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part of Aker

Depressurisation of wet gas segment Low temperature issues


Leif Ernstsen Stavanger 21. October, 2010

2010 Aker Solutions

Gudrun Gas Segment Blowdown

Background
AkerSolutions performed a tie-in study for Gudrun to Sleipner. Static simulations indicated low fluid temperatures during blowdown of inlet gas segment. The project wanted to examine the low temperature issue with dynamic OLGA simulations.

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Slide 2 2010 Aker Solutions part of Aker

Gudrun Gas Segment Blowdown

Field Overview
SLEIPNER
GUDRUN
BLOWDOWN LINE
PARTIAL STABILIZATION

FLARE

PROCESS
GAS SEGMENT

14 WET GAS PIPELINE ~ 55 km

Receiving conditions: 90 bar 4 C 92 kg/s

Flow Assurance and Dynamic Simulation Seminar 2010


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Gudrun Gas Segment Blowdown

Objectives
Find locations with minimum wall temperatures. Examine mechanism of thermal process. Investigate effect of boiling of liquid pockets.

Flow Assurance and Dynamic Simulation Seminar 2010


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Gudrun Gas Segment Blowdown

Height / Length Geometry from ISOs


Geometry of OLGA network model
6 5 4 3 Y [m]
Gas segment

2 1 0 -1 -2 0 5 10 15 X [m] 20 25 30 35

Blowdown line Drain

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Gudrun Gas Segment Blowdown

OLGA Schematics of Simulated Network


8-12-20

12 14

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Gudrun Gas Segment Blowdown

Simulated Scenarios
General sequence of events:
Normal production Shut-in / cooldown of Gas Segment Blowdown

Cases presented here:


Case 1: Blowdown from 142 bara, -7 C (immediate shut-in) Case 2: Blowdown from 170 bara, -7 C (shut-in after temp. equilization)

Flow Assurance and Dynamic Simulation Seminar 2010


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Gudrun Gas Segment Blowdown

Minimum Wall Temperatures Found (worst case)


2 drain pipe, Case 1: Min. wall temp.: -27,8 C Concurrent fluid temp.: -28,9 C Inner wall film HTC: 125 W/(m2*K) Location: DRAIN, Pipe 1, Segment 2 Min. wall temp.: -44,7 C Concurrent fluid temp.: -45,3 C Inner wall film HTC: 523 W/(m2*K) Location: BLOWDOWN, Pipe 4, Segment 1 Min. wall temp.: -37,8 C Concurrent fluid temp.: -39,1 C Inner wall film HTC: 137 W/(m2*K) Location: SEG_2, Pipe 7, Segment 1
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3 BD pipe, Case 2:

12 main line, Case 1:

Flow Assurance and Dynamic Simulation Seminar 2010

Gudrun Gas Segment Blowdown

Time Curves, 2 Drain Pipe, Case 1

Flow Assurance and Dynamic Simulation Seminar 2010


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Gudrun Gas Segment Blowdown

Time Curves, 3 Blowdown Pipe, Case 2

Flow Assurance and Dynamic Simulation Seminar 2010


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Gudrun Gas Segment Blowdown

Time Curves, 12 Main Line, Case 1

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Gudrun Gas Segment Blowdown

Video Clip of 2 Drain and 12 Main Line, Case 1

Flow Assurance and Dynamic Simulation Seminar 2010


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Gudrun Gas Segment Blowdown

Findings: Pipe Spec. and Low Temperatures

OLGA simulations have indicated, where low temperatures occur, and how low they go during Gas Segment blowdown. Cost saving can be achieved by selecting pipe spec. in line with simulation results. In this actual case the client have chosen to maintain the originally planned -100 C spec. Existing pipe spec. may be kept in modification projects, where new operating conditions indicate lower temperatures (dynamic simulations)

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Gudrun Gas Segment Blowdown

Additional Info

More simulation / modelling details in the following slides

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Gudrun Gas Segment Blowdown

Modelling Premisses
Segment consists of bare pipes of duplex steel with properties:
Spec. heat capacity: Therm. conductivity: Density: Inside roughness: 460 J/(kg*K) 21 W/(m*K) 7850 kg/m3 0,05 mm

