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STPM Form 6 Terminology and Concepts: Chemical Equilibrium Part 1 1) Reversible Reaction Chemical reaction is in both directions.

s. Forward reaction: from left to right. Reverse reaction: from right to left. React in a closed container. Reversible reaction is never complete (a mixture of reactants and products). An intermediate position (equilibrium) is reached. 2. Dynamic Equilibrium Reversible reaction is at a position of dynamic equilibrium. - the rate of the forward reaction = rate of the reverse reaction. - no change is observed (concentrations of the reactants and the products remain unchanged.) - all the external conditions remain unchanged (closed container). 3. The Equilibrium Law and the Equilibrium Constant Equilibrium expression / equilibrium equation, Kc = [product]x / [reactant]y Forward reaction: aA + bB <-> cC + dD Equilibrium expression / equilibrium equation, Kc = [C]c[D]d / [A]a[B]b where [A] = concentration of A [B] = concentration of B [C] = concentration of C [D] = concentration of D

Kc = equilibrium constant for the reaction (in terms of concentration of the reactant) and the units depend on the chemical equation. Reverse reaction: cC + dD <-> aA + bB Equilibrium expression / equilibrium equation The equilibrium constant, Kc = [A]a[B]b / [C]c[D]d This relationship is equilibrium law / equilibrium expression where: Equilibrium constant of the reverse reaction is the reciprocal of the equilibrium constant of the forward reaction, Kc = 1 / Kc Equilibrium constant is constant at a particular temperature. - Exothermic reaction (forward reaction), the value of the equilibrium constant decreases as temperature increases. - Endothermic reaction (forward reaction), the value of the equilibrium constant increases as temperature increases. Reaction quotients, Q (predicting the direction of reaction) Q = Kc, no net reaction will take place (the system is at equilibrium). Q < Kc, a net forward reaction to the right occurs. (If the value Kc (equilibrium constant) is very large, the equilibrium position lies very much to the right and the yield of the products are higher than the reactants. Q > Kc, a net reverse reaction to the left occurs. (If the value Kc (equilibrium constant) is very small, the equilibrium position lies more to the left and the the yield of the products are lower than the reactants.

STPM Form 6 Terminology and Concepts: Chemical Equilibrium (Part 2) 1. Equilibrium Constant (in terms of partial pressure), Kp Kp can only be applied to gas reactions. Kc and Kp are not numerically equal.

The total number of moles (in a gas reaction) is the same. Example: aA(g) + bB(g) <-> cC(g) + dD(g) The equilibrium constant (in term of partial pressure), Kp Kp = (PC)c (PD)d / (PA)a (PB)b The equilibrium constant (in term of concentration), Kc Kc = [C]c[D]d / [A]a[B]b Kp = Kc Example: 2HI(g) <> H2(g) + I2(g) The equilibrium constant (in term of partial pressure), Kp Kp = (PH2) (PI2) / (PHI)2 2. Homogeneous Equilibrium All substances are in the same physical states (all gases or all liquids). Example: N2(g) + 3H2(g) <> 2NH3(g) Kp = (PNH3)2 / (PN2) (PH2)3 3. Heterogeneous Equilibrium The substances are in different physical states (a mixture of solids, liquids or gases) Example: CaCO3(s) <> CaO(s) + CO2(g) Kp = PCO2 * The concentrations of solids and pure liquids are constants. In the expressions for Kc and Kp, solids and pure liquids are left out.