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MHD AND HEAT TRANSFER IN A THIN FILM OVER AN UNSTEADY
STRETCHING SURFACE WITH COMBINED EFFECT OF VISCOUS
DISSIPATION AND NONUNIFORM HEAT SOURCE
Anand H. Agadi
1*
,
M
. Subhas Abel
2
and Jagadish V. Tawade
3
1*
Department of Mathematics, Basaveshwar Engineering College, Bagalkot587102, INDIA
2
Department of Mathematics, Gulbarga University, Gulbarga 585 106, INDIA
3
Department of Mathematics, Bheemanna Khandre Institute of Technology, Bhalki585328
ABSTRACT
We have studied twodimensional flow of a thin film over a horizontal stretching surface.
The flow of a thin fluid film and subsequent heat transfer from the stretching surface is investigated
with the aid of similarity transformation. The transformation enables to reduce the unsteady
boundary layer equations to a system of nonlinear ordinary differential equations. Numerical
computation for the resulting nonlinear differential equations is obtained by RungeKutta fourth
order method with efficient shooting technique, which agrees well with the analytic solution. It is
shown that the heat fluxes from the liquid to the elastic sheet decreases with S for Pr 0.1 and
increases with S for Pr 1 . Some important findings reported in this work reveals that the effect of
nonuniform heat source have significant impact in controlling rate heat transfer in the boundary
layer region.
Key words: Eckert number, MHD, Prandtl number, thin film, unsteady stretching surface.
1. INTRODUCTION
The study of the flow resulting from a stretching boundary is important in process industry
such as the extrusion of sheet material into the coolant environment. The tangential velocity imparted
by the stretching sheet induces motion in the extruding fluid which ultimately solidified and formed
a sheet. In fact, stretching imparts a unidirectional orientation to the extrudate, thereby improving its
mechanical properties and the quality of the final product. Crane [1] first modeled this flow
configuration as a steady twodimensional boundary layer flow caused by the stretching of a sheet
which moves in its own plane with velocity varying with distance from the slit and obtained an exact
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solution analytically. This simple configuration has attracted several researchers [2  6] for the last
four decades and is extensively studied.
The hydrodynamics of the finite fluid domain ( thin liquid film), over a stretching sheet was
first considered by Wang [8] who reduced the unsteady NervierStokes equations to a nonlinear
ordinary differential equations by means of similarity transformation and solved the same using a
kind of multiple shooting method (see Robert and Shipman [9]). Wang [10] himself has used
homotopy analysis method to reinvestigate the thin film flow over a stretching sheet. Of late the
works of Wang [8] to the case of finite fluid domain are extended by several authors [1115] for
fluids of both Newtonian and nonNewtonian kinds using various velocity and thermal boundary
conditions.
Motivated by all these works we contemplate to study the effects of nonuniform heat source,
and viscous dissipation in presence of thermal radiation on the flow and heat transfer in a thin liquid
film over an unsteady stretching sheet, which is subjected to an external magnetic field.
2. MATHEMATICAL FORMULATION
Let us consider a thin elastic sheet which emerges from a narrow slit at the origin of a
Cartesian coordinate system for investigations as shown schematically in Fig 1. The continuous
sheet at 0 y = is parallel with the xaxis and moves in its own plane with the velocity
( ) ,
(1 )
bx
U x t
t
=
(1)
where b and are both positive constants with dimension per time. The surface temperature
s
T of
the stretching sheet is assumed to vary with the distance x from the slit as
( )
3 2
2
0
, (1 )
2
s ref
bx
T x t T T t
(
=
(
(2)
Where
0
T is the temperature at the slit and
ref
T can be taken as a constant reference temperature such
that
0
0
ref
T T . The term
2
(1 )
bx
t
can be recognized as the Local Reynolds number based on the
surface velocityU . The expression (1) for the velocity of the sheet ( , ) U x t reflects that the elastic
sheet which is fixed at the origin is stretched by applying a force in the positive xdirection and the
effective stretching rate
(1 )
b
t
increase with time as 0 1 < . The applied transverse magnetic
field is assumed to be of variable kind and is chosen as
( ) ( )
1
2
0
, 1 . B x t B t
= (3)
The sheet is assumed to have velocity U as defined in equation (1) and the flow field is
exposed to the influence of an external transverse magnetic field of strength B as defined in equation
(3). The velocity and temperature fields of the liquid film obey the following boundary layer
equations
International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET), ISSN 0976
6340(Print), ISSN 0976 6359(Online) Volume 4, Issue 4, July  August (2013) IAEME
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0,
u v
x y
+ =
(4)
2 2
2
,
u u u u B
u v u
t x y y
+ + =
(5)
2
2
2
p p p
T T T k T u q
u v
t x y C y C y C
 
