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Notes de
Français

Table
des
Matières



i. Les
Articles


(Articles)


ii. Les
Pronoms


(Pronouns)


iii. Les
Verbes


(Verbs)


iv. Les
Verbes
Modaux


(Modal
Verbs)


v. Les
Adverbes
Négatifs


(Negative
Adverbs)


vi. Les
Adjectifs


(Adjectives)


vii. Les
Adverbes


(Adverbs)


viii. Passé
Composé


(Past
Tense)


ix. Le
Futur


(Future
Tense)


x. Le
Conditionnel


(Conditional
Case)


xi. L’Impératif


(Imperative
Case)


xii. Les
Conjonctions


(Conjunctions)


xiii. Les
Nombres


(Numbers)


xiv. Couleurs,
Formes,
et
Grosseurs


(Colors,
Shapes,
and
Sizes)


xv. Les
Émotions
(Emotions)


xvi. Les
Expressions
Courantes


(Common
Phrases)

Les
Articles




 masc.
 fem.
 pl.

INDEFINITE
 un
 une
 des

DEFINITE
 le
 la
 les

PARTITIVE*
 du
 de
la
 des


*
Partitive
–
“some”
or
“any”


• After
adverbs
of
quantity,
use
de
instead
of
the
partitive
article:


Il
y
a
beaucoup
de
thé.

There
is
a
lot
of
tea.


J'ai
moins
de
glace
que
Thierry.

I
have
less
ice
cream
than
Thierry.



• In
a
negative
construction,
the
partitive
article
changes
to
de,

meaning
"(not)
any":


J'ai
mangé
de
la
soupe.
→
Je
n'ai
pas
mangé
de
soupe.

I
ate
some
soup.
→
I
didn't
eat
any
soup.


Les
Pronoms


Personal
Pronouns 


SUBJECT
 DIR.
OBJ.
 INDIR.
OBJ.
 REFLEXIVE
 STRESSED

je
 me*
 me*
 me*
 moi

tu
 te*
 te*
 te*
 toi

il
 le
 lui
 se
 lui

elle
 la
 
 
 elle

on
 
 
 
 soi

nous
 nous
 nous
 nous
 nous

vous
 vous
 vous
 vous
 vous

ils
 les
 leur
 se
 eux

elles
 
 
 
 elles


*
In
the
imperative,
‘me’
and
‘te’
sometimes
change
to
‘moi’
and
‘toi’



‘Y’
Pronoun 


• ‘Y’
replaces
a
prepositional
phrase
beginning
with
‘à’,
‘chez’,
or
‘dans’:


Tu
vas
à
la
banque
aujourd’hui
?

Non,
j’y
vais
demain.

Are
you
going
to
the
bank
today?
No,
I’m
going
tomorrow.


Nous
allons
au
magasin.
Te
veux
y
aller?

We’re
going
to
the
store.
Do
you
want
to
go?


• ‘Y’
can
also
replace
‘à’
+
a
noun
that’s
not
a
person:


Je
résponds
à
une
letter.
J’y
résponds.

I’m
responding
to
a
letter.
I’m
responding
to
it.


Il
pense
à
notre
voyage.
Il
y
pense.

He’s
thinking
about
our
trip.
He’s
thinking
about
it.

Les
Verbes


Auxiliary
Verbs 


être
–
to
be
 avoir
–
to
have

je
suis
 nous
sommes
 j’ai
 nous
avons

tu
es
 vous
êtes
 tu
as
 vous
avez

il
est
 ils
sont
 il
a
 ils
ont





Other
Common
Verbs 


aimer
–
to
like
 vouloir
–
to
want

j’aime
 nous
aimons
 je
veux
 nous
voulons

tu
aimes
 vous
aimez
 tu
veux
 vous
voulez

il
aime
 ils
aiment
 il
veut
 ils
veulent


 

savoir
–
to
know
(fact)
 pouvoir
–
to
be
able
to
(can)

je
sais
 nous
savons
 je
peux
 nous
pouvons

tu
sais
 vous
savez
 tu
peux
 vous
pouvez

il
sait
 ils
savent
 il
peut
 ils
peuvent


 

manger
–
to
eat
 faire
–
to
make/do

je
mange
 nous
mangeons
 je
fais
 nous
faisons

tu
manges
 vous
mangez
 tu
fais
 vous
faites

il
mange
 ils
mangent
 il
fait
 ils
font


 

aller
–
to
go
 penser
–
to
think

je
vais
 nous
allons
 je
pense
 nous
pensons

tu
vas
 vous
allez
 tu
penses
 vous
pensez

il
va
 ils
vont
 il
pense
 ils
pensent


 

dire
–
to
say
 devoir
–
to
have
to
(must)

je
dis
 nous
disons
 je
dois
 nous
devons

tu
dis
 vous
dites
 tu
dois
 vous
devez

il
dit
 ils
disent
 il
doit
 ils
doivent


 

avoir
besoin
–
to
need
 attendre
–
to
wait
for

j’ai
besoin
 nous
avons
besoin
 j’attends
 nous
attendons

tu
as
besoin
 vous
avez
besoin
 tu
attends
 vous
attendez

il
a
besoin
 ils
ont
besoin
 il
attend
 ils
attendent


 

jouer
–
to
play
 voir
–
to
see

je
joue
 nous
jouons
 je
vois
 nous
voyons

tu
joues
 vous
jouez
 tu
vois
 vous
voyez

il
joue
 ils
jouent
 il
voit
 ils
voient


 

connaître
–
to
know
(person)
 essayer
–
to
try/attempt

je
connais
 nous
connaissons
 j’essaie
 nous
essayons

tu
connais
 vous
connaissez
 tu
essaies
 vous
essayez

il
connaît
 ils
connaissent
 il
essaie
 ils
essaient


 

croire
–
to
believe
 entendre
–
to
hear

je
crois
 nous
croyons
 j’entends
 nous
entendons

tu
crois
 vous
croyez
 tu
entends
 vous
entendez

il
croit
 ils
croient
 il
entend
 ils
entendent


 

