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Difference between dry bottom type and wet bottom type furnace

The boiler in which ash fusion temp. is lower than the furnace tempr. is called wet bottom type boiler. The boiler in which ash fusion tempr. is higher than the furnace tempr. is called dry bottom type boiler.

1. Write the report on proximity analysis and ultimate analysis of coal used in a thermal power station of 210 MW capacity.
In proximity analysis we get the percentage of fixed carbon (FC); volatile matter (VM); ash and moisture in coal by weight basis. For an ideal coal the percentage are: FC 50%, VM 22%, ASH 24%, MOISTURE 4%. In ultimate analysis we get the percentage analysis of carbon; sulpher; hydrogen; oxygen; nitrogen and ash by weight basis.

2. ABBREVIATIONS: PERT: - Program Evaluation and Review Technique. NPSH: - Net Positive Suction Head. IBD: - Intermittent blow down. CBD: Continuous blow down PI: - Polarity Index. IVR: - Infinite Variable Resistant. PLC: - Programmable Logic Control. DCS: Distributed Control System IDMT: - Inverse Definite Minimum Time. PPM: - Parts Per Million. MCC: - Motor Control Centre. MTBF: Mean Time Between Failure PRDS: Pressure reducing and de-superheating ISPUG: Initial Steam Pressure Unloading Gear LLD: Liquid Level Detector DPR: Differential Pressure Regulator

3. Two identical pressure vessels containing water and air seperately. The two cylinders are pressurized with some pressure. The vents of same size are opened at a time. The pressure of which vessel will fall faster and why.
As air is more compressive fluid than water, air pressure falls faster than that of water.
1

Y1 bar

Y1 bar

H2O
X bar

Air
X bar

4. In summer the ambient tempr. is hotter than the tempr. of water of cooling tower. How is it possible?
In cooling tower evaporation occurs and the rate of evaporation is directly proportional to the surface area of liquid and the rate of elimination of vapour over the surface of liquid. In cooling tower the first one is satisfied by breaking the water flow in small part by the help of V shaped PVC net and second one is satisfied by suction of dry air from atmosphere with the help of cooling tower fan. So evaporation increases which helps to interact latent heat from the water. In this way the tempr. of water of CW basin falls bellow the ambient temperature.

5. In a 3 X 125 MW plant the following are the data fore a particular date: PLF = 80%, Oil Consumption = 18 KL, Aux Power Consumption = 684 MWH. Calculate the (1) Oil rate; (2) Aux Power Consumption.
The total energy generated in that day = 3*125*0.8*24 MWH 18 * 106 ml Oil rate = = 2.5 ml/KWH 3 *125 * 0.8 * 24 * 103 684 % Aux Power Consumption = * 100 = 9.5% 3 * 125 * 0.8 * 24

6. In the above power plant, for a single unit coal consumption in that day = 1350 MT; energy generated = 2500 MWH; calorific value of coal = 4500Kcal/Kg; calculate the heat rate of the unit.

Calorific value of assumed coal = 1350 * 103 * 4500 Kcal 1350 * 103 * 4500 Heat Rate = = 2430 Kcal/KWH. 2500 * 103

7. What are the base load and peak load power station?
The PowerStation which run to satisfy the average demand of load is called base load power station. Ex Thermal & Nuclear Power station. The power station which runs to satisfy the peak demand of load is called peak load plant. Ex Gas Turbine & Hydel Power Station.

8. What is low forwarded and reverse forwarded relay?


During normal /forced shutdown or any other abnormal condition there is a danger of over speed of the generator. If the generator ckt breaker is opened before steam V/V s are completely closed. Again if mechanical power input to the generator is stopped well before generator breaker open there is a chance of motoring action of generator which may damage the turbine. Therefore it is essential to ensure that mechanical power supplies to turbine and hence the electrical power output to the generator has dropped to less than 1% before the generator ckt breaker is tripped. To achieve this a low-forwarded power relay with interlock, TLR is provided. In case of failure of low forwarded power relay reverse power relay will operate for protection against motoring action of generator.

9.

Most of the boiler auxiliaries are fans & most of the turbine auxiliaries are pumps discuss.

The main flow of boiler auxiliaries are air and coal dust and flue gas produced in the furnace. So to circulate these, different type of fans i.e.; PA, FD, ID are provided. Moreover for protection of bearing and gearbox of coal mill from coal dust seal air fan are provided. But in the turbine area the main flow are feed water, cooling water, auxiliary cooling water, DM water etc. so to circulate these water, varieties of pumps are necessary i.e.; BFP, CW, ACW, DMCW pumps etc.

10. what is the use of Trivector metre?


It is used to measure MVARH, MWH, and MVAH

11. Bearing 7: where and why it is insulated?


It is insulated at its lower part that is pedestal is placed on insulation. It is insulated to avoid the circulation of induced current between earth and rotor.

12. Why turbine and stator are earthed?


Due to friction between main steam and turbine blade and stator a static energy is generated. This energy may cause damage to the system. So the above mentioned equipment are earthed to flow this energy to the ground.

13. Difference between


In case of motor (I) without bias and (II) harmonic resistant. In case of transformer above two have been used.

14. Difference between relay of generator and transformer


In case of generator (I) without bias and (II) harmonic resistant. In case of transformer above two have been used.

15. What is LP & HP dosing and where these are fed?


At running boiler LP feeding is (i) Hydrazine (N2H4) and (ii) Cyclo Hexile Amine [C6H11(NH2)]. It is fed to remove the dissolved O2 from water. Chemicals are fed at (i) CEP discharge, (ii) BFP suction. HP feeding is done by (i) Tri Sodium Phosphate Na3PO4 (ii) Calgon (metal phosphate, Na(PO3)6. It is fed to maintain the drum water PH. Point of feeding is boiler drum.

16. How solid contents of boiler water are maintained?


By blow down through CBD (Continuous Blow Down)

17. Phosphate hideout in boiler water


From Trisodium Phosphate (Na3PO4, 12H2O) phosphate disappear at high load and tempr.. This phosphate precipitate on the tube surface, drum water PH reduces. Again at low load it comes out. At hide out condn. to maintain PH calgon is fed through HP dosing pump.

18. Sudden lead damping effects on boiler performance. discuss.


At sudden load damping the following effect will occur. i. Steam pressure will be high and safety may pop. ii. Steam tempr. will be high and hence may overheat. iii. Drum level may be very high
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iv.

Boiler thermal efficiency will reduce.

19. Drum safety & SH safety which one will pop earlier and why?
SH safety will pop earlier because if drum safety pop earlier SH coil will starve and will be overheated.

20. Main cause of economiser tube leakage.


Erosion by ash.

21. Passivation of boiler tube.


Passivation of boiler tube is done after chemical cleaning of boiler tube to prevent rusting by giving layer of magnetic on surface. Passivation is done by solution of hydrazine and ammonia; pressurize the boiler up to 41.5 kg/cm2 and raising the tempr. proportionately at 41.5 kg/cm2. Boiler is kept for 24 bars and at 5 kg/cm2 hot draining is done.