+ + = + +

\
(6)
The nonuniform heat source/sink (see [30]) is modeled as
0 0
( )
[ *( ) ( ) *],
w
s
ku x
q A T T f T T B
x
= + (7)
Where A* and B* are the coefficients of space and temperature dependent heat source/sink
respectively. Here we make a note that the case 0 * , 0 * > > B A corresponds to internal heat
generation and that 0 * , 0 * < < B A corresponds to internal heat absorption.
The associated boundary conditions are given by
, 0, at 0,
s
u U v T T y = = = = (8)
0 at ,
u T
y h
y y
= = =
(9)
at .
dh
v y h
dt
= = (10)
At this juncture we make a note that the mathematical problem is implicitly formulated only
for 0 x . Further it is assumed that the surface of the planar liquid film is smooth so as to avoid the
complications due to surface waves. The influence of interfacial shear due to the quiescent
atmosphere, in other words the effect of surface tension is assumed to be negligible. The viscous
shear stress
u
y
 
=

\
and the heat flux
T
q k
y
 
=

\
vanish at the adiabatic free surface
(at y = h).
We now introduce dimensionless variables and f and the similarity variable as
( )
( )
1
2
, ,
,
1
x y t
f
b
x
t
=
 

\
(11)
( )
1
2
.
1
b
y
t
 
=


\
(12)
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6340(Print), ISSN 0976 6359(Online) Volume 4, Issue 4, July  August (2013) IAEME
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( )
( )
( )
0
2
3
2
, ,
,
2 1
r e f
T T x y t
b x
T
t
=
 



\
(13)
The physical stream function ( ) , , x y t automatically assures mass conversion given in
equation (4). The velocity components are readily obtained as:
( ),
1
bx
u f
y t
 
= =

\
(14)
( )
1
2
.
1
b
v f
x t
 
= =

\
(15)
The mathematical problem defined in equations (4) (6) and (8) (9) transforms exactly into
a set of ordinary differential equations and their associated boundary conditions:
( )
2
Mn ,
2
S f f f ff f f
 
+ + =

\
(16)
( )
2
S
Pr 3 2 EcPr ( * * ),
2
f f f A f B
(
+ + = +
(
(17)
(0) 1, (0) 0, (0) 1, f f = = = (18)
( ) 0, ( ) 0, f = = (19)
S
( ) .
2
f
= (20)
Here S
b
 
=


\
(21)
Yet is an unknown constant, which should be determined as an integral part of the
boundary value problem. The rate at which film thickness varies can be obtained differentiating
equation (21) with respect to t, in the form
International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET), ISSN 0976
6340(Print), ISSN 0976 6359(Online) Volume 4, Issue 4, July  August (2013) IAEME
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( )
1
2
.
2 1
dh
dt b t
 
=


\
(22)
Thus the kinematic constraint at ( ) y h t = given by equation (10) transforms into the free
surface condition (22). It is noteworthy that the momentum boundary layer equation defined by
equation (16) subject to the relevant boundary conditions (18) (20) is decoupled from the thermal
field; on the other hand the temperature field ( ) is coupled with the velocity field ( ) f . Since the
sheet is stretched horizontally the convection least affects the flow and hence there is a oneway
coupling of velocity and thermal fields.
3. NUMERICAL SOLUTION
The nonlinear differential equations (16) and (17) with appropriate boundary conditions
given in (18) to (20) are solved numerically, by the most efficient numerical shooting technique with
fourth order RungeKutta algorithm (see references [16]). The nonlinear differential equations (16)
and (17) are first decomposed to a system of first order differential equations in the form
( )
( )
2
0 1 2
1 2 1 2 1 0 2 1
2 0 1
1 0 1 1 0 1 0 2
, , +Mn ,
2
S
, Pr 3 2 Ec Pr ( * * ) .
2
df df df
f f S f f f f f f
d d d
d d
f f f A f B
d d
 
