Jenis-jenis penyakit jantung: 1. Penyakit injap jantung - Jantung mempunyai empat injap.

Injap-injap tersebut boleh menjadi sempit atau bocor. Injap jantung merupakan bahagian yang sering dirosakkan oleh penyakit 'thematik fever'. 2. Penyakit jantung kongenital - Ia berlaku semasa kelahiran. Dinding jantung yang tidak tertutup dengan sempurna menyebabkan jantung berlubang. 3. Penyakit otot-otot jantung - Apabila otot jantung rosak, fungsi jantung sebagai pam akan tergendala. Penyakit yang sering merosakkan otot jantung ialah darah tinggi, serangan virus dan sesetengah tidak diketahui puncanya. 4. Gangguan degupan jantung

Jantung mempunyai pendawaian semulajadi, berdenyut mengikut rentak (timer) yang menerima rangsangan terus dari sistem saraf dan hormon di dalam darah. Kelainan pada sistem pendawaian, kerosakan rentak atau otot-otot jantung menyebabkan jantung berdenyut terlalu laju atau perlahan (aritmia).


5. Penyakit jantung koronari

Ia berlaku apabila pembuluh koronari yang membawa darah ke jantung yang licin dan tidak mempunyai apa-apa lapisan ini menjadi tebal dan sempit. Penyempitan ini berlaku kerana lemak atau kolestrol di dalam darah melekat pada dinding pembuluh tersebut. Ia menyukarkan perjalanan darah daripada mengalir ke otot-otot jantung. Implikasinya berlaku 'ischemia' di mana jantung kekurangan oksigen dan tenaga untuk bekerja dan mengakibatkan seseorang itu berasa sakit dada. Jika ia berlaku secara tiba-tiba maka bekalan darah ke jantung akan terputus. Ia dikenali segabai 'heart attack' dan pesakit akan mati secara tiba-tiba.


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Most people in the developed world have atherosclerosis in some parts of their body. without ever noticing it. causing blood to clot around the rupture. Plaque ruptures are a common cause of heart attacks. What causes coronary thrombosis? Atherosclerosis is the name given to the build up of cholesterol and fat (fatty deposits or plaques) in the artery walls. often radiating towards the left arm. often radiating towards the left arm. the area of heart muscle that isn't getting enough oxygen will stop working properly.Coronary thrombosis (heart attack) Reviewed by Dr Neal Uren. What are the risk factors? Risk factors for a heart attack include:  a family history of atherosclerosis . Atherosclerosis develops gradually over time and can start around the age of 20. A heart attack will cause severe chest pains behind the breast bone. cardiologist What is a coronary thrombosis? A heart attack will cause severe chest pains behind the breast bone. the blood supply to that area of the heart muscle will stop. consultant cardiologist and Dr Patrick Davey. The fatty plaques can also rupture. If a blood clot develops in one of these arteries. or in medical terms a coronary thrombosis or myocardial infarction. If blood can't then flow past the clot to the necessary part of the body. their elasticity disappears and it becomes difficult for blood to flow through. This is known as a heart attack. the tissue dies. If the blockage (thrombosis) is not dissolved quickly with medication. The arteries become narrow and hardened. The heart is surrounded by three major coronary arteries that supply it with blood and oxygen.

. If chest pains suddenly happen at rest and last longer than 20 minutes. ear. often accompanied by pain. stomach or the right arm a constricting sensation in or around the throat breathing difficulties sudden fainting or severe dizziness. If it takes less exertion to bring on the pains. which are a sign that atherosclerosis has narrowed the coronary arteries. What are the symptoms of a coronary thrombosis? Some people get chest pains (angina). which may spread down the left arm pain can also radiate towards the hands. it could be a sign of a blocked coronary artery. you should call 999 for an ambulance. It is of great concern when angina comes on with no effort at all. People with angina should watch out for the following.        high cholesterol levels high blood pressure smoking being male diabetes Type 1 or Type 2 being overweight stress lack of exercise.     What are the danger signals? If you suddenly get severe chest pains or any of the other symptoms mentioned above. These are signs that coronary artery disease is worsening.   If glyceryl trinitrate medicine used to manage the chest pains no longer seems adequate. jaw. Other people have no symptoms until the plaque ruptures and causes the following:  sharp pain behind the breast bone or on the left-hand side of the chest. and the physical effort required to bring it on is generally the same from day-to-day. This is because angina usually happens only after some sort of effort.