22. If reheating would not be done what would be problem regarding the performance of turbine.
In the reheat coil steam tempr.is increased because after HPT if low tempr. steam enters IPT, at the end of the stage steam will be saturated and effect the blade and work done is reduced. To avoid that reheating is done.

23. Steps towards total flame failure and total power failure.
TOTAL FLAME FAILURE: i. MFR will operate ii. Oil V/v is to be closed check. iii. Make speeder gear position zero to avoid wear and follower tip. iv. Put on the barring gear. v. Give Start Purge command and MFR reset. TOTAL POWER FAILURE: i. Close oil V/v. ii. Check if not purge out H2. iii. Run JOP and barring gear. iv. Start DG set. v. Close MS V/v. vi. Give stop command to running equipment.

24.

How the temp. of reheater is controlled?

RH temp. can be controlled by burner position ( 30) of BHEL boiler, for ABL boiler by RH damper. i. Controlling the air flow, temp. can be controlled. ii. Avoiding the secondary combustion RH temp. can be controlled. iii. By RH attemperation.

26.

Disadvantage of running turbine in in open condition.

As LP stage pressure is low and steam at last stage is almost saturated in presence of Air, corrosion will occur. So to avoid corrosion of turbine, turbine does not run in open condition.

27.

Use of reheat coil.

As our turbine is multistage turbine, to reduce the moisture % in steam at last stage reheat is done after HPT. It decreases the thermal efficiency but increase the work done.

28.
i. ii. iii. iv.

Cause of fluctuation in furnace draft.


Change in flame. Change in air flow Change in oil pr. Change in coal flow.

29.

Use of BAS and TAS

Boiler Auxiliary steam (BAS) is used for


i.

ii. iii.

Atomizing of oil, HFO line heating. SCAPE charge for AH (BHEL) Shoot blowing (AH & Boiler)

Turbine Auxiliary steam (TAS) is used for i. ii. iii. iv. v. Starting ejector (vacuum) Main air ejector (vacuum) Gland sealing GC 1 vacuum pulling Pegging and heating steam (at deaerator)

30.

Define attemperation and where it is used?

Attemperation is used to control the tempr. At the following places attemperation is used i. TAS station ii. BAS station iii. MS tempr. Control (at 1st stage and 2nd stage) iv. HP and LP Bypass system.

31.

Function of FD, ID, PA, and SA Fan.

FD Fan: It supply the secondary air. Each unit has 2 FD fans. It takes suction from atmosphere and supply through AH. ID Fan: It sucks the flue gas from furnace and maintains the furnace draft. Each unit have 2 ID Fans. PA Fan: It supplies the primary air which carries the coal from coal mill to furnace. In BHEL boiler there are three no of PA fan and take suction from atmosphere. A part of primary air passes through AH. This is done to maintain tempr of mill by mixing hot and cold air accordingly. In ABL boiler there are 6 nos of PA Fan and take suction from FD discharge.

32. Grindibility index and fineness carryover


HGI (Hard grove grindibility index) indicates the easiness of pulverization of coal. Indian coal has 50 60 HGI. Coal Mill life efficiency depends on HGI. After grinding coal carryover by PA through classifier vane. Fineness 70% of 200 micron (BSM) wire gauge.

33. Starting permissive of coal mill gear.


i. ii. iii. iv. v. SA Fan running PA Fan running Seal air pressure ok. Oil and gas pressure ok. (ABL) Mill lube oil pressure ok.

34. Use of oil burner.


i. ii. Initially burner is used to light up the boiler. At low load, oil burner is required to support the coal firing.

35. Advantage of rotary AH.


i. ii. High efficiency Low maintenance cost.

36. Difference between vent and drain.


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Vent line is trapped from top of line and used for air venting from any water/steam line. Drain line is trapped from the bottom of line and is used for water draining from steam line.

37. Pollution control actions.


i. ii.

iii.
iv.

v.
vi.

ESP (Stage 1 98.5% and Stage II 99.7%) Chimney height (Stage 1 120m and Stage II 220m) Green plantation. Neutralizing OK (DM Plant) Manual oil catchier (oil recovery unit) Skimming tank (decantation tank).

38. Difference between ABL & BHEL boiler


i. ii. iii.
iv.

v. vi. vii. viii. ix. x. xi. xii.

In ABL boiler heat transfer/unit area is higher For SA control air register in ABL boiler and SADC in BHEL boiler. Mill ball type in ABL and bowl type in BHEL. BHEL boiler burner has tilting arrangement ( 30). PA Fan no 6 in ABL 3 in BHEL. PA suction from FD discharge in ABL, from atmosphere in BHEL. Rotary type AH in BHEL and tubular type in ABL. Oil burner 24 nos in ABL (BMS system) 12 nos in BHEL (FSSS system) SA Fan no 6 in ABL no-3 in BHEL. ABL have RH/SH damper, divisional wall. // BHEL have no divisional wall. BHEL volumetric feeder/ ABL drag link feeder. ABL front fir (down comers 4 nos)// BHEL corner fire (Down comers 6 nos)

39. MFR TRIP. REASONS:MFR will trip due to following reason: i. Boiler drum level very high/low. ii. Total furnace flame failure. iii. 6.6 Kv unit BAS tie to reserve breaker open. iv. 6.6 KV unit BAS incomer breaker open. v. Both ID and/or both FD fan stopped vi. HP bypass V/v closed when TLR is operated.(RH Protection) vii. One or both ESV and one or both IV closed. viii. Any mile or LD oil gun in service in boiler. ix. ULR operated. x. Furnace pressure very high/low. xi. Emergency fuel trip push button operated.

40.

Fluidizing of ash hoppers

It is one type of ash handling system. In this system two no of air blower, each of 00% capacity have been provided for each unit to supply fluidizing air at about 0.5 kg/cm 2 through porous tubes to all ESP hoppers. Out of two blowers, one is operating and other is standby. Total 4 nos of air heaters, two in service have been provided to supply hot air to ESP hoppers of each for fluidization. One series of heater is operating and another series is for standby for each unit.

41. Fundame2ntal differences between rapper and vibrator


Rapper: - There are 76 x 2 nos of rappers used in each unit to dislodge dust from the collecting plates. These rappers are called MIGI (Magnetic Impulse Gravity Impact) one electromagnet ---------- of steel plunger surrounded by a concentric coil, both enclosed in a water tight steel case. The supply 2of this coil is short duration DC is controlled by an electronic controller. Vibrator: - To dislodge a small portion of dust in the emanating electrodes, there are (48

2) no of electromagnetic vibrators in each unit. The coil of vibrators is energized by mean of AC and controlled from an electronic controller. Each vibrator remains on for a certain time intervals and then remains off for certain time interval.
42.

Necessity to maintain the flue gas tempr. Before AH well above the dew point.

Pressure of Alpha quartz and pyrites in the fly ash accelerates the erosion of boiler tube. This type of erosion normally appears at the low tempr. Zone of the boiler ie at the economiser, primary SH, primary RH zone. The main reasons is that the particles in the ash is hard enough at the low tempr.. this type of erosion is prominent at the section where the flue gas changes its path as the particles of the ash directly hits the tube. Due to this erosion, tube becomes thin and ultimately fails at normal pressure and tempr. So to prevent it, flue gas tempr before AH is maintained well above the dew point.
43.