écouter
–
to
listen
 haïr
–
to
hate

j’écoute
 nous
écoutons
 je
hais
 nous
haïssons

tu
écoutes
 vous
écoutez
 tu
hais
 vous
haïssez

il
écoute
 ils
écoutent
 il
hait
 ils
haïssent


 

donner
–
to
give
 acheter
–
to
buy

je
donne
 nous
donnons
 j’achète
 nous
achetons

tu
donnes
 vous
donnez
 tu
achètes
 vous
achetez

il
donne
 ils
donnent
 il
achète
 ils
achètent


 


Les
Verbes
Modaux



French
does
not
have
modal
verbs,
which
can
make
it
difficult
to
translate
them.
The

French
equivalents
of
modal
verbs
may
be
a
conjugatable
verb
(e.g.,
pouvoir),
or
a

tense,
mood,
or
adverb.
Note
that
"could"
and
"would"
can
be
used
in
the
present
and

past,
with
varied
meanings.


can
 pouvoir 
(present
tense)


 I
can
help
you.
 Je
peux
vous
aider.


 We
can
see
it.
 Nous
pouvons
le
voir.


could
(present)
 pouvoir 
(conditional)


 I
could
dance
all
night.
 Je
pourrais
danser
pendant
toute
la
nuit.


 Could
you
help
me?
 Pourriez‐vous
m'aider
?


 
 

could
(past)
 pouvoir 
(imperfect)


 He
could
read
when
he
was
three.
 Il
pouvait
lire
quand
il
avait
trois
ans.


 Last
year,
I
could
sleep
until
noon
 L'année
dernière,
je
pouvais
dormir

every
day.
 jusqu'à
midi
tous
les
jours.


may,
might
 peut‐être ,
 pouvoir 
(conditional),
 se

pouvoir 
(present)


 She
may/might
arrive
at
noon.
 Elle
arrivera
peut‐être
à
midi.


 
 Elle
pourrait
arriver
à
midi.


 
 Il
se
peut
qu'elle
arrive
à
midi.


 
 
 

must
 devoir 
(present)


 I
must
leave.
 Je
dois
partir.


 You
must
help
me.
 Vous
devez
m'aider.


shall,
will
 French
future
tense


 I
shall/will
help
you.
 Je
vous
aiderai.


 He
will
arrive
at
noon.
 Il
arrivera
à
midi.


should/ought
 devoir 
(conditional)


 I
should/ought
to
leave
soon.
 Je
devrais
partir
bientôt.


 You
should/ought
to
help
me.
 Vous
devriez
m'aider.

would
(present)
 French
conditional


 We
would
like
to
leave.
 Nous
voudrions
partir.


 I
would
help
you
if
I
were
ready.
 Je
vous
aiderais
si
j'étais
prêt.


would
(past)
 French
imperfect


 He
would
always
read
when
he
was
 Il
lisait
toujours
quand
il
était
seul.

alone.


 Last
year,
I
would
sleep
until
noon
 L'année
dernière,
je
dormais
jusqu'à
midi

every
day.
 tous
les
jours.


English
modals
may
be
followed
by
have
+
past
participle
to
express
perfect

(completed)
actions.
Translating
this
construction
usually
involves
conjugating
a

French
verb
into
a
perfect
tense/mood
+
infinitive:


could
have
 pouvoir 
(conditional
perfect)


 I
could
have
helped
you.
 J'aurais
pu
vous
aider.


 We
could
have
eaten.
 Nous
aurions
pu
manger.


 
 
 

may/might
have
 peut‐être ,
 se
pouvoir 


 I
may/might
have
done
it.
 Je
l'ai
peut‐être
fait.


 
 Il
se
peut
que
je
l'aie
fait.


 
 
 

must
have
 devoir 
(present
perfect
[ passé

composé ])


 You
must
have
seen
it.
 Vous
avez
dû
le
voir.


 He
must
have
eaten.
 Il
a
dû
manger.


 
 
 

shall/will
have
 French
future
perfect


 I
shall/will
have
eaten.
 J'aurai
mangé.


 He
will
have
arrived
by
noon.
 Il
sera
arrivé
pour
midi.


 
 
 

should
have
 devoir 
(conditional
perfect)


 You
should
have
helped.
 Vous
auriez
dû
aider.


 We
should
have
eaten.
 Nous
aurions
dû
manger.


 
 
 

would
have
 French
conditional
perfect


 I
would
have
helped
you.
 Je
vous
aurais
aidé.



 He
would
have
eaten
it.
 Il
l'aurait
mangé.
 

