw hich
probl em sof thel abourprocessappearcannotbetak enf orgranted by
Marxists
2 2
butshoul d beconsid ered asbeing, insom esense, atissue . Ononel ev el itisof
coursenecessary tocountersom eof thecrud ercontem porary m y thsof the
l abourprocess, suchastheid eathatm od ernprod uctiontechniq ues req uirean
al l - round increaseinsk il l l ev el s, inasd irect a w ay aspossibl e
. Bey ond this
how ev er, itbecom esnecessary tosituateMarxisttheory inrel ationtothecorpus
of m oreorl essid eol ogical l iteratureand receiv ed id easonthesubj ect, and to
inv estigatethepossibil ity and pl aceof ad ev el oped conceptof thel abourprocess
w ithinMarxisttheory , and thetheim pl ications
f orMarxisttheory of the
existenceof suchaconcept . Thisinturnreq uiresq uestionsaboutthespecif icity
of thel abourprocess
. Isthel abourprocess
a rpecif ic
siteof theprod uction
processof capital , w ithitsow nd eterm inationsand resul ts?Orshoul d itbeseen
asoneaspect, am ongothers, of ageneral social prod uction w hosev arious
com ponentsaresubj ecttosim il arconstraintsand d eterm inations?Crud el y , this
l atterapproachw oul d seeal l particul arstruggl esund ercapital ism asprotean
expressionsof aconstitutiv ecapital - l abourrel ation, and w oul d rend ereither
unnecessary orirrel ev antthed el im itationof specif icorim m anent tend encies
and l im its .
Thispaperarguesf orthef orm erposition : itinv estigatesthef orcesin pl ay in
d irectcapital istprod uction, and cl aim stoshow thegeneral f orm of therel ation
betw eencapital and l abour inprod uction . Itestabl ishesthespecif icity of the
l abourprocessasaparticul arand irred ucibl ef unctional f orm inthecircuitof
ind ustrial capital
.
Butnom orethanthin . Itisim portanttorecognisethel im itationsof this
paper' sproj ect . Herearesom erem ark sonthesel im itations .
Firstl y , astud y of thef und am ental structureof thecapital istl abour process
necessaril y abstractsf rom thed ev el opm entof thecapital istm od eof prod uction
itsel f , and inparticul arabstractsf rom thephasesof accum ul ationthrough
w hichthel abourprocessisconnected tod eterm inationsbey ond thoseof its
general f orm . Inparticul arsuchastud y abstractsf rom conj unctural struggl es-
w hichw il l exertanim pactonany particul ar, concretel abourprocess . Cl earl y ,
accuratek now l ed geof specif icl abourprocessescannotbed eriv ed
f rom
consid erationsof thegeneral f orm of thecapital istl abourprocess : m any things
bey ond thesegeneral d eterm inationsw il l af f ectparticul ar cl assstruggl esin
prod uction . Forexam pl e, theel em ents of theaccum ul ationprocessare
articul ated concretel y inthey etbroad ercontextof thecapital istsocial
f orm ation . Theactual structureof theprocessisnothistorical l y d eterm ined by
theabstractl ogicof capital accum ul ation, sincecapital ist prod uctionrel ations
canonl y bereprod uced asatotal ity of social rel ations . Hencetheneed to
el aboratethel ink sbetw eenchangesinthecapital istl abourprocessand changes
incl asscom position, inpol itical structures, intherol eof thecapital ist state(in
ed ucationasm uchastheeconom y )and ininterstaterel ations . Weonl y w ant
heretopointoutthed angerof interpretingconcreted ev el opm ents inthe
capital istl abourprocesssol el y interm sof the' l ogicof accum ul ation' , ratherin
interm sof cl assstruggl etobeund erstood inaw id ercontext .
Secind l y , l ink ed w iththeabov e, w eshoul d notethattherel ation betw een
capital and l abour, atageneral social l ev el , cannotbed eriv ed f rom , orred uced
2 3
to, thecapital - l abourrel ationw ithinprod uction
. Of course, thed ev el opm entof
real subord inationim pl ies, Interal ta, thattherel ationsof prod uctionarebeing
f ul l y real ised and reprod uced w ithinthel abourprocess . Butthisd oesnotm ean
thattherel ationcanbegenerated and sustained w hol l y w ithinthew ork pl ace :
ratheritisreprod uced , w ithinthesocial f orm ationasaw hol e, atasocial l ev el
and notatthel ev el of theenterprise, throughcom pl exesof social practices
w hicharenotd iscussed here . Ul tim atel y thism eansthatthek ind of anal y sisot
thel abourprocessattem pted herecannotbeused tobuttressaw ork erist
pol itical theory .
Third l y , astud y of the
capital ist l abourprocessd oesnotexhaustthef orm sof
thel abourprocessw ithinacapital istsocial f orm ation
: onecanf ind w ithinany
particul arsocial f orm ationm any l abourprocessesw hichd onot, ord onot
d irectl y , f al l und erthef ul l f orceof thel aw of v al ue
. Forexm apl e, thereare
l abourprocessestak ingpl aceinnon- capital istsubord inatem od esof prod uction
w ithinperipheral social f unctions, and thesurv iv al of certainareasof ind iv id ual
artisanal prod uctionev eninthed ev el oped capital isteconom ies
. Inthese
econom iesthereareal so, and abov eal l , m any l abourprocessesw hichstand in
som eind irectand d if f icul ttoanal y serel ationsw iththeoperationof thel aw of
v al ueand w hichare, nev erthel ess, of central im portanceasaspectsof the
general cond itionsund er
w hichv al orisationof capital sistak ingpl ace
.
Perhapsthem ostim portantof theseare(i)housew ork , and (ii)thev ery
heterogenousrangeof l abourprocessestak ingpl aceund erthecom m and of the
State .
Tosum up : ourthesisisthattherehasbeennochangeintheim m anent
tend enciesof thecapital istl abourprocess, bey ond thoseanal y sed by Marx . What
hav echanged incom pl exand asy etunanal y sed w ay s, arethem anif ol d f orm s
w hichthosetend enciestak e : thechangesinm aterial techniq ue, organisational
structure, spatial l ocation, etc
. , w hichhav ehistorical l y occurred asprod uctsof ,
and interv entionsin, thecl assstruggl ew hichistheirf inal d eterm inant .
NOTES
(1)
I. Thispaperistheresul tof d iscussionsintheBrightonLabourProcessGroup, 19 7 6 ,
am ongDianeEl son, FabioErber, J ohnHum phrey , J ohnMepham , RobinMurray , Hugo
Rad ice, HubertSchm itz , K eithSm ith, K ateSoper, and Dav id Y oul ton . Ithasbeenw ritten
upby J ohnMepham . TheGrouphopesthatcom rad esw ithcom m ents, criticism setc . of
thispaperw il l send them totheGroup, c/ o 10 Warl eighAv enue, Brighton .
2 . anEngl ishtransl ationof thisoriginal l y unpubl ished "6 thchapter' inthispaperare
transl ated f rom theFrenchby J . Mepham . Theem phasisistak enf rom theoriginal .
~ . "Thereal l abourprocess
- thisisMarx' sphraseand ref erstothel abourprocessf rom
thepointof v iew of concreteuse- v al ues . SeethePenguined itionof Capital , V ol . I, p . ` HI .
2 4
4 . Thisessay by Gorz isarev ised and extend ed v ersionof
thepaperthatoriginal l y
appeared in Tel os
asTechnical intel l igenceand thecapital istd iv isionof l abour" .
5 , bitisnotnecessary tobestraightf orw ard opl ogistsf orcapital , asere
theauthorsof the
paperund erd iscussion, tobebl ind tothef orm sof capital istcontrol ov er
l abourw ithinthe
CLP . Cf . f orexam pl e, thev ariousstud iesinthe' Ief tish' m agaz ine J ociol ogied uTrav ail ,
Oct- Dec . 19 7 4 , special issued ev oted tonon- Tay l oristm ethod sof
organisingthel abour
process . Thearticl eby Bernouxand Ruf f ier, f orexam pl e, v ery interestinginm any
respects, nev erthel esssuf f ersf rom thissam ef aul t . Itconcerns theorganisatiof w ork ina
m achineshop, butnom entionism ad eof thesy stem of pay m ents, thed eterm ination of
norm s, orw hathappensw henw ork - ratesa' renotm aintained , norof them eansw hereby
m anagem entcol l ectsinf orm ationaboutw ork ratesand q ual ity . Thearticl eisabout
so- cal l ed sem i- autonom ousgroups
. Itisnow ond erthattheauthorshav enow ay of
und erstand ingthescepticism of w ork ersand unionsabout suchexperim ents .
6
. Theim portanceof thev iew sd iscussed inthisparagraphisim m ensebecause they are
bothanEasternEuropeanorthod oxy and areal soexpressed by theid eol ogical
l ead ership
of WesternCom m unistParties
. Itisnotsurprising, theref ore, thattherehasbeenan
intensed ebateontheseissuesinFrance
. See, f orexam pl e, Bettel hel m , 19 7 4 ;Coriat, 19 7 6 ;
Magal ine, 19 7 5 . Anexcel l entd iscussionof Lenin' sv iew sonthe
f orcesand rel ationsof
prod uction, and specif ical l y onscienceand technol ogy , and
theirrol einsocial
d ev el opm entistobef ound inCl aud io- Urond o, 19 7 3
.
BIBLIOGRAPHY
Acad em iesof Scienceof Cz echosl ov ak iaand
theUSSR, Acad em ia, Prague,
19 7 3 : Man, Scienceand Technol ogy
: AMarxistAnal y sisof theScientif icand
Technol ogical Rev ol ution .
CBETTELHEIMSeuil / Maspero, 19 7 4
: LosLuttesd eCl assesenURSS
.
CBETTELHEIMHarv esterPress,
19 7 5 : TheTransitiontoSocial istEconom y
.
BIGGANEand STEWART"J obenl argem ent
: acasestud y ", inL
. Dav iesand ) .
C. Tay l or
(ed s. ), Penguin, 19 7 2 : Designof J obs
.
HBRAV ERMANMonthl y Rev iew Press,
19 7 4
: Labourand Monopol y Capital
.
HCATLING
Dav id and Charl es, 19 7 0 : The Spinning
Mul e,
MCHANANBritishFil m Institute,
19 7 6
: LabourPow erintheBritishFil m
Ind ustry .
CCLAUDIO- URONDOMouton,
19 7 3 : Lenineetl aRev ol utionCul turel l e
.
BCORIATSeuil , 19 7 6 : Science, Techniq ueetCapital
.
LDAV IESand J CTAY LOR(ed s
. )Penguin, 19 7 2 : Designof J obs.

ABEDWARDSMachinery Publ ishing
Co . , 19 7 1 : Read ingsinGroup
Technol ogy
: Cel l ul arSy stem s .
AGORZ(ed ),
Harv esterPress, - 19 7 6
: Essay sontheDiv isionof Labour .
AGORZ"Technol ogy , techniciansand cl assstruggl e", inA
. Gorz (ed . ), op . cit .
ADMAGALINEMaspero,
19 7 5 : Lutted eCl assesetDev al orisationd eCapital
.
SMARGLIN"Whatd obossesd o?
: theoriginsand f unction
of hierarchy in
capital istprod uction"inA . Gorz (ed . ),
op. cit.

MARXUnionGeneral ed ' Ed itions,
19 7 1 : Capital .