How NO2 problem (pollution) can be eliminated

By reducing excess air quantity

44. why not anion exchanger is placed before cation exchanger


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acidic cation reacts with alkaline solids and neutral salts of water to produce acid. Ca(HCO3)2 + 2R COOH CO2 + H2O + (R COO)2Ca (weak) ( H2CO3) Mg(HCO3)2 + 2R SO3H (R SO3)2Mg + H2O + CO2 (strong) NaCl + R SO3H R SO3Na + HCl CaSO4 + R SO3H (R SO3)2Ca + H2SO4 This acids are nutralized by basic anion HCl + R NH2 R NH2Cl (weak) HCl + R N(CH3)3OH R . N(CH3)3Cl + H2O (strong) So water after cation first and their anion exchanger is free from any impurities (alkaline, neutral etc) and is slightly acidic due to the pressure of CO2. For this reason anion exchanger is placed after cation exchanger and not before cation exchanger.

45.If HP LP bypass not operated after tripping of TLR MFR will trip after 6 sec why?
MFR will trip to protect RH coil from starvation.

46.What is takeup device?


Take up device is used in conveyor belt to maintain its tension

47.Write three reasons of belt swaying.


i. ii. iii. Non uniform jamming of headend and taiend. Broken deflector plate Unequal tension

48.If belt specification is given by 800/4, what does it indicate?


800ton/1000 mm width, 4 ply.

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49. For a small belt, the upper ply

50. What is the pressure point of boiler in which acid cleaning and steam blowing is required
Acid Cleaning: i. Boiler Drum. ii. Down Comer iii. Riser Steam Cleaning: i. SH tubes. ii. RH tubes.

51. What are the common welding defects?


Common welding zone deffects are as follows. 1 2

43. Welding deffects due to porosity 44. Misfil of tube, which results to restriction of flow and ultimately weakening of welding joint 45. Porosity 46. Cracking 47. Surface defect.

52. Why fluidising air is used in fly ash cleaning system?


Fluidising air is used in ash hopper to increase the fluidising of fly ash so that it does not stick to the hopper inner surface.

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53.
It increases the spark rate inside the ESP by increasing voltage after sparking.

54. Why vacuum switches are required at the time of ash removal?
Vaccume switches are used to satisfy 3 olperated condition at the time of ash removal. Vacuum switch 3Y full load 300 mmHg. Vacuum switch 2Y plugged hopper 150-180 mmHg Vacuum switch 1Y hopper changeover 85 mmHg

55.

if the gauge pressure is 16.72 Kg/cm2 what is the absolute pressure?

Absolute pressure = atmospheric pressure + gauge pressure Now 1 atmospheric pressure = 1.033 Kg/cm2 = 1.033 Bar = 14.7 lb/inch2 Absolute pressure = (1.033 + 16.720) Kg/cm2 = 17.753 Kg/cm2 56. what should be pressure of stator cooling water if H2 pressure is 3.5

Kg/cm2
less than 3.5 Kg/cm2

57.
From anywhere as pressure around the compressed air line is equal.

58.
52. if dust collector is used with the ESP, that will be extra cost involvement. 53. If it is used without ESP boiler will decrease

54. Define circulation ratio.


Circulation ratio is the ratio of amount of circulation to the amount of steam for used

55. why chimeny is used


it is used to create a natural draught and provide the air for combustion. But chimeny are also used as an efficient channel for proper dispersal of gaseous pollutants to avoid the populated area from air pollution.

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56. How much air is required for complete combustion of 1 kg coal having calorific value of 5000 Kcal/kg
C + O2 CO2 12 16*2 =32 For complete combustion 32 gm of air is required for 12 gm of coal or, 12/1000 kg of coal is completely combusted by 32/1000 kg of air. I kg coal is completely combusted by (32/1000) * (1000/2) = 8/3 kg of air.

57. Why DM water is used? i. for conditioning of raw water. ii. To reduce % of SiO2.
The improved quality water is required in high pressure boiler can only be obtained by ion exchange demineralising. PROCESS: All natural water have residue of mineral matters when evaporated and forms scale. On heat transfer surface surface scale has a very low thermal conductivity and as a result it impede heat transfer. Which may cause overheating of boiler tubes and and consequently outage due to tube failure. So modern modern high pressure boiler demands demineralised water for satisfactory operation.

58. Why hydrazine is used instead of Sodium Sulphate?


Small quantity of disolved O2 are capable of causing severe corrosion pitting in boilers off all pressure. Dearator cant eleiminate O2 completely. Hence some chemical of O2 scavenges is used. Sodium Sulphate is such chemical decay generator. 2Na2SO3 + O2 2Na2SO4 The main disadvantage of Sodium Sulphate is it increases the TDS in the boiler water with consequent heat loss in additional blow down and further more at high pressure it can decompose to form corrosive gases SO2 in the steam. Hydrazine has neither of these disadvantages. N2H4 + O2 2H2O + N2
59.

what is PA and mill differential pressure?

Orific placed at PA fan discharge. The differential pressure is thus called PA differentials. Differential pressure between the mill I/L and O/L pressure is called mill differential.

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60. Use of air heater and Economiser. 61. Function of ESP


The main purpose of ESP is to collect fly ash present in the gases by creating a high voltage DC field. The ash thus arrested in the collecting electrode ( called the + ve electrode) are removed in aglomerated form by means of rapping mechanism. To fall in the ash hopper from where it is cleared through vacuum pulling system of ash handling plant.

62. Start permissive of coal mill. 63. BFP:


Discharge: Speed: Pressure: NPSH MWC = Dea. Pressure. Water column * density (water saturation pressure at the dearator tempr. + friction loss) Booster P/p speed:Flow:Discharge:NPSH:CEP:: RAM St. Head Discharge NPSH BFP:: Permissive i. L. Oil healthy ii. Suction V/v open (full) iii. Dea level is adequet. iv. Booster Pp suction pressure > 202 kg/cm2 v. Scoop min. vi. BFP open.

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Tripping i. ii. iii. iv. v. vi. vii. viii. ix.

Low lub oil (0.5) Differential pressur across strainer high (0.5) with a tempr. Diff. Differential tempr. Of F.W across BFP high with tempr. Diff. BFP flow high Balance leakoff flow high Working oil tempr., high. Dearator level very low BFP motor bearing tempr. High TLR trip.

64.

Define Base load plant and Peak Load plant

The plant which runs with a highest possible load for a appreciable part of a year, known as Base Load Plant. The plants which are utilized during a part of a year to satisfy the peak used are called Peak Load Plant.

65.
(80/100) = (MWhr generated)/(3*25*24) MWhr generated = (80*3*125*24)/100 = 7200 MWhr. Oil Rate = (18*106)/(7200*103) = 80/72 = 2.5 ml/KWhr % Aux power consumption = (684*100)/(3*125*24*80) = 7.6%.