Les
Adverbes
Négatifs


To
make
a
sentence
negative,
place
‘ne’
in
front
of
the
conjugated
verb
and
‘pas’
(or
one

of
the
other
negative
adverbs)
after
it:


Je
suis
riche.
–
Je
ne
suis
pas
riche.

I
am
rich.
–
I
am
not
rich.


Êtes‐vous
fatigué
?
‐
N'êtes‐vous
pas
fatigué
?

Are
you
tired?
–
Aren’t
you
tired?



In
compound
verbs
and
dual‐verb
constructions,
the
negative
adverbs
surround
the

conjugated
verb
(except
for
nulle
part,
which
follows
the
main
verb):


Je
n'ai
pas
étudié.

I
didn't
study.


Nous
n'aurions
pas
su.

We
wouldn't
have
known.


Tu
n'avais
pas
parlé
?

You
hadn't
talked?


Il
ne
veut
pas
skier.

He
doesn't
want
to
ski.


Je
ne
peux
pas
y
aller.

I
can't
go.



When
there
is
an
indefinite
article
or
partitive
article
in
a
negative
construction,
the

article
changes
to
de,
meaning
"(not)
any":


J'ai
une
pomme.
–
Je
n'ai
pas
de
pomme.

I
have
an
apple
–
I
don't
have
any
apples.





Other
Negative
Adjectives


ne
...pas
encore 
 not
yet

Il
n'est
pas
encore
arrivé.
 He
has
not
arrived
yet.


ne
...pas
toujours 
 not
always

Je
ne
mange
pas
toujours
ici.
 I
don't
always
eat
here.


ne
...pas
du
tout 
 not
at
all

Je
n'aime
pas
du
tout
les
épinards.

 I
don't
like
spinach
at
all.


ne
...aucunement 
 not
at
all,
in
no
way

Il
n'est
aucunement
à
blâmer.
 He
is
in
no
way
to
blame.



 


ne
...guère 
 hardly,
barely,
scarcely

Il
n'y
a
guère
de
monde.
 There's
hardly
anyone
there.



 


ne
...jamais 
 never

Nous
ne
voyageons
jamais.
 We
never
travel.



 


ne
...nullement 
 not
at
all

Il
ne
veut
nullement
venir.
 He
doesn't
want
to
come
at
all.



 


ne
...nulle
part 
 nowhere

Je
ne
l'ai
trouvé
nulle
part.
 I
couldn't
find
it
anywhere.



 


ne
...point 
 not
(literary
equivalent
of
ne...pas)

Je
ne
te
hais
point.
 I
don't
hate
you.



 


ne
...plus 
 no
more,
not
anymore

Vous
n'y
travaillez
plus.
 You
don't
work
there
anymore.



 


ne...
que 
 only

Il
n'y
a
que
deux
chiens.
 There
are
only
two
dogs.


Les
Adjectifs


French
adjectives
are
very
different
from
English
adjectives
in
two
ways:


1.
French
adjectives
change
to
agree
in
gender
and
number
with
the
nouns
that
they

modify,
which
means
there
can
be
up
to
four
forms
of
each
adjective:


Adjective:
 joli 
(pretty)

Masculine
singular


joli

Feminine
singular


jolie

Masculine
plural


jolis

Feminine
plural


jolies



2.
In
English,
adjectives
are
always
found
in
front
of
the
noun,
but
most
French

adjectives
follow
the
noun
they
modify:


un
livre
vert
‐
green
book

un
professeur
intelligent
‐
smart
teacher


But
there
are
some
French
adjectives
that
precede
the
noun:


un
beau
garçon
‐
handsome
boy

un
petit
verre
‐
small
glass




Most
French
adjectives
add
‘e’
for
feminine
and
‘s’
for
plural.
This
rule
applies
to

adjectives
that
end
in
most
consonants
as
well
as
all
vowels
except
the
unaccented
‘e’:


Adjective:
 vert 
(green)

Masculine
singular


vert

Feminine
singular


verte

Masculine
plural


verts

Feminine
plural


vertes





Adjective:
 bleu 
(blue)

Masculine
singular


bleu

Feminine
singular


bleue

Masculine
plural


bleus

Feminine
plural


bleues


Adjective:
 épicé 
(spicy)

Masculine
singular


épicé

Feminine
singular


épicée

Masculine
plural


épicés

Feminine
plural


épicées



When
the
masculine
singular
adjective
ends
in
an
unaccented
‘e’,
there
is
no
difference

between
the
masculine
and
feminine
forms:


Adjective:
 rouge 
(red)

Masculine
singular


rouge

Feminine
singular


rouge

Masculine
plural


rouges

Feminine
plural


rouges



When
the
default
form
of
the
adjective
ends
in
‘s’
or
‘x’,
there
is
no
difference
between

the
masculine
singular
and
plural
forms:


Adjective:
 gris 
(grey)

Masculine
singular


gris

Feminine
singular


grise

Masculine
plural


gris

Feminine
plural


grises








Adjectives
that
end
in
a
vowel
plus
‘l’
or
‘n’
usually
become
feminine
by
doubling
the

consonant
before
adding
‘e’:


Ending:
 el 
→
 elle 


Adjective:
 personnel 
(personal)

Masculine
singular


personnel

Feminine
singular


personnelle

Masculine
plural


personnels

Feminine
plural


personnelles


Ending:
 on 
→
 onne 


Adjective:
 bon 
(good)