MARXLaw renceand Wishart, 19 7 4
: Capital , V ol . 1 .
2
5
K MARXUnion(Generated ' Ed itions, 19 7 1 : Uncbapitreined itd uCapital
.
Oct- Dec . 19 7 4 :
Sociol ogue d uTrav ail .
2 6
PennySummer/ield
WOMENWORKERSINTHESECONDWORLDWAR
IntheSecondWorldWarinBritaintherewasanoveralllabourshortage
.
Almosttheentirepopulationofadultwomenwasforcedintowagelabour
.
Theirnon- wagedomesticlabourwastosomeex tentalleviatedbythestate, but
thealleviationwasnevermorethanpartial . Discussionofthismobilisationof
women, inaspecifichistoricalsetting, providesanopportunityforclarification
ofthekeyplaceofthesex ualdivisionoflabour, rootedinthefamily, in
capitalism .
Thepaperisacontributiontothinkingonthisproblem, andnotafinished
product, empricallyortheoretically . Itfallsintofourparts
. F irst, Idealwiththe
wartimeneedforthestatetodistributeindustrialandmilitarylabour
. ThenI
discusswomen' sresistancetothestate' spolicyofvoluntarycallup, andthe
introductionofcompulsion . Thirdly, Idiscussevacuation . Andfinally1 dealwith
women' sresistancetothelabourprocessinmunitionsfactories . Thefamily
entersthediscussionatallpoints
.
TheSecondWorldWardividesintothreeperiodsasfarasthemobilisationof
labourforindustryandthearmedforcesisconcerned
. Thefirstperiodisthatof
thePhoneyWar, September1 939toMay1 940whenindustrialandmilitary
mobilisationwerehalf- hearted . ThesecondperiodisfromMay1 940when
mobilisationwasintensified, toMarch1 941 , bywhichtimeconscriptionhad
tappedmostoftheavailablemalelabour, butlabourrequirementsinindustry
andthearmedforcesstillex ceededthesupply . ThethirdperiodisfromMarch
1 941 totheendoftheWarin1 945 , duringwhichtimetheentirereservearmyof
labourwasmobilised- throughforinstancetheconscriptionofwomen-
an
absolutelabourshortagewasfelt, andattentionturnedincreasinglytoraising
2 7
productivity .
DuringtheperiodofthePhoneyWarlittleex pansionofthelabourforcewas
requiredbecauselittlefightingactuallytookplace, untiltheevacuationof
TrondheimandDunkirk,
lit AprilandMay
. Armamentsproductionmerely
sustainedthepacebegunafterMunichin1 91 8
. Theeffectofdeclarationofwar
onemploymentwastoraiseunemploymentslightly, assomepeacetimelux ury
industriesturnedovertowarproduction
. BetweenJ une 1 93`)
andline I9- 1 0, the
numberofwomenemployedincreasedbyonlyhalfanmlhon
. Dilutionhadto
proceedbyindividualupgradingagreementswhichunionsfrequentlyresisted
.
ThetotalofunemployedmenwasoveronemillionuntilApril
I9 . 1 0 ( ( . alder
1 97 1 , pp
. 84- 85 ) .
DuringtheperiodofthePhoneyWarlittleex pansionofthelabourforcewas
requiredbecauselittlelightingactuallytookplace, untiltheevacuationof
TrondheimandDunkirk, inAprilandMay
. Armamentsproductionmerely
sustainedthepacebegunafterMunichin1 938 . Theeffect
of declarationofwar
onemploymentwastoraiseunemploymentslightly, assomepeacetimelux ury
industriesturnedovertowarproduction . BetweenJ une I9
;9 andlone1 91 0, the
numberofwomenemployedincreasedbyonlyhalfamillion
. Dilutionhadto
proceedbyindividualupgradingagreementswhichunionsfrequentlyresisted
.
ThetotalofunemployedmenwasoveronemillionuntilApril1 9
. 1 0( (
: alder
1 97 1 , 81 1 - 5 ) .
Inthisperiodthestatewasnotactivelyorganisingindustry
. Intact
Chamberlain' sappeasinggovernmentwascommittedtoleavingproductionto
privateenterprise
. Itdidhavetotakeactionovercreatinganarmy
. however . In
May1 939, twentytotwenty- oneyearoldmenhadbeenconscriptedforsix
monthstraining . Onthefirstdayofwarallmenbetweeneighteenandforty- one
weremadeliableforconscription
. Atthesametimethestatehadtoactas
regulatorasbetweentheworkforcesintheservicesandinindustry
. Aschedule
ofreservedoccupationswasdrawnuptoavoidtheF irstWorldWarproblemof
depletingthenumbersofskilledworkersthroughindiscriminateconscription
.
Conscriptionprocededslowlybecauseoftheorganisationalandadministrative
inflex ibilityofthearmedforces
. Eachagegroupwascalledupinturn . Those
agedfortytoforty- onewerenotreacheduntilJ uly1 9 ,
1 1 .
ThebeginningofthesecondperiodismarkedbytheNazioccuationof
Belgium, F ranceandScandinavia, andtheattemptedinvasionofBritain
.
Mobilisationforwarnowhadtostartinearnest
. Thechangeofgovernmentin
1 940wastheproductoftheneedforamoreactivestate, capableofdirecting
industry, andex andingthearmedforcesandthelabourforcesufficientlyto
obtainalevelofproductivityequaltoorgreaterthanthatoftheenemy
.
Conscriptionwasintensified
. ( InDecember1 9391
. 5 millionmenandbythe
endoftheWarnearly5 million, or
30%
ofthemaleworkingpopulation, was
undermilitarydiscipline, felling1 97 0, 3031
. Itinvolvedtheremovalofboth
singleandmarriedmenfromhomeforindefiniteperiods
. ( . tlmpensationfor
thisseparationfromthefamilywasmadebothspontaneouslybythose
ex periencingit, andaspartofthemilitaryauthoritieswelfarepolicy
. Reactions
totheex periencewereregisteredbyaMassObservationsurveydone
u1
an
2 8
R. A. F . camp( Marston, Kent)inMarch1 941 . U ntilthe1 941 offensivesinthe
MiddleEast, NorthAfricaandtheF arEastwereunderway, conscriptionmeant
asedentaryperiodinaBritishtrainingcampforthemajorityofservicemen .
MassObservationfoundinthiscontex tthatinreplytothequestion"whatdo
youmissmostfrompeacetime?", byfarthelargestgrouprepresenting43%of
thesamplesaid"homeandfamily" . ( Thenex thighestrankingwere"money",
2 i% and' ' sex "and"freedom"both 1 4% outofatotalofeighteendifferent
things mentioned)
. Mass Observation found that many servicemen
compensatedforthis- lossby' adopting' familiesintheneighbourhoodoftheir
campswherepossible, ordevelopedfamilyrolesamongstthemselvesintheir
ownunitswhereitwasnot
. ( Somemenrookonsex ualroles, butthemost
commonpatternobservedintheconstructionofthesepseudofamily
relationshipsinbarrackroomgroupsofthesamesex and, withinarangeof
abouttenyears, thesameagewastheadoptionofmaternalrolesbysomemen)
.
DuringtheBlitz, fromAugusttoDecember1 940, thestrainofseparationfrom
thepossiblyendangeredfamilyandsenseoffrustrationatdoingnothingbutsit
inaBritishcamp, wasafrequentcauseofgoind A. W. O. L. '
ConsistentlyuntiltheendoftheWar, theWarOffice' sDirectorateof
Welfareoperatedadoublestandardconcerningmaritalinfidelity . Itconsidered
bothsuspectedandactualinfidelityonthepartoftheirwivesurgirlfriendsat
home, andtheabsenceoffemalecompanyatservicemen' scamps, asloweringto
morale
. TheInter- ServicesCommitteeonMoraleproposedin1 944thatA . T. S .
shouldbespeciallyex portedtoBurmaaspartofthesolutiontotheincreasingly
mutinoussituationthere
. ' ( Infidelitybythewifewouldendangerthewareffort,
butbythehusbandwouldimproveit)
. AnotherpartoftheWa, rOffice' swelfare
policywastoencourageletterwritingbetweenfamilymembers, particularlyin
thelastphaseoftheWar . ItdevelopedtheMilitaryAirgraphService( carrying
reduced- sizephotographsofletters)tofacilitateit
. Inthepenumbrabetween
official policy and privateenterprise, the DailyMirror
andtheforces'
newspaperswhichitransuchasGood Morning, forsubmarinecrews,
contributedtotheeffortstocompensateforseparationfromthefamily . These
papersbecamechannelsofcommunicationbetweenfamilymembers. AsSmith
pointsoutin
PaperVoices, theeditorialpolicyinusinglettersandinterviews
withfamilieswassuchthateachindividualoneassumedatypicalitywhich
allowedittostandforall( Smithetal
. 1 97 5 , 7 2 ff) .
Thesepointsabouttheeffortsmadetocompensatefortheremovaloffit
singleandmarriedmenintheirtwentiesfromfamilylifethroughmilitary
conscription, areindicationsofthefunctionperformedbythefamilyin
capitalismandtheinadequacyofatotalinstitutionlikethearmedforcestoactas
asubstitute
. Thefamilyistheinstitutionwherethefulfilmentofbasic
emotionalneedsaswellaseconomicsupporttakesplace, bothbeingnecessary
fortheproductionandreproductionoflabourpower .
Asfarasfamiliesbereftoftheiryoungmenwereconcerned, conscription
couldmeanthelossofbothanauthorityfigureandamajorbreadwinneror
contributortothehouseholdincome
. Thestatecompensatedforthelattertoa
limitedex tent
. Servicemen' swivesallowanceswereatthelevelof1 930s
2 9
unemploymentbenefit, calculatedbysomecriticstobebelowsubsistence
level .
Suchanincomeactedasapressureonservicemen' sweivestotakeonmunitions
work . I
Duringthisperiodinwhichthemalemilitaryarmywasmobilised
. May 1 91 1 1
toMarchI94I, themaleindustialarmywas
restructuredandex panded .
RegistrationofEmploymentandEssentialWorksOrderswereintroduced by
BevininJ uly1 940, empoweringNationalService Officerstodirectmale
workersintoparticularjobsundercompulsion . Theirdirect legalapplication
wasrelativelyrare, preferencebeinggiventothecreationofconsent . ] ' hiswits
frequentlydonethroughtheveilofadministrativeincompetence . F orinstance,
MassObservationquotethecaseofanaircraftworkerwhowantedtoget
into
otherkindsofwork, butwaspersistentlykeptunemployed
bytheLabour
Ex change, ratherthanbegiventhenecessarydocuments, untilindesperation
he
returnedtotheaircraftfactory' voluntarily' . I Thethreatofcalluptotheforces
asthealternativetodistastefulindustrialworkwasalsoused .
Ofcourse, legal
directionwasanessentialcomponentofthesofterapproach .
Thisperiodwasoneofenergeticdifferentiationofthemalelabourforce
by
thestate . WorkerswereregisteredatEmploymentEx changesbytrade, skill, age
andfitness, inanattempttoteedtherapidlydevelopingdivisionoflabour
fit tile
forcesandwarindustry . TheT. U . C
. agreedtodilutionofskilledbysemi- skilled
workers, andlabourprocessesweregraduallybrokendown
tocutdownon
trainingtime .
ThethirdperiodisfromMarch1 941 totheendoftheWar
. Inthecuntex tot
thegenerallabourshortage, theintensivemobilisationofwomenforindustry
andthearmedforcestookplace . Inthefirstmanpowerbudgetof
theWar, in
October1 941 , itwascalculatedthattwoandahalfmillionmenandwomenwere
requiredbyJ une1 942
. ALabourManagerquotedbyMassObservationdescribes
the' scrapingofthebarrel' whichheperceivedthismobilisation
toinvolve .
"Menoversix tyandevenoverseventy . Mentakenfromnon- essential
work .
Womenandgirlsfromallsorts of jobsandfromnojobatall . (
. ripples, weakhearts .
dischargedservicemen, halt- wits, criminals, All sortsofpeoplesolongastheycan
standorevensitandturnahandle . ThereareourMaterial" .
( M- O1 9' i2 , 91 )
HisdescriptionincludesatIofthethreelayerswithinthereservearmyoflabour
whichMarx identifies : thefloating
( i
. e . temporarilyunder- orunemployed), the
latent
( i
. e . thosechronicallyunemployedduetoe . g
. theapplicationoflabour
savingtechnologyinareaswherethere
isnodevelopmentconstitutinga
counterattractiontolabour ), andthestagnant
( i . e . thecasuallabourer, theold,
cripples, paupers . criminalsetc . ;Capital1 , ch . 2 5 sec
. t) . Womenoccurinall
threecategories, Marx didnotaddressthetheoryofthereservearmyof
labour
specificallytowomen . Thenatureofdomestic
labourinthefamilymakes
womennon- wageearnersappearnuttobeemployed
. Thefactthatdomestic
labourinthefamilyisnotsubjecttoconstraintsofa
tine- basedwageoran
3 0
apprenticeship, makesitthemostflex ibleformofwork . Itcanbedoneduring
anyhoursandbrokenupanddistributedamonganyavailableparticipants . Itis
thereforepossibletocombineitwithothertypesofwork . Historicallytherehas
beenafluidmovementbetweenwomen' sdomesticworkinthefamily, andwage
labour . Themajorityofwomenarepotentialwagelabourersatanytittleand
thereforebelonginMarx ' sfloatinglayerofthereservearmyoflabour
.
Itwastothissectionofthereservearmyoflabourthatattentionturned
increasinglyinthecontex tofthelabourshortageproblemof1 941
. Theofficial
historianoflabourinthemunitionsindustrieswroteofthelabourshortage
problem .
sincewomenworkersformedthelargestremainingreserve
of manpowerthis
largelyresolveditselfintotheproblemofredistributingthewomenworkers
alreadyinemploymentand of
drawingintoemploymentwomenpreviously
unoccupiedorworkingonlyinthehome( Inman1 95 7 , I7 b) .
Appealsweremadetowomentovolunteertheirlabour . Theyfailedinthecases
ofboththeservicesandindustry . ByDecember1 941 2 5 millionpeoplewere
employedoutofanestimatedemployablepopulationbetweentheagesof
fourteenandsix ty- fiveof33 . 2 5 m . Inthiscontex tthegovernmentdecidedto
conscriptwomen
.
Thecausesofthefailureofwomentovolunteertheirlabourinsufficient
quantitiesarevarious
. Asfarasmilitaryworkwasconcerned, itsunappealing
imagewasheldresponsibleatthetime, animagebasedonthereputationofthe
women' smilitaryservicesforimmorality . ( TheA. T. S . wasknownasthe
groundsheetofthearmy) . Thisispossiblymerelyanotherwayofsayingthatthe
servicesattractedyoungwomenwhopreferredadventuretothedubious
benefitsofawartimemarriagewithanabsentpartneronservicemen' swives'
allowance
. AsmallMassObservationsurveyofpost- warplansofaselectionof
W. A. A. F
. sin1 941 indicatesanambivalentsetofattitudes . Itregistersa
preferenceforemploymentandtraveltomarriage, mix edwithabeliefthatsuch
opportunitieswouldnotex istaftertheWar, whenjobswouldbetakenbymen,
andasaresultanacceptanceofmarriageastheonlyalternative
. 5 Themajority
ofwomen, however, resistedtheseparationfromthefamilywhichjoiningthe
serviceswouldinvolve .
Theresistanceofwomentovolunteeringforindustrialworkindicatedbythe
figuresproducedbyWarWorkWeeksaroundthecountryin1 941
. Bradford
scrapedup498womenworkers, whileneeding1 1 , 000( fortheWestRiding),
andinLittlehamptonsofewvolunteeredthatthecampaignwasabandonedasa
fiasco
. Littlehampton, Worthing, Bognor, andChichesterproducedonly2 1 1
warworkersand48A. T
. S . ThiswasatatimeofacutemilitarycrisisinMalaya
andLibya
. MassObservationidentified"domesticproblems"asthemaincause
ofresistance( M- O91 42 , 1 5 0)
. Womenwerecorrectlyconsciousofthedouble
3 1
burdenofdomesticandindustriallabour
. Theytendedtorejectitwherethey
werenotundereconomiccompulsiontoacceptit, becauseoftheabsenceof
adequatealternativesourcesofincomefromthestateoranywhereelse
.
Asecondarybutlinkedcausewastheambiguityoftheofficialcampaign
startedinMarch1 941 , whenwomenwereencouragedtoregisterat
employmentex changessothatthestatecouldassessitslabourresources
. Itwas
vagueonhours, payandthedegreeofmobilityex pected
. Thisvaguenesswas
boundtoresultfromthestate' shalf- heartedcontroloverthemunitions
industries . Thiscontrolwassplitbetweenatleastfivecompetinggovernment
bodies, andwascontrolovermarketing( ofrawmaterialsandproducts)rather
thanoverproductionitself .
EveninRoyalOrdnanceF actories, whichweregovernmentownedandrun,
therewasahighwastageoffemalelabour
. Onaveragein1 940, thefilling
factoryatChorleyinLancashirehad5 00newwomenworkersaweek,
interviewedtwicethatnumber, andlostaboutthesamenumber
. Between
December1 940and/anuary1 941 itslabourforcefailedtokeepitspositionin
thisRedQueen' srace, andfellfrom1 7 , 800to1 6, 800
. TheMinistryofLabour
commentedthatitwas"ex pendinggreatenergyintryingtofillaleakingtub"
( Inman1 95 7 , 1 83, 5 ) .
However, the
ministry
hadonlyitselftoblame
. Amajorproblemwasthe
conditionsinsidethefactorieswhichwerenotgearedphysicallyand
administrativelytotheinflux offemalelabour
. F orinstance, Chorleyhadbeen
builttosoakupfloatingmalelabourinLancashirebeforetheWar, andhad
inadequatelavatoryandcanteenaccommodation, andacompletelackofday
nurseryfacilities, forthethousandsofwomenworkersrecruited1 940- 1 941
.
Mostofthewomenweremarried, withchildren
. Thesewomenwereex pected
toworkeffectivesix ty- six hourweek, plusuptofourhourstravelling, aswellas
towalklargedistancesbetweenfactorygatesandtheworkshops, scatteredover
alargearea( asinallfillingfactories, forsafety)
. Theadministrationinherited
fromthepre- Warcontex twasinadequate
. Theofficialhistorian, Inman, writes :
"ThereweremanycomplaintsatChorleyofmistakesinwagespaidoutanddelaysin
rectifyingthem ;thiswasnotsurprisingwhenclerkswereofteninex periencedand
therewereatonetimesaidtobefortywomenonthebookswiththenameofAnne
Clark"
.
Standardsinprivatefactoriesmayhavebeenhigher
. Neverthelessthe
governmentownedR
. O. F . sweresupposedtostandasmodelemployers
.
Oncethestatehadacceptedtheneedfortheconscriptionofwomen
(
step
nottakenonthesamescalebyanyoftheothercombatantcountries
;Davies
1 97 5 , 94- 5 )itwasforcedtofaceitsimplications
. F irst, industrymustadaptto
thedemandsdomesticlabourmadeonwomen
. Second, thestateitselfmusttake
oversomeaspectsofthistypeofwork
. Thirdly, andpartlyconditionallyon
3 2
thesetwo, thestatehadtoobtainwomen' sco- operationwithconscription
. They
hadtobepersuadedtotakeuptheopportunityofferedforatleasttemporary
releasefromdomesticlabour .
Theex tensionofpart- timeworkingwasamajorwayinwhichindustrycould
adapttothedemandsofdomesticlabour
. Theprovisionofdaynurserieswas
onewayinwhichthestarecouldbecome"housewife"
. Personnelmanagement
infactoriesandofficialandsemi- officialpropagandacampaignswerewaysof
persuadingwomentoco- operate
. Allcompanieswereorderedtoemploy
womenwelfareofficersafterDecember1 941
. ErnestBevin, MinisterofLabour,
producedapamphleturgingemployerstomaketheirhoursflex ible, inMarch
1 941
. Itadvocatedsuchthingsas :
" . .
. hoursmustpermitofeachwomenhavingreasonabletimetodohershoppingat
convenienthours
. Intheabsenceofsuchanarrangement, badtimekeeping,
absenteeismanddiscontentarelikelytoresult" .
and
. . .
manywomenworkerswillhavehusbandsintheF orcescoininghomeonleave
periodically
. Itissuggestedthatthosewomenshouldbetoldatthetimeoftheir
engagementthat . .
. theywillbegivenreasonableleaveofabsenceonthese
occasions" .
"Otherwomenwillpossiblyhaveyoungchildrentogetofftoschoolornursery
beforetheycancometowork
. Arrangementsshouldbemadetoaccommodatetheir
hourstothoserequirements"°
and
Inspiteoftheneedforwomenworkers, statenurserieswereslowtoarriveand
didso
onlyunderthepressureofsomewomenworkersthemselves, inthe
pressandthroughpetitionstoParliament, atthebeginningof1 942
. Officialand
semi- officialpropagandahadahollowringtoit, intheabsenceofsuch
provisions, togetherwithcommunalfeedingarrangements
( e . g . British
restaurants)andadequatehealthcare
. LadyReading, Presidentof
W. V . S . ,
advocatedthatwomenrejecttheirdomesticroleforthedurationoftheWar
.
Thedutyofthewifewasnowto"forgetyourhome, leavebedsunmade, leave
thehousedirty, don' tlookafteryourhusband' smeals"whilethrowingherself
intowarwork
. Bytheendof1 943therewere1 45 0localauthority- runday
nurseries( morethantherewerein1 97 5 ), withplacesfor65 , 000childrenunder
five
. 1 30, 000moreofthisagegrouphadbeensenttoprimaryschoolsfurtherto
3 3
relievemothers .
but Mass Observation found thatitwasstillasourceof
complaintamongwomenfactoryworkersthatthefactoriesthemselves didnot
runcreches, alongsovietlines, attheplaceofwork .
Therewasdifferentiationoftheadultternalepopulation, astherehadbeenof
themale, bythestateintothosewhocouldworkinfactoriesandthosewhowere
consideredtoooldandunfitforsuchwork,
butadequateforcollectively
organiseddomesticlabour, suchaschildmindingandclinicandcanteen
work .
Schoolstookonanincreasingnumberoffamilyfunctions, particularly
feeding .
F reeschoolmealswereprovidedfortentimesthepreviousnumbersbetween
J uly1 940andtheendoftheWar, andtheprovisionoftreeschoolmilk
roseby
5 0t%
. %inthesameperiod .
Therewereadministrativeandfinancialproblemsassociatedwithalleviating
domesticlabourbuttherewasalsoreluctancetotake
it overcompletely, because
ofthepossibleeffectonthefamily
. Totakeoneex ample, inthecaseofparental
contributionstothecostofbillettingevacuees,
theadministrativecostof
collectionoftenex ceeded theamountrecovered
. Howeverthe policyof
contributionswasnotdropped . AsTitmusswrites :
Thegovernmentdidnotwanttotakeanystepswhichmightweakenindividual
initiativeandparentalresponsibility( Tiunuss
1 1 5 0)
Thepolicyofevacuationineffect,
thoughnotinintention, assistedthe
mobilisationofwomen . Thesafetyofchildrenasthenex tgenerationoffighters
andworkerswastheuppermostconcernofthepolicy- makers
. Buttheeffectsof
evacuationweretoreleasewomeninareasofheavyconcentrationofindustry, at
max imumbombingrisk, forwork, inpreciselytheperiods( after
thephoney
war)ofmax imuminvasiondanger, whenfullproductionwasmostnecessary
.
Evacuationgreatlyex tendedthe' parental' roleoftheschool
. Mostchildren
travelledwiththeirschools, theirteachersactingas' communal' parents,
over- seeingbilletting, checkingonchidren' swelfareand
emotionalneeds, as
wellastheirusualeducationalfunctions .
Thestatethroughschoolsand
billettingofficers, tookondirectresponsibilityforchildreninanunprecedented
way, decidingwheretheyweretogo, withwhomtheywouldstay, where
they
wouldgotoschool, andevensuchmattersaswhattheywouldwear, how
much
moneyshouldbespentonthem, howoftentheywouldseetheirparents
and
evenhowoftentheyshouldwritetothem
. Parents' choicewascurtailed, even
thoughtheyhadthefinaloptionofwithdrawingchildrenfromthe
scheme, it
thiswasarealisticproportion
. Theeffectofevacuationon
receptionfamilies
representsthefamilytinderverygreatstress : theyhad
totakeinnon- blood
relativeswhomtheydidnotknowandvirtuallydid
notchoose . Localstate
administrationwasnotuptogivingthemchoice
: billettingwasmostlychaotic-
3 4
thebillettingofficermadethedecisions, ormoreoftenthesituationdescended
toakindofslavemarket, ortheteacherhadthejobofsellingthemoffone by
one
. Receptionfamilieshadtoex tendtothesestrangerstheusualfunctions of
thefamily, thatispracticalandemotionalsupportandcare
. Notsurprisingly the
conditionsofsuccessinthesecircumstancesareveryclear
. Itwasfoundbyan
Ox fordPsychiatrists' Groupthatingeneralitwasonlypossiblefor
reception
familiestobeamoeba- likeifthestrangerstheyweretakinginwerewither
too
youngtobeconditionedintoonesortofeconomicallydetermined
lifestyleof
another, orwereofthesameclassbackground
. Differencesinclassappear, from
thecollectionofmemoirseditedbyB . S
. J ohnson, tohavebeenprimary .
Differencesbetweenurbanandrurallife, religion, colourandnationality
were
secondary, butthetwotogethercouldbeex plosive.
Giventheproblemsofremovingdomesticresponsibilities
frommarried
women, themostsoughtaftergroupofworkerswas, intheMinistryofLabour' s
terminology, "surplusunskilledmobilewomanlabour"
. Married womenwith
youngchildrenand/orresidenthusbandswereconsideredimmobile
. Thesearch
forsinglewomenwhocould bemoved, ex tendedtothepoolsof"latent"
femalelabour, unemployedorunderemployed
intheagriculturalareasof
ScotlandandIreland, whereasystematicandsemi- officialpoachingsystemwas
carriedout( Inman1 95 7 , 1 69) . Howeverwhiletheoreticallytheidealsolution
to
labourshortageproblems, "surplusunskilledmobilewomanlabour"inpractice
presentedproblemsofworkdiscipline
. Themobilityforwhichit wasprized,
basedonfreedomfromdomesticresponsibilities, wasnotconduciveto regular
andcommittedwork .
Marriedwomentendedtobereluctanttoentertheworkforce, butoncethere,
wereconsideredrelativelydependableworkers
. Themaindisadvantageto
employerswastheirhighrateofabsenteeismdue
tofamilycommitments
( husbandonleave, childrensicketc
. )butmanymanagersseemedabletoaccept
theirpriorityorderingasbetweenhomeandwork, giventhegeneralqualityof
theirlabour. Mass, Observation
collectednumberousstatements from
managementonthecommitmentofmarriedwomenworkerstotheirwork, of
whichthisisoneex ample :
"Thenewwomenarefine, especiallytheolderones . Manyofthemhavenotbeenin
workbefore
. Theyseemtocarryovertheirhouseholdprideintotheirjob . Ofcourse
thenewmenareapoorlot, thepreviousunemployables" .
Theresponseofmanagementtotheotherlargegroupwithex perienceofthe
disciplineofdomesticlabour, ex - domesticservants, wasalso
favourable :
"Scotchservantgirlswefoundgoodhardworkers . . .
Ahotelchambermaid . A
sensiblegirlwho' dmadeuphermindtodoherjobtothebestofherabilityandput
3 5
tip withtheroughside of it . Noteshe' sthedomesticservicetype
. Thistypeisusedto
hardworkandundefinedhoursofworkatthat
IncontrastatypicalreactiontothetheoreticallyidealIrishsingle
womanwas,
"TwoIrishgirlscameonnightshift, smoked, idledandsworeattheforeman
refusingtowork
. Wesackedthem
AndaMidlandWelfareManagersaid, onlJ anuary1 942 , indescribing
hisday :
"ALabourSupplyOfficerphonesme . Hehasawomanworkeriuntrained)hecan
offerme. She' sIrish( Igroan) . Shealsohasababyabout IS
monthsold ( I thankhim
fervently) . HoweverIdaren' trefusehere" .
Conscriptiondidsucceedindrawingoutthereservesoffemale
labour . By
mid- 1 943itwascalculatedthatamongthosebetweenIbandv0, 9singlewomen
outof1 0, and8marriedwomenourof1 0, wereintheforcesor
industry .
Absenteeismremainedaproblemamongmarriedwomen, butbecamestablein
thelasttwoyearsoftheWar . Statewelfare
provisionscombinedwith
spontaneousadaptationtotheindustriallsituationwithin
thefamilyandthe
neighbourhoodcontributedtothissituation
. Infactby1 944thelabourforce was
beginningtoshrinkbecauseofnaturalwastage
. U nskilledwnrkersnumbered4
millioninthefirsthalfof1 943and3millionbyJ une1 945
. Increasingattention
waspaidtotheeffectiveuseoflabourinthisperiod,
whenex pansionof
productivityengineeringoccurred
. Beyondtheproblemsofnumbersmobilised,
liethoseoftheirproductivity
.
U nsocialisedworkers, asinthecasesofIrish
womenworkersalready
mentioned, frequentlyofferedresistancetoindustrialworkassuch, specifically
totheex perienceofthesub- divisionoftheindividual
inherentinthelabour
processincapitalistproduction . Thefollowing
isanillustrationofthis . A
factorymakingelectronicradarequipment, nearBristol, called
Ecko, employed
MassObservationtoinvestigateitsproductivityproblemin1 943
. M- Osent ina
womanobserver, incognito, to workasanemployeewhilemakingthe
investigation . Intermsofthemobilisationoflabour, that
isrecruitmentand
turnover, Ecko' sworkforcewassatisfactory
. Themajorityofits800orsolabour
forceweresinglecountrygirlsrecruitedfromeitherthe
localsmallcountry
townorfromthesurroundingvillagesandfarms, and
includedmanyfrom
furtherafieldwhowerebillettedinthetown .
3 6
Theproblemwasnotoneoforganisedandarticulatedopposition . Womenat
Eckowerenotatfirstunionised . Theproblemcouldnotthereforebetackledin
thesamewaythattheproblempresentedbytheantagonistinterestsofmale
employeesandtheiremployerswastackled, thatisbydevelopingmechanisms
tocontainconflictsuchasjoint- consultation, whichex tendsthecontrolof
employersontotheshopfloorbyinvolvingworkersin' safe' decision- making
onareaslikepiecerates, manningandproductionlevels, andconditionsinthe
factory, ( butnoton' unsafe' areaslikethetypeofmachineryandthedivisionof
labour - directlylinkedtotheex tractionofsurplusvalue) .
Theproblemwasinsomewaysmoredifficultforemployerstocopewith,
eventhoughitwaslesslikelytoblowupintocollectiveorganisedstrikeorother
action . MassObservationidentifiedtheproblemasoneofanabsenceofasense
of"responsibility"fortheirworkonthepartofthewomen
. Theywere
witnessingthealienationoftheworkerfromtheproductandtheproduction
process . TheEckoemployershadsoughttosocialisewomenrapidlyandcheaply
bybreakingupthelabourprocessbutindoingsotheyremovedthepossibilityof
thewomenhavinganycommitmenttothework, assuch, andengenderedmany
formsofpettyresistancetowork . fromleaningonmachinesanddoingnothing
tosocalled' lavatorymongering' meaningsittinginthelavatorychatting,
