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Jane F. Gilgun, Ph.D., LICSW Phone: 612/624-‐3643 Fax: 612/624-‐3744 toll free: 1 800 779 8636 firstname.lastname@example.org
University of Minnesota, Twin Cities University of Minnesota, Twin Cities School of Social Work SW 5051 Human Behavior in the Social Environment (2 credits) Fall 2013 267 Peters Hall email@example.com Office Hours: Thursday 11:30 to 12:30 pm or by appointment
OBJECTIVES Upon successful completion of this course, students will be able to • Identify observable behavior and internal capacities associated with "normative," healthy, and problematic development across the life course; • Identify the wide range of social systems in which people live; • Identify the ways social systems and individual people promote/obstruct the achievement and maintenance of health, strength, and well-‐being in one another; • Apply theories and ideas from the liberal arts and physical sciences to understanding biological, social, cultural, psychological, and spiritual development; • Use conceptual frameworks/theories to guide practice processes of assessment, intervention, and evaluation; and • Use critical thinking skills in applying HBSE knowledge to understanding person, environment, and their ongoing, reciprocal influence on one another.
This is the foundation course that covers the human behavior in the social environment (HBSE) component of the MSW curriculum, considering socio-‐psycho-‐biological factors associated with individual and group behaviors and development, in interaction with the environment, as they underlie social work practice. Central to the design of this course are the following ideas: • Development occurs throughout the life course, from infancy through old age; • Observable behavior reflects both organismic (internal) and environmental (external to the individual) influences and their interaction; • Both person and environment comprise multiple, interacting levels and facets; • Understanding behavior requires a knowledge of universal principles, a respect for individual differences, and an appreciation of the dynamic tension between the two; • Oppression and struggling against it are rooted in both person and environment; and • Understanding human behavior and the social environment is central to achieving the social justice that is a primary goal of social work.
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• • •
Students are expected to attend all class sessions, arrive on time, and to participate in class activities and discussion. Therefore, class members are expected to have read assigned materials, prepared to enter into reflective discussion based on critical thinking, and willing to participate actively in class exercises. Students are expected to notify the instructor in advance, whenever possible regarding absences, including unavoidable reasons to leave class early. Persistent absence, lateness to class, and lateness in submitting papers will be considered in assigning final grades. Missing four or more classes will result in failure of the course except for documented medical circumstances. For students who miss class for medical reasons, the missed work will have to be made up. Please keep in mind that coming to class late is disruptive to other students and to the instructor and can detract from the quality of the class experience. Also, though eating in class may be necessary for health reasons, please refrain from eating food that crackles, crunches, and snaps or whose packaging crackles, crunches, and snaps or otherwise makes noises that are distracting. Students are to turn their phones and pagers off during the class. They are not to surf the web with any electronic devices, check email, or amuse themselves in anyway through electronic devices. They may not text each other during class time. Students are expected to complete all assigned readings prior to the class for which they has been assigned and are expected to be able to integrate that reading into class discussions and activities. Students are expected to make use of University libraries and resources for assignments; Students are expected to have access to the Internet and to use resources on the World Wide Web as directed in this course; Assignments are to be typed, written in non-‐sexist language, and follow the format of the American Psychological Association Publication Manual (6th ed.). Papers should be turned in with no errors in spelling, punctuation, or grammar. Papers will not be accepted after the due date without an acceptable reason for a late paper. Submission of an assignment that is not one's own will result automatically in a failing grade for the course. This is in accordance with policies of the School of Social Work and the University Student Conduct Code regarding plagiarism, a form of scholarly dishonesty. Plagiarism involves attaching your name to the writings of others without attribution to the actual author(s); these writings can be published or unpublished materials. Plagiarism is a form of theft of intellectual property. Citing and referencing other scholars accomplishes the following (and more): • Gives credit where it is due; • Refers your readers to your source material;