Masculine
singular


bon

Feminine
singular


bonne

Masculine
plural


bons

Feminine
plural


bonnes



Adjectives
that
end
in
‘er
or
‘et
need
a
grave
accent:


Ending:
 er 
→
 ère 


Adjective:
 cher 
(expensive)

Masculine
singular


cher

Feminine
singular


chère

Masculine
plural


chers

Feminine
plural


chères


Ending:
 et 
→
 ète 


Adjective:
 complet 
(full)

Masculine
singular


complet

Feminine
singular


complète

Masculine
plural


complets

Feminine
plural


complètes



Other
final
letters
lead
to
very
irregular
feminine
endings:


Ending:
 c 
→
 che 


Adjective:
 blanc 
(white)

Masculine
singular


blanc

Feminine
singular


blanche

Masculine
plural


blancs

Feminine
plural


blanches


Ending:
 eur 
→
 euse 


Adjective:
 flatteur 
(flattering)

Masculine
singular


flatteur

Feminine
singular


flatteuse

Masculine
plural


flatteurs

Feminine
plural


flatteuses


Ending:
 eux 
→
 euse 


Adjective:
 heureux 
(happy)

Masculine
singular


heureux

Feminine
singular


heureuse

Masculine
plural


heureux

Feminine
plural


heureuses


Ending:
 f 
→
 ve 


Adjective:
 neuf 
(new)

Masculine
singular


neuf

Feminine
singular


neuve

Masculine
plural


neufs

Feminine
plural


neuves



Irregular
plurals:
The
ending
‘al’
changes
to
aux
in
the
plural:


Adjective:
 idéal 
(ideal)

Masculine
singular


idéal

Feminine
singular


idéale

Masculine
plural


idéaux

Feminine
plural


idéales













Irregular
French
Adjectives


There
are
several
French
adjectives
which
have
irregular
feminine
and
plural
forms,
as

well
as
a
special
form
when
they
are
placed
in
front
of
a
masculine
noun
that
begins

with
a
vowel
or
a
mute
‘h’:





un
bel
homme
‐
a
handsome
man




un
vieil
ami
‐
an
old
friend




 Singular
 Plural

Adjective


 masc.
 vowel/’h’



 fem.
 masc.
 fem.

beautiful

 beau
 bel
 belle
 beaux
 belles

new
 nouveau



 nouvel

 nouvelle



 nouveaux



 nouvelles

crazy
 fou
 fol
 folle
 fous
 folles

soft
 mou
 mol
 molle
 mous
 molles

old
 vieux
 vieil
 vieille
 vieux
 vieilles







1.
Placement
after
the
noun

Most
descriptive
adjectives
are
placed
after
the
noun
they
modify.
These
normally
have

an
analytical
meaning,
in
that
they
classify
the
noun
into
a
certain
category.
These
types

of
adjectives
include
shape,
color,
taste,
nationality,
religion,
social
class,
and
other

adjectives
that
describe
things
like
personality
and
mood.





une
table
ronde
‐
round
table




un
livre
noir
‐
black
book




du
thé
sucré
‐
sweet
tea




une
femme
américaine
‐
American
woman




une
église
catholique
‐
Catholic
church




une
famille
bourgeoise
‐
middle‐class
family









2.
Placement
before
the
noun

Certain
adjectives
are
placed
before
the
noun,
some
which
you
can
memorize
with
the

acronym
"BAGS":





Beauty




Age




Good
and
bad




Size


These
descriptors
‐
and
a
few
others
‐
are
considered
inherent
qualities
of
the
noun:





une
jolie
fille
‐
pretty
girl




un
jeune
homme
‐
young
man




une
nouvelle
maison
‐
new
house




un
bon
enfant
‐
good
child




un
petit
problème
‐
small
problem




les
sincères
condoléances
‐
sincere
condolences




les
vagues
promesses
‐
vague
promises




un
gentil
garçon
‐
kind
boy


In
addition,
all
non‐descriptive
(i.e.,
demonstrative,
indefinite,
interrogative,
negative,

and
possessive)
adjectives
are
placed
before
the
noun:





ces
livres
‐
these
books




chaque
personne
‐
each
person




quel
stylo
?
‐
which
pen?




aucune
femme
‐
no
woman




mon
enfant
‐
my
child












3.
Placement
depends
on
meaning

Some
adjectives
have
both
a
figurative
and
an
analytic
(literal)
sense
and
can
thus
be

placed
on
either
side
of
the
noun.
When
the
adjective
is
figurative,
it
goes
before
the

noun,
and
when
it's
analytic,
it
goes
after
the
noun.


Figurative:

 mes
vertes
années


my
green
(fruitful)
years

Literal:

 des
légumes
verts


green
vegetables


Figurative:

 un
grand
homme


a
great
man

Literal:

 un
homme
grand


a
tall
man


Figurative:

 un
triste
individu


a
sad
(mean
or
bad)
person

Literal:

 un
individu
triste


a
sad
(crying)
person


Figurative:

 mon
ancienne
école


my
old
(former)
school

Literal:

 mon
école
ancienne


my
old
(aged)
school


Figurative:

 un
certain
regard


a
certain
(type
of)
look

Literal:

 une
victoire
certaine


a
certain
(assured)
victory

Les
Adverbes


There
are
many
different
types
of
French
adverbs:


adverbs
of
frequency

adverbs
of
manner


adverbs
of
place

adverbs
of
quantity

adverbs
of
time

comparative/superlative
adverbs

exclamative
adverbs

indefinite
adverbs

interrogative
adverbs

negative
adverbs




The
placement
of
French
adverbs
depends
to
some
extent
upon
the
type
of
adverb

and
the
word
that
it
is
modifying.