This prevents platelets (small blood cells) from sticking together around the clot that's blocking the artery. Once you are admitted to hospital. What should I do if I experience sudden severe chest pain?      Get to a hospital as quickly as possible. Don't drive to hospital yourself. which will indicate if a coronary artery is blocked. severe angina or possibly something completely different. the better the result. call them and ask them to come and wait for the ambulance with you. Dial 999 and wait for the ambulance. a second ECG may be taken 30 minutes later. an emergency operation can be performed to dilate the blocked coronary artery using a balloon. If relatives or friends are close by.At the hospital they can decide whether this is heart attack. Coronary angioplasty is generally only done in specialist centres. a small clot that affects a small area of heart muscle might be overlooked. How is a coronary thrombosis treated? If you haven't already taken aspirin. This procedure is known as coronary angioplasty. ECGs are not 100 per cent accurate. one 300mg tablet of aspirin is given on arrival at the hospital. In some cases. These will check if there's been any injury to the heart muscle and the extent of that injury. The earlier it is given. Rest while waiting for the ambulance. Chew an aspirin (eg Disprin) of 300mg strength (this thins blood). a series of blood samples will be taken over the first 24 hours. because your condition might worsen on the way. Medicine to dissolve the blockage (thrombolytic medicine) is then usually injected into a forearm vein. What medication is used after a heart attack? Aspirin . Treatment should be given as soon as possible after symptoms begin. If pain is persistent. It should be considered if a person can't receive thrombolytic medicine for medical reasons or has a sustained low blood pressure (cardiogenic shock). though this is difficult. Try not to get anxious. Alternatively.  How does a doctor make the diagnosis? The doctor will request a electrocardiogram (ECG).

Beta blockers can reduce mortality rates and the rate of repeated heart attacks. Clopidogrel (Plavix) can be given instead of aspirin. Nitrates Nitrates act by expanding the arteries. expanding them and so allowing a larger blood flow. such as isosorbide mononitrate (eg Imdur). Quick-acting glyceryl trinitrate tabletsor spray (eg Nitrolingual) may be prescribed for episodes of chest pain. This lowers blood pressure while the heart beats more slowly. Calcium-channel blockers Calcium-channel blockers reduce the muscle tension in the arteries. There are different types of calcium-channel blockers available that have different effects on the heart rate. beta-blockers such as atenolol (eg Tenormin) block the action of adrenaline hormones on the heart. which reduces the amount of work the heart has to do to pump blood around the body. Angiotensin-II makes the blood vessels contract and may increase the thickening of heart muscle away from the heart attack area. ACE inhibitors ACE inhibitors such as lisinopril (eg Zestril) prevent the formation of a hormone called angiotensin-II. the coronary arteries. lowering pressure in the veins and reducing the workload for the heart. reducing the workload on the heart and increasing blood flow in the coronary arteries. . This improves blood flow to the heart. helps prevent attacks of angina and is useful for shortening the duration of any such attacks. They may be very helpful in improving the function of the heart and in preventing late complications after a heart attack. reducing the need for oxygen. It also dilates blood vessels elsewhere in the body. These medicines are not routinely used early after a coronary thrombosis. It has a mildly bloodthinning effect and goes some way to prevent further cardiac events. Nicorandil (potassium channel activator) Nicorandil (Ikorel) reduces muscle tension in the coronary arteries and dilates the vessels accordingly. but may be used for angina management in the long term. Aspirin must be taken for the rest of your life. the heart muscle and the circulation. So these medicines relax the blood vessels. They also slightly relax the heart muscle.Aspirin (eg Angettes 75) is always prescribed unless it can't be tolerated. Long-acting oral nitrate. Beta-blockers Among other effects.