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Contributes to the body of scholarship; Demonstrates appropriate respect for intellectual property (the creation and ownership of ideas); • Protects you against errors in your source material; • Keeps you honest in your thinking. • Students are expected to offer the instructor clear, constructive feedback regarding course content and teaching methods. Students are expected to complete confidential evaluations of the course using the University's standardized form at the end of the semester. • Students may not use an assignment completed in another course for the present course. This includes papers, answer to test questions, or any other material used for a grade in another class. If students do so, they will not be given credit for the assignment. • Incompletes are given only in extraordinary circumstances. The School of Social Work's policy on incompletes requires the student to develop a contract with the instructor that will describe the work which remains to be completed and the date by which the work must be submitted to the instructor. In addition to providing the instructor with a copy of the complete contract on incompletes, the student must file a copy of the contract with the director of the undergraduate program at the School of Social Work. The policy states that incomplete course grades will be converted to an F grade if not completed within two semesters. Incompletes are strongly discouraged and will be given by the instructor only in extraordinary circumstances. • When students use material from their professional or personal experiences, please remember that as professionals, we have ethical responsibilities to maintain confidentiality and to protect privacy. Your instructor will disguise the identities of clients and expects students to abide by this ethical value. • Students are expected to understand and respect the University’s policy on work required per course credit. This is the policy. One semester credit is to represent, for the average University of Minnesota undergraduate student, three hours of academic work per week [including lectures, laboratories, recitations, discussions groups, study, and so on], or approximately 45 hours of work per credit over the course of an enrollment period. It is expected that the academic work required of graduate and professional students will exceed three hours per credit per week or 45 hours per semester. Course Expectations for the Instructor • The instructor will use a variety of instructional methods including short lectures, case studies to illustrate points of the lectures, electronic slides, large and small group discussions and exercises, and individual activities to address varieties of learning styles. • The instructor will provide a clear structure for the course and each class session through the syllabus, statements of purpose of each class, guiding discussion, providing appropriate linkages between topics, and summarizing main points throughout the semester. • Student assignments will include clear expectations and, where possible, opportunities for student selection of alternatives. Barring exceptional circumstances, student assignments will be returned within one week of submission. • •
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• • • •
Plan of the Course The course meets on Thursdays from 9:35 to 11:30 am during the fall semester in 36B Ruttan Hall. There will be one 5-‐minute stretch break half way through the class. Class sessions include lectures, large and small group discussions, small group work, student presentations, and videotapes. During these activities, students are strongly encouraged to apply course learnings to their work with individuals, families, and groups. In order to create a constructive and supportive learning environment, your instructor expects all class members to participate in class discussions, to listen well to others, respect varying opinions, avoid degrading or disrespectful language, and to understand the multicultural atmosphere of the learning environment. Please do not share sensitive personal material in class unless you have discussed these issues many times before in public. Readings There are two required texts as well as required and background (not required but recommended) readings available through on-‐line University resources and directly from the professor. Additional readings and other tasks may be assigned over the course of the semester. All of the journal articles are available through e-‐journals at University libraries. The texts are Gilgun, Jane F. (2011). The NEATS: A child and family assessment (3rd ed.). Amazon. Available from instructor. Haight, Wendy L., & Edward H. Taylor (2013). Human behavior for social work practice: A developmental-‐ecological framework (2nd ed.) Chicago: Lyceum. Some students may have little background in child development. If students do not have this background, much of the class material will be over their heads. For these students, I recommend the following texts. Berk, Laura E. (2012). Child development (9th ed.). Boston: Allyn and Bacon. Davies, Douglas (2011). Child Development: A practitioner’s guide (3rd ed.). New York: Guilford. Papalia, Diane E., Ruth Duskin Feldman, & Gabriela Martorell (2012). Experience human development (12th ed). New York: McGraw Hill.
The instructor will be available on issues related to class assignments or content during office hours, by phone, e-‐mail, or by appointment. The instructor will work to facilitate an atmosphere in the classroom that is conducive to learning, is non-‐threatening, and is respectful of a variety of learning styles. When students work together in groups, the instructor will be available for consultation and to assist group members in completing their tasks. The instructor will provide feedback to students that identify strengths and areas for improvement in a constructive manner.