I.

 Short
adverbs
that
modify
a
verb
usually
follow
the
conjugated
verb.

(Remember
that
in
compound
tenses,
the
auxiliary
verb
is
the
conjugated
verb,
so

the
adverb
follows
that.)


 Nous
mangeons
bien.
 We
eat
well.

Nous
avons
bien
mangé.
 We
ate
well.

Nous
allons
bien
manger.
 We
will
eat
well.


 Il
fait
souvent
la
cuisine.
 He
often
cooks.

Il
a
souvent
fait
la
cuisine.
 He
often
cooked.

Il
doit
souvent
faire
la
cuisine.
 He
often
has
to
cook.




II.

 Adverbs
of
frequency
are
usually
placed
after
the
verb.

Exception:
parfois
is
normally
placed
at
the
beginning
of
the
sentence.


 Je
fais
toujours
mes
devoirs.
 I
always
do
my
homework.


 Parfois,
Luc
ne
fait
pas
ses
devoirs.
 Sometimes
Luc
doesn't
do
his

homework.








III.

 Adverbs
of
time
which
refer
to
specific
days
can
be
placed
at
the
beginning

or
end
of
the
sentence.


 Aujourd'hui,
je
vais
acheter
une
 Today,
I'm
going
to
buy
a
car.

voiture.


 Elles
arriveront
demain.
 They'll
arrive
tomorrow.




IV.

 Long
adverbs
are
usually
placed
at
the
beginning
or
end
of
the
sentence.


 Généralement,
nous
mangeons
avant
 Normally,
we
eat
before
5pm.

17h00.


 Je
ne
l'ai
pas
trouvé,
malheureusement.
 I
didn't
find
it,
unfortunately.


 However,
if
the
long
adverb
specifically
modifies
the
verb,
it
is
placed
after
the

conjugated
verb.


 Il
a
immédiatement
quitté
Paris.
 He
left
Paris
immediately.




V.
 Adverbs
of
place
are
usually
found
after
the
direct
object.


 Il
a
mis
ton
sac
à
dos
là‐bas.
 He
put
your
backpack
over
there.


 J'ai
trouvé
le
livre
ici.
 I
found
the
book
here.




VI.
 Adverbs
which
modify
adjectives
or
other
adverbs
are
placed
in
front
of

the
word
they
modify.


 Je
suis
très
heureuse.
 I'm
very
happy.


 Chantal
fait
assez
souvent
ses
devoirs.
 Chantal
does
her
homework
fairly
often.




VII. In
negative
constructions,
adverbs
which
would
normally
follow
the
verb
are



 placed
after
pas.


 Je
mange
bien
==>
Je
ne
mange
pas
 I
eat
well
==>
I
don't
eat
well.

bien.


 Tu
travailles
trop
==>
Tu
ne
travailles
 You
work
too
much
==>
You
don't
work

pas
trop.
 too
much.


Passé
Composé


• Passé
composé
has
three
English
equivalents:


1. I
danced.
(simple
past)

2. I
have
danced.
(present
perfect)

3. I
did
dance.
(past
emphatic)




• It
consists
of
two
parts:


1. present
tense
of
auxiliary
verb
(avoir
or
être)

2. past
participle
of
main
verb




Past
Participle
Rules 


‐ER
verbs:
 –
er
+
é

(Ex.


parler
→
parlé,


aller
→
allé)


‐IR
verbs:

 –
ir
+
i

(Ex.


finir
→
fini,


choisir
→
choisi)


‐RE
verbs:
 –
re
+
u

(Ex.


fonder
→
fondu,


vendre
→
vendu)




Some
Irregular
Participles


avoir
→
eu


(to
have)

être
→
été


(to
be)

faire
→
fait


(to
make/do)

vouloir
→
voulu


(to
want)

dire
→
dit


(to
say)


Examples 


“être”
verbs
(motion):


J’ai
vu.

I
saw.


Tu
as
parlé.

You
spoke.


Le
garçon
est
sorti.

The
boy
went
out.



“avoir”
verbs:

When
the
auxiliary
verb
is
avoir,
the
past
participle
must
agree
with

the
direct
object
if
the
direct
object
precedes
the
past
participle
in
the

sentence.*


feminine
 ‐e

plural
 ‐s

fem.
pl.
 ‐es


Les
homes
sont
arrivés.

The
men
arrived.


Les
filles
sont
venues.

The
girls
came.


Nous
sommes
levé(e)s.

We
got
up.

(extra
‘e’
if
‘nous’
refers
to
a
group
of
females)



*
J'ai
vu
la
voiture .

I
saw
the
car.

Je
l'ai
vue.

I
saw
it.
(referring
to
the
car)

Le
Futur


Future
Verb
Endings: 


je
 ‐ai

tu
 ‐as

il/elle
 ‐a

nous
 ‐ons

vous
 ‐ez

ils/elles
 ‐ont


Conjugation
Examples 


‐ER
verbs:
 
 parler
–
to
speak


 
 
 
 
 Je
parlerai.
–
I
will
speak.


 
 
 
 
 Tu
parleras.
–
You
will
speak.