knittingordoingnothingforprolongedperiods . Thisisillustratedinthe
followingdescriptionofthemachineroom, fromthereportofthe
investigation :
"Ataquarterpasteighttherearestillonlyabouthalfthegirlsactuallyworkingat
theirmachines( theofficaltimeforstartingworkisateighto' clockwhenthebuzzer
goes) . Nottillhaltpastisthereanythingapproachingthewholelotworking
. There
isamarkedtendencyeverymorningfortheolderwomentostartsoonerthanthe
youngones ;thehalfdozenorsowomenofover40whoworkinthisshoparealmost
alwaysattheirmachiensbeforefivepasteight, atimewhenfewoftheother
machinesareinaction .
Therearevarioustypesofmachineintheshop - drilling, cappingetc . - eachof
themoperatedbyonegirlsittingdown. Onalmostallofthemtheworkisvery
simpleandmonotonous, involvingsimplyplacingthepartinposition( itisusually
impossibletodothiswrong)andthentheraisingorloweringofahandleorsome
suchaction
. U suallyonecanworkatone' sonspeed, lettingthefinishedpartspileup
onthebenchorinacardboardbox , untilsomeonecomesandtakesthemaway ;there
islittlefeelingofhurryorhavingone' spacedictatedbythemachineitself, asin
continuousbeltwork . Withfewex ceptionstheworkhereinvolvedneithermental
norphysicaleffortofanykind . "
Theobserverdescribedtheinitialfeelingofpeaceproducedbysuchwork :
"Aftertherushandscrambleofgettingupandcomingtoworkthroughthesleerofa
F ebruarymorning, hurryingtogetthereintime, fightingtoclockinatthedox x , itis
restfulandpleasanttositdowninawarmroomwithnothingtodobutfiddlewith
3
7
iittlebitsofmetal, andtoknowthatfortwelvehoursonewillnothavetothinkor
Worryaboutanythingatall
Thisfeelingtendedtowearoffduringtheday :
throughouttheroomthereisanatmosphereofgreaterconcentrationontheµob
duringthefirsthoursofthemorningthanatanyothertimeinthedayTheamountof
talkingandidlingissmallandthereislittleofthe' clockwatching' whichformsone
ofthemainfeaturesofthelatterhall( ittheday . . .
ItisatalittlebeforeeleventhatthefirstsignsofslackingoffbegintoappearPeople
startgoingouttothecoaknx omandhangingaboutthereforlongperiods, doing
theirhair, talking, eatingthecakesandsandwichestheyhaveboughtfordinnerand
tea. Thesubjectofwhattimeitis( whichbyfourintheafternoon, asweshallsee
. has
becomealtruistanobsession)beginstoappearinconversations :
' It' sfivepasteleven .
Thatdock' sgoneslowagain . It' snearlytenpast
. J ackdon' tyoumakeitnearlyten
past?'
T
lihe'
' It' stenpasteleven, isn' tit?Isn' tthatduckslow?'
' That' snotslow . That' sright'
Whatisitonlyfivepasta
' That' sright'
' Oh' , ( ;roadsfrombothgirls . Onlyfivepast .
Theofficialtimefordinnerisoneoclockandtheofficialtimeforgettingreadyfor it
isfiveminutesto
;actuallypreparationsstartalongwhilebeforethat
. Between
hailpasttwelveandfivetoonethecloakroomsarelocked( theideaofthisisto
preventpeoplegettingreadybeforetheappointedtime)butwhathappensasa
resultofthisisthatfrom 1 2 ?)) acrowdofgirlsistobefoundinthecloakroom
washingtheirhands, preparatorytogoingbacktothebenchanddoingnothing
whateverforhaltanhour, soasnottogettheirhandsdirtyagainbeforedinner
.
( M- ( ) 1 944, 2 6- 7 ) .
F inancialincentivesforgreaterproductivitytendednottobesuccessful
wheresinglewomenwereconcerned . F ouraspectsofsinglewomen' s
ex perienceintheWarcontex tcontributedtothis . F irstly, beingsinglewomen
theytendednottobetheprimarybread- winnerinthehome
. Secondly, the
lengthoftheworkingday( fourteenhoursonaverageatEcko), ex tendedby
travellingtime, andtheabsenceofconsumergoodsintheshopscoupledwith
rationing, meantthatopportunitiestospendmoneyonlux uriesorleisurewere
limited . Thirdly, the . awappingofdomesticforindustriallabour, cantthat
workingwomentendedtoloseanyshareofhouseholdandchildresponsibilities .
Thus, lackofcontrolovertheorganisationandmethodsofworkinthefactory
wasmirroredbylossofsuchcontrolathome . Thispointisillustratedbythe
followingratherpatheticquotefromthereportoftheinvestigation
.
3 8
"Sometimes . .
segregationfromtheordinaryfaintlylifemakesthegirlfeelalmost
likeanintruderinherhome
. Onegirlofabouteighteendescribedratherbitterlyan
occasionwhichhadmadeherfeellikethis :
' Thebilletingofficerhadbeenround, andtheyweretellingaboutitwhenIgotin .
What' shappening' ' I : eked
;Arewetohavesomeevacuees?Ihopeitsriotchildren .
Don' tletthemsendusanychildren, Mum, we' veenoughofchildreninthishouse
. '
Quitenicely, Isaidit, butDoreen( hersister)turnedonmequitesharp
. Y ouleaveit
toMumandme' , shesaid
;' itdon' tmattertoyouwhowehaveandwhowedon' t,
you' reneverthereJ ustasifitwasn' tmyhouseasmuchashers
. 1 totedheritwasa
nastythingtosay . ' ( M- O1 941 , 86)
.
F ourthly, lastingrelationshipswithmenwereinfrequentintheWar
situation
. Thesemighthavebeenanincentivetoenlargeandsaveearnings
.
Courtshippatternstendedtobebrokendownbecauseofthetransitorycharacter
ofservicepopulations, andbecauseoftheprobabilityofnotseeingaserviceman
again( particularlyanAmerican)duetotheobjectivedangersofwar
. Duringthe
Wartherateofbirthsamongmarriedwomenfell
. Thenumberofillegitimate
birthsperthousandsingleorwidowedwomentripledto1 6
. 1 in1 945 . Butthe
numberofillegitimateconceptionsdidnotincreaseamongunmarriedwomen,
overall, sothisfigurereflectsagrowingfailuretolegitimisechildrenconceived
outofwedlock, bymarriage, ratherthananincreaseinex tra- maritalsex ,
perre.
Itissymptomaticofthemobilityrequiredofthepopulation
.
Straightdisciplineasameansofincreasingproductivity, fromforemen,
managers, etc
. , tendedtobelesseffectivewithsinglewomenthanwithmen,
becauseofsex ismonbothsides
. F orementendedtoassumewomentobe
incompetentanddidnotex pectthemtobeabletodothingscorrectly, andinany
casepreferredawarmrelationshiptoonechilledbysternness
. ( Women
supervisorswerenotoriouslystricteratEcko, buttheywereasmallminority)
.
Womenplayeduptoit
. Sex ismcouldbecomeanotherformofresistanceto
work
. Ifmenwouldletwomenoffthehookbybelievingthattheycouldnot
workhardandwellbecausetheywerewomen, whynottakeadvantageofthe
situation
. F orex ample :
"Thechargehandsinthemachineshopareallmen, intheirtwentiesandearly
thirties
. Oneandalltheypaymuchmoreattentiontothemechanicalsideoftheirjob
-
settingupandgenerallykx )kingafterapparatusandmachinery
- thantotheir
othertaskofdisciplineandleadershipamongthegirlsontheirbench
. Theyalmost
alladoptthesameattitudetothefirls
- oneofamusedtolerance ;nothingagirlcando
willbringherareprimandfromacharge- hand
;theworstshehastofearisapieceof
goodhumouredsarcasm
. Thegirlthemselvesrevelinthesituation . Ifthe
charge- handschoosetolookonthemwithamusedmasculinesuperiorityas
scatterbrainedlittlenitwitswhocan' tdoanythingright, thenwhatcouldbeeasier
thantoacceptthisroleandmakeitthecoverforanyandeverykindofcarelessness
andlaziness?F orthisattitudetakesthelastshredsofresponsibilityfortheiractions
fromthegirls' shoulders, andgivesthefinaltouchestothatcarefreeatmosphere
whichisthemachineshop' schiefattraction" .
3 9
Thefollowingpieceofdialogueisquotedasanillustrationofthis :
' Taro! Lou, it' sstucksomehow'
LU U comesnruisprctrilemachine .
Y ou' veputitiiicrooked, thatswhy . Y ouinloveorsomrthuig!
Heputsitinrightfortier .
Oh, thankyou, Lou, F unnyhowthisMachine' salwaysgoingtunny on oreisntit . It
doesn' tseemtoliketile
Don' tlikeyou, eh! Thesemachinesdon' tlikeanybodywhocan' tusediemright_ No
mechanicalsense, thatswhat' sthematterwithyougirls . No iechanicalsense
( M- O1 943, bi- t)
.
Theyboth
go
awaysmiling .
Theunionisationofwomenwasoneofthesolutionsadvocatedforthelow
productivityproblem
. Thestateandunionsandleftgroupsallpressedforit .
Thiswastotheadvantageofemployers, fromwhomaninitiativewouldhave
beenresisted, particularlybyex istingunionmembers . U nionisationwasinthe
interestsofemployers, inastarasitcouldstimulatethemotivationofwomen,
giventheunions' commitmenttowinningtheWarandtheirstrongworkethic .
It
couldactasaformofdiscipline, throughchannellingrandomandhaphazard
formsofresistanceintoacceptedformsofstruggle . Whateverthepotentialof
theseformsofstruggleinthefightagainstcapitalism, initiallyatleastthis
channellingmadetheex tractionofsurplusvaluefromlaboureasierforthe
employer .
ThetotalnumberofwomeninunionsbeforetheWarwas97 0, 000
. Bythe
endof1 943ithadnearlydoubled, to1 , 87 0, 000
. Thisleftawidemarginof
non- unionisedwomen . ( Takingtheentireworkforce, includingnon- munitions
work, therewereabout7 mwomeninitby1 943)
. Theirparticipationmaynot
havebeenallthatactiveeither
. InasampleofjointProductionCommitteesit
wasfoundthatmorethanhalfhadnowomenrepresentativesatall( Calder
1 97 1 , 464)
. Thetimeofthemarriedwomanworkerwasobviouslyatapremium,
whilethepartialfailureofthefinancialincentiveinwartimewouldaffectthe
singlewomanworker' sattitudetounionstrugglesforhigherwages, inthesame
wayasitconditionedherresponsetosuchthingsasproductivitybonuses .
Bywayofconclusion, themobilisationofwomenintheSecondWorldWar
requiredadifferentkindoffamilystructurefromtheprivatisednuclearfamily
withthepaternalauthorityfigure
. Aformofex tendedfamilydeveloped, in
whichfriendsandrelativestookovercollectiveresponsibilitiestoreleasefitand
ablewomenforindustrialwork
. Thisdoesnotimplyareturnofpreviousforms
oftheex tendedfamily
. Itsconstructionaroundmechanisedmassproduction,
andtheinterventionofthestatemakeitunlikeanypreviousform
. Itwasalso
' artificial' inthatcheckswereplacedonitdevelopingapermanencewhich
wouldenableittosupercedethenuclearfamily .
Carewastakennottoweakenparentalresponsibilitymorethanwas
4 0
necessarythroughpoliciessuchasstateorganisedevacuationanddaynurseries
.
Womenwerebeingmobilised"fortheduration"only
. Theintroductionof
familyallowancesinthelastyearoftheWarwasoneamongmanypolicies
whoseobjectivewasinparttotightenthenuclearfamilystructureafterits
looseningbytheneedsofwar, asanecessaryconditionforasmoothtransition
fromwartopeacetimeindustry . Thecampaignwasgeneralised, pervadingnot
justtheprinciplesonwhichtheWelfareStatewasfounded, butnumerousareas
oflife, frompsychiatrytoPicturepost. "Theorderlinessoftheex pulsionof
womenfromindustry, demobilisation, andthereabsorptionofmeninto
industry, indicatesthesuccessofthecampaign .
AcontradictionwasatworkduringtheWar, however . Thelogicofthewar
economywastorequireunskilledmobilelabourinlargenumbers, whichcould
bethrownontotherelevantproductionpointsasdifferentneedsmade
themselvesfelt
. WomenwereneededinR. O. F . s1 941 - 42 , aircraftfactoriesand
theServices, 1 942 - 43, everywhereinthebuild- uptoD- day, andthennowhere
after1 945
. Women' sroleinthefamilyrancountertosuchex tremeformsof
mobility
. Butatthesametimethewareconomydependedascapitalist
economiesalwaysdo, onadisciplinedworkforce, preparedtoacquiesceinits
ownex ploitation. Marriedwomenweremorelikelytobedisciplinedthan
single, asaresultoftheirfamilyresponsibilities, whichinturnmaintainedthe
disciplineofothermembersofsociety . MassObservationrecognisedthe
contradiction . Inadiscussionoftheeffectsonproductionofwivestakingtime
offduringtheirhusbands' leave, theywrote :
" . . .
whilewinningtheWaristheonlybigconsideration, ifthebondsofthefamily
andcontinuityareweakenedbeyondacertainpoint, themorale, unityandwork
effortofthecountryisweakened" . ( M- O1 942 , 1 68) .
NOTES
1 . MassObservationArchive, Box 2 1 4, F ile1 664 . MassObservationwasfoundedin1 936
asan"independent, scientific, factfindingbody"whichintendedtodocument"the
processesofsocialchange, ofpoliticaltrend, ofpublicandprivateopinion" . Itofferedits
servicestoanypolitical, commercial, officialorotherbodywhichwantedtohireit .
2 . P . R. O. W
. 0. 32 1 1 1 95 38A.
3 . A. Calder, 1 97 1 , p . 61
. Aprivate' swifereceived- 1 7 /- fromthestateand7 /- fromher
husband
. Thestatealsogaveherachildallowanceof5 /- forthefirst, 3/- forthesecond, 2 /-
forthethird, and1 /- foranysubsequentchild . Thisshouldbecomparedwithaverage
weeklywartimewagesformeninmanufacturingindustrieswhichrosefrom£ 4- 1 0aweek
inJ uly1 940to£ 6- 4- 4inJ uly1 944 . ( Calder, 1 97 1 , p . 407 ) .
4
. M- O1 942 , 1 8 . ( . alder, 1 97 1 , p . 2 7 2 . Bytheendof1 941 , six millionworkerscameunder
4 1
theirprovisions . Butonly I in . directionorderswereissuedformen( mostlytobig
constructionjobsinisolatedareas)and HH, )N)0 forwomen
. Thenwbtlisationof' Bevin
boysforworkinthecoalmines, wasaseparateissue .
5 . M- OArchive, Box 7 - t, Pile
1 61 9
6 . MinistryandLabourandNationalService . Pamphlet, TheI
: ntpluymentofWomen .
suggestionstoLmployers 2 , 1 March
1 941 .
7 .
Thisisacompositefootnoteforfivepaintsintheparagraph : ( i)M- O, Peoplein
Production . pp . 1 81 - 4 . ( Nurserycampaign)( it)A
. C. H. Smith . 1 97 5 , pp . II i- 9 . ( Lady
Readingmadethisstatementin
1 94, 1 )
.
( iii)Calder, 1 97 1 , p •W9
( Wartime
ex pansionof
daynurseries) . ( iv)RossDavies, 1 97 5 . p
. 1 91 "Thenumberutdaynurseriesdidnotrise
between 1 947 and
1 969" . Sincethenithasshrunk . ( v) M- 0 . PeopleinProduction, p . lHi
H. e. g
. PicturePost, IiNovember 1 941 "WhyWomen[)ontHavebabies' byAnne Scott
J ames
. Seealso, IMitchell, PJ VchoanalVrsandF ernrnrnn . ( Perlican 1 97 5 )p2 2 7 ft
"SocialPsychotherapyandPostWarlondon
BIBLIOGRAPHY
ANGU SCALDER, The People' s War, Britain
1 939- 45
. ( Panther 1 97 1 )pp .
84- 5 .
ROSSDAVIES, WomenandWork, IArrow 1 97 5 )pp . 94- 5 .
PINMAN, Labour in theMunitionsIndustries, I H. M. S . O. 1 95 7 ) . p . 1 7 6 .
B SJ OHNSON, ed . , TheEvacuees, ( Gollancz 1 968) .
MassObservation, PeopleinProduction, an enquiryintoBritish War
Production . AreportpreparedbyM- OfortheAdvertisingService Guild . ( J ohn
Murray 1 942 ), p . 1 8 .
M- O, WarF actory, ( Gollancz
1 943), pp
. 2 6- 7 .
KMARX, Capital . vol. I, Chapterx x v, Section4 .
HENRY PELLING, BritainandtheSecondWorldWar) fontana
1 97 0), p . 303 .
ACHSMITHwithEIMMIRZIandTBLACKWEI. I. , PaperVoices, The
PopularPressandSocialChange, 1 935 - 1 965 , ( ChattoandWindus, 1 97 5 ), p . 7 2
ff.
RTTITMU SS, ProblemsofSocialPolicy,
( H
. M. S . O. 1 95 0) . Sectiononthe
Social ServicesandEvacuation, Part 2 , AdministrationandF inance
.
4 2
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~~~~ ~~~ ~~ ~~ ~~ ~ ~~ ~~~~
AnionPannekoek
THETHEORYOFTHECOLLAPSEOFCAPITALISM
TRANSLATOR'SINTRODUCTIONbyAdamBuick
Th ef ol l ow ing ar t icl eor ig inal l yap p ear edinG er manin1 9 3 4 as anuns ig ned
ar t icl ein
Rat ekor r es p ondenz(No
. 1 , J une1 9 3 4 ) andw as p ubl is h edinHol l and
byt h eG r oup s of Int er nat ional Communis t s ' . It w as inf act w r it t enbyAnt on
Pannekoek(1 8 7 3 - 1 9 6 0 ) , t h enw or l dr enow nedPr of es s or of As t r onomyat t h e
Univ er s it yof Ams t er dam . Pannekoekw as al if e- l ong Mar x is t (andinf act w r ot e
abookap p l ying t h emat er ial is t concep t ionof h is t or yt ot h eh is t or yof
as t r onomy') andat anear l ier p er iodh adbeenav er yact iv emember of t h eSocial
Democr at icandLef t Communis t mov ement s inbot h G er manyandh is nat iv e
Hol l and . As as cient is t h ew as int er es t edindial ect ical mat er ial is mas at h eor yof
s cienceandh is t w ow r it ing s know nint h eEng l is h - s p eaking w or l dbef or et h e
f ir s t w or l dw ar w er eh is 1 9 0 2 int r oduct iont oJ os ep h Diet zg en's
Th ePos it iv e
Out comeof Ph il os ol h v andh is v er yp op ul ar p amp h l et Mar x is mand
Dar w inis m (1 9 0 9 ) . His l at er cr it icis mof Lenin's dis t or t ions of dial ect ical
mat er ial is m, LeninAs Ph il os op h er
(1 9 3 8 ) , h as r ecent l ybeenr ep ubl is h edin
Eng l is h s .
Pannekoekp l acedh ims el f ont h el ef t w ing of t h eSocial Democr at ic
mov ement , being anop p onent not onl yof r ev is ionis mbut al s oof t h e'or t h odox '
cent r er ep r es ent edbyK aut s ky . Ev enbef or et h ef ir s t w or l dw ar h eh adcomet o
s eet h ef ut il it yof t h et r adit ional Social Democr at icp ol icyof mer el yt r ying t ow in
anel ect or al maj or it yont h ebas is of p r omis es t or ef or mcap it al is m, f av our ing
ins t eadcons cious mas s act ionbyt h ew or king cl as s as aw h ol e
. Hew as t h us r eady
t os up p or t t h eap p eal s of t h eBol s h ev iks af t er t h eRus s ianr ev ol ut iont os p l it
f r omt h eSocial Democr at s andf or ms ep ar at eCommunis t Par t ies . Heh adbeen
5 9
af ounding member of t h eSocial Democr at icPar t yinHol l and, abr eakaw ay
f r omt h eor t h odox Social Democr at s t h er ein1 9 0 9 w h ich becamein1 9 1 8 t h e
Communis t Par t yof Hol l and . His v iew s , h ow ev er , w er enev er t h os eof
or t h odox Bol s h ev is m . Het ookt h eir t al kabout t h er eh av ing beena's ov iet '
(= w or ker s 'council ) r ev ol ut ioninRus s ial it er al l yandur g edt h ew or king cl as s t o
h av enot h ing at al l t odow it h p ar l iament or t r adeunions andt oor g anis eins t ead
int oaut onomous w or ker s 'council s inor der t oes t abl is h Social is m, av iew h e
maint ainedf or t h er es t of h is l if e' .
Peop l ew it h s uch v iew s w er eoneof t h econs t it uent g r oup s of t h eCommunis t
Par t ies inmos t count r ies , but t h eyw er einaminor it yandw er es oon
ov er w h el medbyt h emos t imp or t ant of t h eot h er cons t it uent g r oup s , t h e
r adical is edSocial Democr at s w h obr oug h t w it h t h ems omeof t h eir r ef or mis t
il l us ions
. Int h edis p ut es w h ich br okeout bet w eent h os et w og r oup s ov er t h e
at t it udet h enew p ar t ies s h oul dt aket ow ar ds p ar l iament andt h et r adeunions ,
Leninandt h eBol s h ev ikl eader s h ip backedt h el at t er g r oup andin1 9 2 0 'Lef t
Communis t s 'l ikePannekoekw er es ing l edout f or at t ackbyLenininas p ecial
p amp h l et
Lef t w ing Communis m : AnInf ant il e Duor der (Pannekoekis t h e'K
.
Hor ner 'f r equent l ycr it icis edbyLenin) . Th eLef t Communis t s r ep l iedby
accus ing Leninof op p or t unis mandbeg ant or eal is et h es t at ecap it al is t nat ur eof
t h eBol s h ev ikr eg imew h ich t h eys oonceas edt os up p or t .
Pannekoekw as as s ociat edw it h t h e'op p os it ionmov ement 'of t h e
K APD- K ommunis t is ch eAr beit er p ar t ei
Dcut s ch l ands , t h e'Communis t
Wor ker s Par t yof G er many'- h ement ions it int h eop ening p ar ag r ap h of h is
ar t icl eandit w as v er yact iv einG er manyint h eear l yt w ent ies (it is s aidt h at at
onet imeit h ads ome5 0 , 0 0 0 member s )
. Wh ent h ep os t - w ar w or king cl as s r ev ol t
anddis cont ent inG er manyabat ed, Pannekoeks et t l eddow nt oanacademic
car eer as anas t r omer . But h er emainedaMar x is t andcont inuedt oident if y
h ims el f w it h t h eLet t Communis t t r adit ion, as r ep r es ent edbys uch j our nal s as
R#t ekor r er p ondenz,
andit s Dut ch andEng l is h l ang uag eequiv al ent s and
s ucces s or s , t ow h ich h econt r ibut edt h eoccas ional ar t icl el iket h ep r es ent one
.
Pannekoekr ef er s int h ef inal s ect ionof h is ar t icl et ot h is t r adit ionas " t h enew
w or ker s 'mov ement " , i . e . , t h os ew h ow er eop p os edt obot h r ef or mis t Social
Democr acyands t at ecap it al is t Bol s h ev is m(s omew h at g r andios et er minol og y,
s incebyt h e1 9 3 0 s it onl ycons is t edof af ew h undr edindiv idual s )
. Th eyal s o
cal l edt h ems el v es 'Council Communis t s 'as op p os edt ot h e'Par t yCommunis m'
r ep r es ent edbySt al inandTr ot s ky.
Des p it et h ef act t h at t h eK APDandmos t of 't h enew w or ker s 'mov ement '
adh er edt ot h ev iew t h at cap it al is mw oul donedaybr eakdow neconomical l y,
Pannekoekh ims el f al w ays op p os edt h is v iew . Hew as oneof t h ef ir s t t ocr it icis e
(int h e Br emer
Bur g er - Zeit ung of 2 9 and3 0 J anuar y1 9 1 3 ) t h et h eor yof
economiccol l ap s ep ut f or w ar dbyRos aLux embur g inh er book Th e
Accumul at ionof Cap it al
(1 9 1 2 ) . Her ep eat s h is 1 9 1 3 cr it icis mof Lux embur g in
t h is ar t icl e, but t h ebul kof it is dev ot edt oacr it icis mof t h er iv al t h eor yof
col l ap s ep ut f or w ar din1 9 2 9 byHenr yG r os s mann'
. Wh er eas Lux embur g h el d
t h at cap it al is mmus t ev ent ual l ybr eakdow nt h r oug h al ackof mar ket s ,
G r os s manh el dt h at t h ecaus eof cap it al is m's inev it abl eeconomicbr eak- dow n
6 0
w oul dbeal ackof p r of it s .
Th es eop p os ing v iew s s t il l div idet h os ew h ocons ider t h ems el v es Mar x is t s .
Pannekoek, h ow ev er , h adat h ir d, al mos t unique'', andr ar el yh ear d, p oint of
v iew : bot h Lux embur g andG r os s mannw er ew r ong ;cap it al is mw oul dnev er
col l ap s ef or p ur el yeconomicr eas ons ;cap it al is mw oul donl ycomet oanend -
Icol l ap s e'if youl ike - t h r oug h t h econs cious act ionof t h ew or king cl as s .
Pannekoek's v iew , w h ich is h er et r ans l at edint oEng l is h f or t h ef ir s t t ime', is
t h us s t il l p er t inent t odayw h en, as int h e1 9 3 0 s , t h er ear emanyw h ot r eat
Mar x ianeconomics as as ep ar at eacademicdis cip l inequit eindep endent of t h e
act iv it yof t h ew or king cl as s or w h o, as Pannekoekp oint s out , onl ys eew or king
cl as s act iv it yas abat t er ing r amt odis p l acet h ep r es ent r ul ing cl as s andins t al l in
t h eir p l aceav ang uar dp ar t y, w h os eeconomicex p er t s w oul dat t emp t t op l ant h e
economyinaccor dancew it h t h er ep r oduct ions ch emat h eyh adinv ent ed.
It canal s obeaddedt h at , as as t r onomyis es s ent ial l yat h eor et ical s cience
inv ol v ing mat h emat ical comp ut at ions , Pannekoekw r it es h er enot j us t as a
Mar x is t but as aMar x is t w h oh as at t h es amet imeap r of oundknow l edg eof
mat h emat ics (w h ich inf act h eal s ot aug h t at t h eUniv er s it yof Ams t er dam) .
Th equot at ions f r omG r os s mannar et r ans l at edf r omPannekoek's ar t icl eand
t h er ef er ences ar et ot h eor ig inal 1 9 2 9 Leip zig edit ionw h ich h eus ed . Th e
quot at ions f r omVol umes IandIIIof Mar x 's
Cap it al ar ef r omt h eMos cow
FLPHedit ions of 1 9 6 1 and1 9 5 9 r es p ect iv el y .
FOOTNOTES
1 . Rep ubl is h edin G r up p eInt er nat ional er K ommunir t enHol l ands , Row oh l t ,
Reinbek- Hambur g , 1 9 7 1 , andin DieZur ammenbr uch s t h eor iedes K ap it al is mur oder
Rev ol ut ionar er Subj ekt , K ar inK r amer , Ber l in, 1 9 7 3
.
2 . AHis t or yo/As t r onomy, London, 1 9 6 1 ;or ig inal l yp ubl is h edinDut ch in1 9 5 1 .
3 . LeninAs Ph il os op h er , Mer l inPr es s , London1 9 7 5 .
4 . Seeh is Wor ker s Council s
(1 9 4 6 ) , f ir s t p ubl is h edinEng l is h inAus t r al iain1 9 4 8 ;
r ep ubl is h edinAmer icain1 9 7 0 byRoot andBr anch , Cambr idg e, Mas s
.
5
. Das Akkumul at ions
- andZus ammenbr uch s g es et zdes K ap it al is ch enSys t ems , Leip zig ,
1 9 2 9 ;r ep ubl is h edin1 9 6 7 in
Ar ch iv
. Sozial is t r s ch er Lit er at ur , Fr ankf ur t . Not yet
t r ans l at edint oEng l is h .
6
. Th eonl yot h er s t op ut f or w ar das imil ar t h eor yw er et h eSPG BinBr it ainint h eir
p amp h l et Wh yCap it al is mWil l Not Col l ap s e, p ubl is h edin1 9 3 2 .
7
. AFr ench t r ans l at ionis p ubl is h edas anap p endix t o LaG auch eComms nis t een
Al l emaRne(1 9 1 8 - 1 9 2 1 ) , byDenis Aut h ier andJ eanBal l ot , Payot , Par is , 1 9 7 6 .
6 1
THETHEORYOFTHECOLLAPSEOFCAPITALISM
Th eideat h at cap it al is mw as inaf inal , it s mor t al , cr is is dominat edt h ef ir s t
year s af t er t h eRus s ianr ev ol ut ion . Wh ent h er ev ol ut ionar yw or ker s 'mov ement
inWes t er nEur op eabat ed, t h eTh ir dInt er nat ional g av eup t h is t h eor y, but it
w as maint ainedbyt h eop p os it ionmov ement , t h eK APD, w h ich adop t edt h e
t h eor yof t h emor t al cr is is of cap it al is mas t h edis t ing uis h ing f eat ur ebet w een
t h er ev ol ut ionar yandr ef or mis t p oint s of v iew . Th eques t ionof t h eneces s it y
andt h einev it abil it yof t h ecol l ap s eof cap it al is m, andt h ew ayinw h ich t h is is t o
beunder s t ood, is t h emos t imp or t ant of al l ques t ions f or t h ew or king cl as s and
it s under s t anding andt act ics . Ros aLux embur g h adal r eadydeal t w it h it in1 9 1 2
inh er book Th eAccumul at ionof Cap it al , w h er es h ecamet ot h econcl us iont h at
inap ur e, cl os edcap it al is t s ys t emt h es ur p l us v al ueneededf or accumul at ion
coul dnot ber eal is edandt h at t h er ef or et h econs t ant ex p ans ionof cap it al is m
t h r oug h t h et r adew it h non- cap it al is t count r ies w as neces s ar y
. Th is means t h at
cap it al is mw oul dcol l ap s e, t h at it w oul dnot beabl et ocont inuet oex is t any
l ong er as aneconomics ys t em, w h ent h is ex p ans ionw as nol ong er p os s ibl e . It is
t h is t h eor y, w h ich w as ch al l eng edas s oonas t h ebookw as p ubl is h edf r om
dif f er ent s ides
. w h ich t h eK APDh as of t enr ef er r edt o . Aquit edif f er ent t h eor y
w as dev el op edin1 9 2 9 byHenr ykG r os s manninh is w or k Dar Akkumj l at ionr
undZur ammenbr uch r eer et zder K ap it al ir t ir ch enSyr t emr
(Th eLaw of
Accumul at ionandCol l p as eof t h eCap it al is t Sys t em)
. G r os s manh er ededuces
t h at cap it al is mmus t col l ap s ef or p ur el yeconomicr eas ons int h es ens et h at ,
indep endent l yof h umanint er v ent ion, r ev ol ut ions , et c
. , it w oul dbeimp os s ibl e
f or it t ocont inuet oex is t as aneconomics ys t em
. Th es ev er eandl as t ing cr is is
w h ich beg anin1 9 3 0 h as cer t ainl yp r ep ar edp eop l e's minds f or s uch at h eor yof
mor t al cr is is . Th er ecent . yp ubl is h edmanif es t oof t h e
Unit edWor ker r of
Amer ica makes G r os s man's t h eor yt h et h eor et ical bas is f or anew dir ect ionf or
t h ew or ker s 'mov ement . It is t h er ef or eneces s ar yt oex amineit cr it ical l y
. But t o
dot h is ap r el iminar yex p l anat ionof Mar x 's p os it ionont h is ques t ionandt h e
p as t dis cus s ions connect edw it h it cannot beav oided .
MARXANDROSALUXEMBURG
Int h es econdp ar t of Cap it al Mar x deal t w it h t h eg ener al condit ions of
cap it al is t p r oduct ionas aw h ol e . Int h eabs t r act cas eof p ur ecap it al is t p r o-
duct ional l p r oduct ionis car r iedonf or t h emar ket , al l p r oduct s ar eboug h t and
s ol das commodit ies
. Th ev al ueof t h emeans of p r oduct ionis p as s edont ot h e
p r oduct andanew v al ueis addedbyl abour
. Th is new v al ueis br okendow nint o
t w op ar t s
: t h ev al ueof t h el abour p ow er , w h ich is p aidas w ag es andus edbyt h e
w or ker s t obuymeans of s ubs is t ence, andt h er emainder , t h es ur p l us v al ue,
w h ich g oes t ot h ecap it al is t
. Wh er et h es ur p l us v al ueis us edf or means of
s ubs is t enceandl ux ur yg oods t h ent h er eis s imp l er ep r oduct ion
;w h er eap ar t of