66. In the above power plant for a swage unit coal consumption in that day = 1350 MT, Energy generated = 2500 MWhr. Calorific value of coal = 4500 Kcal/kg. Calculate the heat rate.
Heat rate = (1350*103*4500)/(2500*103) = 2430 Kcal/KWh PI = (IR for min)/(2R for 1 min) Absorption factor = ( 2R value for 1 min.)/( 2R value for 15 s)

67. Caustic and hydrogen __________________ of boiler tube.


Caustic soda reacts with iron of the boiler tube at elevated tempr to form sodium ferrite. As a result tube leakage will occur because it will be thin. Iron of boiler tube and steam at reaction with the carbon of the tube and creates methane. This exerts pressure on the tube and one time the tube will fail. MgCl2 + H2O MgO + 2HCl 2HCl + Fe FeCl2 + 2H+

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steam is passed over hot (red) iron at (600-800oC) and then 3Fe + 4H2O Fe3O4 + 4H2 ferrasoferic oxide

68. Why
After acidulation (H2SO4), it reacts with Bi carbonate and form carbolic acid which is easily breakable (H2CO3 CO2 + H2O) in contact with air. To remove the CO2, make up has given at_______ Ca(HCO3)2 + H2SO4 CaSO4 + 2H2CO3

69.

It is because all the contraction la

70. What is nucleate boiling and film boiling?


In the nucleate boiling steam is generated in the form of bubbles and is not collected on the surface of tube. But in the film boiling steam make a film on the surface of tube and overheated the tube as conductivity of steam is low. For boiler nucleate boiling is preferable.

71. Stress receiving of boiler tube:


At the welding joint stress is developed and normalized by stress relieving. In this process the tempr. Of welding joint increased up to 700 oC in a certain period and hold for a time and cool down at same rate which is normally 3 and 3 hrs respectively. This time varies with thickness and for alloy metal tempr. is higher.

72. Cold pull.


At normal atmospheric tempr, steam pipe will remain in stressed condn. and will be normalized at working tempr. After thermal expansion. This is a back dated technology, now it has been replaced by bend, notch etc. Only HPT and IPT steam admission pipes are in cold pull. To avoid extra stress in steam pipes at hot condition cold pulling is provided.

73. Function of Rapper and Vibrator


Rapper is used in receiving ash from collecting electrode and vibrator is used to remove the ash from emitting electrode (-ve). Both are dropped hammer mechanism.

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74.
It improves the steam quality at outlet of drum by receiving water from steam.

75. Corrosion of AH is more with oil support than coal firedwhy?


As oil contains more sulpher than coal, H2SO4 is high in oil firing which causes more corrosion of AH.

76. Detection of SH and RH tube leakage and water wall tube leakage.
Due to mentioned leakage below mentioned parameter will change with normal running. i. DM water consumption will be high ii. Drum level controller will not work properly. iii. Flue gas tempr. Will decrease. iv. Furnace will change, ID loading will increase.

77. Simmering what is it?


It is an audible characteristic of S/v. which is caused by steam passing before safety pop.

78.
i. ii. iii. it is a water seal which prevents the furnace ingress of air inside as furnace remain in ve pressure. It absorbs the furnace ________________________ (in 275 mm) which is in hanging condn. As it is a water seal, it easily breaks and allows to pass away the flue gas/air if in any case boiler becomes high pressurized. as in other way it is a safety device of SH and RH coil..

79.
In the rotary AH flue gas cannot bypass ultimately to avoid H2SO4 corrosion of which arrangement is in ABL tubular boiler. So in BHEL boiler

80.

difference between recuperative (tubular) and regenerative (rotating) AH.

In recuperative type AH flue gas passes through tube and air outside the tube. It is used in ABL boiler. In the regenerative type AH there is a rotory part with corrugated sheet. Three segment of rotor: i. 108o secondary air

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ii. 108o flue gas iii. 72o primary air. Flue gas passes from top to bottom and PA and SA passes bottom to top. It is low maintenance AH with high efficiency.

81.
To avoid the starvation of reheater tube (while the boiler is in critically emergency condn.) which will cause over heating of steam tube and as a result tube failure.)

82. why oil burners are used in low load?


At low load to ensure proper combustion of coal by increasing furnace heat energy by burning oil through gun.

83.
To ensure proper combustion in ABL boiler control by air registers and in BHEL boiler controlled by SADC.

84.
To avoid explosion as high rate fuel

85. Boiler efficiency decreases in the HPH in service, but the overall efficiency increases. why?
In this system feed water tempr increases by heating with the steam extracted from different stages of turbine. Heat transfer in boiler reduces but steam produces more; heat loss in condenser reduces. As a result overall thermal efficiency increases.

86. Difference between natural and induced draft.


Natural draft is due to the pressure difference created by chimney height. In the induced draft, flue gas flow from boiler to out side and it is created by ID fan in between boiler and chimney.

87. Main cause of loss of heat in steam generator.


Heat carries away through the chimney to the atmosphere. Heat in condenser to circulating water. 88. Cause of secondary combustion and its remedies.

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i. ii. iii. iv. v. vi. vii. viii.

Secondary air flow high/low. PA tempr low. Coal fineness (big size) Impeller damage. (ABL boiler) Excess air. Erosion of impeller. Pulverised coal tempr at the inlet of furnace = 70 through 200 BSM and > ignition tempr. Coal quality detoroits. Vm less and ash high.

89. In boiler where radiation, convection and conduction heat transfer occurs?
1. Radiation heat transfer: To boiler tube, water walls, platen SH from luminous gas. 2. Convection heat transfer: To the remote once boiler tube, final SH, RH coil, AH, economiser, primary SH,and RH. ( conduction from metal of tube to water or steam.) 3. Conduction heat transfer: conduction through boiler, economizer and AH surface. (Convection in water or steam inside tube, flue gas in vestibule and cage zone.)

90. Difference between S/v, Relief V/v and control V/v.


i. Safety V/v: popping pressure is higher than the resetting pressure. It is used in steam, air line (compressible fluid line). It pops at setting value and reset at value lower than the set value. (1) Set pressure: (2) popping pressure: (3) reset pressure: ii. Relief V/v: popping pressure and resetting pressure is equal. It is used in liquid line (non compressible fluid line). It pops at setting pressure. If the pressure is greater than setting pressure thus drained and again setting pressure is maintained. iii. Controlle V/v: it controls the fluid inside the line.

91. Main principle of steam tempr control.


By the combination of final, platen and primary SH. Platen Zone: in platen zone mode of heat transfer is radiation. As a result with increase in load tempr falls. Final SH: in this mode of heat transfer is convection. As a result tempr is proportional to load because quantity of flue gas is also proportional to load. By attemperation in Final SH and platen SH. ii. Platen SH and Primary SH. By using gas damper (primary SH and Primary RH) in ABL boiler. By using tilting device ( 30o grounded) BHEL boiler.
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i.

92.
Radiant Zone: QR = (TG 4 TSi4 ) = K (constant) TR = (QR /MS CP ). QR and CP are constant. (1/MS ) (1/load)

Convection Zone: QC = MG CP (TG TSi) TC = (QC /MS CP ) = [MG CP (TG TSi)]/ MS CP = (MG/ MS) * (TG TSi) load Radiant heat transfer depends upon the tempr . the furnace tempr does not varies considerably with load but with rate of steam flow increases. As result temp r for convection heat transfer increases with load as of the flue gas increases.