Pipe dimensions, Gas Segment, spec. FS30A (-100 C, 258,6 barg): 2: ID=49.22 mm WT=5.54 mm 3: ID=73.66 mm WT=7.62 mm 12: ID=273.1 mm WT=25.4 mm 14: ID=300.02 mm WT=27.79 mm

Flow Assurance and Dynamic Simulation Seminar 2010


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Gudrun Gas Segment Blowdown

Modelling Premisses, contd


Blowdown orifice ID = 14 mm, simulated with Cd=0,84.
In real life blowdown is initiated by opening a block valve upstream the orifice. In the simulations, however, no block valve was included, and the blowdown was started by opening the orifice over 2 s. This approach is deemed to be a very close approximation to the real life process.

Flow Assurance and Dynamic Simulation Seminar 2010


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Gudrun Gas Segment Blowdown

Modelling Premisses, contd


Fluid: Gudrun gas, year 2013
Component Methane Ethane Propane i-Butane n-Butane i-Pentane n-Pentane H2O CO2 N2 C6* C7* C8* C9* C10-C11* C12-C13* C14-C15* Eglycol H2S Mole fraction 0.686732 0.104944 0.056470 0.005997 0.015792 0.003798 0.004598 0.000626 0.096044 0.005296 0.007196 0.005097 0.003798 0.001699 0.001199 0.000400 0.000100 0.000163 0.000051

Flow Assurance and Dynamic Simulation Seminar 2010


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Gudrun Gas Segment Blowdown

Modelling Premisses, contd


Ambient air conditions:
Velocity: Temperature: Pipeline receiving conditions: Pressure: Temperature: Rate: Shut-in pressure: Simulation programs: OLGA 5.3.2 PVTsim 17.0.0 HYSYS 2006.5 0,5 m/s 0 C and -7 C 90 bara 4 C 92 kg/s 170 bara

Flow Assurance and Dynamic Simulation Seminar 2010


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Gudrun Gas Segment Blowdown

Simulated Scenarios
Case 1: Normal production at 4 C, ambient temp. -7 C, mass flow 92,3 kg/s, outlet pressure 90 bara Shut-in: Close outlet, maintain mass flow until 170 bara, then close inlet Cooldown until equilibrium pressure=142 bara Blowdown: Open blowdown valve Case 2: Normal production at 4 C, ambient temp. -7 C, mass flow 92,3 kg/s, outlet pressure 90 bara Set inlet pressure to 90,4247 bara same production Shut-in: Close outlet, set inlet conditions to 170 bara / -7 C Cooldown until equilibrium pressure=170,1 bara Blowdown: Close inlet, open blowdown valve

Flow Assurance and Dynamic Simulation Seminar 2010


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Gudrun Gas Segment Blowdown

Other Simulated Scenarios


Case 3: Normal production at -7 C, ambient temp. -7 C, mass flow 92,3 kg/s, outlet pressure 90 bara Shut-in: Close outlet, maintain mass flow until 170 bara, then close inlet Cooldown until equilibrium pressure=169,7 bara Blowdown: Open blowdown valve Case 4: Normal production at 0 C, ambient temp. 0 C, mass flow 92,3 kg/s, outlet pressure 90 bara Shut-in: Close outlet, maintain mass flow until 170 bara, then close inlet Cooldown until equilibrium pressure=170,5 bara Blowdown: Open blowdown valve

Flow Assurance and Dynamic Simulation Seminar 2010


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Gudrun Gas Segment Blowdown

Simulation Difficulties
The simulations turned out to be very prone to crash. The P/T trajectory passes close to the critical point and through areas with steep gradients in the properties. The following measures were employed in attempting to avoid crash:
Selecting small time steps. However, there turned out to be a certain lower limit, below which the algorithm became unstable. Removing liquid water, but still simulate with 3 phases and WATERFLASH=ON: This helped in some cases. Removal of the small trace of liquid water was deemed to have only a marginal effect on the results. Changing the downstream boundary pressure and temperature (!!) during the blowdown: This clearly made the algorithm survive in some cases. Refining the P/T grid in the PVT-table: This method had the best effect. With P=2 bar and T=2 C in the operating region, crash were generally avoided. The PVT-table, however, included also some extreme high and low values of P and T to give room for algorithm excursions.
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