it is accumul at edas new cap it al t h er eis r ep r oduct iononanex t endeds cal e
.
For t h ecap it al is t s t of indont h emar ket t h emeans of p r oduct iont h eyneed
6 2
andf or t h ew or ker s t ol ikew is ef indt h emeans of s ubs is t encet h eyneed, ag iv en
p r op or t ionmus t ex is t bet w eent h ev ar ious br anch es of p r oduct ion . A
mat h emat icianw oul deas il yex p r es s t h is inal g ebr aicf or mul ae . Mar x g iv es
ins t eadnumer ical ex amp l es t oex p r es s t h es ep r op or t ions , making up cas es w it h
s el ect edf ig ur es , t os er v eas il l us t r at ions . Hedis t ing uis h es t w os p h er es , t w o
maindep ar t ment s of p r oduct ion
: t h emeans of p r oduct iondep ar t ment (1 ) and
t h emeans of cons ump t iondep ar t ment (II) . Ineach of t h es edep ar t ment s a
g iv env al ueof t h emeans of p r oduct ionus edis t r ans f er r edt ot h ep r oduct
w it h out under g oing anych ang e(cons t ant cap it al , c)
;ag iv enp ar t of t h enew l y
addedv al ueis us edt op ayf or l abour - p ow er (v ar iabl ecap it al , v ) , t h eot h er p ar t
being t h es ur p l us v al ue(s ) . If it is as s umedf or t h enumer ical ex amp l et h at t h e
cons t ant cap it al is f our t imes g r eat er t h ant h ev ar iabl ecap it al (af ig ur ew h ich
r is es w it h t ech nical p r og r es s ) andt h at t h es ur p l us v al ueis equal t ot h ev ar iabl e
cap it al (t h is r at iois det er minedbyt h er at eof ex p l oit at ion) , t h en, int h ecas eof
s imp l er ep r oduct ion, t h ef ol l ow ing f ig ur es s at is f yt h es econdit ions :
1 4 0 0 0 c+1 0 0 0 v +1 0 0 0 s = 6 0 0 0 (p r oduct
II2 0 0 0 c+5 0 0 v +5 0 0 s = 3 0 0 0 (p r oduct )
Each of t h es el ines s at is f ies t h econdit ions . Sincev +s , w h ich ar eus edas means of
cons ump t ion, ar et og et h er equal t oah al f of c, t h ev al ueof t h emeans of
p r oduct ion, Dep ar t ment 1 1 mus t p r oduceav al ueequal t oah al f t h ev al ue
p r oducedinDep ar t ment 1
. Th ent h eex act p r op or t ionis f ound : t h emeans of
p r oduct ionp r oduced(6 0 0 0 ) ar ej us t t h eamount neededf or t h enex t t ur nov er
p er iod : 4 0 0 0 cf or Dep ar t ment Iand2 0 0 0 cf or Dep ar t ment 1 1
;andt h emeans of
s ubs is t encep r oducedinDep ar t ment II(3 0 0 0 ) ar eex act l yw h at mus t be
s up p l iedf or t h ew or ker s (1 0 0 0 +5 0 0 ) andt h ecap it al is t s (1 0 0 0 +5 0 0 ) .
Toil l us t r at einas imil ar w ayt h ecas eof cap it al accumul at iont h ep ar t of
s ur p l us v al ueg oing t oaccumul at ionmus t beindicat ed
;t h is p ar t is addedt ot h e
cap it al int h ef ol l ow ing year (f or r eas ons of s imp l icit yap r oduct ionp er iodof a
year is as s umedeach t ime) s ot h at al ar g er cap it al is t h enemp l oyedineach
dep ar t ment
. Wew il l as s umeinour ex amp l et h at h al f t h es ur p l us v al ueis
accumul at ed(ands ous edf or new candnew v ) andt h at t h eot h er h al f is
cons umed(cons ump t ion, k)
. Th ecal cul at ionof t h ep r op or t ionbet w een
Dep ar t ment IandDep ar t ment 1 1 becomes al it t l emor ecomp l icat edbut canof
cour s es t il l bef ound
. It t ur ns out t h at , ont h eas s ump t ions g iv en, t h is p r op or t ion
is 1 1
: 4 , as is s h ow nint h ef ol l ow ing f ig ur es
:
I4 4 0 0 c+1 I0 0 v +1 1 0 0 s = (= 5 5 0 k+5 5 0 acc(= 4 4 0 c+l l 0 v ) ) = 6 6 0 0
1 1 1 6 0 0 c+4 0 0 v +4 0 0 s (= 2 0 0 k+2 0 0 acc(= 1 6 0 c+4 0 v ) ) = 2 4 0 0
Th ecap it al is t s need4 4 0 0 +1 6 0 0 f or t h er enew al and4 4 0 +1 6 0 f or t h e
ex t ens ionof t h eir means of p r oduct ion, andinf act t h eyf ind6 6 (X) means
of
p r oduct ionont h emar ket
. Th ecap it al is t s need5 5 0 +2 0 0 f or t h eir cons ump t ion,
t h eor ig inal w or ker s need1 1 0 0 +4 (X) andt h enew l yeng ag edw or ker s 1 1 0 +4 0 as
means of s ubs is t ence
;w h ich t og et h er is equal t ot h e2 4 (X) inf act p r oducedas
6
3
means of s us bis t ence
. Int h ef ol l ow ing year
al l t h ef ig ur es ar eincr eas edby1 0 p er
cent :
1 4 8 4 0 c+1 2 1 0 v +1 2 1 0 s (= 6 0 5 k+4 8 4 c+1 2 1 v ) = 7 2 6 0
II1 7 6 0 c+4 4 0 v +4 4 0 s (= 2 2 0 k+1 7 6 c+4 4 v ) = 2 6 4 0
Pr oduct ion can t h us cont inueincr eas ing
each year in t h e
s ame
p r op or t ion . Th is is of cour s eag r os s l yov er s imp l if iedex amp l e
. It coul dbe
mademor ecomp l icat ed, andt h us near er t or eal it y, if it is as s umedt h at t h er ear e
dif f er ent comp os it ions of cap it al (t h er at ioc
: v ) int h et w odep ar t ment s , or
dif f er ent r at es of accumul at ionor if t h er at ioc
: v is madet og r ow g r adual l y, s o
ch ang ing t h ep r op or t ionbet w eenDep ar t ment IandDep ar t ment 1 1 each year
.
Inal l t h es ecas es t h ecal cul at ionbecomes mor ecomp l icat ed, but it canal w ays be
done, s inceanunknow nf ig ur e -
t h ep r op or t ionof Dep ar t ment It oDep ar t ment
1 1 - canal w ays becal cul at edt os at is f yt h econdit iont h at demandands up p l y
coincide .
Ex amp l es of t h is canbef oundint h el it er at ur e
. Int h er eal w or l d, of cour s e,
comp l et eequil ibr iumov er ap er iodis nev er f ound ;commodit ies ar es ol df or
moneyandmoneyis onl yus edl at er t obuys omet h ing el s es ot h at h oar ds ar e
f or medw h ich act as abuf f er andar es er v e . Andcommodit ies r emainuns ol d
;
andt h er eis t r adew it h non- cap it al is t ar eas
. But t h ees s ent ial , imp or t ant p oint is
s eencl ear l yf r omt h es er ep r oduct ions ch emes
: f or p r oduct iont oex p andand
s t eadil yp r og r es s g iv enp r op or t ions mus t ex is t bet w eent h ep r oduct iv es ect or s
;
inp r act icet h es ep r op or t ions ar eap p r ox imat el yr eal is ed
;t h eydep endont h e
f ol l ow ing f act or s
: t h eor g aniccomp os it ionof cap it al , t h er at eof ex p l oit at ion,
andt h ep r op or t ionof s ur p l us v al uew h ich is accumul at ed
.
Mar x didnot h av et h ech ancet op r ov ideacar ef ul l yp r ep ar edp r es ent at ionof
t h es eex amp l es (s eeEng el s 'int r oduct iont ot h es econdv ol umeof
Cap it al ) .
Th is
is nodoubt w h yRos aLux embur g bel iev edt h at s h eh addis cov er edanomis s ion
h er e, ap r obl emw h ich Mar x h adov er l ookedands ol ef t uns ol v edandw h os e
s ol ut ions h eh adw or kedout inh er book
Th e Accumul at ionof Cap it al
(1 9 1 2 ) .
Th ep r obl emw h ich s eemedt oh av ebeenl ef t op enw as w h ow as t obuyf r om
each ot h er mor eandmor emeans of p r oduct ionandmeans of s ubs is t encet h is
w oul dbeap oint l es s cir cul ar mov ement f r omw h ich not h ing w oul dr es ul t
. Th e
s ol ut ionw oul dl ieint h eap p ear anceof buyer s s it uat edout s idecap it al is m,
f or eig nov er s eas mar ket s w h os econques t w oul dt h er ef or ebeav it al ques t ionf or
cap it al is m
. Th is w oul dbet h eeconomicbas is of imp er ial is m
.
But f r omw h at w eh av es aidbef or eir is cl ear t h at Ros aLux embur g h as h er s el f
madeamis t akeh er e
. Int h es ch emaus edas t h eex amp l eit canbecl ear l ys een
t h at al l t h ep r oduct s ar es ol dw it h incap it al is mit s el f
. Not onl yt h ep ar t of t h e
v al uet r ans mit t ed(4 4 0 0 +1 6 0 0 ) but al s ot h e4 4 0 +1 6 0 w h ich cont aint h es ur p l us
v al ueaccumul at edar ebr oug h t , int h ep h ys ical f or mof means of p r oduct ion, by
t h ecap it al is t s w h ow is h t os t ar t t h ef ol l ow ing year w it h int ot al 6 6 0 0 means of
p r oduct ion
. Int h es amew ay, t h e1 1 0 +4 0 f r oms ur p l us v al ueis inf act boug h t by
t h eaddit ional w or ker s
. Nor is it p oint l es s
: t op r oduce, t os el l p r oduct s t oeach
ot h er , t ocons ume, t op r oducemor eis t h ew h ol ees s enceof cap it al is mands oof
men's l if eint h is modeof p r oduct ion
. Th er eis nouns ol v edp r obl emh er ew h ich
6 4
Mar x ov er l ooked .
ROSALUXEMBURG ANDOTTOBAUER
Soonaf t er Ros aLux embur g 's bookw as p ubl is h edit w as cr it icis edf r om
dif f er ent s ides
. Th us Ot t oBauer w r ot eacr it icis minanar t icl eint h e NeueZes t
(7 - 1 4 Mar ch 1 9 1 3 )
. As inal l t h eot h er cr it icis ms Bauer s h ow edt h at p r oduct ion
ands al es docor r es p ond
. But h is cr it icis mh adt h es p ecial f eat ur et h at it l inked
accumul at iont op op ul at iong r ow t h
. Ot t oBauer f ir s t as s umes as ocial is t s ociet y
inw h ich t h ep op ul at iong r ow s each year byf iv ep er cent
;t h ep r oduct ionof
means of s ubs is t encemus t t h er ef or eg r ow int h es amep r op or t ionandt h e
means of p r oduct ionmus t incr eas e, becaus eof t ech nical p r og r es s , at af as t er
r at e . Th es ameh as t oh ap p enunder cap it al is mbut h er et h is ex p ans iondoes
not t akep l acet h r oug h p l annedr eg ul at ion, but t h r oug h t h eaccumul at ionof
cap it al . Ot t oBauer p r ov ides as anumer ical ex amp l eas ch emaw h ich s at is f ies
t h es econdit ions int h es imp l es t w ay
: anannual g r ow t h of v ar iabl ecap it al of f iv e
p er cent andof cons t ant cap it al of t enp er cent andar at eof ex p l oit at ionof 1 0 0
p er cent (s = v ) . Th es econdit ions t h ems el v es det er minet h es h ar eof s ur p l us
v al uew h ich is cons umedandt h es h ar ew h ich mus t be accumul at edinor der t o
p r oducet h ep os it edg r ow t h of cap it al
. Nodif f icul t cal cul at ions ar eneededt o
dr aw up as ch emaw h ich p r oduces t h eex act g r ow t h f r omyear t oyear :
6
5
Bauer cont inues h is s ch emaf or f our year s andal s ocal cul at es t h es ep ar at e
f ig ur es f or Dep ar t ment s IandII. Th is w as s uf f icient f or t h e* p ur p os eof s h ow ing
t h at nop r obl eminRos aLux embur g 's s ens eex is t ed . But t h ech ar act er of t h is
cr it icis mw as it s el f boundt ocal l f or t h cr it icis m . It s bas icideais w el l br oug h t out
byBauer 's int r oduct ionof p op ul at iong r ow t h inas ocial is t s ociet y . Cap it al is m
t h er ebyap p ear s as anunp l anneds ocial is m, as aw il dandkicking f oal t h at h as
not yet beenbr okeninandw h ich onl yneeds t obet amedbyt h eh ands of t h e
s ocial is t t r ainer . Accumul at ionh er es er v es onl yt oenl ar g ep r oduct ionas
r equir edbyp op ul at iong r ow t h , j us t as cap it al is mh as t h eg ener al f unct ionof
p r ov iding mankindw it h means of s ubs is t ence
;but , becaus eof t h el ackof
p l anning , bot h t h es ef unct ions ar ecar r iedout badl yander r at ical l y, s omet imes
p r ov iding t oomuch , s omet imes t ool it t l e, andcaus ing cat as t r op h ies . Ag ent l e
g r ow t h of p op ul at ionof 5 p er cent ayear mig h t w el l s uit as ocial is t s ociet yin
w h ich al l mankindw as neat l yl inedup . But f or cap it al is m, as it is andw as , t h is is
aninap p r op r iat eex amp l e . Cap it al is m's w h ol eh is t or yh as beenar us h f or w ar d,
av iol ent ex p ans ionf ar beyondt h el imit s of p op ul at iong r ow t h . Th edr iv ing
Year 1 2 0 0 , 0 0 0 c+1 0 0 , 0 0 0 v +1 0 0 , 0 0 s (= 2 0 , 0 0 0 c+5 , 0 0 0 v +7 5 , 0 0 0 k)
Year 2 2 2 0 , 0 0 0 c+1 0 5 , 0 0 0 c+1 0 5 , 0 0 0 s (= 2 2 , 0 0 0 c+5 , 2 5 0 v +7 7 , 7 5 0 k)
Year 3 2 4 2 , 0 0 0 c+f 1 0 , 2 5 0 v +I1 0 , 2 5 0 s (= 2 4 , 2 0 0 c+5 , 5 I2 v +8 0 , 5 3 8 k)
f or ceh as beent h eur g et oaccumul at ion ;t h eg r eat es t p os s ibl eamount of s ur p l us
v al ueh as beeninv es t edas new cap it al and, t os et it inmot ion, mor eandmor e .
s ect ions of t h ep op ul at ionh av ebeendr aw nint ot h ep r oces s
. Th er ew as ev en,
andt h er es t il l is , al ar g es ur p l us of w or ker s w h or emainout s ideor h al f out s ideas
ar es er v e, kep t r eadyt os er v et h eneedt os et inmot iont h eaccumul at edcap it al ,
being dr aw n t it or r ej ect edas r equir edbyt h is need . Th is es s ent ial andbas ic
f eat ur eof cap it al is mw as comp l et el yig nor edinBauer 's anal ys is .
It w as obv ious t h at Ros aLux embur g w oul dt aket h is as t h et ar g et f or h er
ant i- cr it ique . Inans w er t ot h ep r t x of t h at t h er ew as nop r obl emof omis s ionin
Mar x 's s ch emas , s h ecoul dbr ing f or w ar dnot h ing much el s et h ant h es cof f ing
decl ar at iont h at ev er yt h ing canbemadet ow or kbeaut if ul l yinar t if icial
ex amp l es . But making p op ul at iong r ow t h t h er eg ul at or of accumul at ionw as s o
cont r ar yt ot h es p ir it of Mar x iant each ing t h at t h es ub- t it l eof h er ant i- cr it ique
" Wh at t h eEp ig ones h av edonet oMar x ianTh eor y" w as t h is t imequit es uit abl e .
It w as not aques t ionh er eias it w as inRos aLux embur g 's ow ncas e) of as imp l e
s cient if icmis t ake ;Bauer 's mis t aker ef l ect edt h ep r act ical p ol it ical p oint of v iew
of t h eSocial Democr at s of t h at t ime . Th eyf el t t h ems el v es t obet h ef ut ur e
s t at es menw h ow oul dt akeov er f r omt h ecur r ent r ul ing p ol it icians andcar r y
t h r oug h t h eor g anis at ionof p r oduct ion
;t h eyt h er ef or edidnot s eecap it al is mas
t h ecomp l et eop p os it et ot h ep r ol et ar iandict at or s h ip t obees t abl is h edby
r ev ol ut ion, but r at h er as amodeof p r oducing means of s ubs is t encet h at coul dbe
imp r ov edandh adnot yet beenbr oug h t under cont r ol .
G ROSSMANN'SREPRODUCTIONSCHEMA
Henr ykG r os s manl inkedh is r ep r oduct ions ch emat ot h at s et out byOt t o
Bauer . Henot icedt h at it is not p os s ibl et ocont inueit indef init el yw it h out it in
t imecoining up ag ains t cont r adict ions . Th is is v er yeas yt os ee
. Ot t oBauer
as s umes acons t ant cap it al of 2 0 0 , 0 0 0 w h ich g r ow s each year by1 0 p er cent anda
v ar iabl ecap it al of 1 0 0 , 0 0 0 w h ich g r ow s each year by5 p er cent , w it h t h er at eof
s ur p l us v al uebeing as s umedr obe1 0 0 p er cent ,
i . e. , t h es ur p l us v al ueeach year is
equal t ot h ev ar iabl ecap it al
. Inaccor dancew it h t h el aw s of mat h emat ics , as um
w h ich incr eas es each year by1 0 p er cent doubl es it s el f af t er 7 year s , quadr up l es
it s el f af t er 1 4 year s , incr eas es t ent imes af t er 2 3 year s andah undr edt imes af t er
4 6 year s
. Th us t h ev ar iabl ecap it al andt h es ur p l us v al uew h ich int h ef ir s t year
w er eeach equal
t o h al f t h econs t ant cap it al ar eaf t er 4 6 year s onl yequal t oa
t w ent iet h of acons t ant cap it al w h ich h as g r ow nenor mous l yov er t h es ame
p er iod . Th es ur p l us v al ueis t h er ef or ef ar f r omenoug h t oens ur et h e1 0 p er cent
annual g r ow t h of cons t ant cap it al .
Th is does not r es ul t j us t f r omt h er at es of g r ow t h of 1 0 and5 p er cent ch os en
byBauer . For inf act under cap it al is ms ur p l us v al ueincr eas es l es s r ap idl yt h an
cap it al . It is aw el l - know nf act t h at , becaus eof t h is , t h er at eof p r of it mus t
cont inual l yf al l w it h t h edev el op ment of cap it al is m
. Mar x dev ot edmany
ch ap t er s t ot h is f al l int h er at eof p r of it . If t h er at eof p r of it f al l s
t o5 p er cent t h e
cap it al cannol ong er beincr eas edby1 0 p er cent , f or t h eincr eas eincap it al out of
6 6
accumul at eds ur p l us v al ueis neces s ar il ys mal l er t h ant h es ur p l us v al ueit s el f .
Th er at eof accumul at ionev ident l yt h us h as t h er at eof p r of it as it s h ig h er
l imit
(s eeMar x , Cap it al ,
Vol umeIII, p . 2 3 6 , w h er eit is s t at edt h at " t h er at eof
accumul at ionf al l s w it h t h er ar eof p r of it " )
. Th eus eof af ix edf ig ur e - 1 0 p er cent
- w h ich w as accep t abl ef or ap er iodof af ew year s as
inBauer , becomes
unaccep t abl ew h ent h er ep r oduct ions ch emaar econt inuedov er al ong p er iod
.
Yet G r os s man, unconcer ned, cont inues Bauer 's s ch emayear byyear and
bel iev es t h at h eis t h er ebyr ep r oducing r eal cap it al is m .
Het h enf inds t h e
f ol l ow ing f ig ur es f or cons t ant andv ar iabl ecap it al , s ur p l us v al ue, t h e
neces s ar y
accumul at ionandt h eamount r emaining f or t h econs ump t ionof t h ecap it al is t s
(t h ef ig ur es h av ebeenr oundedt ot h enear es t t h ous and)
:
Af t er 2 1 year s t h es h ar eof s ur p l us v al uer emaining f or cons ump t ionbeg ins
t o
diminis h
;int h e3 4 t h it al mos t dis ap p ear s andint h e3 5 t h it is ev enneg at iv e ;t h e
Sh yl ockof cons t ant cap it al p it il es s l ydemands it s p oundof f l es h ,
it w ant s t o
g r ow at 1 0 p er cent , w h il et h ep oor cap it al is t s g oh ung r yandkeep not h ing
f or
t h eir ow ncons ump t ion
.
Fr omt h e3 5 t h year t h er ef or eaccumul at ion - ont h ebas is of t h eex is t ing t ech nical
p r og r es s
- cannot keep up w it h t h ep ace of p op ul at iong r ow t h
. Accumul at ionw oul d
bet oos mal l and
t h er ew oul dnecer t ar il yach ear er er v ear my w h ich w oul d h av et o
g r ow each year (G r os s mann, p
. 1 2 6 ) .
Ins uch cir cums t ances t h ecap it al is t s donot t h inkof cont inuing p r oduct ion
. Or if
t h eydo, t h eydon't dos o
;f or , inv iew of t h edef icit of IIincap it al accumul at ion,
t h eyw oul dh av et or educep r oduct ion
. (Inf act t h eyw oul dh av eh adt oh av edone
s obef or einv iew of t h eir cons ump t ionex p ens es ) .
Ap ar t of t h ew or ker s
t h er ef or ebecomeunemp l oyed
;t h enap ar t of t h ecap it al becomes
unus edand
t h es ur p l us v al uep r oduceddecr eas es
;t h emas s of s ur p l us v al uef al l s and
as t il l
g r eat er def icit ap p ear s inaccumul at ion,
w it h as t il l g r eat er incr eas ein
unemp l oyment
. Th is , t h en, is t h eeconomiccol l ap s eof cap it al is m . Cap it al is m
becomes economical l yimp os s ibl e
. Th us does G r os s manns ol v et h ep r obl em
w h ich h eh ads et onp ag e7 9 :
How , inw h at w ay, canaccumul at ionl eadt ot h ecol l ap s e of
cap it al is m?
6 7
c v s accumul at ion
k
Commencement
2 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0
2 0 +5 = 2 5 7 5
Af t er 2 0 year s
1 2 2 2 2 5 3 2 5 3 1 2 2 +1 3 = 1
. 3 5 1 1 8
Af t er 3 0 year s
3 1 7 0 4 1 2 4 1 2 3 1 7 +2 1 = 3 3 8
7 4
Af t er 3 4 year s
4 6 4 1 5 0 0 5 0 0 4 6 4 +2 5 = 4 8 9
1 1
Af t er 3 5 year s
5 1 0 6 5 2 5 5 2 5 5 1 0 +2 6 = 5 3 6
- II
Her ew ef indp r es ent edw h at int h eol der Mar x is t l it er at ur ew as al w ays t r eat ed
as as t up idmis under s t anding of op p onent s , f or w h ich t h ename't h ebig cr as h '
w as cur r ent . Wit h out t h er ebeing ar ev ol ut ionar ycl as s t oov er comeand
dis p os s es s t h ebour g eois ie, t h eendof cap it al is mcomes f or p ur el yeconomic
r eas ons
;t h emach inenol ong er w or ks , it cl og s up , p r oduct ionh as become
imp os s ibl e . InG r os s mann's w or ds
:
. . . w it h t h ep r og r es s of cap it al accumul at iont h ew h ol emech anis m, des p it ep er iodic
int er r up t ions , neces s ar il yap p r oach es near er andnear er t oit s end . . . Th et endency
t ocol l ap s et h enw ins t h eup p er h andandmakes it s el f f el t abs ol ut el yas 't h ef inal
cr is is '(p .
1 4 0 ) .
and, inal at er p as s ag e :
. . . f r om our anal ys is it is cl ear t h at , al t h oug h onour as s ump t ions obj ect iv el y
neces s ar yandal t h oug h t h emoment w h enit w il l
occur canbep r ecis el ycal cul at ed,
t h ecol l ap s e of
cap it al is mneednot t h er ef or er es ul t aut omat ical l ybyit s el f at t h e
aw ait edmoment andt h er ef or eneednot bew ait edf or p ur el yp as s iv el y(p
. 6 0 1 ) .
Int h is p as s ag e, w h er eit mig h t bet h oug h t f or amoment t h at it is g oing t obea
ques t ionof t h eact iv er ol eof t h ep r ol et ar iat as ag ent of t h er ev ol ut ion,
G r os s mannh as inmindonl ych ang es inw ag es andw or king t imew h ich up s et
t h enumer ical as s ump t ions andt h er es ul t s of t h ecal cul at ion . It is int h is s ens e
t h at h econt inues :
It t h us ap p ear s t h at t h eideaof aneces s ar ycol l ap s ef or obj ect iv er eas ons is not at al l
incont r adict iont ot h ecl as s s t r ug g l e ;t h at , ont h econt r ar y, t h ecol l ap s e, des p it eit s
obj ect iv el yg iv enneces s it y, canbew idel yinf l uencedbyt h el iv ing f or ces of cl as s es in
s t r ug g l eandl eav es acer t ainmar g inof p l ayf or t h eact iv eint er v ent ionof cl as s es . It is
f or t h is p r ecis er eas ont h at inMar x t h ew h ol eanal ys is of t h ep r oces s of r ep r oduct ion
l eads t ot h ecl as s s t r ug g l e(p . 6 0 2 ) .
Th e" it is f or t h is p r ecis er eas on" is r ich , as if t h ecl as s s t r ug g l emeant f or
Mar x onl yt h es t r ug g l eov er w ag ecl aims andh our s of w or k .
Let us cons ider al it t l ecl os er t h ebas is of t h is col l ap s e
. Onw h at is t h e
neces s ar yg r ow t h of cons t ant cap it al by1 0 p er cent each t imebas ed?Int h e
quot at iong iv enabov eit w as s t at edt h at t ech nical p r og r es s (t h er at eof
p op ul at iong r ow t h being g iv en) p r es cr ibes ag iv enannual g r ow t h of cons t ant
cap it al . Soit coul dt h enbes aid, w it h out t h edet our of t h ep r oduct ions ch ema
:
6 8
w h ent h er at eof p r of it becomes l es s t h ant h er at eof g r ow t h demanded
by
t ech nical p r og r es s t h encap it al is mmus t br eakdow n
. Leav ing as idet h ef act t h at
t h is h as not h ing t odow it h Mar x , w h at is t h is g r ow t h of cap it al demandedby
t ech nol og y?Tech nical imp r ov ement s ar eint r oduced, int h econt ex t of mut ual
comp et it ion, inor der t oobt ainanex t r ap r of it (r el at iv e
s ur p l us v al ue) ;t h e
int r oduct ionof t ech nical imp r ov ement s is h ow ev er l imit ed
byt h ef inancial
r es our ces av ail abl e
. Andev er ybody know s t h at dozens of inv ent ions and
t ech nical imp r ov ement s
ar enot int r oducedand ar eof t endel iber at el y
s up p r es s edbyt h eent r ep r eneur s s oas not t odev al ue
t h eex is t ing t ech nical
ap p ar at us
. Th eneces s it yof t ech nical p r og r es s does not act as anex t er nal f or ce ;
it w or ks t h r oug h men, andf or t h emneces s it yis not v al idbeyondp os s ibil it y
.
But l et us admit t h at t h is is cor r ect andt h at , as ar es ul t of t ech nical p r og r es s ,
cons t ant cap it al h as t oh av eav ar ying p r op or t ion, as int h es ch ema
: int h e3 0 t h
year 3 1 7 0 : 4 1 2 , int h e3 4 t h year 4 6 4 1 : 5 0 0 , int h e3 5 t h
year 5 1 0 6 : 5 2 5 , andint h e
3 6 t h , 5 6 1 6
: 5 5 1 . Int h e3 5 t h year t h es up l us v al ueis onl y
5 2 5 , 0 0 0 andis not
enoug h f or 5 1 0 , 0 0 0 t obeaddedt ocons t ant cap it al and2 6 , 0 0 0 t ov ar iabl e
cap it al
. G r os s mannl et s t h econs t ant cap it al g r ow by5 1 0 , 0 0 0 and
r et ains onl y
1 5 , 0 0 0 as t h eincr eas einv ar iabl ecap it al - 1 1 , 0 0 0 t ool it t l e! Hes ays of t h is
:
1 1 , 5 0 9 w or ker s (out of 5 5 1 , 0 0 0 )
r emainunemp l oyed ;t h er es er v ear mybeg ins t o
f or m
. Andbecaus et h ew h ol eof t h ew or king p op ul at iondoes not ent er t h ep r oces s
of p r oduct ion, t h ew h ol eamount of ex t r acons t ant cap it al
(5 1 0 . 5 6 3 ) is not needed
f or t h ep ur ch as eof means of p r oduct ion
. If ap op ul at ion of 5 5 1 , 5 8 4 us es acons t ant
cap it al of 5 , 6 1 6 2 0 0 , t h enap op ul at ionof
5 4 0 , 0 7 5 w oul dus eacons t ant cap it al of
onl y 5 , 4 9 9 , 0 1 5 . Th er e, t h er ef or e, r emains an
ex cer r cap it al of 1 1 7 , 1 8 5 w it h out an
inv es t ment out l et . Th us t h es ch emas h ow s ap er f ect ex amn(r . . f r h r
cir uat ionMar x
h adinmindw h enh eg av et h ecor r es p onding p ar t of t h et h ir dv ol umeof
Cap it al
t h e
t it l e" Ex ces s Cap it al andEx ces s Pop ul at ion" (p . 1 1 6 ) .
G r os s mannh as cl ear l ynot not icedt h at t h es e
1 1 , 0 0 0 becomeunemp l oyed
onl ybecaus e, inacomp l et ear bit r ar yf as h ionandw it h out g iv ing anyr eas on,
h e
makes t h ev ar iabl ecap it al bear t h ew h ol edef icit , w h il el et t ing t h econs t ant
cap it al cal ml yg r ow by1 0 p er cent as if not h ing w as w r ong
;but w h enh er eal is es
t h at t h er ear enow or ker s f or al l t h es emach ines , or mor ecor r ect l yt h at t h er e is
nomoneyt op ayt h eir w ag es , h ep r ef er s not t oins t al l t h emands oh as t ol et t h e
cap it al l ieunus ed . It is onl yt h r oug h t h is mis t aket h at h ear r iv es at
a'p er f ect
ex amp l e'of ap h enomenonw h ich ap p ear s dur ing or dinar ycap it al is t cr is es
. In
f act t h eent r ep r eneur s can
onl yex p andt h eir p r oduct iont ot h eex t ent t h at
t h eir cap it al is enoug h f or bot h mach iner yandw ag es combined .
If t h et ot al
s ur p l us v al ueis t oos mal l , t h is w il l bediv ided, inaccor dancew it h t h eas s umed
t ech nical cons t r aint , p r op or t ionat el y
bet w eent h eel ement s of cap it al ;t h e
cal cul at ions h ow s t h at of t h e5 2 5 , 3 1 9 s ur p l us v al ue, 5 0 0 , 4 0 9 mus t beadded
t o
cons t ant cap it al and2 4 , 9 1 0 t ov ar iabl ecap it al inor der t oar r iv eat
t h ecor r ect
p r op or t ioncor r es p onding t ot ech nical p r og r es s
. Not 1 1 , 0 0 0 but 1 , 3 2 6 w or ker s
6 9
ar es et f r eeandt h er eis noques t ionof ex ces s cap it al . If t h es ch emes is cont inued
int h is cor r ect w ay, ins t eadof acat as t r op h icer up t iont h er eis anex t r emel ys l ow
incr eas eint h enumber of w or ker s l aidof f .
But h ow cans omeoneat t r ibut et h is al l eg edcol l ap s e t o
Mar x andp r oduce,
ch ap t er af t er ch ap t er , dozens of quot at ions f r omMar x ?Al l t h es equot at ions in
f act r el at et oeconomiccr is es , t ot h eal t er nat ing cycl eof p r os p er it yand
dep r es s ion . Wh il et h es ch emah as t o s er v et os h ow ap r edet er minedf inal
economiccol l ap s eaf t er 3 5 year s , w er eadt w op ag es f ur t h er onof " t h eMar x ian
t h eor yof t h eeconomiccycl eex p oundedh er e" (p . 1 2 3 ) .
G r os s mannis onl yabl et og iv et h eimp r es s iont h at h eis p r es ent ing at h eor y
of Mar x 's bycont inual l ys cat t er ing int h is w ayt h r oug h out h is ow ns t at ement s
comment s w h ich Mar x madeonp er iodiccr is es
. But not h ing at al l is t obef ound
inMar x about af inal col l ap s einl inew it h (ir os s mann's s ch ema
. It is t r uet h at
G r os s mannquot es acoup l eof p as s ag es w h ich donot deal w it h cr is es
. Th us h e
w r it es onp ag e2 6 3 :
It ap p ear s t h at 'cap it al is t p r oduct ionmeet s int h edev el op ment of it s p r oduct iv e
f or ces abar r ier

