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Y12

APPLIED
SCIENCE

PLANT
PROCESSES
1
INDEX
INDEX...........................................................................................................................2
WHICH IS BEST; SEXUAL OR ASEXUAL REPRODUCTION?..............................5
ASEXUAL REPRODUCTION IN FLOWERING PLANTS........................................5
Types of Asexual Reproduction.................................................................................6
1. Rhizomes.......................................................................................................6
2. Tubers............................................................................................................6
Taking a plant cutting.................................................................................................9
Watching the roots develop........................................................................................9
SEXUAL REPRODUCTION IN FLOWERING PLANTS (Angiosperms)................10
NZQA QUESTION 6-05..........................................................................................14
POLLINATION............................................................................................................15
WIND VERSUS INSECT........................................................................................15
NZQA QUESTION 4-05..........................................................................................18
FERTILISATION.........................................................................................................19
NZQA QUESTION 5 06..........................................................................................20
SEEDS......................................................................................................................24
SEED STRUCTURE............................................................................................24
SEED DISPERSAL..................................................................................................26
NZQA QUESTION..............................................................................................26
5-05...............................................................................................................................26
b)Explain how the production of fruit provides an advantage to the survival of
flowering plants. ..........................................................................................................27
.....................................................................................................................................30
GERMINATION..........................................................................................................31
QUESTIONS............................................................................................................31
EXPERIMENT TO DETERMINE THE BEST CONDITIONS FOR
GERMINATION..................................................................................................36
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GROWTH....................................................................................................................37
PRIMARY GROWTH..............................................................................................38
SECONDARY GROWTH.......................................................................................44
FACTORS THAT AFFECT PLANT GROWTH.................................................45
NZQA QUESTION 4-07..........................................................................................45
The diagram shows the arrangement of plant tissues in a dicotyledon stem...........45
TROPISMS..................................................................................................................47
Cause of Phototropism.........................................................................................49
Cause of Geotropism............................................................................................49
HOW TROPISMS HAPPEN...............................................................................49
THE IMPORTANCE OF NUTRIENTS..................................................................50
NZQA QUESTION 7-05..........................................................................................54
8 05...........................................................................................................................54
3 07...........................................................................................................................55
PHOTOSYNTHESIS...............................................................................................56
PHOTOSYNTHESIS.................................................................................................57
TESTING A LEAF FOR STARCH..........................................................................57
EXPERIMENT TO SHOW THAT INTENSITY OF LIGHT AFFECTS THE RATE
OF PHOTOSYNTHESIS.........................................................................................59

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IMPORTANCE OF LIGHT WAVELENGTH IN PHOTOSYNTHESIS................61
EXPERIMENT TO SHOW HOW VARYING THE AMOUNT OF
CHLOROPHYLL CAN AFFECT THE RATE OF PHOTOSYNTHESIS..............63
EXPERIMENT TO SHOW HOW TEMPERATURE AFFECTS THE RATE OF
PHOTOSYNTHESIS...............................................................................................64
PHOTOSYNTHESIS SUMMARY..........................................................................66
STRUCTURE OF THE LEAF.....................................................................................67
STRUCTURE OF THE LEAF – THE FOOD FACTORY......................................68
STOMATA...........................................................................................................68
CO2 ABSORPTION............................................................................................70
WATER AND SUGAR TRANSPORT.................................................................71

WEBSITE to see PODCASTS
http://y12apps.blogspot.com/

You can download these pod and vodcasts to your ipod, MP3, phone or watch on your
computer.

Put them on your portable gadgets and “get one up” on those sat around you gossiping
on the bus/train. You’ll know more and be able to remember more than them when it
comes to exam time!!!

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BY THE END OF THIS TOPIC I WILL

I sometimes understand
I kind of understand this

I really don’t understand
I really understand this

properlyI don’t think I understand
Be able to list the asexual methods of reproduction which
involve cuttings, tubers, rhizomes, runners and bulbs
Know the difference between seed dispersal and pollen
dispersal
Be able to give the typical structure of a wind or insect
pollinated flower.
Be able to say what the function of each part of a flower
structure is.
Know the steps involved from pollination to fertilisation
Be able to describe the function of each of the structures
in a dicotyledon seed.
Be able to give examples of different methods of seed
dispersal
Be able to discuss the different germination stages.
Know what environmental factors may affect germination
and how germination is affected by them.
Know how the meristematic tissue grows
Know how wind, temperature, moisture and oxygen affect
the different plant processes.
Be able to describe the difference between primary and
secondary growth in roots and stems.
Be able to discuss the importance of nutrients in growth
and photosynthesis.
Be able to draw and discuss the function of the parts of a
dicotyledonous leaf.
Know the photosynthesis equation
Be able to list and discuss the factors that affect the rate of
photosynthesis. Including light intensity, wavelength of
light, temperature, amount of chlorophyll and carbon
dioxide concentration.