 
 
 
 
 Il
parlera.
–
He
will
speak.


 
 
 
 
 Nous
parlerons.
–
We
will
speak.


 
 
 
 
 Vous
parlerez.
–
You
will
speak.


 
 
 
 
 Ils
parleront.
–
They
will
speak.


‐RE
verbs:
 
 lire
–
to
read


 
 
 
 
 Je
lirai.
–
I
will
read.


 
 
 
 
 Tu
liras.
–
You
will
read.


 
 
 
 
 
 …


‐IR
verbs:

 
 rougir
–
to
blush


 
 
 
 
 Je
rougirai.
–
I
will
blush


 
 
 
 
 Tu
rougiras.
–
You
will
blush


 
 
 
 
 
 …


Sentence
Examples


‐ER
 Je
parlerai
avec
mon
professeur.
–
I
will
speak
with
my
professor

‐RE
 Nous
lirons
le
journal.
–
We
will
read
the
newspaper.

‐IR
 Vous
rougirez
si
je
vous
raconte
la
blague.
–
You
will
blush
if
I
tell
the
joke.



Irregular
Stem
Changes


acheter
(to
buy)
→
achèter‐

appeler
(to
call)
→

appeller‐

aller
(to
go)
→
ir‐

avoir
(to
have)
→
aur‐

devoir
(to
have
to)
→
devr‐

envoyer
(to
send)
→
enverr‐

essayer
(to
try/attempt)
→
essaier‐

être
(to
be)
→
ser‐

faire
(to
make/do)
→
fer‐

pleuvoir
(to
rain)
→
pleuvr‐

pouvoir
(to
be
able
to)
→
pourr‐

savoir
(to
know)
→
saur‐

venir
(to
come)
→
viendr‐

voir
(to
see)
→
verr‐

vouloir
(to
want)
→
voudr‐




*
Note: 

1. The
future
stem
always
ends
in
‘r’.

2. The
exact
same
verbs
are
irregular
in
the
conditional
and
use
the
same
stems.

Le
Conditionnel


• The
French
conditional
is
mainly
used
in
‘si’
(if)
clauses,
to
express
what

would
happen
if
a
condition
were
met:


Il
mangerait
s'il
avait
faim.

He
would
eat
if
he
were
hungry.


Si
nous
étudiions,
nous
serions
plus
intelligents.

If
we
studied,
(then)
we
would
be
smarter.



• The
verb
vouloir
is
used
in
the
conditional
to
express
a
polite
request

(However,
you
can't
say
"si
vous
voudriez"
to
mean
"if
you
would
like,"

because
the
French
conditional
can
never
be
used
after
‘si’.):


Je
voudrais
une
pomme.

I
would
like
an
apple.


Je
voudrais
aller
avec
vous.

I
would
like
to
go
with
you.



• The
verb
aimer
is
used
to
express
a
polite
desire,
sometimes
one
that
cannot

be
fulfilled:


J'aimerais
bien
le
voir
!

I
would
really
like
to
see
it!


J'aimerais
y
aller,
mais
je
dois
travailler

I
would
like
to
go,
but
I
have
to
work.



*
Verbs
in
the
conditional
case
are
conjugated
the
same
as
in
the
future
tense

(including
irregular
verbs)

L’Impératif


‐IR
and
‐RE
verbs: 


• same
conjugations
as
present
tense


Finis
!
–
Finish!
(2nd
person)

Finissez
!
–
Finish!
(2nd
person
plural)

Lis
!
–
Read!
(2nd
person)

Lisez
!
–
Read!
(2nd
person
plural)


‐ER
verbs:


• ‘nous’
and
‘vous’
forms
–
same
as
present
tense

• ‘tu’
form
drops
the
‘s’


Mange
!
–
Eat!
(2nd
person)

Mangez
!
–
Eat!
(2nd
person
plural)

Ne
parle
pas
!
–
Don’t
speak!
(2nd
person)

Ne
parlez
pas
!
–
Don’t
speak!
(2nd
person
plural)



Irregular
Verbs 



 avoir
 être
 savoir
 vouloir

(tu)
 aie
 sois
 sache
 veuille

(nous)
 ayons
 soyons
 sachons
 

(vous)
 ayez
 soyez
 sachez
 veuillez



‘Me’
and
‘te’
change
to
‘moi’
and
‘toi’
and
get
linked
with
a
hyphen,
and
when
a

‘tu’
command
is
followed
by
‘y’
or
‘en’,
the
‘s’
is
not
dropped:


Dis‐moi
!
–
Tell
me!

Vas‐y
!
–
Go
away!


Les
Conjonctions


There
are
two
types
of
conjunctions
in
French:


1.
Coordinating
conjunctions
join
words
and
groups
of
words
with
an

equal
value:


Coordinating
conjunctions


car


for,
because

donc


so

ensuite


next

et


and

mais


but

or


now,
yet

ou


or

ou
bien


or
else

puis


then



J'aime
les
pommes,
les
bananes,
et
les
oranges.

I
like
apples,
bananas,
and
oranges.


Veux‐tu
aller
en
France
ou
en
Italie
?

Do
you
want
to
go
to
France
or
Italy?


Ce
n'est
pas
carré
mais
rectangulaire.

It's
not
square
but
rectangular.


Je
veux
le
faire,
mais
je
n'ai
pas
d'argent.