= = = + +

\
  (
= = + + + +

(
\
(25)
Corresponding boundary conditions take the form,
1 0 0
(0) 1, (0) 0, (0) 1, f f = = = (26)
2 1
( ) 0, ( ) 0, f = = (27)
0
S
( ) .
2
f
= (28)
Here
0 0
( ) ( ) and ( ) ( ). f f = = The above boundary value problem is first converted
into an initial value problem by appropriately guessing the missing slopes
2 1
(0) and (0) f . The
resulting IVP is solved by shooting method for a set of parameters appearing in the governing
equations and a known value of S. The value of is so adjusted that condition (28) holds. This is
done on the trial and error basis. The value for which condition (28) holds is taken as the appropriate
film thickness and the IVP is finally solved using this value of . The step length of h = 0.01 is
employed for the computation purpose. The convergence criterion largely depends on fairly good
guesses of the initial conditions in the shooting technique. The iterative process is terminated until
the relative difference between the current and the previous iterative values of ( ) f matches with
the value of
2
S
up to a tolerance of
6
10
( ) 0 f
0.4 5.122490 6.699120 1.307785 4.981455 1.134098
0.6 3.131250 3.742330 1.195155 3.131710 1.195128
0.8 2.151990 2.680940 1.245795 2.151990 1.245805
1.0 1.543620 1.972380 1.277762 1.543617 1.277769
1.2 1.127780 1.442631 1.279177 1.127780 1.279171
1.4 0.821032 1.012784 1.233549 0.821033 1.233545
1.6 0.576173 0.642397 1.114937 0.576176 1.114941
1.8 0.356389 0.309137 0.867414 0.356390 0.867416
Note: Wang [10] has used different similarity transformation due to which the value of
( ) 0 f
in his
paper is the same as ( ) 0 f of our results.
TABLE 2: Comparison of values of surface temperature ( ) and wall temperature gradient
( ) 0 with Mn = Ec = A* = B* = 0.0
Pr
Wang [10] Present Results
( ) ( ) 0
( ) 0
( ) ( ) 0
S = 0.8 and = 2.15199
0.01 0.960480 0.090474 0.042042 0.960438 0.042120
0.1 0.692533 0.756162 0.351378 0.692296 0.351920
1 0.097884 3.595790 1.670913 0.097825 1.671919
2 0.024941 5.244150 2.436884 0.024869 2.443914
3 0.008785 6.514440 3.027170 0.008324 3.034915
S = 1.2 and = 1.127780
0.01 0.982331 0.037734 0.033458 0.982312 0.033515
0.1 0.843622 0.343931 0.304962 0.843485 0.305409
1 0.286717 1.999590 1.773032 0.286634 1.773772
2 0.128124 2.975450 2.638324 0.128174 2.638431
3 0.067658 3.698830 3.279744 0.067737 3.280329
Note: Wang [10] has used different similarity transformation due to which the value of
( ) 0
in
his paper is the same as ( ) 0 of our results.
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TABLE 3: Values of surface temperature ( ) for various values of Mn, Pr, Ec, A*, B* and S
Mn Pr Ec A* B*
( )
S = 0.8 S = 1.2
0.0 1.0 0.02
0.05 0.05 0.257696 0.496022
1.0 1.0 0.02
0.05 0.05 0.420739 0.618190
2.0 1.0 0.02
0.05 0.05 0.526782 0.692995
5.0 1.0 0.02
0.05 0.05 0.695757 0.806962
8.0 1.0 0.02
0.05 0.05 0.776253 0.913333
1.0 0.01 0.02
0.05 0.05 1.030899 1.009712
1.0 0.1 0.02
0.05 0.05 0.931433 0.959465
1.0 1 0.02
0.05 0.05 0.420739 0.618190
1.0 10 0.02
0.05 0.05 0.011137 0.061941
1.0 100 0.02
0.05 0.05 0.000095 0.000238
1.0 1.0 0.01
0.05 0.05 0.420304 0.617857
1.0 1.0 1.0
0.05 0.05 0.463423 0.650865
1.0 1.0 2.0
0.05 0.05 0.506978 0.684207
1.0 1.0 5.0
0.05 0.05 0.637642 0.784232
1.0 1.0 0.02
0.05 0.05 0.227566 0.423871
1.0 1.0 0.02
0.05 0.05 0.420739 0.618190
1.0 1.0 0.02
0.05 0.05 0.715871 0.838324
1.0 1.0 0.02
0.05 0.05 0.826899 0.906104
1.0 1.0 0.02
0.4 0.05 0.379098 0.586395
1.0 1.0 0.02
0.0 0.05 0.416112 0.614657
1.0 1.0 0.02
0.4 0.05 0.453127 0.642920
1.0 1.0 0.02
0.05 0.4 0.353675 0.578066
1.0 1.0 0.02
0.05 0.0 0.412373 0.613518
1.0 1.0 0.02
0.05 0.4 0.487372 0.652540
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Fig.1 Schematic representation of a liquid film on an elastic sheet
0.0 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0
0
10
20
30
40
50
S
S = 1.2
S = 0.8
Mn
0 2 4 6 8
0.0
0.1
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.5
f
'
(
)
Mn
Fig.4 Variation of freesurface velocity f ' () with
magnetic parameter Mn
S = 0.8
S = 1.2
0 2 4 6 8
0.0
0.5
1.0
1.5
2.0
2.5
3.0
3.5