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WHICH IS BEST; SEXUAL OR ASEXUAL
REPRODUCTION?
ASEXUAL REPRODUCTION SEXUAL REPRODUCTION
Advantages Advantages

Disadvantages Disadvantages

ASEXUAL REPRODUCTION IN FLOWERING PLANTS

The flower contains the plants sex organs.

A flowering plant, by view of the fact that it has a flower, is capable of
sexual reproduction. However, asexual reproduction in flowering plants
is common. Why therefore would a plant capable of having sex want to
produce clones by having sex with itself?

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There are lots of reasons why flowering plants may find this form of
reproduction to their advantage.

 If the environment has been stable for many generations, variability
may not be as essential to the survival of the species. Asexual
reproduction which is not as complex and requires far less energy,
would be preferable.
 When colonizing a new area, finding a mate for sexual reproduction
may be difficult or impossible.
 If the environment is particularly harsh, the more delicate or
susceptible organs or stages of sexual reproduction may not be able
to survive. Many plants which inhabit such areas as deserts or arctic
tundra only reproduce asexually.
 It is much, much quicker to reproduce asexually.

Types of Asexual Reproduction
1. Rhizomes

Plants such as grasses produce underground stems or rhizomes. As
these stems grow through the soil, they randomly produce roots and a new
shoot. If the rhizome dies, a new separate plant will have been formed

Rhizomes.

2. Tubers

Tubers are actually modified rhizomes. They are formed in potatoes
and kumara. They develop when specialized stem branches grow down into
the ground and swell up with starch containing cells. Buds on the tubers will
grow into new plants. Examine a potato tuber and note the buds which are
commonly termed "eyes"

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Potato Tubers.

3. Runners

These are horizontally growing stems that produce few, if any, leaves.
At the spot where a leaf would normally develop a node, these plants will
produce adventitious roots down into the soil, and new above ground shoots.
Examine the strawberry plant or spider plant. Note the runner and the new
shoots (Figure 8).

Runners/ Stolons.

4. Plantlets

A few seed plants such as the duckweed and Kalanchoe sp. produce
miniature plants on the edge of their leaves. These drop off and develop into
mature plants. The duckweed, which is an aquatic plant, reproduces almost
entirely by this method.

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Plantlets.

5. Bulbs

Onions, chives and lilies over-winter in the form of a bulb. Each bulb
has a very short stem which is surrounded by fleshy leaves. In the spring, the
shoot apex begins to grow using the nutrients stored in the leaves.

Bulbs.

6. Corms

This structure is similar to bulbs except that there are no storage
leaves. The nutrients are, instead, stored in the swollen stem. Gladiolus. and
Crocus. produce corms

Corms.

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7. Cuttings

Many plants can reproduce asexually. That means that a new plant can start to grow
when part of it is split off from the original 'parent' plant.
The new plant will be genetically identical to the parent plant.
This is what happens when a gardener takes a cutting to grow new plants.

Taking a plant cutting
1) Take a disposable plastic cup and cut two small drainage holes in its base.
2) Three-quarters fill the cup with cutting compost.
3) Use a pot-plant such as a busy lizzie.
4) With a sharp knife, cut off one of the side branches. Cut
the side branch just below the leaf closest to the main stem.
This is the cutting.
Take care with the knife.
5) Remove the bottom 2 or 3 leaves so that the cutting has a
few leaves at the top. This helps stop the cutting losing too Cut just below
much water before the roots develop. where the leaf stem
joins the side
6) Gently push the cutting about 1–2cm into the compost. branch.
7) Water the compost so it is moist but not soaking wet.
8) Place the cutting in a warm, well-lit position
such as a window.
9) The cutting should produce roots in 2–-3 weeks.
Transfer it to a bigger pot and it will grow into a
plant that is genetically identical to the one Push the cutting
it was taken from. gently into the
cutting compost.

Watching the roots develop
Observe the roots as they grow, place the cutting into a test tube. Add water so that the
bottom 2cm of the shoot is in the water. You will be able to observe the roots
developing over 2–3 weeks.

QUESTIONS

1. Did the cloned plant look identical to the parent plant? Why/why not?

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SEXUAL REPRODUCTION IN FLOWERING PLANTS
(Angiosperms)
The flower is the sexual organ of the plant. Most flowers are hermaphrodites. They
have both male and female reproductive organs.

In 1759 Carl Linnaeus published a book on the sexual reproduction in plants. This
caused an outcry and many clergymen wanted the book banned!!!