I
want
to
do
it,
but
I
don't
have
any
money.


Fais
tes
devoirs,
puis
lave
la
vaisselle.

Do
your
homework,
then
wash
the
dishes.



• Certain
French
coordinating
conjunctions
can
be
repeated
in
front
of

each
of
the
joined
items
for
emphasis:


et...
et


both...
and

ne...
ni...
ni


neither...
nor

ou...
ou


either...
or

soit...
soit


either...
or



Je
connais
et
Jean‐Paul
et
son
frère.

I
know
both
Jean‐Paul
and
his
brother.


Tu
peux
ou
regarder
la
télé
ou
jouer
au
foot.

You
can
either
watch
TV
or
play
soccer.


Soit
avant,
soit
après,
ça
m'est
égal.

Either
before
or
after,
I
don't
care.


Il
ne
mange
ni
la
viande
ni
les
légumes.

He
eats
neither
meat
nor
vegetables.




2.
Subordinating
conjunctions
join
dependent
clauses
to
main
clauses:


French
subordinating
conjunctions


comme


as,
since

lorsque


when

puisque


since,
as

quand


when

que


that

si


if



J'ai
dit
que
j'aime
les
pommes.

I
said
that
I
like
apples.




Comme
tu
n'es
pas
prêt,
j'y
irai
seul.

Since
you're
not
ready,
I'll
go
alone.


Si
je
suis
libre,
je
t'amènerai
à
l'aéroport.

If
I'm
free,
I'll
take
you
to
the
airrort.


J'ai
peur
quand
il
voyage.

I
am
scared
when
he
travels.




French
Conjunctive
Phrases


ainsi
que


just
as,
so
as

alors
que


while,
whereas

après
que


after,
when

au
cas
où


in
case

dans
l'hypothèse
où


in
the
event
that

de
même
que


just
as

dès
que


as
soon
as

encore
que


even
though

parce
que


because

pendant
que


while

quand
bien
même


even
though/if

sitôt
que


as
soon
as

supposé
que


supposing

tandis
que


while,
whereas



Il
est
parti
parce
qu'il
avait
peur.

He
left
because
he
was
afraid.





Les
Nombres


0



zéro

1



un

2



deux

3



trois

4



quatre

5



cinq

6



six

7



sept

8



huit

9



neuf

10



dix


11



onze

12



douze

13



treize

14



quatorze

15



quinze

16



seize

17



dix‐sept

18



dix‐huit

19



dix‐neuf



Pronunciation
note:


The
consonants
at
the
end
of
the
French
numbers
‘cinq’,
‘six’,
‘huit’,
and

‘dix’
are
pronounced
when
at
the
end
of
a
sentence
or
in
front
of
a
vowel.

However,
they
drop
the
final
sound
when
followed
by
a
word
beginning

with
a
consonant
(such
as
‘cent’,
‘mille’,
‘million’,
‘mois’,
or
‘livres’).
For

example,
‘huit’
is
normally
pronounced
[weet]
and
‘huit
élèves’
is
[wee

tay
lehv],
but
800
is
pronounced
[wee
sa(n)].







For
the
French
numbers
20
through
59,
counting
is
just
like
in
English:

the
tens
word
(‘vingt’,
‘trente’,
‘quarante’,
etc.)
followed
by
the
ones
word

(‘un’,
‘deux’,
‘trois’).
The
only
difference
is
that
for
21,
31,
etc.,
the
word

‘et’
(and)
is
introduced
between
the
tens
word
and
one:
‘vingt
et
un’,

‘trente
et
un’,
‘quarante
et
un’,
etc.:


20



vingt

21



vingt
et
un

22



vingt‐deux

23



vingt‐trois


30



trente

31



trente
et
un

32



trente‐deux


40



quarante

41



quarante
et
un


50



cinquante

51



cinquante
et
un



The
French
numbers
60
to
69
follow
the
same
rules
as
20
to
59:


60



soixante

61



soixante
et
un

62



soixante‐deux

63



soixante‐trois

64



soixante‐quatre

65



soixante‐cinq

66



soixante‐six

67



soixante‐sept

68



soixante‐huit

69



soixante‐neuf







But
then
when
70
rolls
around,
instead
of
a
new
"tens"
word,
‘soixante’
is

kept
and
the
"ones"
word
continues
counting
from
10:


70



soixante‐dix

71



soixante
et
onze

72



soixante‐douze

73



soixante‐treize

74



soixante‐quatorze

75



soixante‐quinze

76



soixante‐seize

77



soixante‐dix‐sept

78



soixante‐dix‐huit

79



soixante‐dix‐neuf


So
70,
‘soixante‐dix’
in
French,
is
literally
"sixty‐ten".
71
is
‘soixante
et

onze’
(sixty
and
eleven),
72
is
‘soixante‐douze’
(sixty‐twelve),
and
so
on,

up
to
79.