93. Difference between natural and forced circulation of boiler.


The type of circulation depends upon the working pressure of the boiler. Because the circulation depends upon the density difference between water and steam. Upto boiler pressure 2200 PSI ( . ) due to density difference between water and steam, water steam mixture will go upper through riser tube and water will come down through down comers. This is called natural circulation. Above pressure 3200 PSI water and steam density are equal. As result for circulation through riser tube and down comer required force which is done by providing pump, take suction from bottom ray header. This is called forced circulation.

94. Necessity of HP LP Bypass.

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95. Basic principle of various turbovisory parameter measurement.


It measured by eddy current probe (eccentricity), variable relactance type detector (axial shift,), pneumatic type detector (overall thermal expansion), microp----- (seal interference) and speed transducer (speed of turbine).

96. Start permissive of BFP, FD, ID. 97. Principle of flow, tempr and level measurement.
Flow: it is measured by the orifice (low pressure) and flow nozzle (high pressure). A differential pressure is created at the flow nozzle orifice due to restriction of flow in the line. Flow is measured by the proportional to square root of P I, e; Q = K P. Flow is also measured by rotameters which have float at the top of orifice. By the position of float flow can check from local. As for example centrifuge flow meter. Temperature: it is measured by i. Thermocouple: principle of thermocouple staes that due to tempr difference a milivolt range current will flow. Chromel Alumel, Chromel Copel type thermocouple are used. ii. Resistant thermometer: resistance varies with temperature is the basic principle

98. Abbreviations
MIGI Magnetic Impulse Gravity Impact. FSSS Furnace SafeGuard and Supervisory System. SADC Secondary Air Damper Control. PLCC Power Line Carrier Communication. PLC Programable Logic Control. PIV Positive Infinite Variable. SPID Single Pole Ignition Device. FFY First Firing Yield. TDS Total Dissolved Solid. EHT Electro Hydraulic Transducer. TTS Turbine Trip Solenoid. OPDE Oil Pressure Drop Relay.
21

CRT Cathod Ray Tube. PRT Platinum Resistant Thermometer. STP Steam Throw off Device. SAS Steam Auxiliary System. CHU Constant Header Unit. CCM Continous Condensate Makeup. IBD Intermittent Blow Down. CBD Continuos Blow Down. ILPB Indication Lamp Push Button. OLTC On Load Top Changer. MAG Magnetic Air Gauge. WTI Winding Temperature Indicator. LLD Liquid Leakage Detector. ILI Induction Liquid Indicator. PERT Program Evaluation and Review Technique. NPSH Net Positive Suction Head. PI Polarisation Index. IVR Infinite Variable Resistant. ILMS In Line Magnetic Separator. MP Magnetic Pulley.

99. At generator H2 and CO2 filling line positions are top and bottom respectively. Why?
Due to lighter weight of H2 and heavier weight of CO2 and to avoid mixture of H2 and CO2.

100. What is the signification of observing vacuum at the time of ESP hopper cleaning.
ESP hopper fly ash is extracted from hopper for remove. By creating vaccuum in the conveying pipe lime with the help of pressurised water pumped by ash water pump to ash slurry sump. During ashing we have three vacuum switch operated at different condn . VS 3 full load vacuum switch. VS 2 plugged hopper vacuum switch. VS 1 hopper change over vacuum switch.

101.

Booster pump reduces the required NPSH for BFP-Explain.

Booster pump boost up the pressure and discharge it to the BFP suction. As a result reduces the chances of cavitations at suction and for the same reason NPSH is also selected for a pump. So Booster pump reduces the NPSH of BFP(MWC-18).

22

102.

A slight vacuum develops in

About 40mm Hg vacuum is maintained by vapour extraction to prevent oil vapour leakage from bearing housing and to remove H2 which may mix with turbine oil (servoprime-46). MOP is required with 2nos of vapour extraction fans, with the help of these fans the bearing pedestals are also kept with --------- vacuum to avoid the leakage of oil oil vapour from housing.

103.

--------------------

104.

How ferrous material is removed at CHP.

By using magnetic pulley(MP), cross belt magnetic separator (CBMS),In line magnetic separator(ILMS).

105.

Basic difference between short and long belt ---------------------

The surface hardness is higher in short belt than long belt as frequency of load impact is higher. Top cover thickness is more of short belt for handling sharp and hard material. No of ply may be more.

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106.

Total path of coalin --------------------form with important point.

107.

Define take up pulley, snup pulley and troughing angle.

Take-up pulley:By take up pulley we maintain [(screw-short belt),(gravity-long belt), (trolley used in coal injection)]the tention in belt. Snup pulley: It is used at the bottom part of the belt athead end to increase the grip angle of belt with head end pulley.

Troughing angle: Angle between idler axes on decking plate over which belt move.It is maintained between 20-300 .This is the angle of the belt -------- with the ---------..This is maintained to avoid spillage of coal and to increase load carrying capacity.

108.
At wt we record how much coal has been unloaded and at belt 8 the wt indicate how much has been fed to bunker. Difference of these two will give the stock position.

109.
4 nos rubber ply. 200 indicate strength 200 KN/1000mm width.

110.

Protectection of CHP belt.

Mechanical Protection: (a) belt sway, (b) Pull Chord, (c) Self allignment Roller, (d) Zero speed Switch, (e) Hydraulic Coupling (oil draining by fusible plug melting)

24

Electrical Protection: (a) instantaneous over/current, (b) E/F, (c) under voltage, (d) over voltage.

111.

Flue gas contents.

1. CO2, 2. SO2, 3. NO2, 4. CO, 5. Ash, 6. H2 O, 7. O2.

112.

Allowable ---------- in flue gas at ---------------

Must not be more than 100mm/m3 .

113.

How does----------------

It is strong acid contain resin which removes the bi-carbonate salt, strong acid salt from natural water.

114.

-----------------------

115.

Function of WAC,SAC,WBA,SBA,MB.

WAC: Weak acid cation will exchange only cation from bi-carbonate salt. Ca(HCO3 )2 +2R- COOH (RCOO)2 Ca+2CO2 +2H2 O

SAC: Strong acid cation will exchange the cation of strong acid and salt and also function of WAC. NaCl+R-SO3H CaSO4 +2R-SO3 H RSO3Na+HCl (RSO3 )Ca+H2 SO4

WBA: Weak base anion will remove the anion of H2 SO4 & HCl. HCl+R-NH2 RNH2HCl
25

SBA: Strong base anion functions as WBA and further will remove the anion of H 2SiO3 and H2CO3 H2SiO3 +2R-N(CH3 )3 OH [R-N(CH3 )3 ]2 SiO3 +2H2 0

MB: Mixed bed contains SAC and SBA. It is a ----------------- unit of DM plant.

116.

What--------------

117.

Why------------------

118.

119.

Usefulness of spent brine solution

The spent brine is collected in the spent brine tank. This injected to softer bed before fresh brine injecting during regeneration.