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Complete the table

Structure Function
Petals
Anther
Filament
Stigma
Style
Ocary
Ovules
Sepal
Carpel
Stamen

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Cut out the boxes below and arrange them under the correct headings on
page 15

This page left blank on purpose

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Assemble the flower here

NZQA QUESTION

a) Name ONE flowering plant that reproduces asexually, and describe
its method of asexual reproduction.

Name of plant:__________________________________________

Method of asexual reproduction:

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b) Explain how asexual reproduction is different from sexual
reproduction in flowering plants.

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c) Asexual reproduction in flowering plants has advantages and
disadvantages. Discuss this statement with reference to
reproduction and dispersal.

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NZQA QUESTION 6-05
Many flowering plants can reproduce sexually and asexually (or vegetatively).
a) Describe TWO ways a flowering plant can naturally reproduce asexually.
(You may refer to named plants in your answer.)
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b) Compare asexual and sexual reproduction in flowering plants and discuss how these
two processes differ genetically.
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POLLINATION
WIND VERSUS INSECT

The structure of a flower will depend on whether it is pollinated by the wind or by
insects.

Can you guess which is wind and insect from the pictures below?

What is the difference between the two flowers?
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Before fertilisation can occur, pollen must be transferred from one flower to another.
This is pollination. The pollen grains must land on the stigma of another flower of the
same type.

Below are some characteristics of insect and wind pollinated flowers. Next to each
characteristic, explain why you think they have this characteristic.

INSECT POLLINATED FLOWERS

• Flowers large and colourful or if the flowers are small, they grow in clusters.

• Flowers produces scent

• Flowers produce nectar.

• Pollen grains are spiked or sticky.

WIND POLLINATED FLOWERS

• Flowers are small and not often coloured.

• Flowers produce no scent or nectar

• Stamens and stigma hang out of the flower.

• The stigma is feathery

• Large amounts of light weight pollen is produced.

Although both male and female gametes are produced in the same flower, self-
pollination does not normally occur. The flower will often produce the female and
male gametes at different times.

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Insect Pollinated Wind Pollinated

Now have a look at this electron micrograph of a selection of different pollens

There are insect and wind borne pollen grains in this picture, can you pick out one of
each?

NZQA QUESTION 4-05
a) Give three characteristics of flowers that would attract insects for pollination.
1.
2.
3.

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The photograph shows the male flowers of a deciduous tree. These are produced on
the ends of the branches in early spring, before the new leaves appear

b) Explain how the position of the male flowers and the timing of flowering help
pollination
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FERTILISATION
Once a pollen grain has landed on the stigma a pollen tube grows out of the pollen
grain and down the style to the ovule. The male nucleus then travels down this pollen
tube, enters the ovule and fuses with the ovum. Fertilisation has occurred.

There are usually many ovules inside the ovary, so this means that many pollen must
land on the stigma to fertilise each individual ovule.

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NZQA QUESTION 5 06
The diagram below shows two types of flowers

A
E B
F C
D

Flower A Flower B

a) Name and describe the function of the flower parts labelled A to F in the diagram
for Flower A.

NAME DESCRIPTION
A

B

C

D

E

F

b) Explain why the stigmas in the two plants are different

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c) Explain how the growth of a pollen tube leads to Fertilisation

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d) Discuss how the features of both flowers A and B allow pollination to occur (5 07)

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Draw what you see

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SEEDS

As soon as fertilisation has occurred some changes occur. The ovule grows and
changes into the outside of the seed and a food source. The outside of the seed is
called the testa - seed coat. Inside the seed a zygote starts dividing and developing
into an embryo

The food source is important for the zygote, as it needs nourishment until it can make
its own food. This isn’t until it has its own leaves.

Eventually the embryo develops three parts
• A radicle - young root
• A plumule – young shoot
• Cotyledons - seed leaves

In some plants the fruit wall (ovary wall) becomes soft and juicy, forming a fruit
which is eaten by animals.

In dry fruits the ovary wall becomes tough and is not eaten. These seeds have to be
dispersed by other means.

SEED STRUCTURE

Gently squeeze your bean seed to see if you can find where the water comes out. The
little hole is called the micropyle. Note where the scar (hilum) is and look at the
outer coating the testa.

Open the seed by slicing length wise and draw it.

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A BEAN SEED

Look for the baby plant and label the plumule and radicle. Then label the cotyledon
and testa.

Put iodine on to the open seed. What do your results mean? How is this important?
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Slice a maize grain
lengthways in half.
Find the parts shown
in the diagram below.
Fill in the missing
labels.

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Note the differences between this seed and the bean seed.

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Label each seed monocotyledon or dicotyledon.

SEED DISPERSAL
It is preferable for seeds to be spread as far away (dispersed) from the parent plant as
possible. This has two main advantages
• The young plants do not have to compete with one another or with the parent
for light, water and mineral salts.
• The seeds may reach a better habitat than the parent.