(Mar x , Cap it al . Vol . III, p . 2 3 7 ) .
But if w eop enVol umeIIIof Cap it al at p ag e2 3 7 w er eadt h er e :
But t h emaint h ing about t h eir (i . e . . Ricar doandot h er economis t s ') h or r or of t h e
f al l ing r at eof p r of it is t h ef eel ing t h at cap it al is t p r oduct ionmeet s int h e
dev el op ment of it s p r oduct iv ef or ces abar r ier . . .
w h ich is s omet h ing quit edif f er ent . Andonp ag e7 9 G r os s manng iv es t h is
quot at ionf r omMar x as p r oof t h at ev ent h ew or d'col l ap s e'comes f r omMar x
:
Th is p r oces s w oul ds oonbr ing about t h ecol l ap s eof cap it al is t p r oduct ionif it w er e
not f or count er act ing t endencies , w h ich h av econt inuous decent r al is ing ef f ect
al ong s idet h ecent r ip et al one
1 Cap it al , Vol . II, p . 2 4 1 ) .
As G r os s manncor r ect l yemp h as is es , t h es ecount er act ing t endencies r ef er t o
s oon's ot h at w it h
t h emt h ep r oces s onl yt akes p l acemor es l ow l y . But w as Mar x
t al king h er eof ap ur el yeconomiccol l ap s e?Let us r eadt h ep as s ag ew h ich
p r ecedes inMar x :
7
0
It is t h is s ames ev er anceof t h econdit ions of p r oduct ion, ont h eoneh and, f r omt h e
p r oducer s , ont h eot h er , t h at f or ms t h econcep t ion of cap it al . It beg ins w it h
p r imit iv eaccumul at ion, ap p ear s as ap er manent p r oces s int h eaccumul at ionand
concent r at ionof cap it al , andex p r es s es it s el f f inal l yas cent r al is at ion
of ex is t ing
cap it al s inaf ew h ands andadep r iv at ionof manyof t h eir cap it al (t ow h ich
ex p r op r iat ionis now ch ang ed)
.
It is cl ear t h at t h ecol l ap s ew h ich t h us r es ul t s is , as s oof t eninMar x , t h e
ending of cap it al is mbys ocial is m . Sot h er eis not h ing int h equot at ions f r om
Mar x : af inal economiccat as t r onh e canh eas
l it t l er eadf r omt h emas it canbe
concl udedf r omt h er ep r oduct ions ch ema
. But cant h es ch emas er v et oanal ys e
andex p l ainp er iodiccr is es ?G r os s manns eeks t oj oint h et w ot og et h er
: " Th e
Mar x iant h eor yof col l ap s eis at t h es amet imeat h eor yof cr is es "
-
s or eads t h e
beg inning of Ch ap t er 8 (p . 1 3 7 ) . But as p r oof h eonl yp r ov ides adiag r am(p
.
1 4 1 ) inw h ich as t eep l yr is ing 'accumul at ionl ine'is div idedaf t er 3 5 year s ;but
h er eacr is is occur s ev er y5 or 7 year s w h enint h es ch emaev er yt h ing is g oing
s moot h l y . If amor er ap idcol l ap s eis des ir edit w oul dbeobt ainedif t h eannual
r at eof g r ow t h of cons t ant cap it al w as not 1 0 p er cent but much g r eat er . Int h e
as cendant p er iodof t h eeconomiccycl et h er eis inf act amuch mor er ap id
g r ow t h of cap it al ;t h ev ol umeof p r oduct ionincr eas es byl eap s andbounds ;but
t h is g r ow t h h as not h ing at al l t odow it h t ech nical p r og r es s . Indeed, int h es e
p er iods v ar iabl ecap it al t ooincr eas es r ap idl ybyl eap s . But w h yt h er emus t bea
col l ap s eaf t er 5 or 7 year s r emains obs cur e . Inot h er w or ds , t h er eal caus es w h ich
p r oducet h er ap idr is eandt h ent h ecol l ap s eof economicact iv it yar eof aquit e
dif f er ent nat ur ef r omw h at is s et out in G r os s mann's r ep r oduct ions ch ema .
Mar x s p eaks of ov er - accumul at ionp r ecip it at ing acr is is , of t h er ebeing t oo
much accumul at eds ur p l us v al uew h ich is not inv es t edandw h ich dep r es s es
p r of it s
. But G r os s mann's col l ap s ecomes about t h r oug h t h er ebeing t ool it t l e
accumul at eds ur p l us v al ue
.
Th es imul t aneous s ur p l us of unus edcap it al andunemp l oyedw or ker s is a
t yp ical f eat ur eof cr is es ;G r os s mann's s ch emal eads t oal ackof s uf f icient cap it al ,
w h ich h ecanonl yt r ans f or mint oas ur p l us bycommit t ing t h emis t ake
ment ionedabov e . SoG r os s mann's s ch emacannot demons t r at eaf inal col l ap s e,
nor does it cor r es p ondt ot h er eal p h enomenaof col l ap s e, cr is es .
It canal s obeaddedt h at h is s ch ema, inconf or mit yw it h it s or ig in, s uf f er s
f r omt h es amedef ect as Bauer 's : t h er eal , imp et uous p us h ing f or w ar dof
cap it al is mov er t h ew or l dw h ich br ing s mor eandmor ep eop l es under it s
dominat ionis h er er ep r es ent edbyacal mandr eg ul ar p op ul at iong r ow t h of 5
p er cent ayear , as if cap it al is mw as conf inedinacl os ednat ional economy .
G ROSSMANNVERSUSMARX
G r os s mannp r ides h ims el f f or h av ing f or t h ef ir s t t imecor r ect l y
r econs t r uct edMar x 's t h eor yint h ef aceof t h edis t or t ions of t h eSocial
7 1
Democr at s .
One of t h es enew addit ions t oknow l edg e. (l it p r oudl ys ays at t h ebeg inning
of t h e
int r oduct ion) ,
IS
t ot et h eor y of ut l l ap s e, s et out bel ow , w h ich r ep r es ent s t h ep or t al
col umn of Mar x s s ys t em
of economict h oug h t .
Weh av es eenh ow l it t l ew h at G r os s manncons ider s t obeat h eor yof col l ap s e
h as " t odow it h Mar x . Nev er t h el es s , onh is ow np er s onal int er p r et at ion, h ecoul d
w el l bel iev eh ims el f t obeinag r eement w it h Mar x . But t h er ear eot h er p oint s
w h er et h is does not h ol d . Becaus eh es ees h is s ch emaas acor r ect r ep r es ent at ion
of cap it al is t dev el op ment , G r os s mandeduces f r omit inv ar ious p l aces
ex p l anat ions w h ich , as h eh ims el f h adp ar t l ynot iced, cont r adict t h ev iew s
dev el op edin Cap it al .
Th is is s o, f ir s t of al l , f or t h eindus t r ial r es er v ear my . Accor ding t o
G r os s mann's s ch ema, f r omt h e3 5 t h year acer t ainnumber of w or ker s become
unemp l oyedandar es er v ear myf or ms .
Th ef or mat ionof t h er es er v ear my, v iz
. , t h el aying of f of w or ker s , w h ich w ear e
dis cus s ing , mus t ber ig or ous l ydis t ing uis h edf r omt h el aying of f of w or ker s duet o
mach ines . Th eel iminat ionof w or ker s bymach ines w h ich Mar x des cr ibes int h e
emp ir ical p ar t of t h ef ir s t v ol umeof Cap it al (Ch ap t er 1 3 ) is at ech nical f act . . .
(p p .
1 2 8 - 9 ) . . .
but t h el aying of f of w or ker s , t h ef or mat ionof t h er es er v ear my, w h ich
Mar x s p eaks of int h ech ap t er ont h eaccumul at ionof cap it al (Ch ap t er 2 3 ) is not
caus ed - as h as beencomp l et el yig nor edunt il now int h el it er at ur e
-
byt h et ech nical
f act of t h eint r oduct ionof mach iner y, but byt h e l ackof inv es t ment op p or t unit ies
. . . (p . 1 3 0 ) .
Th is amount s bas ical l yt os aying : if t h es p ar r ow s f l yaw ay, it is not becaus eof
t h eg uns h ot but becaus eof t h eir t imidit y . Th ew or ker s ar eel iminat edby
mach ines ;t h eex p ans ionof p r oduct ional l ow s t h eminp ar t t of indw or kag ain ;
int h is coming andg oing s omeof t h emar ep as s edbyor r emainout s ide
. Mus t
t h ef act t h at t h eyh av enot yet beenr e- eng ag edber eg ar dedas t h ecaus eof t h eir
unemp l oyment ?If Ch ap t er 2 3 of Cap it al Vol . Iis r ead, it is al w ays el iminat ion
bymach ines t h at is t r eat edas t h ecaus eof t h er es er v ear my, w h ich is p ar t ial l y
r eabs or bedor r el eas edanew andr ep r oduces it s el f as ov er p op ul at ion, accor ding
t ot h eeconomics it uat ion . G r os s mannw or r ies h ims el f f or s ev er al p ag es ov er
t h ep r oof t h at it is t h eeconomicr el at ionc : v t h at op er at es h er e, andnot t h e
t ech nical r el at ionmeans of p r oduct ion : l abour p ow er ;inf act t h et w oar e
ident ical . But t h is f or mat ionof t h er es er v ear my, w h ich accor ding t oMar x
occur s ev er yw h er eandal w ays f r omt h ecommencement of cap it al is m, andin
7 2
w h ich w or ker s
ar e r ep l aced by mach ines , is not ident ical t o t h e
al l eg ed
f or mat ion
of t h er es er v ear myaccor ding t oG r os s mann, w h ich s t ar t s as a
cons equenceof accumul at ionaf t er 3 4 year s of t ech nical p r og r es s .
It is t h es amew it h t h eex p or t of cap it al . Inl ong ex p l anat ions al l t h eMar x is t
w r it er s - Var g a, Bukh ar in,
Nach ims on, Hil f er ding , Ot t oBauer , Ros a
Lux embur g -
ar eoneaf t er t h eot h er demol is h edbecaus et h eyal l s t at et h ev iew
t h at t h eex p or t of cap it al t akes p l acef or ah ig h er p r of it
. As Var g as ays :
It is not becaus eit is abs ol ut el yimp os s ibl et oaccumul at ecap it al at h omet h at cap it al
is ex p or t ed . . . but becaus et h er eex is t s t h ep r ds p ect of ah ig h er p r of it abr oad(quot ed
byG r os s mann, p . 4 9 8 ) .
G r os s mannat t acks t h is v iew as incor r ect andun- Mar x is t :
It is not t h eh ig h er p r of it abr oad, but t h el ackof inv es t ment op p or t unit ies at h ome
t h at is t h eul t imat er eas onf or t h eex p or t of cap it al (p
. 5 6 1 ) .
Het h enint r oduces numer ous quot at ions f r omMar x about ov er accumul at ionand
r ef er s t oh is s ch ema, inw h ich af t er 3 5 year s t h eg r ow ing mas s of cap it al canno
l ong er beemp l oyedat h omeands omus t beex p or t ed .
Let us r ecal l t h at accor ding t ot h es ch ema, h ow ev er , t h er ew as t ool it t l ecap it al
inex is t encef or t h eex is t ing p op ul at ionandt h at h is cap it al s ur p l us
w as onl yan
er r or of cal cul at ion . Fur t h er , inal l t h equot at ions f r omMar x , G r os s mann
h as
f or g ot t ent ocit et h eonew h er eMar x h ims el f s p eaks of t h eex p or t of cap it al
:
If cap it al is s ent abr oad, t h is is not donebecaus eit abs ol ut el ycoul dnot beap p l ied
at
h ome, but becaus eit canbeemp l oyedat ah ig h er r at eof p r of it inaf or eig ncount r y
(Vol . III, p . 2 5 1 ) .
Th ef al l int h er at eof p r of it is oneof t h emos t imp or t ant p ar t s of Mar x 's
t h eor yof cap it al ;h ew as t h ef ir s t t os t at eandp r ov et h at t h is t endency
t of al l ,
w h ich ex p r es s es it s el f p er iodical l yincr is es , w as t h eembodiment of t h e
t r ans it or ynat ur eof cap it al is m . Wit h G r os s mannit is anot h er p h enomenon
w h ich comes t ot h ef or e
: af t er t h e3 5 t h year w or ker s ar el aidof f enmas s eand
cap it al is at t h es amet imecr eat edinex ces s
. As ar es ul t t h edef icit of s ur p l us
v al ueint h ef ol l ow ing year is mor es er ious , s ot h at yet mor el abour andcap it al
ar el ef t idl e ;w it h t h ef al l int h enumber of w or ker s , t h emas s of
s ur p l us v al ue
7
3
p r oduceddecr eas es andcap it al is ms inks s t il l deep er int ocat as t r op h e . Has not
G r os s manns eent h econt r adict ionh er ew it h Mar x ?Indeedh eh as . Th us , af t er
s omeint r oduct or yr emar ks , h es et s t ow or kint h ech ap t er ent it l ed" Th eCaus es
of t h eMis under s t anding of t h eMar x ianTh eor yof Accumul at ionand
Col l ap s e" :
Th et imeis not r ip ef or ar econs t r uct ionof t h eMar x iant h eor yof col l ap s e(p
. 1 9 5 )
Th ef act t h at t h et h ir dch ap t er of Vol umeIIIis , as Eng el s s ays int h ep r ef ace .
p r es ent ed, as as er ies of uncomp l et edmat h emat ical cal cul at ions 'mus t beg iv enas an
ex t er nal r eas onf or t h emis under s t anding ,
l ing el s w as h el p edinh is edit ing byh is f r iend, t h emat h emat icianSamuel
Moor e :
But Moor ew as r iot aneconomis t . . . Th emodeof or ig inof t h is p ar t of t h ew or k
t h er ef or emakes it p r obabl eev eninadv ancet h at manyop p or t unit ies f or mis under -
s t anding ander r or ex is t h er eandt h at t h es eer r or s coul dt h eneas il yh av ebeen
car r iedov er al s oint ot h ech ap t er deal ing w it h t h et endencyof t h er at eof p r of it t o
f al l . . . i ( NB: t h es ech ap t er s h adal r eadybeenw r it t enbyMar x ! ) Th e
p r obabil it yof er r or becomes al mos t cer t ainw h enw econs ider t h at it is aques t ion
h er eof at ing l ew or dw h ich . unf or t unat el y, comp l et el ydis t or t s t h ew h ol es ens eof
t h eanal ys is : t h einev it abl eendof cap it al is mis at t r ibut edt ot h er el at iv ef al l int h e
r at eins t eadof int h emas s of p r of it . Eng el s or Moor eh adcer t ainl ymadeas l ip of t h e
p en(p . 1 9 5 ) .
Sot h is
is
w h at t h er econs t r uct ionof Mar x 's t h eor yl ooks l ike! Anot h er
quot at ion is g iv eninanot ew h ich s ays :
Int h ew or ds inbr acket s . Eng el s or Mar x h ims el f madeas l inof t h ep en ;it s h oul d
r eadcor r ect l yandat t h es amet imeamas s of p r of it w h ich t ail s inr el at iv ev al ue'
(Tr ans l at or 's not e : G r us s mannr ef er s t ot h ep as s ag eonp . 2 1 4 of Vol . IIIw h ich
r eads : 'Hence, t h es amel aw s p r oducef or t h es ocial cap it al ag r ow ing abs ol ut emas s
of p r of it , andaf al l ing r at eof p r of it ') .
Sonow it is Mar x h ims el f w h omakes mis t akes . Andh er eit concer ns a
p as s ag ew h er et h es ens e, as g iv enint h et ex t of
Cap it al ,
is unambig uous l ycl ear .
Mar x 's w h ol eanal ys is , w h ich ends w it h t h ep as s ag eG r us s mannf inds neces s ar y
7 4
t och ang e, is acont inuat ionof ap as s ag ew h er eMar x ex p l ains :
. . .
t h emas s of t h es ur p l us v al uep r oducedbyit , andt h er ef or et h eabs ol ut emas s of
t h ep r of it p r oducedbyit , can,
cons equent l y, incr eas e, andincr eas ep r og r es s iv el y, in
s p it eof t h ep r og r es s iv edr op int h er at eof p r of it . Andt h is not onl ycanbes oAs ide
f r omt emp or ar yf l uct uat ions it mus t bes o, ont h ebas is of cap it al is t p r oduct ion
(Vol .
III, p . 2 1 3 ) .
Mar x t h ens et s out t h er eas ons w h yt h emas s of p r of it mus t incr eas eands ays
onceag ain
:
As t h ep r oces s of p r oduct ionandaccumul at ionadv ances t h er ef or e, t h emas s of
av ail abl eandap p r op r iat eds ur p l us l abour , andh encet h eabs ol ut emas s of p r of it
ap p r op r iat edbyt h es ocial cap it al mus t
g r ow (Vol . III, p . 2 1 4 ) .
Th us t h eex act op p os it et ot h eons et of t h ecol l ap s einv ent edbyG r os s mann .
Int h ef ol l ow ing p ag es t h is is r ep eat edyet mor eof t en ;t h ew h ol eof Ch ap t er 1 3
cons is t s - of ap r es ent at ionof
t h el aw t h at af al l int h er at eof p r of it duet ot h edev el op ment of p r oduct iv enes s is
accomp aniedbyanincr eas eint h emas s of p r of it . . . (Vol . III . p
. 2 2 1 ) .
Sot h er ecanr emainnot t h es l ig h t es t doubt t h at Mar x w ant edt os ayp r ecis el y
w h at w as p r int edt h er eandt h at h eh adnot madeas l ip of t h ep en . Andw h en
G r os s mannw r it es
:
Th ecol l ap s ecannot t h er ef or er es ul t f r omt h ef al l int h er at eof p r of it
. How coul da
p er cent ag ep r op or t ion, s uch as t h er at eof p r of it , ap ur enumber , br ing about t h e
col l ap s eof ar eal economics ys t em! (p . 1 9 6 ) .
h et h er ebys h ow s yet ag aint h at h eh as under s t oodnot h ing of Mar x andt h at h is
col l ap s eis incomp l et econt r adict ionw it h Mar x
.
Her eis t h ep oint at w h ich h ecoul dh av econv incedh ims el f of t h eins t abil it y
of h is cons t r uct ion
. But if h eh adal l ow edh ims el f t obet aug h t byMar x h er e,
7 5
t h enh is w h ol et h eor yw oul dh av ef al l enandh is bookw oul dnot h av ebeen
w r it t en .
Th ef air es t w ayof des cr ibing (ir os s mann's bookis as ap at ch w or kof
quot at ions f r omMar x
. incor r ect l yap p l iedands t uckt og et h er bymeans of a
f abr icat edt h eor y
. Each t imeap r oof is r equir ed, aquot at ionf r omMar x , w h ich
does not deal w it h t h ep oint inques t ion, is int r oduced, andit is t h ecor r ect nes s of
Mar x 's w or ds w h ich is s up p os edt og iv et h er eader t h eimp r es s iont h at t h e
t h eor yis cor r ect .
HISTORICALMA'T'ERIALISM
Th eques t ionw h ich int h eendmer it s at t ent ionis h ow r unanecononus t w h o
bel iev es h eis cor r ect l yr econs t r uct ing Mar x 's v iew s , andw h of ur t h er s t at es w it h
naiv es el f - as s ur ancet h at h eis t h ef ir s t t og iv eacor r ect int er p r et at ionof t h em,
bes ocomp l et el ymis t akenandf indh ims el f incomp l et econt r adict ionw it h
Mar x
. Th er eas onl ies int h el ackof ah is t or ical mat er ial is t under s t anding . For
youw il l not under s t andMar x ianeconomics at al l unl es s youh av emadet h e
h is t or ical mat er ial is t w ayof t h inking your ow n
.
For Mar x t h edev el op ment of h umans ociet y, ands oal s ot h eeconomic
dev el op ment ot cap it al is m, is det er minedbyaf ir mneces s it yl ikeal aw of nat ur e .
But t h is dev el op ment is at t h es amet imet h ew or kof menw h op l ayt h eir r ol ein
it andw h er eeah p er s ondet er mines h is ow nact s w it h cons cious nes s and
p ur p os e -
t h oug h not w it h acons cious nes s of t h es ocial w h ol e . Tot h ebour g eois
w ayof s eeing t h ing s , t h er eis acont r adict ionh er e
;eit h er w h at h ap p ens dep ends
onh umanf r eech oiceor , if it is g ov er nedbyf ix edl aw s , t h ent h es eact as an
ex t er nal , mech anical cons t r aint onmen
. For Mar x al l s ocial neces s it yis
ac( : omp l is r h edbymean ;t h is means t h at aman's t h inking , w ant ing andact ing -
al t h oug h ap p ear ing as af r eech oiceinh is cons cious nes s - ar ecomp l et el y
det er minedbyt h eact ionof t h eenv ir onment
;it is onl yt h r oug h t h et ot al it yof
t h es eh umanact s , det er minedmainl ybys ocial f or ces , t h at conf or mit yt ol aw s is
ach iev edins ocial dev el op ment .
Th es ocial f or ces w h ich det er minedev el op ment ar et h us not onl yp ur el y
economicact s , but al s ot h eg ener al - p ol it ical act s det er minedbyt h em, w h ich
p r ov idep r oduct ionw it h t h eneces s ar ynor ms of r ig h t . Conf or mit yt ol aw does
not r es ides ol el yint h eact ionof comp et it ionw h ich f ix es p r ices andp r of it s and
concent r at es cap it al , but al s oint h ees t abl is h ment of f r eecomp et it ion, of f r ee
p r oduct ionbybour g eois r ev ol ut ions
;not onl yint h emov ement of w ag es , int h e
ex p ans ionandcont r act ionof p r oduct ioninp r os p er it yandcr is is , int h ecl os ing
of f act or ies andt h el aying of f of w or ker s , but al s oint h er ev ol t , t h es t r ug g l eof
t h ew or ker s , t h econques t byt h emof p ow er ov er s ociet yandp r oduct ioninor der
t oes t abl is h new nor ms of r ig h t
. Economics , as t h et ot al it yof menw or king and
s t r iv ing t os at is f yt h eir s us bis t enceneeds , andp ol it ics
(
init s w ides t s ens e) , as
t h eact ionands t r ug g l eof t h es emenas cl as s es t os at is f yt h es eneeds , f or ma
s ing l eunif ieddomainof l aw - g ov er neddev el op ment . Th eaccumul at ionof
cap it al , cr is es , p aup er is at ion, t h ep r ol et ar ianr ev ol ut ion, t h es eizur eof p ow er by
7 0
t h ew or king cl as s f or mt og et h er , act ing l ikeanat ur al l aw , an indiv is ibl eunit y,
t h ecol l ap s eof cap it al is m .
Th ebour g eois w ayof t h inking , w h ich does not under s t andt h at t h is is a unit y,
h as al w ays p l ayedag r eat r ol enot onl yout s idebut al s ow it h int h ew or ker s '
mov ement . Int h eol dr adical Social Democr acyt h ef at al is t v iew w as cur r ent ,
under s t andabl einv iew of t h eh is t or ical cir cums t ances ,
t h at t h er ev ol ut ion
w oul done day come as anat ur al neces s it yandt h at int h emeant imet h ew or ker s
s h oul dnot t r yanyt h ing dang er ous .
Ref or mis mques t ionedt h eneedf or a
'v iol ent 'r ev ol ut ionandbel iev edt h at t h eint el l ig enceof s t at es men andl eader s
w oul dt amecap it al is mbyr ef or mandor g anis at ion . Ot h er s bel iev edt h at t h e
p r ol et ar iat h adt obeeducat edt or ev ol ut ionar yv ir t uebymor al
p r each ing . Th e
cons cious nes s w as al w ays l acking t h at t h is v ir t ueonl yf oundit s nat ur al
neces s it y
t h r oug h economicf or ces , and
t h at t h er ev ol ut iononl yf ound it s nat ur al
neces s it yt h r oug h economicf or ces , and
t h at t h er ev ol ut iononl yf ounds it s
nat ur al neces s it yt h r oug h t h ement al f or ces of men . Ot h er v iew s h av enow
ap p ear ed . Ont h eoneh andcap it al is mh as p r ov edit s el f s t r ong andunas s ail abl e
ag ains t al l r ef or mis m, al l t h es kil l s of l eader s , al l at t emp t s at r ev ol ut ion ;al l
t h es eh av eap p ear edr idicul ous int h ef aceof it s immens es t r eng t h . But , ont h e
ot h er h and, t er r ibl ecr is es at t h es ame t imer ev eal it s int er nal w eaknes s .
Wh oev er now t akes up Mar x ands t udies h imis deep l yimp r es s edbyt h e
ir r es is t ibl e, , l aw - g ov er nednat ur eof t h ecol l ap s eandw el comes t h es eideas w it h
ent h us ias m .
But if h is bas icw ayof t h inking is bour g eois h ecannot conceiv et h is neces s it y
ot h er t h an as anex t er nal f or ceact ing onmen . Cap it al is m is f or h ima
mech anical s ys t eminw h ich menp ar t icip at eas economicp er s ons ,
cap it al is t s ,
buyer s , s el l er s , w ag e- w or ker s , et c. ,
but ot h er w is emus t s ubmit inap ur el y
p as s iv ew ayt ow h at t h is mech anis mimp os es ont h eminv iew of it s int er nal
s t r uct ur e.
Th is mech anis t icconcep t ion canal s ober ecog nis ed inG r os s mann's
s t at ement s onw ag es w h enh ev iol ent l yat t acks Ros a Lux embur g -
Ev er yw h er eonecomes acr os s anincr edibl e, bar bar ous mut il at ionof
t h eMar x ian
t h eor yof w ag es (p . 5 8 5 ) .
- p r ecis el yw h er es h equit ecor r ect l yt r eat s t h ev al ue of l abour - p ow er as a
quant it yt h at canbeex p andedont h ebas is of t h es t andar dof l iv ing at t ained . For
G r os s mannt h ev al ueof l abour - p ow er is " not anel as t ic, but af ix edquant it y" (p .
5 8 6 ) . Act s of h umanch oices uch as t h ew or ker s 's t r ug g l es canh av enoinf l uence
onit ;t h eonl yw ayinw h ich w ag es canr is eis t h r oug h ah ig h er int ens it yof
l abour obl ig ing t h er ep l acement of t h eg r eat er quant it yof l abour - p ow er
ex p ended.
7 7
Her eit is t h es amemech anis t icv iew
: t h emech anis mdet er mines economic
quant it ies w h il es t r ug g l ing andact ing mens t andout s idet h is r el at ion .
Or us s mannap p eal s ag aint oMar x f or t h is , w h er et h el at t er w r it es of t h ev al ue
of l abour - p ow er :
Nev er t h el es s , in : t g iv encit nnt r v , at ag iv enp er iod, t h eav er ag equant it y(it t h emeans
of s ubs is t enceneces s ar yf or t h el abour er is p r act ical l yknow n
(Cap it al . Vil l . I . p . 1 7 1 ) ;
but Or us s mannh as unf or t unat el yonceag ainov er l ookedt h at inMar x t h is
p as s ag eis inunediat el yp r oceededby :
Incont r adict iont h er ef or et ot h ecas eof ot h er commodit ies
. t h er eent er s Int ot h e
det er nmnaooil of t h ev al ueof l abour - p ow er ah is t or ical andmor al el ement
St ar t ing f r omh is bour g eois w ayof t h inking , (
;w s s manns t at es inh is cr it icis m
of v ar ious Social f ) er nocr at icv iew s :
Wes ee : t h ecol l ap s eof cap it al is mis eit h er deniedor bas ed, inav ol unt ar is t w ay, on
ex t r a- economic, p ol it ical f act or s
. Th eeconomicp r oof of t h eneces s it yof t h ecol l ap s e
of cap it al is mh as nev er beenp r oduced (p p
. 5 H- 5 9 )
.
Andh ecit es w it h ap p r ov al anop inionof Tug an- Bar anov s kyt h at , inor der t o
p r ov et h eneces s it yf or t h et r ans f or mat ionof cap it al is mint oit s op p os it e, ar ig id
p r oof of t h eimp os s ibil it yf or cap it al is mt ocont inueex is t ing mus t f ir s t be
p r oduced
. Tug anh ims el f denies t h is imp os s ibil it yandw is h es t og iv es ocial is m
anet h ical bas is
. But t h at G r us s mannch oos es t ocal l as w it nes s t h is Rus s ian
l iber al economis t w h o, as is know n, w as al w ays comp l et el yal ient t oMar x is m,
s h ow s t ow h at deg r eet h eir bas icw ayof t h inking is r el at ed, des p it et h eir
op p os edp r act ical p oint s of v iew (s eeal s oG r os s mann, p
. 1 0 8 )
. Th eMar x ian
v iew t h at t h ecol l ap s eof cap it al is mw il l bet h eact of t h ew or king cl as s andt h us a
p ol it ical act (int h ew ides t s ens eof t h is w or d
: g ener al
s ocial , w h ich is
ins ep ar abl ef r omt h et ake- ov er of economicp ow er ) G r us s manncanonl y
under s t andas 'v ol unt ar is t , i . e . ,
t h at it is s omet h ing t h at is g ov er nedbymens
ch oice, byf r eew il l .
Th ecol l ap s eof cap it al is minMar x does dep endont h eact of w il l of t h e
w or king cl as s
;but t h is w il l is not af r eech oice, but is it s el f det er minedby
economicdev el op ment
. Th econt r adict ions of t h ecap it al is t economy, w h ich
7 8
r ep eat edl yemer g einunemp l oyment , cr is es , w ar s , cl as s s t r ug g l es ,
r ep eat edl y
det er minet h ew il l t or ev ol ut ionof t h ep r ol et ar iat
. Social is mconies not
becaus e
cap it al is mcol l ap s es economical l yandmen, w or ker s andot h er s , ar e
f or cedby
neces s it yt ocr eat eanew or g anis at ion, but becaus ecap it al is m,
as it l iv es and
g r ow s , becomes mor eandmor eunbear abl ef or t h ew or ker s and
r ep eat edl y
p us h es t h em t o s t r ug g l e
unt il t h e w il l and s t r eng t h t o
ov er t h r ow t h e
dominat ionof cap it al is mandes t abl is h anew or g anis at iong r ow s int h em, and
t h encap it al is mcol l ap s es
. Th ew or king cl as s is not p us h edt oact becaus e
t h e
unbear abl enes s of cap it al is mis demons t r at edt ot h emf r om
t h eOut s ide, but
becaus et h eyf eel it g ener at edw it h int h em
. Mar x 's t h eor y, as economics , s h ow s
h ow t h eabov ep h enomenair r es is t ibl yr eap p ear w it h g r eat er andg r eat er
f or ce
and, as h is t or ical mat er ial is m, h ow .
t h eyneces s ar il yg iv e
r is ecoot h e
r ev ol ut ionar yw il l andt h er ev ol ut ionar yact
.
THENEWWORK ERS'MOVEMENT
It is under s t andabl et h at G r os s mann's books h oul dh av ebeeng iv en
s ome
at t ent ionbyt h es p okes menof t h enew w or ker s 'mov ement s inceh eat t acks t h e
s ameenemyas t h em
. Th enew w or ker s '
mov ement h as t oat t ackSocial
Democr acyandt h ePar t yCommunis mof t h eTh ir dInt er nat ional , t w obr anch es
of t h es amet r ee, becaus et h eyaccommodat et h ew or king cl as s t ocap it al is m
.
G r os s mannat t acks t h et h eor et icians of t h es ecur r ent s f or h av ing dis t or t ed
and
f al s if iedMar x 's t each ing s , andins is t s ont h eneces s ar ycol l ap s eof
cap it al is m .
His concl us ions s ounds imil ar
t oour s , but t h eir s ens eandes s encear e
comp l et el ydif f er ent
. Weal s oar eof t h eop iniont h at t h eSocial
Democr at ic
t h eor is t s , g oodt h eor et ical ex p er t s t h at t h eyof t enw er e, nev er t h el es s dis t or t ed
Mar x 's doct r ine
;but t h eir mis t akew as h is t or ical , t h et h eor et ical
p r ecip it at eof
anear l yp er iodof t h es t r ug g l eof t h ep r ol et ar iat
. G r os s mann's mis t akeis t h at of
abour g eois economis t w h oh as nev er h adp r act ical ex p er ienceof t h es t r ug g l eof
.
t h ep r ol et ar iat andw h ois cons equent l ynot inap os it iont ounder s t and
t h e
es s enceof Mar x is m .
Anex amp l e'
of h ow h is concl us ions ap p ar ent l yag r eew it h t h ev iew s of t h e
new w or ker s 'mov ement , but ar eines s encecomp l et el yop p os ed, is t obef ound
inh is t h eor yof w ag es
. Accor ding t oh is s ch ema, af t er 3 5 year s , w it h t h ecol l ap s e,
ar ap idl ycl imbing unemp l oyment ap p ear s
. As ar es ul t w ag es s inkw el l bel ow t h e
v al ueof l abour - p ow er , w it h out anef f ect iv er es is t ancebeing
p os s ibl e .
" Her et h eobj ect iv el imit of t r adeunionact ionis g iv en" (p
. 5 9 9 ) . How ev er
f amil iar t h is s ounds , t h ebas is is quit edif f er ent
. Th ep ow er l es s nes s of t r ade
unionact ion, w h ich h as beenev ident f or al ong t ime, s h oul dnot beat t r ibut ed
t o
aneconomiccol l ap s e, but t oas h if t int h ebal anceof s ocial p ow er . Ev er yone
know s h ow t h eincr eas edp ow er of t h eemp l oyer s 'combines of concent r at edbig
cap it al h as madet h ew or king cl as s r el at iv el yp ow er l es s
. Tow h ich is now added
t h eef f ect s of as ev er ecr is is w h ich dep r es s es w ag es , as
h ap p enedinev er y
p r ev ious cr is is
.
Th ep ur el yeconomiccol l ap s eof cap it al is mw h ich G r os s mann cons t r uct s
7 9
does not inv ol v eacomp l et ep as s iv it yby t ug p r ol et ar iat . For , w h ent h ecol l ap s e
t akes p l acet h ew or king cl as s mus t p r ecis el y
p r ep ar eit s el f t or e- es t abl is h
p r oduct iononanew bas is .
Th us ev ol ut ionp us h es t ow ar ds t h edev el op ment andex acer bat ion of t h eint er nal
op p os it ant s bet w eencap it al andLdNl ur unit ) t h es ol uol mw inch canonnel l nl s f r om
t h es t r ug g l ebet w eent h et w ocl as s es is br oug h t about i p . 5 9 9 o
Th is f inal s t r ug g l eis l inkedal s ow it h t h ew ag es s t r ug g l ebecaus e(as w as al r eady
ment ionedabov e) t h ecat as t r op h ecanbep os t p onedbydep r es s ing
w ag es or
h as t enedbyr ais ing t h em . But it is t h eeconomic cat as t r op h et h at is f or
G ms s mannt h er eal l yes s ent ial f act or , t h enew or der being f or cibl y
imp os edon
men . Cer t ainl y, t h ew or ker s , as t h emas s of t h ep op ul at ion, ar et os up p l yt h e
p r ep onder ant f or ceof t h er ev ol ut ion, j us t as int h ebour g eois r ev ol ut ions of
t h e
p as t w h er et h eyf or medt h emas s f or cef or act ion
;but , as inh ung er r ev ol t s in
g ener al . t h is is indep endent of t h eir r ev ol ut ionar ymat ur it y, of t h eir cap acit y
t o
t akep ow er ov er s ociet yandt oh ol dit
. Th is means t h at ar ev ol ut ionar yg r oup , a
p ar t yw it h s ocial is t aims , w oul dh av et oap p ear as anew g ov er ning p ow er in
p l ace
of t h eol dinor der t oint r oduces omekindof p l annedeconomy
. Th et h eor yof
t h eeconomiccat as t r op h eis t h us r eadymadef or int el l ect ual s w h or ecog nis et h e
unt enabl ech ar act er of cap it al is mandw h ow ant ap l annedeconomyt obebuil t
bycap abl eeconomis t s andl eader s . Andit mus t beex p ect edt h at manyot h er
s uch t h eor ies w il l comef r omt h es equar t er s or meet w it h ap p r ov al t h er e
.
Th et h eor yof t h eneces s ar ycol l ap s ew il l al s obeabl et oex er cis eacer t ain
at t r act ionov er r ev ol ut ionar yw or ker s . Th eys eet h eov er w h el ming maj or it y
of
t h ep r ol et ar ianmas s es s t il l at t ach edt ot h eol dor g anis at ions , t h eol dl eader s ,
t h e
ol dmet h ods , bl indt ot h et as kw h ich t h enew dev el op ment imp os es on
t h em,
p as s iv eandimmobil e, w it h nos ig ns of r ev ol ut ionar yener g y
. Th ef ew
r ev ol ut ionar ies w h ounder s t andt h enew dev el op ment mig h t w el l w is h on
t h e
s t up ef iedmas s es ag oodeconomiccat as t r op h es ot h at t h eyf inal l ycomeout of
t h es l umber andent er int oact ion
. Th et h eor yaccor ding t ow h ich cap it al is m
h as
t odayent er edit s f inal cr is is al s op r ov ides adecis iv e, ands imp l e,
r ef ut at ionof
r ef or mis mandal l Par t yp r og r ammes w h ich g iv ep r ior it yt op ar l iament ar y
w or k
andt r adeunionact ion - ademons t r at ionof t h eneces s it yof r ev ol ut ionar yt act ics
w h ich is s oconv enient t h at it mus t beg r eet eds ymp at h et ical l ybyr ev ol ut ionar y
g r oup s . But t h es t r ug g l eis nev er s os imp l eor
conv enient , not ev ent h e
t h eor et ical s t r ug g l ef or r eas ons andp r oof s .
Ref or mis mw as af al s et act ic, w h ich w eakenedt h ew or king cl as s , not onl y in
cr is es but al s oinp r os p er it y . Par l iament ar is mandt h et r adeuniont act icdid
not
h av et oaw ait t h ep r es ent cr is is t op r ov eaf ail ur e ;t h is h as beens h ow n f or t h e
l as t h undr edyear s . It is not duet ot il eeconomiccol l ap s eof cap it al is mbut t ot h e
enor mous dev el op ment of it s s t r eng t h , t oit s ex p ans ionov er al l t h el iar t h , t oit s
ex acer bat ionof p ol it ical op p os it ions , t ot h ev iol ent r einf or cement of it s inner
8 0
s t r eng t h ,
t h at
t h e p r ol et ar iat mus t t ake mas s
act ion, s ummoning up t h e
s t r eng t h of t h ew h ol ecl as s
. It is t h is s h if t int h er el at ions of p ow er t h at is t h e
bas is f or t h enew dir ect ionf or t h ew or ker s 'mov ement .
Th ew or ker s 'mov ement h as not t oex p ect af inal cat as t r op h e, but many
cat as t r op h es , p ol it ical -
l ikew ar s , andeconomic - l iket h ecr is es w h ich
r ep eat edl ybr eakout , s omet imes r eg ul ar l y, s omet imes ir r eg ul ar l y, but w h ich on
t h ew h ol e, w it h t h eg r ow ing s izeof cap it al is m, becomemor eandmor e
dev as t at ing . Sot h eil l us ions andt endencies t ot r anquil l it yof t h ep r ol et ar iat w il l
r ep eat edl ycol l ap s e, ands h ar p anddeep cl as s s t r ug g l es w il l
br eakout . It ap p ear s
t obeacont r adict iont h at t h ep r es ent cr is is , deep er andmor edev as t at ing t h an
anyp r ev ious one, h as not s h ow ns ig ns of t h eaw akening of t h ep r ol et ar ian
r ev ol ut ion . But t h er emov al of ol dil l us ions is it s f ir s t g r eat t as k
: ont h eot h er
h and, t h eil l us ionof making cap it al is mbear abl ebymeans of r ef or ms obt ained
t h r oug h Social Democr at icp ar l iament ar yp ol it ics andt r adeunionact ionand,
ont h eot h er , t h eil l us iont h at cap it al is mcanbeov er t h r ow ninas s aul t under t h e
l eader s h ip of ar ev ol ut ion- br ing ing Communis t Par t y
. Th ew or king cl as s it s el f ,
as aw h ol e, mus t conduct t h es t r ug g l e, but , w h il et h ebour g eois ieis al r eady
buil ding up it s p ow er mor eandmor es ol idl y, t h ew or king cl as s h as v et t omake
it s el f f amil iar w it h t h enew f or ms of s t r ug g l e . Sev er es t r ug g l es ar eboundt ot ake
p l ace
. Ands h oul dt h ep r es ent cr is is abat e, new cr is es andnew s t r ug g l es w il l
ar is e
. Int h es es t r ug g l es t h ew or king cl as s w il l dev el op it s s t r eng t h t os t r ug g l e,
w il l dis cov er it s aims , w il l t r ainit s el f , w il l makeit s el f indep endent andl ear nt o
t akeint oit s h ands it s ow ndes t iny, v iz
. , s ocial p r oduct ionit s el f . Int h is p r oces s
t h edes t r uct ionof cap it al is mis ach iev ed
. Th es el f - emancip at ionof t h e
p r ol et ar iat is t h ecol l ap s eof cap it al is m .
8 1
Radical Ph il os op h y
Radical Ph il os op h y i : , t h e j our nal of t h e Radical Ph il os op h y
( ;coup . It s uns t o av oid t h eacademicis m of
t h e ex is t ing
p h il os op h ical j our nal s - an academicis m
w h ich t r iv ial izes
p h il os op h y and man . t f es t s it s el f in
an uncr it ical at t it ude t o
s ocial ideol og ies . Radical
Ph il os op h y p ubl is h es
p h il os op h ical w or k cont r ibut ing t o
t h e dev el op ment of
r adical t h eor y, : and t o t h e ex p os ur e of
t h e s ocial and
p ol it ical as s ump t ions
embodied in or t h odox p h il os op h y.
As w el l
a : ; ar t icl es and book r ev iew s , it car r ies cr it iques
of
educat ional . ins t it ut ions , cour s es and
t each ing met h ods ;
new ;it ems andr ep or t s of meet ing s andact iv it ies
;h umour
aids at ir e .
Th ecur r ent is s ueis No
. 1 'j .