120. What is the differences between anionic load of SAC outlet and WAC inlet.
The anionic load at WAC (weak acid cation) inlet Orange)+EMA(Equivalent Mineral Acid) MO indicates total alkalinity. The anionic load at SAC (Strong Acid Cation) outlet MO (Methyl EMR+CO2+Silica+MO

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121.

Function of------------------------------

At the WAC H2CO3 is formed by mixing CO2 and H2 O.This H2CO3 is very weak and break easily in contact with air.In the--DWT---------------- (between SAC and WBA) H2CO3 is removed by ----------------------

122. 123. 124. 125. PTPL the main--------------------------

i) To reduce the turbidity by using alum/polyelectrolyte in clorifoculator .Natural water contains 20ppm turbidity. ii) To remove the bi-carbonate which are cause of forming scales in condenser tube?

126.

Chlorination of cooling tower-Why?

Chlorination is done at cooling tower basin to prevent the bacteriological growth.

127.

CT Fan trip----------------------------

As CT Fan trip, circulating water tempr will be higher as a result condenser vacuum will be affected. To maintain vacuum load has to be damped which will reduce turbine and ----- cycle efficiency.

128. Example of pneumatic operated v/v, motor operated v/v, oil operated v/v.
1) Pneumatic operated v/v: a) Continuous condensate makeup b) TAS pressure controller.

2) Motor operated v/v: a) MS v/v, by pass, regulating b) Pegging steam controller.

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3) Oil operated v/v: a) b)HP LP by pass v/v.

129.
i) ii) iii) iv) v) vi) vii) viii) ix) x)

Main causes of condenser vacuum ----------Ejector steam pressure low (generally maintain 7kg/cm2 ). Ejector loop,GC- loop water level low Starting ejector in line, vacuum break open. CW pump trip out of 3 running (33%capacity each). Gland steam pressure low (maintain gauge pressure 0.2kg/cm2 ). GC vacuum low (maintain 80-100 mm Hg). Hot well level very high. CT Fan of cooling tower trip. Scale not in condenser tube. Ejector nozzle problem.

130.

------------

It is so called because cooling tower fan suck air from atmosphere into the cooling tower. When air passes from side walls to top of cooling tower it flows against the hot water falling downwards and at that time it go out carrying heat of hot water and water is cooled down.

131.
Rotor heating: To avoid rotor contraction employed during hot start up the HPT and LPT having rotor heating facility by the steam taken from MS line(RHS) in between ESV and MSV or aby steam from 4th (LPH-4)extraction.This is done to maintain the differential expansion of HPT and IPT.During that down period HPDE and IPDE become 0.8mm and 0.15mm respectively, due to fast rotor cooling than casing of heavier masses. IPT rotor cooling must be must be done for -------------- start up.HPT rotor heating is also applied when necessary. Before speed up HPDE 0.8,IPDE-0.15 and LPDE-----------------

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Flange and Stud heating: This is also applied to maintain HPDE and IPDE in limit that is done by steam taken from MS line (RHS)in between ESV and MSV. Casing at flange, joint have jacket through which steam passes for flange heating. There is in built groove in between the flanges through which steam passes for stud heating. In order to maintain proper tightening of flange joint. (a) Stud tempr should not be more than flange. (b) Flange and Stud tempr should not exceed 200 In the following conditions stud and flange heating require: (a) When turbine is started from cold condition. (b) When rotor expansion is +ve than +1 mm. (c) Tempr of HP casing (upper is above 2500 ).

132.
If hot rotor is left in rest condition ,hogging will occar due to rapid cooling of lower part than upper.To avoid that when rotor speed become zero barring gear is put in service immediately after engaging by hand rotation.

133. 134. 135. Why hammering occurs in liquid lines?

Hammering occurs due to air trap in the line. So during filling of liquid line vent is kept open. So that trap air may release to atmosphere. Due to charging of cold line with liquid at elevated temp r without proper warm up hammering will occur.

136. Boiler in light up condn and TLR in tripped condn HP bypass v/v open but LP bypass v/v closed what will happen?
At this condition immediately start up vent has to be open otherwise: (i)RH safety will pop. (ii)Tempr will be higher and tube will be overheated which may cause tube rupture.

137.
Natural water contain high quantity of Ca(HCO3 )2 which is the condenser come into circulating flow by cooling water circulation and from CaCO3 by condenser heat. It is a hard scale. Na, K also forms this type of scale in the same way.
29

This scale may effect heat transfer of condenser surface. Condenser cooling tempr will be high, vacuum will be low, feed cycle efficiency will be low. To avoid the formation of CaCO3 (and other form of Na, K) we use H2 SO4 which will react to form CaSO4 which is more easily soluble.This action is taken for stage-1. In stage--- we use -------------- bed which is SAC, ---------- to remove bi-carbonate. Na2 R+Ca(HCO3 )2 Na2 R+MgSO4 CaR+2NaHCO3 MgR+Na2 SO4

138.

Detection of condenser tube leakage and its remedy.

In chemical laboratory hot well sample is checked after a certain interval. In case of tube leakage PH value will be low, conductivity will high, chloride and silica will be high and hot well level will be in high side than operation, as well as DM water consumption will low.--------- level drops down. Detection and remedy: At condenser in vacuum if we place this poly thin sheet on the face of tube, vacuum will suck the sheet through the tube leakage particularly at that tube. By filling hot well keeping water box side dry water will come down through damage tube to the water box side. After detecting the damage tube it will be replaced.

139.
After LP turbine the steam becomes almost saturated and by gravity collected at the bottom point of the condenser (hot well). After condensing by circulation water passes through tubes.

140.
It has been provided In stage -------------------- 60 kl from where stator water makeup. DMCW makeup and chemical tank (HP & LP) makeup supply. The above mentioned system required high pure water as --------------------- dumping from ----------- has taken to CST. Dumping line taken from GC 2 and LPH I/L makeup with the other makeup walk like DMSW stator water cycle

141.
In that case if there is any leakage in water tube water will enter into the generator. Stator cooler water pressure 3.03.5 Kg/cm2 H2 cooler water pressure 3.33.5 Kg/cm2

142. function of damper tank, hydraulic seal tank (in seal oil line) and expansion (in stator water line).

30

DAMPER TANK it has been provided for emergency purpose. When AC seal P/p and DC Seal oil P/p fail to take start at seal oil pressure low ( 5.94.9 Kg/cm2 ) damper tank will provide oil for seal system for half hour by which time H2 gad to be purged out by CO2 filling. It also provide oil to seal system at change over from injector supply to P/p supply and vice versa. HYDRAULIC SEAL TANK seal oil drain -----------H2 side drain is collected to hydraulic seal tank from turbine side and excitor side by 500 mm loop. Hydraulic Seal tank ensure the prevent of escape of H2 from seal side drain. From hydraulic seal tank through float V/v oil sent to bearing drain oil line, ultimately to MOT by H2 pressure. EXPANSION TANK it is used in stator water system and is kept under 200 300mmHg vaccuum. The disolved H2 nad O2 in stator water seperated in the expansion tank due to vacuum. And prevent hydrogen embrittlrment and copper pickup respectively. Because H2 is responsible for H2 mbrittlrment and O2 is responsible for copper pickup. SURGE TANK it is provided in the stage II in order to separate the system.