There are four main methods of dispersal.
• By Wind seeds have wings, or hairs to catch the wind. E.g. dandelion
• By Animals seeds are carried inside edible fruits that are eaten by animals. Or
they are covered in hooks or barbs that attach to the animals fur or feathers.
• By Water this method is used by plants that grow near water such as coconuts
and mangroves.
• By Explosion in some plants the fruit splits open suddenly and violently,
flinging the seeds out as far as possible. E.g lupins, gorse.

Have a look at the pictures overleaf and determine how they are dispersed.

NZQA QUESTION

5-05
The pea pod is the fruit of the pea plant. When mature the pod
contains 8 – 10 seeds.

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(a) Name and describe how the parts of a pea flower develop into:
(i) the pea pod.
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(ii) the pea seeds.
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b)Explain how the production of fruit provides an advantage to the survival of
flowering plants.
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7-06
During a class discussion the teacher said ‘pumpkins
and lemons are both fruits’.

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Use the structure and development of fruit to explain why the pumpkin is biologically
a fruit.
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PLANT STRUCTURE – You do not need to know this
section for your exam, but it will help you understand.

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GERMINATION
The embryo inside the seed is in a state of dormancy. In this condition all metabolic
processes have almost stopped. The embryo remains in this state until conditions are
suitable for germination. Some seeds can remain dormant for many years, others only
for a few days. Being able to survive for many years is obviously to the seeds
advantage.

Gardeners sometimes have to artificially break the dormancy of seeds before they will
grow. This many involve. Freezing, soaking, scraping or chipping.

To germinate seeds need
• Moisture
• Warmth
• Oxygen

The seed absorbs water and swells up. This causes the testa to split enabling the
radicle and plumule to grow out of the seed. The water also activates enzymes in the
seed that will convert stored starch into soluble molecules that can be transported to
the growing tips of the radicle and plumule. The food that is supplied to the dividing
cells is broken down by the process of respiration to release the energy that is needed
for growth. This is why germinating seeds need oxygen.

The radicle grows first and after a day or two the plumule grows out from between the
cotyledons. Until it reaches the surface it is pale yellow with very small leaves. It is
also a hook shape which protects the delicate leaves as it grows through the soil. No
matter which way the seed falls the radicle will always grow downwards and the
plumule will always grow upwards. This is called geotropism.

Once the plumule reaches the surface it straightens out, the leaves expand and it
becomes green as the chlorophyll develops. Until the plumule reaches the surface the
seedling is dependent on food that it obtained from its parent. Once photosynthesis
begins the plant is independent.

The temperature needed for germination varies. Seeds that germinate in the tropics
require much warmer conditions than those from cooler regions.

Most seeds will grow just as well in the dark as in the light, but some seeds will only
germinate in the dark, while others need light. Plant hormones play a vital role in
germination and also in breaking seed dormancy.

QUESTIONS
1. Why is it important for plants to spread their seeds?
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2. What special adaptations must seeds that are transported inside animals have?
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3. Mangrove seeds start to develop a root before they fall from the tree, why is
this necessary?
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4. Describe the differences that are seen between the pollen of a wind-pollinated
flower and that of an insect-pollinated flower. (Two differences required.
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5. Explain why the differences are required for successful pollination in each
type of plant.
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6. Describe the difference between self-pollination and cross-pollination.
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7. Explain the advantage that plants produced by cross-pollination have over
plants produced by self-pollination. (Two ideas needed)

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8.

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8-06
The diagram below compares a typical monocotyledon and dicotyledon seed.

a) Describe the function of the endosperm of a monocotyledon
seed.
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A seed only germinates in suitable environmental conditions.

b)Describe the TWO main environmental conditions necessary before a seed can
germinate.
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c) Explain how ONE structure of a seed enables it to survive for long periods of
time, before it finally germinates.

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Plant a bean seed and watch it grow over a period of three weeks. Draw the
stages of its development below.

What does this graph tell you?
(Live mass is the mass of the living tissue plus the
water that it has absorbed. Dry mass is the mass
of the living tissue without the water)

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EXPERIMENT TO DETERMINE THE BEST CONDITIONS FOR
GERMINATION

METHOD
1. Place 6 seeds on the bottom of 4 labelled Petri dishes.
2. Cover with a layer of cotton wool
3. Apply 10mL of water to all but one dish.
4. Take the dish with no water and write your initials on the lid. Place in a warm
corner.
5. To one of the other plates add oil over each seed to exclude oxygen.
6. Initial this dish and place in a warm corner.
7. To one of the other dishes write your initials and the word COLD on it. Place
on the front desk to put in the fridge
8. To the remaining dish put your initials and the word DARK on it. Place on the
front desk to be put in a dark cupboard.
9. Measure the average length of the stem after 1 week.