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You must do the readings and complete class assignments every week in order to understand and contribute to class discussions and other activities, as well as to foster your own learning. Class activities are based on the assumption that students have done the readings and any other tasks the instructor may assign. Class activities also assume that students understand and can apply the principles of critical thinking that include understanding what authors of articles have written, giving an even-‐hand representation of what the authors have said, being even-‐handed in understanding the points of view of classmates, and offering examples and other documentations of the understandings that they have. Students also are expected to focus on the topic under discussion and not divert discussion away from those topics. They can request discussions of topics that are of interest to them but first consideration is the focus on topics that are part of the syllabus. As you read for this course, you will come upon terms that you may not understand. It is your responsibility to find definitions of these terms and think of how they may apply to assessment, treatment planning, and prevention. Course Requirements The requirements for this course are as follows. • reading the weekly assignments and sharing your observations in class discussions; • one brief in-‐class presentation; • a case study; • a literature review; and • a final project. There will be one on-‐line class on October 24 where students will post assignments on Moodle. Students are required to comment on at least two of their colleagues’ postings. Credit for posting and commenting on posts are included in the 10 points for class participation. In your comments, you are to stick to the topic, show evidence of reading the material assigned for that class, and evidence of critical thinking. Evidence of critical thinking includes the following: general statements supported by examples other elaborations, even-‐handedness, and requests for elaboration when colleagues’ work lacks detail. In each of these assignments, I want you to show that you are remembering, understanding, and applying course learnings. I don’t expect you to parrot what is said in class, but I do expect you to think about some of the points made in class and in readings, such as importance of understanding meanings that individuals attribute to their actions and experience, belief systems that individuals may have in common with others, and the importance of showing that you understand that while in social work there are problems that require attention, many individuals have the good fortune to have resources in their lives that help them to cope with, adapt to, and overcome the adversities in their lives. Description of Requirements
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Brief in-‐class presentations. 5 points. About 30 minutes of each class will be devoted to two student-‐led in-‐class presentations. The tasks are headliner, counterpointer, case illustrator, connector, and discoverer. Students may work with up to two other students. There are two presentations and five different formats. Each week, three of the formats will go unfilled. The types of presentations are Headliner: To present at least two main points from one article for that day’s reading to the class and a bit of supporting documentation. This will take up to three minutes. Then develop discussion questions, an in-‐class exercise, or a combination. These discussions and exercises can be in small groups or with the entire class. This will take about 10 minutes. Counterpointer: Present two points about what is not in an article or book chapter of the student’s choice and what could be present for the article/chapter to be more helpful to understanding and responding to human behaviors in the social environment. Provide examples of what you would have liked to have seen in the reading. In other words, an answer such as “A case study would have helped” is not sufficient, but, for example, a description of a possible case study, how it could be analyzed, and what readers would learn are sufficient. Spend about four minutes on each point and their illustrations and five minutes on class discussion. Case illustrator: Provide a brief case example that would illustrate a key point or points from an article/chapter of the student’s choice. This could be a case study from a journal article, from students’ work—volunteer, paid, internship, service-‐learning—or an instructive video or excerpt from a film. YouTube has some educational videos. Take up to ten minutes to present the case and five minutes for discussion to total 15 minutes. Connector: Show at least two ways that two articles/chapters in the readings for the day are connected to each other and illustrate the connections. If you see no connection, provide evidence of the lack of connection. Take up to ten minutes for this and five minutes for discussion to total 15 minutes. Discoverer. Present an article, a video, or a webinar that you find yourself and that is relevant to the day’s topic. Present two to three main points from the article and any material that supports or illustrates the main points. Take up to ten minutes for this and five minutes for discussion to total 15 minutes. Students will schedule the date of their brief in-‐class presentation through a sign-‐up sheet. Students do not hand it any papers for this assignment. Midterm project. 30 points. A case study. The midterm project is a descriptive case study composed of three parts: the case study, your thinking about the case, and a list of topics that you will read about in order to assess/understand/interpret the case. The case can be from your professional experience, your personal experience that you disguise so that readers do not know it’s your personal situation, a composite case study, a book such as The Secret Life of Bees, or a case you construct from materials that I can provide to you. There are many ways to structure case studies, and we will discuss them in class. The guidelines you follow will be
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developed from course readings and discussion. A literature review. 20 points. This assignment involves the integration and synthesis of ten or more articles that are relevant to understanding your case study. Seven of the articles must be from the syllabus. You may substitute up to three interviews with service providers who are knowledgeable about your topic for up to three readings, but you still have to include seven articles from the syllabus. The lit review is to be 10 pages long. When working with one or two other students, the lit review can be up to 14 pages. Final Project. 35 points. A case study, reflexivity statement, case analysis, and action plan. We will discuss in class the content of each topic and the order of the topics of the final project. The elements that I want you to have in the final project are the following. • Introduction/overview of the paper; • Practice wisdom/clinical expertise: Your reflexivity statement o a brief statement of your views on what your topic means to you; o a brief statement of your experience in working with persons who are the subjects of your case study; o a brief statement of what you know from experience about working with persons who are dealing with your topic of interest; o a brief statement of your personal and professional values that are relevant to your interest in your topic: • Case study from your midterm project, revised if you so choose; • A case analysis based on your lit review and any subsequent articles that you find to be relevant; • Treatment planning/action plan for this case based on all of the above; and • Discussion and conclusions. We will flesh out details of the final assignment in class and consider several ways of writing up case studies. You may work with up to two other students on this final assignment. The final project can be up to 14 pages, not including the literature review that you prepared for the mid-‐term when students work alone. Students who work up with others can have up to 18 pages not including the literature review. These projects are students’ opportunities to demonstrate that they have read, studied, and understood course readings and can apply them. Grading Points Due Dates In-‐class presentation 5 variable Case study 30 cl 6, Thurs, 10/10 Literature review 20 cl 9, Thurs, 10/31 Final project 35 12/12 midnight Class participation 10 n/a