143.
DPR(Differential pressure regulator) it maintain seal oil pressure 0.60.9 Kg/cm2 Higher than H2 gas pressure (3.5 Kg/cm2 ). To function DPR H2 gas pressure F/b is aplied at top and seal oil F/B to bottom. POR(Pressure oil regulator) it maintain constant thrust oil pressure on seal liner which selected by dead wt. It is maintained near about 2 Kg/cm2 .

144. why vacuum is done for axial shift high and turbine lub oil pressure very high.

To minimise the ---------------------- time of rotor. Because after vacuum breaks air will come inside the casing and it will provide resistance to rotor. In this case ULR operate through TLR.

31

So lub oil pressure very low (0.3 kg/cm2 ) to avoid large damage (bearing babit metal) and at axial shift very high to avoid the damage of thrust bearing (working and non working pad) vacuum break is done.

145.

To avoid the entrance of water in the hot turbine (HP casing by 9 th and 112 th and IP casing by by 15 extrn ) through the extraction line. Though there are NRV in extraction line whos direction direction of flow from turbine to heater. At HPH level very very high 13m, TLR will operate ULR.

146.

TLR Tripping philosophy of each case.

(1) Generator field breaker open. (2) Thyristor fans failure. (3) Regulator supply failure. (4) Grid control unit (m) supply failure during auto/man change/over. (5) Rectifier 7th tempr high. (6) Stator water specific resistivity low <50k (7) HPT extraction tempr high (4200 C), conductivity 0.2 (8) Master fuel relay trip. (9) Unit lock cut relay trip. (10) Boiler drums level very high or very low. (11) Damper tank level very low. (12) Stator water flow very low(13m3 /hr). (13) Main steam tempr very low(4500 ). (14) Condenser vacuum very low (540mm Hg) (15) HPH level very high. (16) Axial shift very high(-------------) (17) Turbine ------------ pressure very low.

147.

CHP belt specification (800/4)what does it mean?

The belt can withstand a tensile strength of 800KN/100mm of width and the belt is of 4 ply construction. Ply cotton fibre. Nylon fibre. Steel fibre.

32

148.

Defination of troughing angle and take up pulley.

The edge of conveyor belt is kept curved along its length. The angle between the tangent of the curvature and the conveying plane is called troughing angle. This is done to avoid the spillage of coal and to increase the coal carrying capacity of the belt. Increase of troughing angle increases the coal carrying capacity of the belt up to certain limit. Beyond this limit the coal carrying capacity will decrease and there is a chance of cracking of belt through the curvature and belt life decreases.

TAKE UP PULLEEY: to maintain the tension of the conveyor belt an idle pulley is used in the return path of the belt by gravity it maintains the tension and acts as a dead loads used with spring load also.

149.

150.
In sort belt the top grade

151. causes of belt swaying

33

i. ii. iii. iv. v. vi.

unequal tension along the length of the belt. If the material received by the upstream belt is not at the control position, I,e eccentricity feeding of improper distribution of material along the width. Self aligning idler laid at long interval. Non uniform jamming of the belt at head and tail end. If idler bracket as a whole are at inclined position the direction perpendicular to belt length. Deflector plate.

152.
i. ii. iii. iv. v. vi. nylon take more tension than any other belt. Its impact resistance is high. Nylon belt is more flexible (such long curvature can be made, small pulley can be used , troughing angle can be increased). (longitudinal and transverse flexibility.) Reduce belt thickness. Less no of plies for same strength. Superior rot resistance.

153.
SNAP PULLEY: It is used at the bottom part of the belt at head end to increase the grip angle of the belt with head end with the pulley. If the angle of contact increases friction increases and head pulley can carry the belt easily.

154.

Coal weighted at wagon trippler and at belt no 8 why?

At wagon tripler coal weighting is done to see how much coal is unloaded. at belt no 8, the weighting is done for recording the amount of coal feed to bunkers. The difference clarifies the amount of coal stock yard or reclaimed.

155. Reasons of -----------------speed of belt


i. ii. iii. iv. exclusive handling of coal loosening of takeup tension. If the belt is slipping over the head pulley. Jamming of coal iether in chute or pulley.

156.

34

157.

function of CBMS

function of cross belt magnetic seperator magnetic pulley is to remove tramp irrus and other magnetic materials from the coal. So that they do not entered into the crushers and save the crushers from damaging. By viewing ILMS: CBMS; MP. ILMS 3A/B, 10A/B; CBMS MP 3A/3B, KTPP metal detector 11A/B not used in BKTPP

158.
i. ii. iii. iv.

Basic difference between short and long belt.


At the surface toughness is higher in short belt than long belt as frequency of load impact is higher. Top cover thickness is more of short belt for handling sharp and hard material. No of ply may be more In short belt the belt is flat at both driving and non driving end. Hence the troughing angle is less.

159.
i. ii. iii.

--------protection of CHP belt.


pull chord: - these switches are provided along with the conveyor belts tied with the chord with each switch. So that the conveyor motor can be stopped from any position by pulling the chord whenever any hazards situations occurs. Belt sway switch: these switches are provided for tripping the conveyour motor in case of excessive swaying of the belt on either side. Belt under speed or zero speed : under speed may cause the jamming of ------

160. 161.

Total path of coal in schematic form with important pouints.

Paddle feeder or plough feeder is provided at track hopper to feed coal from the hopper to the conveyor 1A and 1B. there are four nos of paddle feeders in total. 2 nos of conveyor 1A & 2 nos of conveyor 1B.

162.

35

i. ii. iii.

coal reached / unloaded is in excess of the bunker requirement. Coal is stored in the yard is less than the required. Can be used from the yard.

163.
i.

Short type

source of coal in BKTPP Sonepur Bazari; ECL, Bengal emta group colliary, [Tara East and West; bhamora] ii. take up drive used in belt to maintain its tension. iii. Coal in surge hopper 800T/hr. Coal size (020)mm 20% Crushing rate (80/100)*800T/hr = 640 T/hr. iv. increase of troughing angle coal carrying capacity will be increased. v. Non coaking coal free burning. vi. Belt speed 2.66m/sec (rated)/ 2.58m/sec (KTPP) RBFD 1m/s // 8m/sec (KTPP) vii. bunker feeding by mobile tripper viii. pollution control in CHP 1. dust seperation system track hoppere 2. weight dust extraction system. all transfer point. 3. Ventilation all tunnels 4. Dust separation by using telescopic chute reclaim hopper (uncrushed coal) i. from where the sources of 6.6 kv in CHP from reserve BUS OSA & OSB 415 V from ESP for 11A/B j. battery source of CHP and its utililization k. coal rate 0.65kg/KwHr(KTPP) l. belt is joined by volcanization process. m. BOBR capacity n. Before crusher (300mm, after crusher 20, after mill 7 % through 200mesh.

164. Write the report on proximate and ultimate analysis of coal used in thermal power station-------------------In proximate analysis we get the percentage of fixed carbon , volatile matter (Vm ) ,ash and moisture in coal in weight basis. For Indian coal these are Fe 50%, Vm 22%,Ash 34%,Moisture 8 to 10% In ultimate analysis we get the percentage analysis of carbon ,sulphar, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen and ash by weight basis. C42%,H3%,S3%,N %,O2 5.5%,M10%,Ash30%.