RESULTS
Conditions Growth
No water

No warmth
In a fridge
No Oxygen
Covered in oil after water applied
No Light
Put in a dark cupboard

CONCLUSION

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GROWTH

A typical plant consists of two parts, a root system that absorbs water and minerals
and a shoot system that uses light energy to convert carbon dioxide and water into
carbohydrates by phtosynthesis.

A fully developed shoot system consists of a stem bearing leaves. The leaves are
formed at points called nodes. The area in between the nodes is called an internode.

At the tip of the shoot the young leaves are very small and clustered together to form
a terminal bud. The stalk of a leaf is called the petiole and the angle between a petiole
and the stem is called the leaf axil. In each axil there is an axillary bud which may
grow out into a side shoot.

Flowering plants can be divided into two large groups.
Monocotyledons like grasses, palms and lilies usually have parallel veins in the
leaves.
Dicotyledons include clover, buttercups, daisies and most flowering trees and have
leaves whose leaf veins form a network.

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PRIMARY GROWTH

Growth in a length of stem or root is called primary growth. Growth by increasing
the number of cells only occurs in the meristems tissue. i.e mitosis only occurs in the
meristems.

Plants grow at the tips of their shoots and roots, so these areas are always the
youngest parts. Both roots and shoots increase in length by cell division, and then cell
enlargement. These processes take place in different regions.

• Cell division takes place in the apical meristems at the tips of the shoot and
root. Cells increase in numbers by mitosis.
• Behind the tip the cells begin to enlarge.
• Further back still, the cells begin to differentiate. (specialise for particular
functions) For example in the root the outermost layer of cells develops long
outgrowths called root hairs. These are specialised for absorbing water. In the
shoot the cells on the surface specialise for water conservation by developing a
waxy cuticle.

So there are three cell processes involved in growth……..division (mitosis),
enlargement and specialisation.

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The apical meristem of the root is protected by a root cap. This is a mass of loose
cells that are continually sloughed off and replaced by new cells as the young root
pushes down into the soil.

Growth through the meristematic tissue causes elongation of stems and roots.

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SECONDARY GROWTH

Growth to increase stem and root girth is called secondary growth. This kind of
growth takes lace in woody trees and shrubs but does not take place in herbaceous
annuals and biennials which only live for one or two years.

Secondary growth takes place in both the stem and the root by division of
meristematic cells located between the xylem and the phloem in the vascular part of
the plant.

These meristematic cells are made up of the cambium, and are able to still undergo
rapid mitosis.

The cambium is found in a series of small groups of cells wedged between the xylem
and phloem. The first step in growth is the linking of these groups to form a ring of
cambium tissue. This tissue separates the xylem and the phloem.

The cells now multiply. The cells on the inside of the cambium ring produce
secondary xylem cells and the cells on the outside become secondary phloem cells.

Each year the cambium produces more secondary xylem and phloem. This causes
growth rings. Growth rings are formed by the xylem and not the phloem. The
Phloem is soft tissue and eventually is crushed.

Of course all this growth to make the stem thicker will split the outside protective
covering. However, just beneath the epidermis a layer of cells called the cork
cambium divides to form new surface tissues.

Plant hormones called auxins are responsible for controlling growth.

List the differences between primary and secondary growth.

Primary secondary

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FACTORS THAT AFFECT PLANT GROWTH

TEMPERATURE
Temperature will directly affect photosynthesis, respiration and transpiration (water
loss). The warmer it is the faster these processes will occur.

MOISTURE
Plant growth can be restricted by both low and high levels of moisture in the soil.
Good moisture means that the plants can get their nutrients much easier. Too little
moisture and the nutrients can not be dissolved, too much and the nutrients are
washed away. In this case fertilisers will make no difference.

SUNLIGHT
The quality, intensity and duration of light are important in the way that they affect
photosynthesis. Certain plants will behave in certain ways depending on the length of
the day. This is called photoperiodism.

CARBON DIOXIDE LEVELS
Increasing the CO2 levels can increase the photosynthesis rate and hence improve
crop yields.

Plants will grow quicker in warmer temperatures; however, high temperatures can
cause growth to slow due to the effects of higher water loss.

The higher amount of water available in the spring and good temperature conditions
results in larger xylem vessels being produced at that time of year and a more rapid
growth spurt.

In the spring and summer, there is more sunlight, this means that there is more
photosynthesis able to happen and so more glucose is produced. A lot of this glucose
will be converted to starch and stored for later use.

NZQA QUESTION 4-07
Different plant structures are built from specialised groups of plant cells called
tissues. Each plant structure is made up of tissues designed to carry out specialised
functions or processes.