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The criteria for evaluating these assignments are generally those of any graduate-‐level course. Papers will be graded on critical thinking, organization, and ability to write clearly. Critical thinking includes supporting ideas with evidence, being even-‐handed in representing the views of others, evaluating the ideas of others according to explicit criteria, providing alternatives to ideas students find are suboptimal, and demonstrations of abilities to synthesize, critique, and apply course learnings. Organization generally means the work has a logical flow from one main point to the next and that each paragraph begins with a topic sentence followed by elaboration of the point the topic sentence makes. APA style requires the use of headings, and headings help demonstrate the logical flow — or organization — of papers and other assignments. Be sure to develop an introduction and a concluding discussion for the papers and course projects. Additional markers of excellence include supporting and illustrating general ideas with examples, abilities to apply social work principles, ethics, and empathy to course work, and the ability to show clients' points of view; e.g., to bring client perspectives to life. In addition to having a well-‐thought out paper with the above characteristics, each paper must have a title page, an introduction, a concluding discussion section, and, of course, a well-‐ designed main body. If students are unclear about or dissatisfied with grading, conversations about grading standards and expectations are welcome. Besides engaging actively in the activities discussed above, in general, class participation means students' active engagement in class discussion and activities in ways that enhance class discussion. In their comments, students demonstrate their understanding of the many ideas-‐-‐ and their applications-‐-‐important to assessment of family violence. Class participation is a strong indicator that students do the assigned reading every week, complete written assignments conscientiously, and are thinking about the implications of the readings for practice. Respect for and openness to the points of view of others are important dimensions of class participation. Please do not interrupt others, speak without regard for others who might want to speak, and monopolize class time. Your instructor will talk to students who demonstrate these behaviors. Resistance to changing these behaviors will be reflected in the course grade for class participation. Sometimes students are so enthusiastic about course content that they monopolize class time. In these cases, your instructor will gently ask them to save some of their comments for discussion with the instructor after class, over the internet, or during office hours. Lateness to class and missing class also affects quality of students' participation and are considered in the assignment of points for class participation. Grading Scale For this course, the grade of A denotes superior performance that is both consistent and outstanding. A's are given when the point range is between 93 and 100. A-‐'s are given when the point range is between 92 and 90. The grade of B denotes good, steady adequate performance, with some of the plus values that make for an A. B+'s are given when the point
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range is between 89 and 88. B's are given when the points are between 87 and 83. B-‐'s are given when the points range from 82 to 80. B students show understanding and ability to integrate learning and ends the course with a comprehensive grasp of the material. The grade of C denotes a performance that is barely acceptable and is probably adequate to complete the next course in a sequence. C+'s are given when the point range is between 78 and 79. C's are given when the points range between 77 and 73. C-‐'s, are for grades between 72 and 70. The grade of D denotes unacceptable work and some comprehension of course material and no probability of being able to complete the next course in a sequence. The grade of D is given when the point range is between 60 and 69. The grade of F denotes failure-‐-‐that is, unacceptable performance: an inability to understand the material. F's are given when the total points are 50 or below. P denotes a grade of A to C+. Policy on the Use of Student Papers At times, the professor may ask students for a copy of their papers to use as a sample paper for students in future classes. If asked, students have the right to refuse without fear of reprisals, and your instructor will ask students to sign a form indicating that they have freely given the instructor’s permission to use their paper as a sample paper. Supportive Learning Environments The development of a supportive learning environment is fundamental to this course. Learning takes place in the free exchange of ideas. In such a course, listening to and appreciating the points of view of others, eliciting ideas from others, and articulating your own points of view will foster a supportive learning environment. As discussed in relation to class participation, some enthusiastic students may talk to the point where others feel they are monopolizing class time. Please monitor yourself and be open if others suggest you may be monopolizing. Please turn off all cell phones and pagers during class time. Do not surf the web or check e-‐mail during class. If I see you doing any of this, I will ask you to stop immediately. We all have been exposed to sexist, racist, homophobic, classist, and ableist ideas and practices. We cannot be blamed for misinformation we have absorbed, but we will be held responsible for being open to alternative points of view. In addition, we will be held accountable for repeating misinformation once we have learned otherwise. We each have obligations to combat the myths and stereotypes about our own groups and other groups so that we can turn walls into bridges and thus promote the common welfare. As we will discuss in class, these values are deeply embedded in the NASW Code of Ethics and the Code of Ethics of the International Federation of Social Workers. Please do not use scented personal care products when in Peters Hall. Several persons who are part of the School of Social Work community become ill, and sometimes their reactions could be life-‐threatening, when exposed to a wide variety of scents. I will ask persons who wear scented products in classrooms or other enclosed areas to leave if there are persons with chemical sensitivities in that area. Persons with environmental illnesses greatly appreciate your efforts.