Cont ent s incl ude
h ayK d, l ey: Science, Social ScienceandSocial is t Science
Rich ar dAr ch er : Per s onal Aut onomyandl l iat or ical Mat er ial is m
K at eSop er : OnNl at er ial is ms
'Ph il os op h yPr omBel ow '-
as p ecial s up p l ement
ont h er eal it ies of p h il os op h yint h eacademy
Cor r es p ondenceandcont r ibut ions t o : J onat h anRee, Middl es ex
Pol yt ech nicat Hendon, Th eBur r oug h s , Hendon, LondonNW4 4 BT
.
Subs cr ip t ions andenquir ies t o
: Radical Ph il os op h y,
4 0 Lang donPar kRoad, LondonN6 5 QG
.
Subs cr ip t ion t o 3 is s ues : £2
. 0 0 (£1 . 2 5 f or t h os eunabl et o
af f or dmor e) .

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t h os eunabl et oaf f or dmor e) .

Air mail £6 . 5 0 .
Ins t it ut ional s ubs cr ip t ions : f. 3 . 5 0 (Ov er s eas £6
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£9 . 5 0 ) .
Sing l ecop ies 5 0 p t oindiv idual s , byp os t 5 7 p (Ov er s eas
7 0 p ,
air mail £3 . 2 0 ) .