The diagram shows the arrangement of
plant tissues in a dicotyledon stem.

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Each year the stem will grow thicker by secondary thickening.
a) Explain how the stem grows thicker.
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Plant growth at the shoot tips and the root tips shows some similarities and some
differences.
b) Discuss reasons for the similarities and the differences in the way plants grow at
the shoot tips compared with the root tips.
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c) 9-06 Describe the function of cambium cells in a young green stem.
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46
TROPISMS
Plants respond to stimuli (changes in their surroundings) just like all living things.

A tropism is the growth of a plant part in a direction that depends on the direction of
the stimulus.

A positive tropism is where the growth is towards the stimulus and a negative tropism
is where the growth is away from the stimulus.

• Most stems show positive phototropism, as they grow towards light.
• Plumules of seedlings show negative geotropism (Sometimes called
gravitropism) as they grow away from the direction of gravity.
• Radicles show positive geotropism as they grow in the direction of gravity.
• Climbing plants show thigmotropism, they bend towards anything they touch
and coil around it.
• Pollen tubes show positive chemotropism as they grown towards the
chemicals formed by the female gamete.
• Roots show positive hydrotropism as they grow towards water.

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Charles Darwin did some simple experiments to demonstrate phototropism in oat
seedlings.

As in all grasses the first leaves are protected as they grow up through the soil by a
spear like sheath called a coleoptile. When the coleoptiles were covered up, the
grasses did not bend towards the light. When he covered the entire coleoptile, except
the very tip the grasses still bent towards the light.

THEN

Light

The part of the shoot that detected the light, appeared to be quite a way from the part
of the shoot that did the bending. There must be some kind of communication system
in the plant to allow this to happen.

Later on in that century scientists conducted more experiments

• After cutting the tip off and replacing it, a coleoptile could still respond to
light. Showing that the message could not be sent by nerves as they nerves
would have been cut.
• When the tip was separated from the base by a water-based jelly, the coleoptile
curved normally. Showing that the message was being sent by chemicals.
• When an impermeable membrane was inserted into the shaded side there was
no response. When an impermeable membrane was inserted into the sunny
side then the coleoptile bent. This showed that the messenger chemical
travelled down the shaded side of the coleoptile.

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THEN

Light

The messenger chemical is called auxin.

Cause of Phototropism
When a shoot is illuminated from one side, the auxin is transported down the shaded
side, causing this side to elongate faster than the sunny side. This makes the shoot
bend towards the light.

Cause of Geotropism
If a stem begins to grow along the horizontal, then the effect of gravity will cause the
auxin to gather on the lower side. This in turn makes that side grow faster in a stem
and the stem begins to grow upwards. In a root the auxin slows the growth so the
lower side grows more slowly and the root grows downwards.

HOW TROPISMS HAPPEN
Plant growth is controlled by HORMONES. The growth hormone controlling
tropisms is called ____________________________. and
are only needed in very small amounts

ROOTS are much more sensitive to this hormone than
SHOOTS.

The effect of auxin in a shoot showing PHOTOTROPISM

49
Explain how auxin causes the shoot tip to bend towards the light:

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THE IMPORTANCE OF NUTRIENTS

Plants need more than just water and carbon dioxide to grow. A number of essential
minerals (elements) are needed.

Nitrogen – Important part of proteins, enzymes and chlorophyll. Without adequate
supply the plant ceases to photosynthesise and dies.

Phosphorus – Helps with the transfer of solar energy into chemical energy. An
important part of chlorophyll. Promotes good root growth. Also a part of proteins

Potassium - is absorbed by plants in larger amounts than any other mineral element
except nitrogen and, in some cases, calcium. Helps in the building of protein,
photosynthesis, fruit quality and reduction of diseases.

Calcium - Calcium, an essential part of plant cell wall structure, provides for normal
transport and retention of other elements as well as strength in the plant. It is also
thought to counteract the effect of alkali salts and organic acids within a plant.

Magnesium - Magnesium is part of the chlorophyll in all green plants and essential
for photosynthesis. It also helps activate many plant enzymes needed for growth.

Sulfur - Essential plant food for production of protein. Promotes activity and
development of enzymes and vitamins. Helps in chlorophyll formation. Improves
root growth and seed production. Helps with vigorous plant growth and resistance to
cold.

Summarise the above by writing the symbols for the elements under the titles below

Essential part of Essential part of Proteins Essential part of crucial
chlorophyll Enzymes

Improves growth Essential for Essential part of cell wall
photosynthesis

50
51
52
53
NZQA QUESTION 7-05
A child carved their initials deeply into the trunk of a tree, 1 metre above the ground,
in 2005.
Describe the probable position and appearance of the carved initials in 10 years
time.
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8 05
Describe how early seedling growth is affected by:
(i) gravity
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(ii)light
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(b) Explain why the seed has a store of carbohydrate
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3 07
Plants need enough nitrogen for healthy growth. The diagram shows a plant that has
grown in soil that did not have enough nitrogen in it.