f
'
'
(
0
)
Mn
Fig.5 Variation of wall shear stress parameter f '' (0)
with Magnetic parameter Mn
S = 1.2
S = 0.8
Forc
Slit
u
T
s
h(t)
y = 0
y = h
y
x
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0 2 4 6 8
0.0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1.0
Fig.6 Variation of freesurface temperature ()
with the Magnetic parameter Mn
S = 1.2
S = 0.8
0 2 4 6 8
0.4
0.6
0.8
1.0
1.2
Fig. 7 Dimensionless emperature gradien  '() at the sheet vs
Magnetic parameter Mn for S = 0.8 and S = 1.2
S = 1.2
S = 0.8

'
(
0
)
Mn
0.0
0.5
1.0
1.5
2.0
2.5
0.0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0
f '()
= 0.483049
= 0.579900
= 0.775795
= 0.903878
= 1.127780
M = 0, 1, 2, 5, 8
0.0
0.5
1.0
1.5
2.0
2.5
0.0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0
Fig.9(a) Variation oin the temperature profile () for different
values of magnetic parameter Mn with S = 0.8
()
= 0.806512
= 0.979193
= 1.350880
= 1.616880
= 2.151990
M = 0, 1, 2, 5, 8
0.0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1.0
1.2
0.0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0
M = 0, 1, 2, 5, 8
()
Fig.9(b) Variation on the temperature profile () for different
values of magnetic parameter Mn with S = 1.2
= 0.483049
= 0.579900
= 0.775795
= 0.903878
= 1.127780
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0.0
0.4
0.8
1.2
1.6
0.0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0
= 1.61688
Mn = 1, Ec = 0.02, A* = B* = 0.05
Fig.10(a) Variation of the temperature profile () for different
values of Prandtl number Pr with S = 0.8
Pr=100
Pr=10
Pr=5
Pr=1
Pr=0.1
()
0.0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1.0
0.0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0
Mn=1, Pr = 1, Ec = 0.02, A* = B* = 0.05
Fig.10(b) Variation in he temperaure profile () for different
values of Prandtl number Pr with S = 1.2
Pr = 100
Pr = 10
Pr = 5
Pr = 1
Pr = 0.1
= 0.903878
()
0.0
0.4
0.8
1.2
1.6
0.0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0
Fig.11(a) Variation in the temperature profile () for different
values of Eckert number Ec with S = 0.8
Mn=1, Pr = 1, A* = B* = 0.05
Ec = 0.01, 1, 2, 5
= 1.61688
()
0.0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1.0
0.0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0
Fig.11(b) Variation in the temperature profile () for different
values of Eckert number Ec with S = 1.2
Mn = 1, Pr = 1, A* = B* = 0.05
= 0.903878
Ec = 0.01, 1, 2, 5
()
0.0
0.4
0.8
1.2
1.6
0.0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0
Fig 12(a). Variation of temperature profile ()
for different values of space dependent heat
source/sink A
*
with S = 0.8
Mn = 1, Pr = 1.0, Ec = 0.02, B* = 0.5
A* = 0.4, 0.2, 0, 0.2, 0.4
1.61688
()
0.0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1.0
0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0
Fig 12(b). Variation of temperature profile ()
for different values of space dependent heat
source/sink A
*
with S = 1.2
A* = 0.4, 0.2, 0, 0.2, 0.4
Mn=1, Pr = 1, Ec = 0.02, B* = 0.05
= 0.903878
()
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0.0
0.4
0.8
1.2
1.6
0.0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0
Fig 13 (a). Variation of the temperature profile ()
for different values of temperature dependent heat
source/sink B
*
with S = 0.8
Mn = 1, Pr = 1, Ec = 0.02, A* = 0.05
B* = 0.4, 0.2, 0, 0.2, 0.4
= 1.61688
()
0.0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1.0
0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0
Fig 13 (b). Variation of the temperature profile ()
for different values of temperature dependent heat
source/sink B
*
with S = 1.2
B* = 0.4, 0.2, 0, 0.2, 0.4
Mn = 1, Pr = 1, Ec = 0.02, A* = 0.05
= 0.903878
()
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