Backnumber s 6 0 p t oindiv idual s
(Ov er s eas 7 0 p ) ,
£1 . 2 5
t oin : ' ;it ut ions .
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· ·
REVIEWS
StuartHolland .CapitalversustheRegions
.MacMillan,E8 .95(hardcover)
X3 .95(paperback),pp328
;andTheRegionalProblem : MacMillan,€ 7
.95(hard
cover),(1 0 0 ,pp1 7 9
.
ReviewedbyDavidPurdy
Inthesetwobooks,stuarthollandpresents,intheinex pertopinionof this
reviewer,anoriginalandmostlyconvincinganalysisof theregionalimbalances
inncome,unemployment,economicstuctureandthequalityof lif ewhichhave
grownoutof thedevelopmentof theadvancedcapitaliststatesof Europeand
NorthAmerica
.Evenmoreimportant,buildingonideasf irstdevelopedinhis
earlierandanalyticallyinf eriorbook,"TheSocialistChallenge"(Holland,
1 97 5),hesuggestsanapproachtowardspoliciesf orredressingthese
imbalances,whichhassadlyneglectedimplicationsf orthelef t'seconomic
policyingeneral
.
Hollandstartsf romarathercursorycritiqueof theharmoniousself - balance
thesesof neo- classicalregionaltheory,whichiscondemnedf ortheunrealismof
itsassumptionsandtheidealismof itsmethod .(TheGermantheorist,August
L osch,maintainedthatif realityf ailedtocorroboratehismodel,thef aultlay
withreality! )Hethenreviewestherelevantwritingsof theoristsof regional
imbalance
- Marx ,MyrdalandPerroux - asapreludetohisownanalysis
.He
f irstsynthesizesf romHarrodsgrowththeoryandHicks'theoryof thetrade
cycleatwo- regionmodeltoillustratethelikelihoodof divergentgrowth
betweenamoreandaless- developedregion(MDRandL DR)
.Italy'spost- war
ex perienceaf f ordsanaptcasestudy.
Againstthismacrosettingtheref ollowsadiscussionof internallabour
migrationanditsconcomitantcostsbothindeskillingandsenilizingthelabour
f orceof theL DR,andincongestingthecitiesof theMDR.Theauthorthen
proceedstohismaintask
- tocharttheriseof themeso- economicsector,
consistingof largeandmostlymultinationalcorporations,whosegrowthisboth
causeandconsequenceof regionaldisproportions .Throughtheirsuperior
investment,innovation,economiesof scale
- widelyconceivedtoincludesize
advantagesinaccesstof inance,capacityf orself - f inance,distributionnetwork
acquireadecisiveleadovertheirsmallerrivals,
Moreover,theindustrialgiantswhichdominatetheupperhalf of
manuf acturing,themostregionallymobilesectorof theeconomy,are
increasinglyimpervioustoregionalaids,incentivesandcontrolsoperatedbynat
onalgovernments
.Theymayhavemoretogainf romlowlabourcostsinunder-
developedcountriesandf romtransf erpricing .Theycanalsoevadenational
1 1 7
locationcontrolsbythreateningtolocateabroadif theyaredeniedsome
f avouredsiteathome .
Hollandarguesthatuntilrecentlythef orcesmakingf orunevenregional
developmenthavebeenlargelyheldincheckbyincometransf ersandthe
relativesuccessof regionalpolicyincounteringmarketf orces
.B utcurrent
trendssuggestthatregionaldiscrepancieswillbecomemorecriticalthan
hithertounlessthereareradicalnewdeparturesinpolicy .Thesetrendsarethe
f lex ibilityof multinationalenterprise,theshrinkageof employmentinthe
f oot- loosemanuf acturingsector,thedeepeningcrisisof innerurbanareasand
thecentrpetaltendenciesassociatedwiththeprocessof integrationintheEEC
.
Thereisalsothestructurallimittoregionalregenerationposedbythef actthat
onlyaboutonef if thof allinvestmentconsistsof investmentinentirelynew
plant .
Whatisnowrequiredisanex tensionof publicownershiptoembraceselected
leadingcompanies,thoughnotwholeindustries,inthegrowthhointsof the
manuf acturingsector .Suchpublicenterprisewouldbeusedtocountervailthe
powerof theprivatemesof irms,bothdirectlythroughpositively
discriminatorylocationpolicies,andindirectlyasabasef romwhichtoharness
theactivitiesof bigleaguef irmstotheneedsof theL DRs .Thisharnessing
wouldbeachievedbymeansof planningagreementsnegotiatedonamulti-
tateralbasisbetzeenthecompaniesconcerned,centralandlocalgovernment,
tradeunionsandcommunityorganisations
.Theagreementsnouldbeenf orced
byprogressivelygraduatedsanctionsagainstrecalcitrantf irmsbasedonthe
government'sprocurement,tax ation,subsidy,lendingandpricingpolicieswith
theultimatethreatof publicownershipasabackstop .
Therearesomeweaknessesintheargument
.Hollandisinclinedto
ex aggeratethepowerof themultinationalsandthedivergenceof interests
betweenthemandtheir"home"stete
.Thustheonlyevidenceheof f ersf orthe
gainstobemadef romtransf erpricingisthesensational,butalmostcertainly
atypical,caseof Hof f manL aRoche
.Itmayalsobeunsaf etogeneralisef romthe
ex perienceof theItalianstateholdingcompanies,whichHollandcitesasa
modelf ortheroleof publicenterpriseinregionalresuscitation .InB ritain,the
initialenlargementof thepublicsectorwhichzouldbeneededtooperatethe
strategyheproposeswouldbef raughtwithpoliticalconf lictswhichneverhad
tobef acedinTaly,wherestateholdingcompanieswereinheritedf romthe
f ascistperiod .F inally,thoughHollandisalerttothedangersof Y ugoslavstyle
workers'self - managementinamplif yingregionalinequalities,hepaysscant
attentiontotherisksof overcentralisation,bureaucratisationand,asItalian
ex periencetestif ies,corruption,whichcouldeasilybespawnedbyanew
regionalplanningsystem
.
Therewillbethoseonthelef twhodismissHolland'sapproachtopolicyasa
ref ormistproptocapitalism
.Inmyviewthiswouldbeaseriousmisestimate
.
Theplanningagreementsf rameworkof f ersarichsolutiontotheoldproblem
of howtolinkthelong- termobj ectiveof socialismwiththeimmediateconduct
of classstruggle
.Itprovidesamethodof inscribinganalien,socialistlogicinto
theworkingsof capitalism,andof generatingself - activityamongstdiverse
1
1 8
socialgroupsaroundprogrammeswhichemobdytheconcrete,livingmeaning
of socialism
.Inshort,thisapproachtopolicycomestotermswiththerequire-
mentsof revolutionarystrategyintheadvancedbourgeoishegemonyandthe
rulingcapitalistpowerbloc
.
Chile 1 97 0 - 7 3 .ThePoliticalEconomyof theRireandF allof theUnidad
Popular. Stef an deVylder.Stockholm, Unga F ilorof err F orlag,
1 97 5 .