Old leaves yellow, whole plant pale green

a) Explain how plants use nitrogen for healthy growth.

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55
PHOTOSYNTHESIS

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PHOTOSYNTHESIS
Photosynthesis is a process where plants take energy, carbon dioxide and water to
make sugars. It is the opposite process to respiration.

The sugars are often stored as starch and are a plants energy reserves. These may be
used for growth, reproduction and repair.

For photosynthesis to take place, a plant requires
• Water
• Light
• Carbon dioxide
• Suitable temperature
• Chlorophyll

We can test whether a plant has undergone photosynthesis by testing its leaves for
starch.

TESTING A LEAF FOR STARCH

1. Place your plant in darkness for at least 24h
to ensure that the plant has used up all the
starch that it has stored in its leaves.

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2. Cover part of a leaf with some paper. Get
creative; try fancy patterns or your initials.
3. Put the plant back into sunlight for at least
24h.
4. Cut off the leaf for testing.

5. Boil the leaf for one minute. This breaks
down the cells and allows us access to the
contents of the cells.

6. Then heat the leaf in alcohol until it is no
longer green. This removes the chlorophyll.

7. Then drop iodine onto the leaf.
Where starch is present the leaf will
turn black.

QUESTIONS

1. Draw the paper shape that you put on your leaf here.

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2. Why did you boil the leaf in water, followed by heating it in alcohol?

3. What did the iodine test for?

4. Photosynthesis requires water, carbon dioxide and light. Which of these three
things does this experiment prove is needed? How does it prove this?

EXPERIMENT TO SHOW THAT INTENSITY OF LIGHT
AFFECTS THE RATE OF PHOTOSYNTHESIS

1. Set up the apparatus below twice over with the same amount of pondweed in
each beaker.

2. Make sure that unlike the diagram, the test tube is full of water.

3. Put one plant in a sunny position and the other in a shady position.

4. After two days measure the length of test tube taken up by the oxygen
produced.

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5. Gently pour out most of the water, keeping the test tube level. When most of it
is poured out, keep your thumb on the top. You are trying to keep the oxygen
in the test tube. It is a rather pesky gas and if you move the test tube too
quickly it will escape.

6. Light a splint and put it out again. Dip the glowing splint into the gas in the
test tube.

QUESTIONS

1. What did you notice about the gas produced after two days?

2. Did the gas test positive for oxygen?

3. What does this tell you about the amount of light in relation to photosynthesis?

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IMPORTANCE OF LIGHT WAVELENGTH IN
PHOTOSYNTHESIS

Not all wavelengths of light are absorbed (used) by chlorophyll.

This can be shown by projecting a beam of light through a solution of chlorophyll
extract and then through a prism to separate it into its different wavelengths.

Light from After passing through a prism the
Chlorophyll light is projected on to a screen.
Solution Any colours absent from the
spectrum are those that have been
absorbed by the chlorophyll.

When doing this test in real life it
is shown that the blue and red
colours disappear from the
spectrum. This means that the

61
chlorophyll must absorb these
colours.

The middle part of the spectrum, the green bit is not absorbed at all. Most of it is
reflected, which is why leaves containing chlorophyll look green.

If different coloured lights are shined on plants, it is also found that red and blue
lights increase the rate of photosynthesis the most.
EXPERIMENT TO SHOW THAT CO2 IS NEEDED FOR
PHOTOSYNTHESIS
1. Set up the equipment as shown below.

H2CO3 solution
Gives off CO2

2. Add 20mL of 2 mol L-1 KOH to one of the conical flasks. This absorbs any
CO2 left in the flask.
3. Add 20 mol L-1 H2CO3 to the other conical flask. This produces CO2.
4. Make sure you label which flask is which.
5. Seal the corks and any gaps with petroleum jelly.
6. After a day carefully extract the leaves and test for starch.

QUESTIONS
1. Why did you seal all gaps with petroleum jelly?

2. Why did you put a leaf in a flask with H2CO3 solution?

3. Discuss how this showed that the leaf with no CO2 did not photosynthesise?

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EXPERIMENT TO SHOW HOW VARYING THE AMOUNT OF
CHLOROPHYLL CAN AFFECT THE RATE OF
PHOTOSYNTHESIS

1. Chose a variegated leaf to test. Sketch or take a photo of (and paste into the
results section) it, showing the different shades of green.
2. Place a variegated leaf / plant in the dark for at least 24h.
3. Test for starch.
4. Sketch or take a photo of (and paste into the results section) it, showing the
different shades of black, where the iodine has shown starch present.