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The instructor will provide reasonable accommodations to persons with disabilities to give them an equal opportunity to achieve success in their graduate education. Students seeking accommodations must work with the University of Minnesota’s Office of Disability Services. This office determines eligibility and makes recommendations for reasonable accommodations. This office can be reached at 612/624-‐8281. This syllabus is subject to revision over the course of the semester when there is reason to do so. This is in the spirit of the scientific method. There are many University and School of Social Work policies that govern this course besides those in this syllabus. For further detail on polices, please see the MSW handbook at http://www.cehd.umn.edu/ssw/Documents/MSW/MSWHandbook2013-‐2014v2.pdf for important information about policies. CLASS SCHEDULE AND READINGS Class 1 Introductions Thurs, Sept 5 Overview of the Course Background Reading (Recommended and not required) Haight & Taylor (H & T) , Ch. 1: Thinking Developmentally About Social Work Practice
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Class 2 Brain Function & Development Thurs, Sept 12 Introduction to the NEATS Critical Self-‐Reflection Readings Gilgun, chs 1 & 2: Introduction and chapter on neurobiology H & T, Ch. 3: Brain function & development Heron, Barbara (2005). Self-‐reflection in critical social work practice: Subjectivity and the possibilities of resistance. Reflective Practice, 6 (3), 341-‐351. Website Review Review the Bruce Perry, Ph.D., website at http://www.childtrauma.org and click on the link CTA’s Neurosequential Model of Therapeutics. Read about this model. Background Reading H & T, Ch 2: The developmental ecological framework: A brief historical overview of theories Zeanah, Charles H. (2009). The importance of early experience: Clinical, research, and policy perspectives. Journal of Loss and Trauma, 14, 266-‐279. Class 3 Infants & Their Families Thurs, Sept 19 Attachment Resilience Gilgun. Ch 4: Attachment H & T, Ch. 5 Social work with Infants Masten, Ann S. & Auke Tellegen (2012). Resilience in developmental psychopathology: Contributions of the Project Competence longitudinal study. Development and Psychopathology, 24, 345-‐361. Class 4 Erikson's Elaborated Theory of Life-‐Cycle Development Thurs, Sept 28 Readings Erikson’s psychosocial development theory. http://www.businessballs.com/erik_erikson_psychosocial_theory.htm#freud's_psychos exual_stages H & T, Ch. 2, Read section on psychological and psychosocial theories Larson, Reed W. (2000) Toward a psychology of positive youth development. American Psychologist, 55(1), 170-‐183. Film Everyone rides the carousel
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Class 5 Young Children & Their Families Thurs, Oct 3 Attachment & Trauma Readings H & T, Ch. 6 Social work with young children Lieberman, Alicia F. (2004). Traumatic stress and quality of attachment: Reality and internalization in disorders of infant mental health. Infant Mental Health Journal, 25(4), 336-‐351. Background Reading Alexander, Pamela C. (2009). Childhood trauma, attachment, and abuse by multiple partners. Psychological Trauma: Theory, Research, Practice, and Policy, 1(1), 78–88. Schechter, Daniel set al (2006). Traumatized mothers can change their minds about their toddlers: Understanding how a novel use of videofeedback supports positive change of maternal attributions. Infant Mental Health Journal, 27(5), 429–447. Class 6 Children in Middle Childhood & Their Families Thurs, Oct 10 Neurobiology and Trauma ***Case Study Due*** Readings Gilgun, Ch 5: Trauma, Ch 8: A case study of Ian, 11, and his family H & T, Ch. 7: Social work with children in middle