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Lecture 03

Project Management Process Project Scope Management

Execution of Project Monitoring and Control of Project Closing of Project What is Scope? Scope Management Collect Requirements Define Scope Create WBS Verify Scope Control Scope

Executing Process
The Executing Process Group consist of those processes performed to complete the work defined in the project management plan to satisfy the project specifications. This Process Group involves coordinating people and resources, as well as integrating and performing the activities of the project in accordance with the project management plan.

Executing Process
Those processes performed to complete the work defined in the project management plan and to meet the project objectives. The focus is on:

Managing people Following processes Distributing information

Actions Taken During the Executing Process Group

Direct and manage project executing Execute the work to the plans (Project Management Plan) Set and manage the expectations of all stakeholders Complete work packages and achieve work results that meet requirements Commit project resources in accordance with the project management plan Manage project progress Determine if project activities complies with processes, policies and procedures Expend and monitor project funds

Actions Taken During the Executing Process Group

Systems and Procedures Implementation
Follow and continuously improve organisational policies, processes, procedures and systems Perform Quality Assurance and Audits Authorize work on work packages using a work authorization system Implement Reward and recognition Systems

Actions Taken During the Executing Process Group

Change Integrated Mechanism
Recommend changes to be handled in the perform Integrated Change Control process Request changes and implement approved changes Stop during the project to see where changes are coming from and what you can do to eliminate the root cause of the need for change

Actions Taken During the Executing Process Group

Establish effective project communications By:
Establishing and managing communication channels Ensure common understanding of the work Produce project reports regularly Ensure continued agreement from stakeholders to the project by keeping them on board during the project Keep everyone focused on completing the project to the project charter and project management plan Distribute information Hold Progress meetings Send and receive information

Actions Taken During the Executing Process Group

Evaluate project performance Evaluate the team effectiveness as a team Collect and document lesson learned

Management Commitment to the Project

Meet with managers to reconfirm resource commitments Keep managers aware of when their resources will be needed on the project

Actions Taken During the Executing Process Group

Team Building
Acquire, build and Manage Project Team Hold Team building activities Obtain needed training for team members Make sure all team members have the skills, information and equipment needed to complete their work Give visibility to teams and its members Develop trust and ownership between project team Measure individual team member performance and give recognition

Actions Taken During the Executing Process Group

Conflict Resolution and Problem solving
Facilitate Conflict Resolution using conflict resolution techniques Remove roadblocks Use issue logs Focus on preventing problems rather than just dealing with them as they arise Solve problems Re-evaluate the projects business case when a severe problem occurs

Conduct Procurement
Obtain seller responses to procurement documents Review bids and quotes, and select sellers

Monitoring and Controlling Process

The Monitoring and Controlling Process Group consists of those processes required to track, review, and regulate the progress and performance of the project; identify any areas in which changes to the plan are required; and initiate the corresponding changes. The key benefit of this Process Group is that project performance is observed and measured regularly and consistently to identify variances from the project management plan.

Actions Required to complete the project Monitoring and Controlling Process Group

Project Performance Measurement

Measure project performance according to the planned measures in the management plans Measure performance against the Performance Measurement Baseline and other set Metrics Observe and Verify Scope Hold periodic inspections Make decisions to accept or reject work Report on performance to all stakeholders Calculate estimate to complete Use and interpret earned value calculations Identify the need for re-planning Identify and analyze trends Create forecasts

Actions Required to complete the project Monitoring and Controlling Process Group

Project Control Measurements

Control scope, schedule and cost to their baselines Refine control limits Make updates to the project management plan and project documents Hold meetings regarding controlling the project, such as status review meetings Monitor and control project work Control Project to the match the plan Get information from stakeholders to determine if project controls need to be updated Use milestones as a project control feature Recalculate how much project will cost and how long it will take Obtain additional funding when needed Monitor and control Risks Perform quality control (Tools, inspection, Pareto charts)

Actions Required to complete the project Monitoring and Controlling Process Group