ReviewedbyJ .AnnZammit
Comparedwithmuchof theliteratureontheChileanPopularUnity(UP)
government,Stef andeVylder'sbookisaneminentlyreadable,coherentand
penetratinganalysisof thepoliticaleconomyof itsriseandf all .F ortunately,the
CambridgeUniversityPresshasnowpublishedthisvaluablevolumeanditwill
theref orebeaccessibletoawiderreadership .
Stef andeVylderstartsf romthepositionthatmostCSEreadersneedno
convincingof : thatthe"inf lationandchaos"interpretationsof theUP's
politicaldef eat - itf ailedf orlackof competenteconomists
- issimplistcand
erroneous .(Thisightwingrationalisationof thepersistentoppositionand
eventualmilitaryinterventionisgivenf ullscopeinMarkosMamalakis'snew
book, TheGrowthandStructureof theChileanEconomy, whichreadsvery
muchlikeanant- communistmanif esto - communistbeinghiscatch- allterm
f orallsocialistandmarx isttendencies .)O bviouslymoref undamentalreasons
mustex plaintheUP'sf inalpoliticaldef eatandbstef andeVylderlocatesthese
intheUP'seconomicprogrammeanditspoliticalstrategyof concessionand
conciliation,inconj unctionwiththeinitialobj ectivesocio- politicalconditions .
Theauthor'sapproachtothepoliticaleconomyof theUPisf romthecritical
stenceof onewhoseemssympathetictothesocialistasopposedtothe
nommunistpartylinewithinthecoalition .HeanalysestheUP'soverall
programmeandsectoralpolicies,ex aminingtheirroots,maincontent,
coherencef romaneconomicandpoliticalpointof view,chancesof successand
degreeof achievement .Suchananalysisnecessarilyrequirescaref ulassessment
of thenonstellationof politicalf orcesandnompositionof thesocialclasses
derivingf romtheinitialeconomicstructure,andevaluationof thewaythese
wouldbe,andndeedwere,af f ectedbytheUP'seconomicstrategyandpolicies .
Thishasbeendonequitesuccessf ully,revealingintheprocessthelimitationsof
theUP'sprogrammeinthef aceof itsstatedpoliticalandeconomicobj ectives
.
Theanalysisalsopointstotheprogramme'sinternalcontradictionsandthe
potentialf orconf rontationwithintheranksof theUPsupportersaswellas
withthef orcesof theright .
Theprogramme's"anti- monopolycapital"emphasissetitsownlimitonthe
numberof workersendpeasantswhowouldbenef itdirectlyasaresultof - the
nationalisatonof enterprisesandtheagrarianref orm(roughly8percentof the
labourf orce,andthesamegrospswho,relativetotherestof thelabourf orce,
werealreadyprivileged) .Italsogeneratedantagonisms,sincethevastmaj ority
of workersnotaf f ecteddirectlybytheproposedsocialarea(I )of theeconomy
hadnoobj ectiveinterestinadhereingtoarestictedprogrammeof
nationalisa-
1 1 9
L ion .
Theirinitiatives - f actorytoeovers,ruraa lornar, parallel
distributionnetworks,
cordonecinductriales etc .,tekeninself - interestand
self - def ence,einf orcedthecohesivetendencyof thebourgeoisie
.O neof the
UP'sf undamentalassumptions -
thatitwaspossibletodividethebourgeoisie
bywinningthesupportof smallbusinessmen,tradersandhrof essions(the
ostensibly"progressive","nationalist"sector),wassoonshowntobewithout
f oundation .
,TakingintoaccountChile'ssocio- economicstructureandthemultiplesocial
andholiticalimplicationsof theUP'smainprogramme,thechancesof gaining
totalorcontrollingpowerinsocietyasawholewereslender
.Addtothisthe
inheritedlegalandpoliticalf ramezork,theUP'sminimalholdontheorgansof
statepower(itcontrolledtheex ecutiveonly),itsnommitmenttoaconst
tutional,pluralisticstrategy,withnochanceof changingtheconstitution,andits
conciliatoryapproachtotherepressiveorgansof state,anditishardly
surprisingthattheUPshouldsuf f erpoliticaldef eat
.Stef andeVylder
emphasisestheimpossibility,intheabsenceof suf f icientpower,of successf ully
implementinga
two- stagestrategyto achievesocialism
;f irstthe
anti- imperialist,anti- monopolycapitalphasewithguaranteesf ortherestof the
privatesectorand,onceconsolidated,af ull- scalesocialistpolicy .
Stef andeVylderalsostateshisbelief that,evenhadtheUPnotbeenf orced
f rompowerandpreventedf romreducing,if noteliminating,theeconomicbase
of thepowerf ulbourgoisie,itsprogrammewouldstillnothavesolvedChile's
developmentproblem
.ThereisnodoubtthattheUP'sprogrammeand
economicplansarepredicatedontheneedf orrapidoveralldevelopment,
includingregionaldevelopment,toprovideasubstantialimprovementinthe
standardof living,particularlyof thepoorersectionsof thepopulation
.And,in
f airnesstotheUP,itmustbesaidthatitsmanydocumentsonplanningand
policiesdoref ertovariousmeanstoachievetheseends
(e .g. incomedistirbution
andrestructuringof consumptionandproduction,employmentandtechnology
policies,etc .) .B utwhether,underthebestof circumstances,theUPwouldhave
devisedandimplementedaneconomicandpoliticalstrategywhich,intheshort
runratherthantheelusivelongrun,wouldhaveincorporatedthemassof the
populationasf ullandequalmemberscannot,of course,beascertained
.
Inthinkingthatoveralldevelopmentcouldnothavebeenachievedthrough
theUP'sprogrammedeVylderhasperhapsover- emphasisedthatpartof the
programmeconcerningnationalisationandthef ormationof thesocialareaof
theeconomy,tothedetrimentof otheraspectsof theirdevelopmentstrategy,
thoughadmittedly,theywerehardlyelaboratedtothepointof beingf unctional
.
If ,however,hisscepticismisbasedonthepotentialf orconf lictamongdif f erent
sectorsof theworkf orceinherentinthef ormationof thesocialpropertyarea,
ratherthanonthef actthatitsimmediatebenef iciarieswouldbelimitedin
number,thenperhapsheisright
.Thesocialareaof theeconomy,comprising
themostadvancedsectorof theeconomy,wascapableof generatinglarge
surplusesf orcapitalaccumulation,assumingappropriatepolicies
.However,it
alsoincreasedthepowerof erelativelysmallnumberof workerstoprotecttheir
interestsattheex penseof thoseinlowerpaidandlessproductivej obsandof the
1 2 0
unemployed .
Presumablytheabilitytoresolvethisincipient,if notovert,conf lictwould
dependontheparticularf ormof politicalorganisationdeveloped .B ut,f oran
economywithChile'ssocio- economicstructure,thenatureof aneconomicand
politicalstategywhichisbothviableandworthyof thenamesocialistisstillat
thecoreof socialistdebate
.
MichaelB leaney .UnderconsumptionTheories : AHistoryandCriticalAnal_ yrir .
L awrenceandWishart,1 97 6,pp262,63(paperback) .SB N8531 53663 .
ReviewedbyIanSteedman
Underconsumptiontheoriesof capitalistdevelopmentportraythecapitalist
systemashavinganinherenttendencytoeconomicstagnation
.Theythenseek
toex plainthisallegedtendencyastheresultof inadequateconsumption
demand
.B leaneydistinguishestwomaintypesof underconsumptiontheory ;
thosewhichref erprimarilytoex cessivesavingintheeconomyandthosewhich
emphasisetherestrictedconsumingpowerof theworkers .AsB leaneypoints
out,thesetwovariantsof underconsumptiontheoryaremutuallycompatible,
sinceareductionintheshareof nationalincomegoingtowageswillnormally
leadtoanincreaseintheshareof nationalincomesaved,butthedif f erencein
emphasisisnonethelesssignif icant,notleastbecauseitisthesecondf ormof the
theorywhichmostof tenhasinf luencewithinthelabourmovement
.
AsB leaneymakesclearintheearlychaptersof hisbook,thef undamental
f lawinallunderconsumptiontheoriesisthef ailuretorecognisethat
investmentspendingconstituesdemandnolessthandoesconsumption
spending
.(Asdogovernmentspendingandex portreceipts .)Itf ollowsatonce
thatpointingto"ex cessive"savingor"restricted"consumption - inparticular,
workers'consumption- canneverconstitutean
adequate ex planationof
stagnation,orevenof temporaryrecession
.F orthequestionalwaysremains,
"Whyisinvestmentspendingnothighenoughtoof f setthesavingsandto
absorbtheoutputnotdemandedf orconsumption?"B leaneyargues
persuasivelythatamaj orreasonf ortheinabilityof suchearlyunder-
consumptionistsasMalthustodealwiththisquestionwastheinadequate
classicalviewof investment,whichf ailedtorecognisetheinvestmentindustries
asanindependentsectorof theeconomy
.Thequestionisalsosometimesside-
steppedbyappealingtotheideathat"ultimately"investmentisnarriedoutin
ordertoincreaseconsumption,thelatterbeingtheonlyf inalgoalof economic
activity .Suchaviewis,asB leaneypointsoutincriticisingSweezy,apurelymyst
Eyingone,f orinacapitalisteconomyinvestmentis not carriedoutf orthe
purposeof increasinganyone'sconsumption .
InhischapteronMarx ,B leaneyf irstpointsoutthatMarx wascompletely
f reef romany"Classical"conf usionovertheroleof theinvestmentsectorand
thatMarx 'sreproductionschema,in
Capital vol.Il,provideaclearstatementof
thef actthatbothinvestmentandconsumptionspendingconstitutedemand .
(Thoseschemamayalso,incidentally,havehelpedK aleckitoreachhisideason
1 2 1
ef f ectivedemandmoreeasilythanK eynesreachedhis .)hestessesivdarx 'sview
of thecapitalistsystemasessentiallydynamicand,notsurprisingly,challenges
theviewof Sweezy - andothers - thatMarx wasanunderconsumptionist .In
alaterchapter,B leaneyalsoarguesthatRosaL ux emburgwasnotanunder-
consumptionist,sincealthoughsheargued(incorrectly)thatcapitalismneeds
an''ex ternal"market,shewasclearthatdemandf ormeansof productionwas
j ustasgoodf orthepurposeasdemandf orconsumptiongoods
.
B leaneyalsodiscusses,atlength,theworkof J .A
.Hobsonandthatof two
Narodnikwriters,arguingthattheNarodnikview,thatcapitalismcouldnot
developinRussia,f indsacloseparallelintheideasof B aran(nowunder
challenge)onthelimitedpossibilitiesf orgrowthinthebackwardcapitalist
seconmies .Someratherinconclusivediscussionof theroleof armsspendingis
alsoprovided,asisasharpcritiqueof theworkof B aranandSweezy .
Thebookmaywellf allbetweentwostools,beinginsuf f icientlydetailedf or
thespecialistinthehistoryof economictheory,whileyetbeingtoospecialised
f orthereaderconcernedonlytosnderstandwhatunderconsumptiontheories
areandwhatiswrongwiththem .Thisisapity,f orasB leaneysaysinhisclosing
paragraph,theinf luenceof underconsumptiontheoriesamongstMarx istshas
"actedasabarriertoamoreprof oundanalysisof moderncapitalism
.Itiseasy,
andpoliticallyattractive,toattributetheeconomicproblemsof capitalismtothe
relativepovertyof theworkers,andtoimplythattheycanonlygetworsewith
time - sotheonlyanswercanbesocialism
.Suchrelianceoninex orablelawsof
capitalistdevelopmenthasalwaysappealedtomechanisticoreconomist
versionsof Marx ism
. .
.
.Untiltheseissuesareresolved,anduntIsimplistic
conceptionsaredecisivelyrej ected,Marx isteconomicswillnotescapeoutof
dogmaticdeclarationsf romtinhighanddemonstrateitstrueex planatory
power ."
ErhardL ucas .Arbeiterradikalif muf
: ZweiF ormenvonRadikalif mlssinder
dentschenArbeiterbewegung .F rankf urstamMain,VerlagRoterStern,1 97 6
.
ReviewedbyJ amesWickham
TherecentCSEconf erenceonthelabourprocessmarkedgwelcomeinterest
ontheEnglish- speakinglef tinrecentworkonthecompositionof theworking
classanditspoliticalimplications
.InWestGermanyasimilardiscussionhas
beenstmulatedbytheworkof K arl- HeinzRoth(1 97 4)andthethesisof the
"massworkingclass" : inbrief ,theclaimthattheref ormismof allworking- class
parties,includingthetraditionalcommunistparties,liesintheirbasisinthe
skilledsectionsof theworkingclass,asectionwhichoccupiesaprivileged
positionwithinproduction,unliketheunskilledandsemi- skilledworkersof
massproduction
.F orRoth,itisinthisof tenf oreign,culturallyandpolitically
unintegrated,"massworkingclass",despisedbytheconventionalworking- class
organisationsandneglectedbytraditionalsocialisthistorywriting,thatthereal
revolutionaryf orceof capitalismlies .
Suchathesishasgainedcredibilityf romthemilitantf ormsof struggleof
1 2 2
some(thoughrelativelyf ew)groupsof immigrantworkersintheF RG,notably
thestrikebyTurkishworkersatF ords- Colognein1 97 4
.Itspopularityisalso
partlyex plicablebythesocialandpoliticalisolationof theradicalGerman
intelligentsia,anisolationwhichresultsinaterif yingignoranceof
contemporaryproletarianandevenpettybourgeoislif e,sothatthiscaneasilybe
denigratedasthemereref lectionof totalintegration .
Themassworking- classthesishoweverisbothempiricallyandtheoretically
weak,andthegreatmeritof L ucas'bookistoconcretelydemonstratethisf orthe
Revolutionof 1 91 8- 1 91 9
.Howevero,f armoreisinvolvedthan(brilliant)
working- classhistory- writing
: L ucas'bookenablesusalltobegina
long- overduetask -
thesettlingof accountswithL eninism .
WhileargumentslikeRoth'srelyuponananalysisof theentirehistoryof the
Germanworkingclass,L ucasf ocusesonatightlydelimitedarea
: thetwo
Rhinelandindustrialtownsof HambornandRemscheid
.F ollowingMarx inthe
Grundrisse,andmoredirectly,NegtandK luge(1 97 3),L ucasattemptsto
ex plainthedif f erencesbetweenthetwotownsandtheirtwoworking- class
movementsbyanalysingproductionasnotj usttheproductionof materialgoods
butastheproductionof sociallif eitself .Whilesuchapositionmakesf oran
analysisof almostunparalleledempiricalrichness,thisisachievedatthecostof
theoreticalvagueness
;L ucascanidentif ytwoverydif f erentworking- class
realitiesandtwoverydif f erentf ormsof working- classradicalism,buthecan
onlyrelatetheseinavery
adhoc f ashion .
Thef irsttown,Hamborn,grewf romalmostnothingattheendof the1 9th
century(population6,0 0 0 in1 895,1 0 0 ,0 0 0 in1 91 0 )withthedevelopmentof
coalminingandtheironandsteelindustry
.Thebhambornproletariatwas
almostentirelyunskilled,withapreponderanceof youngmalesandalarge
PolishandCatholicimmigrantcomponent ;itwasaproletariathousedin
monotonousMietskasernenbuiltbytheemployers,aproletariatrenownedboth
f oritsviolenceanditslackof interestintradeunionsandsocialdemocratic
organisation
- aprototypicalmassworkingclass .
B ycontrast,Remscheidhasbeenacentref orthemetalworkingindustry
sincethe1 7 thcentsry
.Despiteaconcentrationof ownershipandagrowthof
largef actories,bytheendof the1 9thcentury,smallandmedium- scaleindustry
predominated .Heretheproletariatwaslargelyhighlyskilled,withadeveloped
culturallif eintheconventonalsenseof theterm(L ucasdocuments
working- classinterestinthelocaltheatreendlibraries),andwithastrongSPD
thathadbef ore1 91 4wonconsiderableimprovementsinthelocally
administeredsocialwelf are
.
However,despitewhatthemassworking- classthesiswouldpredict,in
Remscheidtheworkers'council(Arbeiterrat)wasoneof themostradical
councilsintheNovemberrevolution
;if thecouncilmovementasawholeis
dismissedasref ormist,thenitwastheworkersof Remscheid,andnotof
Hamborn,whoplayedthemoreimportantpartinthearmedstrugglesof the
1 920 "Marzrevolution" .Moreimportantthanthemereempiricalref utationof
themassworking- classthesisisthatthetwoworkingclassesproducedvery
dif f erentf ormsof radicalism .Thusthestrengthof theHambornmovementis
1 2 3
its f orm : a mass strike of the coal
miners, the strike controlled by
"spontaneously"electedstrikecommitteesresponsibletomassmeetingsof
eachpit,thestrikespreadbymassmarchestootherpits
.theweaknessof the
Hambornmovementlayinitslocalisednature,itsrestrictionto"economic"
demandsanditsdisinterestinnationalpolitics .Preciselytheoppositewasthe
caseinRemscheid .Herethemovementwasf irmlyorientatedtonationalpolit
cs,itsdelegatesparticipatinginthenationalcongressof councils,itsleaders
attemptingtoorganiseregionalresistencetothespreadingmilitary
counter- revolution .Theweaknessof theRemscheidmovementlayintherigid
relationshipbetweenleadersandmass,themovementef f ectivelywasthe
leaders,zhoseconceptionof revolutionwastheconquestof politicalpowerin
thestate(throughthecongressof councils)andthenthecreationof acouncil
systembythestate .Allworking- classactivitywassuccessf ullysubordinatedto
thisaim - themassesactedonlythroughtheirleaders .
Clearly,however,thestrengthsandweaknessesof thetwomovementscanbe
seenascomplementary,andindeedf orL ucas,theGermanrevolutionf ailed
becausethiscomplementerityremainedonlypotentiality
.Therevolutiondid
notf ailbecauseof thestructuralref ormismof theskilledworkers,asthe
weaknessof theHambornmovementdemonstrates,nordiditf ailf orthelackof
a"revolutionaryparty",estheRemscheidcasealsoshows .
L ucas'bookisimportantatseverallevels .F irstry,simplyasahistorical
reconstructionof working- classpoliticsalmostunparalleledwithinGerman
historiographywithitsex cessiveorientationtotheleadersandof f icial
organisationsof theworkingclass .ParticularlyimportantareL ucas'comments
ontheimportanceof thereligionandruralbackgroundof theHamborn
proletariat - amatterof desperateimporttometopolitansocialistsconf ronted
withtherecalcitrantly"backward"f ormsof say,Irishrevolt
.
Secondly,behindtheconf rontationwiththemasszorking- classthesis,there
stands,of teninadequatelytheorised,aconf rontationwithacrucialrelatedtopic
- thewholequestionof politicalorganisationitself
.Ishallnowattemptto
drawouttheimplicationsof L ucas'argumentasIseethem
.
Theoriesof "working- classaristocracies",whetherpropoundedbyL eninor
Roth,allultimatelydenythatclassconf lictisinternaltocapitalism
.
Revolutionaryoppositiontocapitalismisonlypossible"f romoutside",f or
non- revolutionarystruggleisonlyadaptation
.Theatleastpotentially
ambiguousnatureof theprivilegedpositionof thetraditionalcraf tworker,
thef actthatthe"socialskills"of the"respectable"workerarenotj ustaspectsof
integrationbutalsonecessitiesf orpoliticalorganisationagainstintegration,
theseareissueswhichwithinthe"aristocracy"argumentcannotevenbe
discussed
.Insteadthereisonlytheromanticisationof allapparently
non- integratedf ormsof working- classlif e .
O nceitisarguedthatsocialismcanonlybebroughtaboutbypeoplesomehow
isolatedf romcapitalism,thewayisopenf orthetheoryof therevolutionary
party,whosej ustif icationderivesf romitsclaimedabilitytoshielditsmembers
f romthesocietyinwhichtheylive
.Withinthisargumentnow,any
working- classactionwhichdoesnotoccurthroughthepartyistermed
1 2
4
spontaneous,f orbyasleightof hand,organisationnowequalstheparty .
Thisdichotomyspontaniety/organisationrevealstheenormousgapbetween
L eninismandworking- classlif e .AsGramscipointedout,thereisnosuchthing
as"spontaneous"popularaction,onlyf ormsof organisationwhichdonotleave
behindf ormalorganisationsandwrittenrecords .Noseriousdiscussionof the
suitablef ormsof organisationf orsocialiststodaycanevenbeginuntilthe
insultingterm"spontaneity"isovercome
.Andthismeanstheabandonmentof
themythof theall- powerf ulrevolutionaryparty,f orthepartyasthe
organisationisthenecessaryotherpoleof thatdichotomy .
F inally,asL ucaspointsout,f orL eninistsworking- classactionisonlyrelevant
if itcanbedoubly'instrumentelised
- channelledthroughthepartyand
towardsthestate .O nceneedsareinstrumentalisedinthisway,thenthe
revolutionbecomesaquestionof technique,thequestionof itsf ormanditsgoal
needneverbediscussed .Tobeprecise,Whilef ortheworkingclassof (Eastand
West)Europeitistherealityof "socialism"inthebeastthatisthebasisof
criticism of conventional socialist politics, f or the self - proclaimed
revolutionariestheircriticismof theestablishedpartiesisonlyintermsof
tactics .

The

consequence

of

this

instrumentalisation

has
been more than 50
years stagnation of the
socialist
movement .Ultimately,itisbecausehisdiscussionof twoGermantownsin
1 91 8/1 91
.9raisesthesequestionsthatL ucas'bookissoimportanttoday .
1 2
5
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