There
is
no
word
for
"eighty"
in
standard
French.
Instead
80
is
‘quatre‐
vingts,’
literally
four‐twenties
(think
"four‐score").
81
is
‘quatre‐vingt‐un‘

(four‐twenty‐one),
82
is
‘quatre‐vingt‐deux‘
(four‐twenty‐two),
and
so
on,

all
the
way
up
to
89:


80



quatre‐vingts

81



quatre‐vingt‐un

82



quatre‐vingt‐deux

83



quatre‐vingt‐trois

84



quatre‐vingt‐quatre

85



quatre‐vingt‐cinq

86



quatre‐vingt‐six

87



quatre‐vingt‐sept

88



quatre‐vingt‐huit

89



quatre‐vingt‐neuf





There's
no
word
for
ninety
either,
so
you
continue
using
quatre‐vingt
and

adding
from
ten.
90
is
‘quatre‐vingt‐dix’
(four‐twenty‐ten),
91
is
‘quatre‐
vingt‐onze’
(four‐twenty‐eleven),
etc:


90



quatre‐vingt‐dix

91



quatre‐vingt‐onze

92



quatre‐vingt‐douze

93



quatre‐vingt‐treize

94



quatre‐vingt‐quatorze

95



quatre‐vingt‐quinze

96



quatre‐vingt‐seize

97



quatre‐vingt‐dix‐sept

98



quatre‐vingt‐dix‐huit

99



quatre‐vingt‐dix‐neuf



In
French,
100
to
999
work
just
like
in
English
‐
just
say
how
many

hundreds
and
then
add
the
other
numbers.
Note
that
when
cent
is
at
the

end
of
the
number,
it
takes
an
s,
but
when
it's
followed
by
another

number,
the
s
is
dropped:


100



cent

101



cent
un

125



cent
vingt‐cinq


200



deux
cents

201



deux
cent
un

243



deux
cent
quarante‐trois


2,000



deux
mille

2,500



deux
mille
cinq
cents

10,498



dix
mille
quatre
cent
quatre‐vingt‐dix‐huit


1,000,000



un
million

2,000,000



deux
millions

3,800,107



trois
millions
huit
cent
mille
cent
sept


a
billion



un
milliard

Couleurs,
Formes,
et
Grosseurs



Colors


masc.
sing.
 fem.
sing.
 masc.
plural
 fem.
plural


purple
 violet
 violette
 violets
 violettes

blue
 bleu
 bleue
 bleus
 bleues

green
 vert
 verte
 verts
 vertes

yellow
 jaune
 jaune
 jaunes
 jaunes

orange
 orange
 orange
 orange
 orange

red
 rouge
 rouge
 rouges
 rouges

black
 noir
 noire
 noirs
 noires

white
 blanc
 blanche
 blancs
 blanches

grey
 gris
 grise
 gris
 grises

brown
 marron
 marron
 marron
 marron

pink
 rose
 rose
 roses
 roses

light
blue
 bleu
clair

 bleu
clair
 bleu
clair


 bleu
clair



dark
blue
 bleu
foncé
 bleu
foncé

 bleu
foncé
 bleu
foncé


Shapes


circle 
–
le
cercle

oval 
–
l’ovale

square 
–
le

carré


rectangle
 –
le
rectangle

triangle 
–
le
triangle

heart 
–
le
coeur

star 
–
l’étoile



Sizes


big
–
grand(e),
gros(se)

small
–
petit(e)


Les
Émotions


choqué(e)
 shocked

coquin(e)
 mischievous

coupable
 guilty

débordant(e)
de
vie
 exuberant

dégoutant(e)
 disgusting

déprimé(e)
 depressed

effrayé(e)
 scared

ennuyé(e)
 bored

épuisé(e)
 exhausted

exaspéré(e)
 exasperated,
aggravated

extatique
 ecstatic

faché(e)
 angry

frustré(e)
 frustrated

gené(e)
 uncomfortable,
embarrassed

heureux(‐euse)
 happy

honteux(‐euse)
 ashamed

hystérique
 hysterical

jaloux(‐ouse)
 jealous

plein(e)
d'espoir
 hopeful

prétentieux(‐euse)
 pretentious

prudent(e)
 prudent

solitarie
 loney

soupconneux(‐euse)
 suspicious

sur(e)
de
soi
 sure
of
oneself/self‐confident

surpris(e)
 surprised

timide
 timid

triste
 sad

troublé(e)
 disturbed,
bothered




Les
Expressions
Courantes


Bonjour 
–
Hello
(also
Good
morning/afternoon)

Bonsoir 
–
Good
evening

Bonne
nuit 
‐
Goodnight

Au
revoir 
–
Goodbye

Oui 
–
Yes

Non 
–
No

Peut‐être
 –
Maybe

Comment
t’appelles‐tu
? 
–
What’s
your
name?

Je
m’appelle… 
–
My
name
is…

S’il
vous
plaît 
–
Please

Merci 
–
Thank
you

Merci
beaucoup 
–
Thank
you
very
much

De
rien 
–
You’re
welcome

Comment
ça
vas
?
 –
How
are
you?

Très
bien
 –
Very
well
(good)

Comme
ci
comme
ça 
–
so
so

Excusez‐moi 
–
Excuse
me

Bonne
chance 
–
Good
luck

Il
y
a… 
–
There
is/are…

Je
ne
comprends
pas 
–
I
don’t
understand

Je
ne
sais
pas 
–
I
don’t
know

Désolé 
–
Sorry

Où
? 
–
Where?

Quand
? 
–
When?

Comment
?
 –
How?

Pourquoi
? 
–
Why?

Qui
? 
–
Who?

Où
est
…
? 
–
Where
is…?

Combien
?
 –
How
much/many?

D’accord 
–
Okay

Aujourd’hui
 –
Today

Demain
 –
Tomorrow

Hier
 –
Yesterday