QUESTIONS

1. Does a darker green show more or less chlorophyll to be present?

2. Does darker iodine staining show more or less starch to be present?

3. Write a conclusion for your experiment here.

Leaf before test Leaf after test

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EXPERIMENT TO SHOW HOW TEMPERATURE AFFECTS THE
RATE OF PHOTOSYNTHESIS

1. Set up the apparatus below twice over with the same amount of pondweed in
each beaker.

2. Make sure that unlike the diagram, the test tube is full of water.

3. Put both plants under a light for two days, but put one beaker on a heat mat.

4. After two days measure the length of test tube taken up by the oxygen
produced.

QUESTIONS

1. What did you notice about the gas produced after two days?

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2. What does this tell you about the temperature in relation to photosynthesis?

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PHOTOSYNTHESIS SUMMARY

Using pages 49-56 from this workbook, summarise how photosynthesis is affected by
different variables.

Complete the table.

Variable How is it changed? What happens to photosynthesis process?
Light Removed

Light Intensity Decreased

Light In the green region
Wavelength

CO2 Levels Reduced

Chlorophyll Increased
Levels

Temperature Increased

If you’ve filled this table in correctly, it is very, very important that you know its
contents.

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STRUCTURE OF THE LEAF
In a plant there are many different kinds of cells, each carrying out a different
function. Groups of similar cells working together to do a similar job are called
tissues. Different tissues work together to form an organ.

A leaf is a plant organ and within in it are many tissues each with a different role to
play in a plants life processes. The leaf’s main function is to carry out photosynthesis.

MATCH THE NUMBERS ABOVE IN THE DIAGRAM TO THEIR DESCRIPTIONS BELOW.

Upper Epidermis - Consisting of epidermal cells. These have no chloroplasts.

Waxy Cuticle - Forms a waterproof layer to stop any loss of water.

Spongy Mesophyll Layer

Palisade cells - These contain lots of chloroplasts, which contain lot of chlorophyll. This is where
photosynthesis is carried out.

Leaf Vein - containing xylem and phloem tubes.

Air Spaces - allow for diffusion of water vapour etc...

Guard Cells - These form stomata (pores) which allow for the diffusion of gases in and out of the plant.

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STRUCTURE OF THE LEAF – THE FOOD FACTORY

The leaf is the main site of photosynthesis. It has many adaptations which make it
very efficient at this process.

• Arrangement of leaves The leaves are arranged so that each individual leaf
gains maximum sunlight. Look underneath a tree, not much light gets
through.
• Large surface area The large flat surface is the most efficient shape for
absorbing the raw materials required for photosynthesis. i.e. sunlight and
carbon dioxide.
• Very Thin Most leaves are less than 1mm thick. This means that the gases
required and produced by photosynthesis do not have as far to travel.
• Pores There are pores on the underside of the leaf. These control entry and
exit of gases and water from the leaf.

STOMATA

Stomata are the pores on the underside of a leaf. They allow carbon dioxide to enter a
leaf and also control how much water the plant loses.

Guard cells control the opening and closing of the stomata. The stomata are normally
open during the day as this is when photosynthesis is at its peak. During this time it
needs the most carbon dioxide.

Unfortunately the features that make the leaf
so good at absorbing CO2, also make it
really good at losing water. Water diffuses
out from the high concentration inside the
leaf to the lower concentration outside the
leaf. This loss of water is called
transpiration.

On a warm sunny day a plant loses water
over a hundred times faster than it uses
water in the photosynthesis process.

When the soil is moist the roots are
generally able to supply water as fast as the
leaves lose it. When conditions are dry,
water loss is a problem. The epidermis is
the tissue responsible for dealing with water
loss.

• The upper epidermis secretes a waxy
cuticle, which resists water loss
• The lower epidermis contains many
stomata which are surrounded by the guard cells. When the guard cells

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contain enough water they bend and open. When they become dehydrated
they straighten and close the stoma. Thus it can be seen that in severe
drought, photosynthesis would have to stop, as no more CO2 would be able to
enter the leaf. This is why plants in dry conditions grow much slower. They
are unable to produce the energy required to grow at a fast rate.

Look at this diagram of a leaf section. On the next page is a photo of a leaf section.
Use the information on this page, to label the photo.

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CO2 ABSORPTION

Photosynthesis uses up CO2. As the CO2 within the leaf is used up by this process, the
concentration inside the leaf decreases. This means that there is a greater
concentration of CO2 outside the leaf. Fresh CO2 is thus able to diffuse in.

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WATER AND SUGAR TRANSPORT
The vascular bundles in a leaf contain the transport system of the plant. The xylem
tubes deliver water. The phloem cells transport sugar from the leaf.

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