potassium sparing diuretics and a combination of these. An echocardiogram of the heart before discharge can show the doctor how extensive the damage is. loop diuretics. It reveals stenoses (narrowing) or occlusion (blockage) in the coronary arteries that may require treatment. Often. The test can reveal if there are areas of the heart suffering from lack of oxygen supply. medicines can lower natural cholesterol production in the liver. which shows the doctor how well the heart pumps. a scar will develop in the heart muscle and this part of muscle will function less well.   Recovering from a heart attack Physical consequences After a heart attack. LDL cholesterol contributes to fatty deposits in the arteries.   Small injuries will often not be noticed afterwards. Much of the muscle is transformed into fibrous (connective) tissue and the pumping action is lost. unless you experience chest pains while still in hospital. reducing the amount of physical work you can do and increase the likelihood of heart failure. Diuretics can have different effects in the kidneys and can be divided into thiazides. and to how great an extent the heart has been injured by the thrombosis. .A doctor is very likely to prescribe a medicine from this class. Statins (eg Zocor and Lipitor) are the most effective medicines for lowering cholesterol. unless a person has a persistently low blood pressure. This is usually done at around four to six weeks following discharge. which decreases LDL cholesterol blood levels by up to 50 per cent. Coronary artery examination (coronary arteriography): a dye that shows up on X-rays is injected into the coronary arteries. Diuretics Diuretics are medicines that help the body secrete excess fluids and salt. which reduces blood pressure (this may be helpful if heart failure occurs). Cholesterol-reducing medicine If blood cholesterol levels are too high. Echocardiography: ultrasound scan of the heart. What examinations may be performed after a heart attack?  Fitness test: either on an exercise bike or a treadmill where a continuous ECG can be taken. oral potassium is added because the kidneys discharge lots of potassium when treated with diuretic medication. Any loss of physical ability will depend on the extent of this damage to the heart. Larger damaged areas can reduce the heart's functional level in the long term. These reduce the production of 'bad' LDL cholesterol by the liver.

What can I do to prevent further heart attacks? 1. You should aim to eat five servings of vegetables and fruit per day. Many people are afraid of having a relapse. will help to significantly reduce a raised cholesterol level and lessen cardiovascular risk. reduced fat dairy products and lean cuts of meat. good friends and GP. It is also important that your partner does not smoke. If you experience persistent episodes of low mood. All food should be grilled and none should be fried. In this instance.Some people feel tired and need much more sleep in the immediate aftermath of a heart attack Mental consequences Depression can sometimes follow a coronary thrombosis. Depression is treatable. Based on a text by Dr Sabine Gill and Dr Steen Dalby Kristensen . and this can affect their mood. you should talk about them with your family. 3. but you will need help getting through this difficult period. Take regular exercise Thirty minutes of exercise three times a week. 2. Quit smoking Giving up smoking is the most significant thing you can do to reduce your likelihood of another heart attack. Eat a healthy diet Reduce saturated fat by limiting the amount of red meat. Eat oily fish. depression is more likely where the hospital doesn't arrange an exercise rehabilitation programme. eg skinless chicken breasts. cakes and pastry in your diet. along with a general feeling of being physically tired. eg on an exercise bicycle or walking.

•SegmenPR: waktu yang diambil untuk impulsbergerak dari nodus SA ke nodus AV. •KompleksQRS:depolarisasi ventrikel.INTERPRETASI EKG •GelombangP: depolarisasi atrium. •GelombangR : depolarisasi menyebar daribahagian dalam ke bahagian luar dasar ventrikel. impulsdilambatkan di nodus AV. •GelombangS : depolarisasi menyebar naik daribahagian dasar ventrikel. masa berlaku kontraksi danpengosongan ventrikel. . •GelombangQ: depolarisasi di Berkas His.  SegmenST : akhir depolarisasi ventrikelsebelum repolarisasi.

•GelombangT: repolarisasi atrium. •IntervalTP: relaksasi dan pengisian ventrikel .

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