childhood Background Reading Van der Kolk, Bessel A. (2005). Developmental Trauma Disorder: A new, rational diagnosis for children with complex trauma histories. Psychiatric Annals 35(5), 390-‐398. Class 7 Adolescents & Their Families Thurs, Oct 17 Executive Function & Self-‐Regulation Reflections on Course Learnings ***Guest Instructor: Danette Jones, LICSW, LMFT*** Gilgun, Ch 3: Executive Function; Ch. 6: Self-‐Regulation; Ch 7: A case study of Pete, 10, and his family H & T, Ch 8: Social work with adolescents Class 8 Young Adults Thurs, Oct 24 Young Mothers & Domestic Abuse Reflections on Course Learnings ***On-‐Line Class*** Readings H & T, Ch. 9: Social Work with Young Adults Murray, W. Kantahyanee, Megan H. Bair-‐Merritt, Kathleen Roche, & Tina L. Cheng (2012). The
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Class 9 Thurs, Oct 31
impact of intimate partner violence on mothers’ parenting practices for urban, low-‐ income adolescents. Journal of Family Violence (27), 573-‐583. Intergenerational Coping in Racist Contexts Discussion of Literature Reviews
Class 10 Midlife Adults Thurs, Nov 7 Social Workers as Midlife Adults Relationships in Direct Practice Readings Dewane, Claudia J. (2006) Use of self: A primer revisited. Clinical Social Work Journal, 34(4), 543-‐558. H & T, Ch. 11: Social work with midlife adults in mental health contexts Class 11 Older Adults Thurs, Nov 14 Elder Abuse & Intervention Readings H & T, Ch. 12: Medical social work with older adults "Irene's Journey: Examining the issues of elder abuse". MINCAVA WEBSITE www.globalvp.umn.edu. Select Irene’s case study. Follow the directions for completing the case study. Class 12 Women & Gender Thurs, Nov 21 Resilience, Gender, & Ethnicity Readings Cunningham, Jera Nelson, Wendy Kliewer, & Pamelaw Garner (2009). Emotion socialization, child emotion understanding and regulation, and adjustment in urban African American families: Differential associations across child gender. Development and Psychopathology, 21, 261–283 H & T, Ch. 13: Women and gender across the life span Roditti, Martha, Pamela Schultz, Madeline Gillette, & Ivan de la Rosa (2010). Resiliency and social support networks in a population of Mexican American intimate partner violence survivors. Families in Society, 91(3), 248-‐256.
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Background Reading Anderson, Kim M., Fran S. Danis, & Kirsten Havig (2011). Adult daughters of battered women: Recovery and post-‐traumatic growth following childhood adversity. Families in Society, 92 (2), 154-‐160. Thurs, Nov 28 ***THANKSGIVING*** Class 13 Review of Course Learnings Thurs, Dec 5 Case Discussions Reading H & T, Ch. 14: Conclusions Review Masten, Ann S. & Auke Tellegen (2012). Resilience in developmental psychopathology: Contributions of the Project Competence longitudinal study. Development and Psychopathology, 24, 345-‐361. Background Reading Cicchetti, Dante (2004). An odyssey of discovery: Lessons learned through three decades of research on child maltreatment. American Psychologist, 59(8), 731-‐741. ***Final Project Due 12/12 at midnight***
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PSYCHOSOCIAL FRAMEWORK OF THE LIFE CYCLE
59 60 61 62 63 64 Integrity & Despair WISDOM
49 50 51 52 53 54 55 G enerativity & SelfSelfabsorption CAR E 41 42 43 44 45 46 Intimacy & Isolation LOVE 33 34 35 36 37 Identity & Confusion FIDELITY 38 39 40 47 48 56
Middle Adulthood Young Adulthood
25 26 27 28 Industry & Inferiority COMPETENCE 17 18 19 Initiative & 20 G uilt (Self(SelfPUR POSE 9
10 Autonomy & WILL
1 Basic Trust & Mistrust HOPE
Used with permission of WW Norton, Inc.; adapted from Erikson, Erikson, & Kivnick (1986) Vital Involvement in Old Age.
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