Project Evaluation
Evaluate the effectiveness of implemented corrective actions Reassess the effectiveness of project control system Evaluate the effectiveness of risk responses in a risk audit Evaluate customer satisfaction

Actions Required to complete the project Monitoring and Controlling Process Group

Perform Integrated Change Control Determine variance, Requests and Approve or Reject Changes Recommend changes, including defect repair and preventive and corrective actions Obtain approval of changes in integrated change control Influence the factors that cause change Stop during the project to see where changes are coming from and what you can do to eliminate root cause of the need for change

Actions Required to complete the project Monitoring and Controlling Process Group

Perform Integrated Change Control Inform Stakeholders of approved changes and gain acceptance of interim deliverables from the customer Ensure that only approved changes are implemented Use variance reports to help correct small problems before they become serious Control changes Work with change control board

Actions Required to complete the project Monitoring and Controlling Process Group

Perform Risk Audits Manage the time and cost reserves Spend time to improve quality Identify root causes of problems Administer Procurements Perform procurement audits

Closing Process
The Closing Process consists of those processes performed to finalize all activities across all Project Management Process Groups to formally complete the project, phase, or contractual obligations. This Process Group, when completed, verifies that the defined processes are completed within all the Process Groups to close the project or a project phase, as appropriate, and formally establishes that the project or project phase is complete.

Actions Required to complete the project Closing Process Group

Confirm work is done to the requirements Verify and document that the project, or project phase, meets completion or exit criteria set in place during the planning. Gain formal acceptance from customers Make final payments and complete cost records Update lesson learned knowledge base Ensure all project management processes are complete Update corporate processes, procedures and templates based on lessons learned Add new skills acquired to team members human resource records

Actions Required to complete the project Closing Process Group

Conduct post project review Close out Procurements Final Performance Reporting Index and Archive Records Evaluate customer satisfaction Handoff Completed Product Release Resources Celebrate

Project scope The work that must be done in order to achieve the project. Scope must be defined, clear and formally approved before work starts.

Project Scope Management includes the processes required to ensure that the project includes all the work required, and only the work required, to complete the project successfully. Project scope management is primarily concerned with defining and controlling what is and is not included in the project. Scope changes should not be approved if they relate to work that does not fit within the project charter.

Scope Management plan consists of three parts: How scope will be planned How scope will be executed How scope will be controlled Scope management plan becomes part of the project management plan and is used to guide and measure the project until project closing.

Collect Requirements Determine Project scope Create WBS Verify Scope Control Scope

Scope Management Process

Collect Requirements
Requirements are what stakeholders need from

project. Requirements should relate to solving problems or achieving objectives. Collect Requirements is the process of defining and documenting stakeholders needs to meet the project objectives. Requirements include the quantified and documented needs and expectations of the sponsor, customer, and other stakeholders.

Collect Requirements
These requirements need to be analyzed, and recorded in enough detail to be measured once project execution begins. Requirements become the foundation of the WBS. Cost, schedule, and quality planning are all built upon these requirements.The development of requirements begins with an analysis of the information contained in the project charter and the stakeholder register. This process is critical to project success, as a missed requirement could mean significant changes and conflict throughout the reminder of the project and even project failure.

Techniques to Collect Requirements

Interviews Focus groups Facilitated Workshops Group Creativity Techniques Brainstorming Nominal group technique The Delphi Technique Idea/mind mapping Affinity diagram

Techniques to Collect Requirements

Group Decision Making Techniques Unanimity Majority Plurality Dictatorship Questionnaires and Surveys Observations Prototypes

Collect Requirements Process

This process produces the following: Requirements Documentation Requirements Management Plan Requirement Traceability Matrix

Requirements Documentation
Help make sure the requirements are clear and unambiguous. Requirements documentation describes how individual requirements meet the business need for the project. Requirements may start out at a high level and become progressively more detailed as more is known. Before being base-lined, requirements must be unambiguous (measurable and testable), traceable, complete, consistent, and acceptable to key stakeholders.