165.

Diffrence between KTPP and BKTPP.


KTPP BKTPP

36

(I) vibrating screen. (II) Uncrushed coal stack yard provission is not there. (III) 4 nos of belt in every transferred point. (IV) 3 nos of S/R and 2 nos of WT. (V) In TH both lines for BOBR. (VI)Troughing angle 200 (VII) Bunker sealing belt is absent. (VIII) Puddle feeder drivemotor drive. (IX) CBMS3A/B,8A/B/C/D MP3A/B/C/D,ILMS (X)TH is bigger than BKTPP.

(I) Roller screen. (II) Uncrushed coal stack yard filled by telescopic chute. (III) 2 nos of belt in every transferred point. (IV) 1nos of S/R and 1 nos of WT.(under construction). (V) In TH one lines for BOBR and one for side Dischargeed wagon. (VI)Troughing angle350 (VII) Bunker sealing belt is present. (VIII)Puddle feeder hydraulic drive. (IX) ILMS3A/B,10A/B. MP and CBMS are not used.

166.
(i) (ii) (iii)

Different types of coupling used in CHP.


Hydraulic couplingMotor and gear box input. Gear couplingOut put of gear box. Pin bushed couplingGear box input for (reversible belt feeder).

167.

How power is transmitted from motor to head pulley.

Motor to gear box through hydraulic coupling, gear box to head pulley through geared coupling.

168.

Why hydraulic coupling---------------------------

Motor takes high starting current during starting and rotates with high rpm during starting to overcome the moment of inertia. i. If hidraulic coupling is used, then motor first overcomes the inertia of motor, at the same time oil in the hidraulic coupling is pumped and rotate the turbine. After that overcomes the inertia of gear box. ii. If the rigid coupling is used then motor have to overcome both the inertia of motor and gear box at the same time during starting so that motor takes high starting current than first case and chance of tripping due to high current.

169.

37

If big size stones strikes with hammer and the hammer cannot crushed it, hammer protects holders axis. If it is fis\xed with hammer holder, it will crack due to its high brittleness. So this type of filling increases the hammer longevity.

170.
i. ii. iii.

Advantage and disadvantages of roller and vibrating screen.


Rigidity is higher than vibrating string. Coal can be better ensured that is only small size coal can be pass through by pass chute, when roller screen is used. Longevity is higher than vibrating screen. Jaming of big size coal may crack the vibrating screen but in roller screen the jamming coal is sent to crusher mannually with the help of shovel.

171.
i. ii. iii.

Why paddle feeder blade is curved?


For one rotation it can removed more coal. If straight blade is used then some coal may spread outside from the correct feeding zone. In straight blade grip is not ok and it bypasses coal tangentially.

172.
To separate the big size stones and magnetic particles. Otherwise there is a chance chute paddle feeder jamming. Big size stones cant removed by ILMS and it will jam the chute and ultimately chute overflow occurs which damage the crushers.

173.
If it is given in driving end then driving pulley-------------. But this is a allignment between driving pulley and gear box and gear box and motor. If driving pulley fluctuate then gear box and motor fluctuate accordingly. But gear box and motor are fixed with platform. Moreover chute also fuctuates for that feeding may not be uniform.

174.

Function of chute.

It conveys the coal along a guided path from one conveyor to another without any spillage of coal and dust maintaining cleanliness.

175.

Difference between idler and pulley.


Pulley i. belt speed reduces when sleep occurs

Idler i. no effect for sleeping of belt.

38

ii. lubrication is not done during running. ii. lubrication required. But whole time lubrication is done before fitting. iii. flat, make through joinning by more iii. always flat. idler. iv. bearing cannot seen from outsiide. iv. bearing is seen from outside, so there is bearing house. v. idler can take impact load. v. pulley cannot take impact load. vi. rotate but it support is fixed. vi. rotate always with shaft.

176.
Idler give mechanical support without developing any friction. i. carrying idler 35o (troughing angle) ii. return idler 10o iii. impact iidler dia is big and periphery is surrounded by impact absorbing material. iv. Transition idler rest before head and tail pulley. Troughiing angle is less 10-25o . Pulley: it transmits powers from one shaft to another by means of belts and roaps. i. Head pulley is used to transmit the coal from conveyor to chute. ii. Drive pulley is used to transmit the power to the conveyor. iii. Tail pulley is used to return the conveyor from thye feeding zone. iv. Snap pulley is used to increase the friction between conveyor and head pulley. v. Take-up pulley increases the tension of belt conveyors. vi. Deflector pulley increases the tension of belt in the return line so that belt can run uniformly upon the idler.

177.
The belt is used to transmit the power from one shaft to another by means of pulley. When the belt is used to transmit coal or any other material in a cyclic process from one place to another place (feeding zone), it is called belt conveyor. (i) belt conveyor, (ii) screw conveyor, (iii) bucket conveyor. Etc.

178.
(i) flat belt (ii) V belt (iii) circular belt according to the material used i. Lather belt. (ii) Cotton or fabric belt. (iii) Rubber belt, (iv) balala belt. Property: i. The belt must be strong, flexible, and durable.

39

ii.

Should have high------------ efficient of friction.

Ply one synthetic layer and rubber matrix form the ply. Rubber matrix is used to held the synthetic path. Carcas no of ply joining together form carcas. Cover rubber cover is given both sides of carcas to protect it. Top cover is 1012mm and bottom cover is 24mm because top cover takes the load of material impact otherwise carcas will be affected.

179.
The coal is transferred from yard to boom conveyor through bucket wheel. Direction of belt in carrying side towards main body of slacker cum reclaimer is reclaimed.

180.
The heating value/unit quantity of a fuel is known as its calorific value. The no of heat units liberated/unit weight of the fuel when completely burned in oxygen. i. gross calorific value ( GCV) higher ii. net calorific value (NCV) lower. GCV the total no of seal unit liberated/unit quantity of fuel. -------------------------NCV GCV 2442 (m + GH) kg/ks of fuel. GCV of coal is determined by -------- calorimeter. Orsat apparatus. Weight of

181.

Why

If it is fixed with suspension ---------------------------------------- portion of hammer will be used in crushing coal, thus other portion of its periphery keeping ----------------------- . so gradually erosion will take place in that portion and crushing quality will be detoriated. It facilitate removed hammer during maintainence.

182. 183. 184.

Difference between crushing rate ACTUAL PROXIMITY ANALYSIS OF

40

185. which matter in coal is reform ----------------------- and ignition tempr of coal.
i. ii. volatile matter ignition tempr 900o C.

186.

what is grindibility index and furnace carry over?

It indicates the easiness of pulverization of coal. Indian coal have so -----------------------------After grinding coal carryover --------- through classifier vane. Fineness 70% through 200 mesh. 1. dust suppression system: i. all feeding zone. ii. Uncrushed coal stack yard. iii. Crushed and stack yard. iv. Track hopper. 2. dust extraction system: i. ii. iii. bunker.

41