Requirements Management Plan

The requirements management plan documents how requirements will be identified, analyzed, prioritized, documented, and managed throughout the project.

Requirements Traceability Matrix

The requirements traceability matrix is a table (requirement identification numbers, the source of each requirement, who is assigned to manage the requirement, and the status of the requirement) that links requirements to their origin and traces them throughout the project life. It provides a means to track requirements throughout the project, helping to ensure that requirements approved in the requirements documentation are delivered at the end of the project. Each requirement is assigned to someone to manage it, or own it.

Balance Stakeholders Requirements

Balancing stake holders requirements means: means:

Making sure the requirements can be met within the project objectives objectives. . Prioritizing requirements and resolving any conflicts between them them. .

Balance Stakeholders Requirements

Balancing stake holders requirements Involves: Identification of stakeholders and their needs Clear and complete requirement documentations Look for competing interests during planning Resolve the competing interests (ASAP) Appropriately weight the competing stakeholders interests Gather, assess, and integrate information into the project.

Balance Competing Requirements

The project manager should facilitate the resolution of competing requirements by accepting those that best comply with the following :

The business case The project charter The project scope statement The project constraints

Define Scope
Define Scope is the process of developing a detailed description of the project. Define scope process uses the documents created in the Collect Requirements Process, the project charter, and any information about project risks, assumptions, and constraints to define project. Define Scope process is primarily concerned with what is and is not included in the project and its deliverables. During planning, the project scope is defined and described with greater specificity as more information about the project is known.

Project Scope Statement

The primary result, or output, of the Define Scope process is the project scope statement. Project scope statement is the approved project scope of the project. The preparation of a detailed project scope statement is critical to project success and builds upon the major deliverables, assumptions, and constraints that are documented during project initiation.

Project Scope Statement

The project scope statement may include: Project justification and objectives Project scope Deliverables Acceptance criteria What is not part of the project Additional risks Constraints and assumptions

Project Scope Statement

Well prepared project scope statement facilitates the better management of project by: Effectively managing stakeholder expectations. Provides the baseline for evaluating whether requests for changes or additional work are contained within or outside the projects boundaries. Guides the project teams work during execution It enables the project team to perform more detailed planning.

Create WBS
Create WBS is the process of subdividing project deliverables and project work into smaller, more manageable components. The work breakdown structure (WBS) is a deliverabledeliverableoriented hierarchical decomposition of the work to be executed by the project team to accomplish the project objectives and create the required deliverables, with each descending level of the WBS representing an increasingly detailed definition of the project work. The WBS organizes and defines the total scope of the project, and represents the work specified in the current approved project scope statement.The planned work is contained within the lowest level WBS components, which are called work packages. A work package can be scheduled, cost estimated, monitored, and controlled.

Scope Baseline
Scope baseline is the agreed upon project scope statement, the WBS, and the WBS dictionary. Projects measurements of success include whether the project has met the requirements and whether the scope baseline has been met. The scope baseline becomes a part of the project management plan that is approved by the sponsor.

Verify Scope
Verify Scope is the process of formalizing acceptance of the completed project deliverables. Verifying scope includes reviewing deliverables with the customer or sponsor to ensure that they are completed satisfactorily and obtaining formal acceptance of deliverables from the customer or sponsor.

Control Scope
Control Scope is the process of monitoring the status of the project scope and managing changes to the scope baseline. Controlling the project scope ensures all requested changes and recommended corrective or preventive actions are processed through the Perform Integrated Change Control process . Project scope control is also used to manage the actual changes when they occur and is integrated with the other control processes.

Control Scope
To control scope the following are required: Completed Work Scope Baseline Requirements Documentation Requirements Traceability Matrix Variance Analysis

Execution of Project Monitoring and Control of Project Closing of Project Scope and Scope Management Scope Management process Collect Requirement Project scope statement Create WBS Verify and Control Scope